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Sample records for 7-12ign co-cu 13ign

  1. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X. K. Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K.

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  2. CO-induced inversion of the layer sequence of a model CoCu catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinge, Greg; Xiang, Yizhi; Barbosa, Roland; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Experimental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the electronic and structural properties of CoCu catalysts before and after CO adsorption. DFT calculations show that, prior to CO adsorption, CoCu has a high tendency to self-assemble into a Co@Cu core-shell structure, which is in accordance with previous atom probe tomography (APT) results for CoCu-based systems and the known mutually low miscibility of Co and Cu. We demonstrate that Co and Cu are electronically immiscible using a density of states (DOS) analysis wherein neither metal's electronic structure is greatly perturbed by the other in "mixed" CoCu. However, CO adsorption on Co is in fact weakened in CoCu compared to CO adsorption on pure Co despite being electronically unchanged in the alloy. Differential charge density analysis suggests that this is likely due to a lower electron density made available to Co by Cu. CO adsorption at coverages up to 1.00 ML are then investigated on a Cu/Co(0001) model slab to demonstrate CO-induced segregation effects in CoCu. Accordingly, a large driving force for a Co surface enrichment is found. At high coverages, CO can completely invert the layer sequence of Co and Cu. This result is echoed by XPS evidence, which shows that the surface Co/Cu ratio of CoCu is much larger in the presence of CO than in H2.

  3. Co/Cu multilayers with reduced magnetoresistive hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubinski, D. J.; Holloway, H.

    1997-01-01

    Practical applications of Co/Cu multilayers (MLs) require copper thicknesses either ≈ 9 Å or ≈ 20 Å corresponding to the first or second antiferromagnetic maximum (AFM). The first AFM has much smaller magnetoresistive hysteresis than the second, but also has lower sensitivity. We discuss application of these MLs when low hysteresis is required. For the first AFM we may improve the sensitivity while retaining low hysteresis by increasing the cobalt thickness to 30-40 Å. At the second AFM we can reduce the magnetoresistive hysteresis by reducing the cobalt thickness to ˜ 3 Å. A particularly attractive combination of high sensitivity and low hysteresis is obtained at the second AFM by alternating such very thin Co layers with 15 Å thick Co layers.

  4. Nanoscale characterization and magnetic property of NiCoCu/Cu multilayer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Kuo; Li, Xinghua; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Li; Xue, Desheng; Zhang, Haoli; Zhou, Baofan; Mellors, Nigel J.; Peng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    NiCo/Cu multilayer nanowires have been successfully fabricated by a pulse electrodeposition technique using anodic aluminum oxide templates, and their chemistry, crystal structure and magnetic properties characterized at the nanoscale. It was found that each individual nanowire had a regular periodic structure. The NiCo/Cu nanowires also displayed a continuous morphology, smooth surface and polycrystalline fcc structure. EDX elemental mappings confirmed the presence of nickel, cobalt and copper, which appear clearly with a periodic distribution throughout the samples. Both the NiCo and Cu layers were polycrystalline and the average length of the interlayers between NiCo and Cu layers was approximately 3-4 nm. The NiCo/Cu nanowire arrays had an easy axis parallel to the length of wire and exhibited a curling magnetization reversal mechanism. This study highlights the basis morphological, structural and chemical information for NiCoCu/Cu multilayer nanowires, which is critical for their applications in nanodevices and nanoelectronics.

  5. Chemical stability of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu)5 thin films with a thin Ta capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haibao; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    With the highest magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (Ku) among practical magnetic materials, SmCo5 could be a very attractive candidate for future high areal density magnetic recording. However, its corrosion resistance is always a concern in recording media applications. In this paper, the chemical stability and microstructures of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu)5 thin films with and without a 3 nm Ta capping layer were reported. For Sm(CoCu)5 thin films without a capping layer, the coercivity decreases significantly (from 8kOe to 1kOe) within one month. Sm(CoCu)5 thin films capped with a thin Ta layer (3 nm) behave differently. Even exposed to a laboratory environment (25 °C) over 3 years, the Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films are stable in terms of structural and magnetic properties, i.e., there were no changes in X-ray diffraction peaks and vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loops. Microstructure of Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films showed that Sm(CoCu)5 formed a domelike particle assembly structure on a smooth Ru underlayer and were well covered by partially oxidized Ta capping layer, as shown by TEM cross-section micrographs. Accelerated corrosion treatment (130 °C, 95% relative humidity, 6 h) was performed on Ta-capped Sm(CoCu)5 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that no Co was detected on the sample surface before the corrosion treatment, but strong XPS signals of CoOx and Co(OH)x were observed after treatment. Therefore, none of our Sm(CoCu)5 thin films can pass the accelerated corrosion test. Hcp-phased CoPt-alloys are proposed as better capping materials for Sm(CoCu)5 thin films in future high-density magnetic recording applications.

  6. Magnetic properties and interlayer coupling of epitaxial Co/Cu films on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.; Petit, D. C. M. C.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Lavrijsen, R.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.

    2014-08-14

    Thin films of Co and Co/Cu/Co trilayers with wedged Cu interlayers were grown epitaxially on Cu buffer layers on hydrogen passivated Si(001) wafers. We find that single Co layers have a well-defined four-fold anisotropy but with smaller in-plane anisotropies than observed in Co grown on Cu crystals. Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) interlayer coupling is observed in one Co/Cu/Co sample which is the smoothest of the films as measured by atomic force microscopy. Some of the films also form a dot-like structure on the surface. Intermixing at elevated temperatures between the Cu buffer and Si limits the ability to form flat surfaces to promote RKKY coupling.

  7. Magnetic properties and interlayer coupling of epitaxial Co/Cu films on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, R.; Petit, D. C. M. C.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Lavrijsen, R.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    Thin films of Co and Co/Cu/Co trilayers with wedged Cu interlayers were grown epitaxially on Cu buffer layers on hydrogen passivated Si(001) wafers. We find that single Co layers have a well-defined four-fold anisotropy but with smaller in-plane anisotropies than observed in Co grown on Cu crystals. Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interlayer coupling is observed in one Co/Cu/Co sample which is the smoothest of the films as measured by atomic force microscopy. Some of the films also form a dot-like structure on the surface. Intermixing at elevated temperatures between the Cu buffer and Si limits the ability to form flat surfaces to promote RKKY coupling.

  8. CMR of Co/Cu multilayers with reduced hysteresis and low-field response

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, M.; Gibbons, M.; Law, B.; Grabner, F.; Veron, S.; Cerjan, C.

    1997-02-01

    We present the results of a systematic study on optimization of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) response in Co/Cu multilayers (MLs) for copper layer thickness near the second oscillatory peak. Co/Cu MLs with alternating thick (t(1)Co) and thin (t(2)Co) layers have been prepared in the from of [Cot(1)CoA/Cu20A/Cot(2)CoA/Cu20A]15. We have found that the magnetoresistive hysteresis of these MLs is reduced with decreasing t(2)Co and has disappeared when t(2)Co<4.5A. We have obtained an optimal GMR response with a field sensitivity of 0. 013%/Oe over a field region of -60 Oe centered at -50 Oe. This architecture may enable the use of Cu/Co MLs in low-field magnetic sensor applications.

  9. Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Chien, C. L.; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-25

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5 nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.

  10. Sonochemical preparation of bimetallic Co/Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Yaoshun; Niu Helin; Wu Mingzai; Ning Min; Zhu Hongfei; Chen Qianwang . E-mail: cqw@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-09-01

    Co/Cu bimetallic nanocrystallites, with average diameter of 50 nm, were prepared by a sonochemical method in the hydrazine solution of copper chloride and cobalt chloride. Cobalt was face-centered cubic phase when synthesized and remained fcc phase throughout the annealing process. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) measurements were carried out to investigate their structural and magnetic properties. It was found that the magnetic properties of bimetallic nanocrystallites were close to that of the sputtered alloys.

  11. Electrical determination of relative chirality direction in a Co/Cu/Co ferromagnetic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, A. S.; Kohda, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Saito, K.; Mitani, S.; Takanashi, K.; Nitta, J.

    2012-08-01

    We have studied a Co/Cu/Co trilayer circular ring by using a current-in-plane giant magnetoresistance (GMR) method. When the applied field angle is shifted from the current probes, four distinctive magnetization reversal patterns are obtained depending on the vortex chirality configurations in the top and bottom rings. During the repeated GMR measurements, two GMR patterns are preferentially appeared and it turns out that the same chirality is favorable between the top and the bottom rings. Micromagnetic simulation reproduces the experimental data by taking into account the domain wall shift at the onion states.

  12. Effect of biquadratic coupling on current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of biquadratic coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the free layer magnetization switching dynamics governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is numerically solved by using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure for an applied current density of 5 × 1012 Am-2. Presence of biquadratic coupling in the ferromagnetic layers reduces the magnetization switching time of the nanopillar device from 61 ps to 49 ps.

  13. [CoCuMnOx Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Multi-component VOCs and Kinetic Analysis].

    PubMed

    Meng, Hai-long; Bo, Long-li; Liu, Jia-dong; Gao, Bo; Feng, Qi-qi; Tan, Na; Xie, Shuai

    2016-05-15

    Solar energy absorption coating CoCuMnOx was prepared by co-precipitation method and applied to photodegrade multi- component VOCs including toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic oxidation performance of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone was analyzed and reaction kinetics of VOCs were investigated synchronously. The research indicated that removal rates of single-component toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone were 57%, 62% and 58% respectively under conditions of 400 mg · m⁻³ initial concentration, 120 mm illumination distance, 1 g/350 cm² dosage of CoCuMnOx and 6 h of irradiation time by 100 W tungsten halogen lamp. Due to the competition among different VOCs, removal efficiencies in three-component mixture were reduced by 5%-26% as compared with single VOC. Degradation processes of single-component VOC and three-component VOCs both fitted pseudo first order reaction kinetics, and kinetic constants of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone were 0.002, 0.002 8 and 0.002 33 min⁻¹ respectively under single-component condition. Reaction rates of VOCs in three-component mixture were 0.49-0.88 times of single components. PMID:27506018

  14. Theoretical study of carbon dioxide activation by metals (Co, Cu, Ni) supported on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Van Khu, Le; Cam, Le Minh

    2015-12-01

    The activation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by catalytic systems comprising a transition metal (Co, Cu,Ni) on an activated carbon (AC) support was investigated using a combination of different theoretical calculation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, DFT and DFT-D, molecular dynamics (MD), and a climbing image nudged elastic band (CI-NEB) method. The results obtained indicate that CO2 is easily adsorbed by AC or MAC (M: Cu, Co, Ni). The results also showed that the process of adsorbing CO2 does not involve a transition state, and that NiAC and CoAC are the most effective of the MAC catalysts at adsorbing CO2. Adsorption on NiAC led to the strongest activation of the C-O bond, while adsorption on CuAC led to the weakest activation. Graphical Abstract Models of CO2 activation on: a)- activated carbon; b)- metal supported activated carbon (M-AC), where M: Co, Cu, Ni. PMID:26637187

  15. Co-Cu Nanoparticles: Synthesis by Galvanic Replacement and Phase Rearrangement during Catalytic Activation.

    PubMed

    Nafria, Raquel; Genç, Aziz; Ibáñez, Maria; Arbiol, Jordi; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramírez; Homs, Narcís; Cabot, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    The control of the phase distribution in multicomponent nanomaterials is critical to optimize their catalytic performance. In this direction, while impressive advances have been achieved in the past decade in the synthesis of multicomponent nanoparticles and nanocomposites, element rearrangement during catalyst activation has been frequently overseen. Here, we present a facile galvanic replacement-based procedure to synthesize Co@Cu nanoparticles with narrow size and composition distributions. We further characterize their phase arrangement before and after catalytic activation. When oxidized at 350 °C in air to remove organics, Co@Cu core-shell nanostructures oxidize to polycrystalline CuO-Co3O4 nanoparticles with randomly distributed CuO and Co3O4 crystallites. During a posterior reduction treatment in H2 atmosphere, Cu precipitates in a metallic core and Co migrates to the nanoparticle surface to form Cu@Co core-shell nanostructures. The catalytic behavior of such Cu@Co nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica was further analyzed toward CO2 hydrogenation in real working conditions. PMID:26878153

  16. Néel coupling in Co/Cu/Co stripes with unidirectional interface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydenko, A. V.; Pustovalov, E. V.; Ognev, A. V.; Kozlov, A. G.; Chebotkevich, L. A.; Han, X. F.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the influence of interlayer Néel coupling on the magnetization reversal processes in epitaxial Co(5 nm)/Cu(5 nm)/Co(5 nm) stripes by experimental methods and computer modeling. The stripes with a width of 900 and 1800 nm were formed on a step-bunched Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and focused ion beam etching. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis of the magnetization along the steps is induced in the stripes by the steps of the Si(111) substrate. The stepped structure of the layers in the multilayered stripes reproduces the morphology of the Si(111) substrate. Néel coupling between the Co layers is realized due to the unidirectional roughness at the Co/Cu interfaces caused by the steps of the substrate. Interlayer Néel coupling at the interfaces overcomes antiparallel magnetostatic interaction realized through the sides of the Co layers in the trilayered stripes. We used a modified Néel model in the simulation of the magnetization reversal in the multilayered system with unidirectional interface roughness. The surface energy of Néel coupling was spatially varied against the direction of the magnetization relative to the step edge. The results of micromagnetic simulations of the Co/Cu/Co stripes with spatially non-uniform and averaged surface energies of interlayer Néel coupling are compared and discussed.

  17. MCTDH study on vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Full (6D) and reduced (4D and 2D) dimensional multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) calculations for the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system are carried out using the recently reported [R. Marquardt, F. Cuvelier, R. A. Olsen, E. J. Baerends, J. C. Tremblay, and P. Saalfrank, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES). To efficiently perform MCTDH calculations with the Heidelberg package (http://mctdh.uni-hd.de), the SAP-PES is first refitted in a sum-of-products form. Then extensive MCTDH calculations are carefully performed including thorough convergence checks to ensure the accuracy of our results. Full dimensional improved-relaxations and/or block-improved-relaxations are then performed to obtain vibrational ground and excited states of CO/Cu(100). In addition, we investigate the frustrated rotation (R mode) and vertical CO-Cu stretch (S mode), as well as C-O stretch, using a 4D Hamiltonian, which includes the distance between CO and the surface, z, bond length of CO, r, and orientation angles of CO, θ, and ϕ. The complement of this 4D Hamiltonian, a 2D Hamiltonian including only x and y coordinates, is used to alternatively calculate the states of frustrated translation (T mode). The comparison of reduced- with full-dimensional results show that the couplings between the R or S mode and the T mode do not influence the fundamentals and overtones of the R and S modes, however, do considerably influence those of the T mode. For the fundamental of the T mode, the 6D calculation yields an energy of 25.09 cm-1, a value closer to the experimental result of 31.8 cm-1 [A. P. Graham, F. Hofmann, J. P. Toennies, G. P. Williams, C. J. Hirschmugl, and J. Ellis, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7825-7834 (1998)] than previously reported 19.6 cm-1 [R. Marquardt, F. Cuvelier, R. A. Olsen, E. J. Baerends, J. C. Tremblay, and P. Saalfrank, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] although both investigations are based on the SAP

  18. Magnetic stripe domains of [Pt/Co/Cu]10 multilayer near spin reorientation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Liang, J. H.; Xiao, X.; Zhou, C.; Chen, G.; Huo, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.

    2016-05-01

    The dependence of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic domain patterns and magnetization reversal processes in [Pt/Co(tCo)/Cu]10 film stack epitaxied on Cu (111) substrate have been studied as a function of the Co layer thickness tCo, by magneto-optic polar Kerr magnetometry and microscopy. We find the film undergoes spin reorientation transition from out-of-plane to in-plane as tCo increases. The SRT thickness is verified by Rotating-field Magneto-Optic Kerr effect method. The film exhibits the stripe domain structures at remanence with the width decreasing while tCo approaches SRT. As demonstrated by the first order reversal curve measurement, the magnetization reversal process encompasses irreversible domain nucleation, domain annihilation at large field and reversible domain switching near remanence.

  19. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field. PMID:27406891

  20. Magnetic Configurations in Co/Cu Multilayered Nanowires: Evidence of Structural and Magnetic Interplay.

    PubMed

    Reyes, D; Biziere, N; Warot-Fonrose, B; Wade, T; Gatel, C

    2016-02-10

    Off-axis electron holography experiments have been combined with micromagnetic simulations to study the remnant magnetic states of electrodeposited Co/Cu multilayered nanocylinders. Structural and chemical data obtained by transmission electron microscopy have been introduced in the simulations. Three different magnetic configurations such as an antiparallel coupling of the Co layers, coupled vortices, and a monodomain-like state have been quantitatively mapped and simulated. While most of the wires present the same remnant state whatever the direction of the saturation field, we show that some layers can present a change from an antiparallel coupling to vortices. Such a configuration can be of particular interest to design nano-oscillators with two different working frequencies. PMID:26783831

  1. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires.

    PubMed

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field. PMID:27406891

  2. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-07-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field.

  3. Spin-dependent thermal transport perpendicular to the planes of Co/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimling, Johannes; Wilson, R. B.; Rott, Karsten; Kimling, Judith; Reiss, Günter; Cahill, David G.

    2015-04-01

    We report measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of periodic Co/Cu multilayers using time-domain thermoreflectance. The cross-plane thermal conductivity increases from ˜18 W m-1K-1 at remanence to ˜32 W m-1K-1 at saturation fields. This giant magnetothermal resistance (GMTR) effect is consistent with predictions based on the Wiedemann-Franz law. We discuss the role of a spin-dependent temperature, known as spin heat accumulation, in GMTR experiments and develop a three-temperature model capable of predicting the time evolution of the temperatures of majority-spin electrons, minority-spin electrons, and phonons subsequent to pulsed laser heating.

  4. Large morphological sensitivity of the magneto-thermopower in Co/Cu multilayered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Kratzer, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present results of first-principles calculations on the transport properties, both under an electric field or a temperature gradient, in Co/Cu multilayered systems. The various effects brought about by the changes in the morphological parameters, such as the number of repeats and the layer thickness, are discussed in a systematic way. Our calculations show that the Seebeck coefficient and the magneto-thermopower (MTP) converge rather rapidly with the number of Co repeats. In the range of thin Co layers, we find strong variations in the amplitude and sign of both the Seebeck coefficient and the MTP. These large variations, which have no correspondent in the (magneto)conductance, are shown to be the result of quantum well states present in the minority spin channel of thin Co layers.

  5. Dealloying NiCo and NiCoCu Alloy Thin Films Using Linear Sweep Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peecher, Benjamin; Hampton, Jennifer

    When electrodeposited into thin films, metals have well-known electrochemical potentials at which they will be removed from the film. These potential differences can be utilized to re-oxidize only certain metals in an alloy, altering the film's structure and composition. Here we discuss NiCo and NiCoCu thin films' response to linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) as a means of electrochemical dealloying. For each of four different metal ratios, films were dealloyed to various potentials in order to gain insight into the evolution of the film over the course of the LSV. Capacitance, topography, and composition were examined for each sample before and after linear sweep voltammetry was performed. For NiCo films with high percentages of Ni, dealloying resulted in almost no change in composition, but did result in an increased capacitance, with greater increases occurring at higher LSV potentials. Dealloying also resulted in the appearance of large (100-1000 nm) pores on the surface of the film. For NiCoCu films with high percentages of Ni, Cu was almost completely removed from the film at LSV potentials greater than 500 mV. The LSV first removed larger copper-rich dendrites from the film's surface before creating numerous nano-pores, resulting in a net increase in area. This work is supported by an Award to Hope College from the HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Program, the Hope College Department of Physics Frissel Research Fund, and the National Science Foundation under Grants RUI-DMR-1104725 and MRI-CHE-0959282.

  6. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  7. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe-x (x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δχ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe-x (x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  8. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated NiFe/Cu and NiFeCo/Cu multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers (ML) were studied as a function of the Cu spacer and magnetic layer thicknesses (tCu and tNiFe), annealing conditions and Ta buffer layer thickness. The ML were evaporated in a magnetic field at deposition rates ˜ 2 Å/s and background pressure <5×10-8 mbar on Si/SiO2 substrates at Ts=200 °C. These ML exhibited two unique features: (1) ΔR/R and the interlayer coupling did not show oscillatory behavior as a function of tCu; and (2) after magnetic post annealing, ΔR/R increased from <0.3% in the as-deposited state, to up to ˜6% and 7% in Ta/(NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu), respectively. The coupling between the NiFe layers changed from ferromagnetic in the as-deposited state Mr/Ms˜0.9k;20 to essentially antiferromagnetic Mr/Ms<0.2) after appropriate annealing, and the ML became virtually isotropic in-plane. This is quite different from strong oscillatory behavior of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) previously reported in (NiFe/Cu) as-deposited ML made by ion-beam sputtering. After annealing at 300° and 325 °C for 2 h, the ΔR/R became ˜4.5% and ˜6.5% in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively, and remained approximately constant for tCu=20 to 40 Å. The coupling field generally decreased with an increase in Cu and NiFe and after annealing at 300 °C dropped to as low as ˜25 and 45 Oe in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively. The of ΔR/R Ta/(NiFe/Cu) ML increased with the thickness of Ta buffer layer from 30 to 70 Å. The high-angle θ-2θ x-ray scans of (NiFe/Cu) ML showed (111) texture, essentially independent of annealing temperature. The low-angle x-ray diffraction did not reveal roughening of the Cu-NiFe interfaces as a result of annealing. In many respects the GMR behavior of these ML is similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' NiFe/Ag. However, in contrast to the latter, the resistivity of NiFe/Cu monotonically

  9. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  10. Linear giant magnetoresistance behavior of submicron scale Co/Cu multilayer strips with antiferromagnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, K.; Matsuo, K.; Nozaki, Y.

    2000-05-01

    Linear magntoresistance (MR) response of Co/Cu multilayer strips with sub-μm width has been performed with a field sensitivity of sub-Oe. The orthogonal spin orientation for neighboring Co layers is initiated with an additional external field applied along the short axis of the strip. The thickness of the Cu layer was optimized to be 2.1 nm, at which the MR ratio of the as grown sample took a maximum value. The MR ratio of the as-grown film of [Co(2 nm)/Cu(2.1 nm)]3/Co(2 nm)/Cu(2 nm) was 12.4%. The multilayer was patterned into strips with the pattern width w down to 0.2 μm by means of electron beam lithography and Ar ion milling. The measured maximum MR ratio of the strips with w=0.4 and 0.2 μm were 9.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The observed parabolic MR profile shows good agreement with the micromagnetic simulation assuming the symmetric scissors motion of the magnetization in the multilayer. A linear MR response was observed in a giant MR strip with 0.4 μm width by applying alternating external fields, ranged from 0.1 to 10 Oe, under a transverse bias field of 300 Oe.

  11. High REE and Y concentrations in Co-Cu-Au ores of the Blackbird district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of 11 samples of strata-bound Co-Cu-Au ore from the Blackbird district in Idaho shows previously unknown high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and Y, averaging 0.53 wt percent ???REE + Y oxides. Scanning electron microscopy indicates REE and Y residence in monazite, xenotime, and allanite that form complex intergrowths with cobaltite, suggesting coeval Co and REE + Y mineralization during the Mesoproterozoic. Occurrence of high REE and Y concentrations in the Blackbird ores, together with previously documented saline-rich fluid inclusions and Cl-rich biotite, suggest that these are not volcanogenic massive sulfide or sedimentary exhalative deposits but instead are iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Other strata-bound Co deposits of Proterozoic age in the North American Cordillera and elsewhere in the world may have potential for REE and Y resources. IOCG deposits with abundant light REE should also be evaluated for possible unrecognized heavy REE and Y mineralization. ?? 2006 by Economic Geology.

  12. Impact of biquadratic coupling on critical current density in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the effect of biquadratic coupling (BQC) on critical current density in the Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar by solving the magnetization switching dynamics of the free layer which is governed by Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is analytically solved for the time independent case and value of the critical current density required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated. Its value in the absence of BQC is 0.8576×1012 Am-2 and in the presence of BQC its value increases to 1.0914×1012 Am-2. BQC field is acting along the easy axis which opposes the free layer magnetization moving to the out of plane and hence the value of critical current density is high in the presence of BQC. We can reduce the critical current density by reducing the BQC field which can be achieved by making the nanopillar with minimal or no roughness in the pinned and free layer.

  13. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu and Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, Alexander M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-06-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron-beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers were studied as a function of the Cu spacer, magnetic layer and Ta buffer layer thicknesses, as well as annealing conditions. All multilayers exhibited very small giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect (<0.3%) in the as-deposited state, however, after magnetic post-annealing at 300-325 °C, GMR increased up to 4.5%-7%, depending on the multilayer type. In contrast to sputtered Ni-Fe-(Co)/Cu multilayers, GMR showed no oscillatory behavior as a function of Cu thickness. Similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' Ni-Fe/Ag multilayers, it is believed that Cu diffusion along the Ni-Fe-(Co) grain boundaries creates intra-layer magnetic discontinuities in Ni-Fe-(Co) layers which promote inter-layer antiferromagnetic coupling. The evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu multilayers exhibited very low remanence, exceptionally low hysteresis, and quite uniform GMR properties through the thickness of the multilayer. All of these makes them potentially attractive for application to future magnetoresistive reproduce heads for very high areal density magnetic storage systems.

  14. Studies on mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for CoCuAg alloy thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaydın, G.; Cengiz, E.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Aylıkcı, V.; Bakkaloğlu, Ö. F.

    2009-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients for the elements Co, Cu and Ag and a thin film of CoCuAg alloy were measured in the energy range 4.029-38.729 keV. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities were calculated by using these coefficients. The energies were obtained by using secondary targets that were irradiated with gamma-ray photons of 241Am. The x-rays were counted by using a Canberra Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The results were compared with theoretical calculated values and fairly good agreement was found between them within an average experimental error. The mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities were plotted versus photon energy.

  15. Descriptive and geoenvironmental model for Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks: Chapter G in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Johnson, Craig A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Lund, Karen; Schulz, Klaus J.; Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Additional geologically and compositionally similar deposits are known, but have average Co grades less than 0.1 percent. Most of these deposits contain cobalt-rich pyrite and lack appreciable amounts of distinct Co sulfide and (or) sulfarsenide minerals. Such deposits are not discussed in detail in the following sections, but these deposits may be revelant to the descriptive and genetic models presented below. Examples include the Scadding Au-Co-Cu deposit in Ontario, Canada; the Vähäjoki Co-Cu-Au deposit in Finland; the Tuolugou Co-Au deposit in Qinghai Province, China; the Lala Co-Cu-UREE deposit in Sichuan Province, China; the Guelb Moghrein Cu-Au-Co deposit in Mauritania; and the Great Australia Co-Cu, Greenmount Cu-Au-Co, and Monakoff Cu-Au-Co-UAg deposits in Queensland, Australia. Detailed information on these deposits is presented in appendix 2.

  16. FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films studied using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Li, J.; Tan, A.; Park, J.; Jin, E.; Son, H.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-07-31

    FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films were grown epitaxially and investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy. We found that FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) exhibits the same properties as FeMn/Co/Cu(1,1,10) for the ferromagnetic phase of the face centered cubic (fcc) Fe film but a different property for the non-ferromagnetic phase of the fcc Fe film. This result indicates that the characteristic property reported in the literature for FeMn/Co/Cu(001) comes from the FeMn spin structure and is independent of the ferromagnetic layer.

  17. Sulfides from Martian and Lunar Basalts: Comparative Chemistry for Ni Co Cu and Se

    SciTech Connect

    J Papike; P Burger; C Shearer; S Sutton; M Newville; Y Choi; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Here Mars and Moon are used as 'natural laboratories' with Moon displaying lower oxygen fugacities ({approx}IW-1) than Mars ({approx}IW to FMQ). Moon has lower concentrations of Ni and Co in basaltic melts than does Mars. The major sulfides are troilite (FeS) in lunar basalts and pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) in martian basalts. This study focuses on the concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu, and Se. We chose these elements because of their geochemical importance and the feasibility of analyzing them with a combination of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and electron microprobe (EPMA) techniques. The selenium concentrations could only be analyzed, at high precision, with SXRF techniques as they are <150 ppm, similar to concentrations seen in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Nickel and Co are in higher concentrations in martian sulfides than lunar and are higher in martian olivine-bearing lithologies than olivine-free varieties. The sulfides in individual samples show very large ranges in concentration (e.g., Ni ranges from 50 000 ppm to <5 ppm). These large ranges are mainly due to compositional heterogeneities within individual grains due to diffusion and phase separation. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive (WDS) mapping of Ni, Co, and Cu show the diffusion trajectories. Nickel and Co have almost identical diffusion trajectories leading to the likely nucleation of pentlandite (Ni,Co,Fe){sub 9}S{sub 8}, and copper diffuses along separate pathways likely toward chalcopyrite nucleation sites (CuFeS{sub 2}). The systematics of Ni and Co in lunar and martian sulfides clearly distinguish the two parent bodies, with martian sulfides displaced to higher Ni and Co values.

  18. Characterization and reactivity of nanoscale La(Co,Cu)O 3 perovskite catalyst precursors for CO hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien-Thao, Nguyen; Alamdari, Houshang; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2008-08-01

    The characterization of La(Co,Cu)O 3 perovskites has been performed by several techniques including XRD, BET, H 2-TPR, O 2-TPO, TPRS, and the solids tested as catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO. The reducibility of the perovskites is strongly affected by the preparation route, calcination temperature, catalyst morphology, and the amount of remnant alkali. Compared with the citrate-derived perovskite, LaCoO 3 sample prepared by mechano-synthesis has various distinct Co 3+ ions in perovskite lattice, which are reduced at different temperatures. Under typical conditions, the reduction of cobalt ions occurs in two consecutive steps: Co 3+/Co 2+ and Co 2+/Co 0, while the intra-lattice copper ions are directly reduced from Cu 2+ to Cu 0. The reducibility of cobalt ions is promoted by the presence of metallic copper, which is formed at a lower reduction temperature. The re-oxidation of the reduced lanthanum cobaltite perovskite could regenerate the original structure, whereas that of the reduced Co-Cu-based samples is less reversible under the same experimental conditions. The cobalt atom in the reduced perovskites plays an important role in the dissociation of CO, but the presence of a neighboring copper along with remnant sodium ions on the catalyst surface has remarkably affected the reactivity of cobalt for CO hydrogenation. The addition of copper into the perovskite framework leads to a change in the product distribution of CO hydrogenation and a decrease in reaction temperature. An increased copper content leads to a substantial decline in the rate of methanation and an increase in the formation of higher alcohols. A close proximity between cobalt and copper sites on the Na +-modified catalyst surface of the reduced nanocrystalline Co-Cu-based perovskites plays a crucial role in the synthesis of higher alcohols from syngas.

  19. Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    An, Zhinan; Jia, Haoling; Wu, Yueying; Rack, Philip D.; Patchen, Allan D.; Liu, Yuzi; Ren, Yang; Li, Nan; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-04

    The concept of high configurational entropy requires that the high-entropy alloys (HEAs) yield single-phase solid solutions. However, phase separations are quite common in bulk HEAs. A five-element alloy, CrCoCuFeNi, was deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering and confirmed to be a single-phase solid solution through the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the solid-solution phase is presumed to be due to the high cooling rate of the sputter-deposition process.

  20. Switching a magnetic vortex by interlayer coupling in epitaxially grown Co/Cu/Py/Cu(001) trilayer disks

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Oelker, E.; Park, J. S.; Jin, E.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Bokor, J.; Qiu, Z Q

    2010-07-16

    Epitaxial Py/Cu/Co/Cu(001) trilayers were patterned into micron sized disks and imaged using element-specific photoemission electron microscopy. By varying the Cu spacer layer thickness, we study how the coupling between the two magnetic layers influences the formation of magnetic vortex states. We find that while the Py and Co disks form magnetic vortex domains when the interlayer coupling is ferromagnetic, the magnetic vortex domains of the Py and Co disks break into anti-parallel aligned multidomains when the interlayer coupling is antiferromagnetic. We explain this result in terms of magnetic flux closure between the Py and Co layers for the antiferromagnetic coupling case.

  1. Characterization and reactivity of nanoscale La(Co,Cu)O{sub 3} perovskite catalyst precursors for CO hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Tien-Thao; Alamdari, Houshang; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2008-08-15

    The characterization of La(Co,Cu)O{sub 3} perovskites has been performed by several techniques including XRD, BET, H{sub 2}-TPR, O{sub 2}-TPO, TPRS, and the solids tested as catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO. The reducibility of the perovskites is strongly affected by the preparation route, calcination temperature, catalyst morphology, and the amount of remnant alkali. Compared with the citrate-derived perovskite, LaCoO{sub 3} sample prepared by mechano-synthesis has various distinct Co{sup 3+} ions in perovskite lattice, which are reduced at different temperatures. Under typical conditions, the reduction of cobalt ions occurs in two consecutive steps: Co{sup 3+}/Co{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}/Co{sup 0}, while the intra-lattice copper ions are directly reduced from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup 0}. The reducibility of cobalt ions is promoted by the presence of metallic copper, which is formed at a lower reduction temperature. The re-oxidation of the reduced lanthanum cobaltite perovskite could regenerate the original structure, whereas that of the reduced Co-Cu-based samples is less reversible under the same experimental conditions. The cobalt atom in the reduced perovskites plays an important role in the dissociation of CO, but the presence of a neighboring copper along with remnant sodium ions on the catalyst surface has remarkably affected the reactivity of cobalt for CO hydrogenation. The addition of copper into the perovskite framework leads to a change in the product distribution of CO hydrogenation and a decrease in reaction temperature. An increased copper content leads to a substantial decline in the rate of methanation and an increase in the formation of higher alcohols. A close proximity between cobalt and copper sites on the Na{sup +}-modified catalyst surface of the reduced nanocrystalline Co-Cu-based perovskites plays a crucial role in the synthesis of higher alcohols from syngas. - Graphical abstract: The ground La(Co,Cu)O{sub 3} perovskite precursors were

  2. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films with different Co concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M. Yuan, H. Zhou, P. F.; Dong, C. J.; You, B.; Duan, M. Y.

    2014-03-07

    Zn{sub 0.99-x}Co{sub x}Cu{sub 0.01}O films with different Co concentrations from 0% to 20% were fabricated by a sol-gel method. Moderate Co doping is found to improve the surface uniformity and crystal quality of the films, and causes a redshift of the band edge of Zn(Co,Cu) films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the introduction of Co ions causes the valence state of Cu to change from +2 to +1; while at Co concentrations lower than 10%, the Co exists in the +2 valence state. Strong blue emission at ∼420 and 440 nm are observed, decreasing with increasing Co concentration, but becoming strong again as the concentration is increased to 20%. Enhanced room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed for the (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films at Co concentrations lower than 10%. These interesting magnetic properties are explained based on charge transfer, together with the defect-related model for ferromagnetism.

  3. O K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of atomic O adsorbed on an ultrathin Co/Cu(100) film: Comparison with molecular CO on Co/Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Kenta; Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Yonamoto, Yoshiki; Matsumura, Daiju; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2001-10-01

    We observed O K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of atomic O adsorbed on a fcc Co thin film grown epitaxially on Cu(100). The XMCD of c(2×2)O showed a negative sign at the O1s-->2p transition. The negative sign indicates parallel alignment of the O orbital moment with the substrate magnetization. This finding is in contrast to the CO/Co/Cu(100) case where a positive XMCD was observed at the O1s-->CO2π* transition. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is proposed referring to recent theoretical prediction [Pick et al., Phys. Rev. B 59, 4195 (1999)].

  4. Nature of coupling and origin of coercivity in giant magnetoresistance NiO-Co-Cu-based spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Yang, David X.; Chen, P. J.; Parks, D. C.; Egelhoff, W. F.

    2000-04-01

    The effect of various couplings on the switching field and coercivity in NiO-Co-Cu-based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) bottom spin valves is investigated. Bottom spin valves as well as different layer permutations that make up a bottom spin valve, viz., Co single films, Co/Cu/Co trilayers, and Co/NiO bilayers (deposited under similar growth conditions), were investigated for their magnetic, crystal, and interfacial structure. As-deposited bottom spin valves exhibit a large GMR of ~16.5%, and a small net ferromagnetic coupling (+0.36 mT) between the ``free'' Co layer and the NiO-pinned Co layer. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on spin valves and trilayers show that the average grain size in these films is ~20 nm and average roughness ~ 0.3 nm. Using these values, the observed ferromagnetic coupling in spin valves could largely be accounted for by Néel's so-called ``orange-peel'' coupling. Results also show that the ``free'' Co layer exhibits an enhanced coercivity (HFree-Coc=6.7 mT) with respect to Co single films of comparable thickness (HCoc=2.7 mT). The TEM studies did not reveal the presence of any pin-holes, and ``orange-peel'' or oscillatory exchange coupling mechanisms cannot adequately account for this observed coercivity enhancement in the ``free'' Co layer of spin valves. The present study shows that the often observed and undesirable coercivity enhancement in the ``free'' Co layer results from magnetostatic coupling between domain walls in the ``free'' Co layer and high coercivity NiO-pinned Co layer (HPinned-Coc~45 mT); without NiO, the coercivity of Co layers in the corresponding Co/Cu/Co trilayer remains largely unchanged (HCo/Cu/Coc=3.0 mT) with respect to Co single films. Evidence of magnetostatically coupled domain walls was confirmed by direct observation of magnetization reversal, which revealed that domain walls in the ``free'' Co layer are magnetostatically

  5. Bilinear and biquadratic interlayer exchange coupling in sputtered Co/Cu multilayers damaged with residual gas impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrows, C. H.; Hickey, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    The oscillatory indirect exchange coupling exhibited by magnetic/nonmagnetic metal multilayers is known to be highly sensitive to structural defects. We have measured the effects on coupling of residual gas atoms in sputtered Co/Cu multilayers. We have used a simple technique to selectively probe particular parts of the multilayer stack. A large reduction in the giant magnetoresistance has been observed when gas impurity atoms are introduced into the middle of the Cu spacer layers, with a corresponding increase in the remanence of the sample. These changes are shown to be consistent with overwhelmingly strong biquadratic coupling between the Co layers. This leads to the moments in adjacent layers being no longer collinear in zero applied field, which we have confirmed by other measurements. We discuss the applicability of the various theoretical models of biquadratic coupling to our observations.

  6. Increased ability of transgenic plants expressing the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase to accumulate Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Grichko, V P; Filby, B; Glick, B R

    2000-07-28

    Transgenic tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) cv. Heinz 902 expressing the bacterial gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, under the transcriptional control of either two tandem 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoters (constitutive expression), the rolD promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes (root specific expression) or the pathogenesis related PRB-1b promoter from tobacco, were compared to non-transgenic tomato plants in their ability to grow in the presence of Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, or Zn and to accumulate these metals. Parameters that were examined include metal concentration and ACC deaminase activity in both plant shoots and roots; root and shoot development; and leaf chlorophyll content. In general, transgenic tomato plants expressing ACC deaminase, especially those controlled by the PRB-1b promoter, acquired a greater amount of metal within the plant tissues, and were less subject to the deleterious effects of the metals on plant growth than were non-transgenic plants. PMID:10936659

  7. Lateral electric-field control of giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu/Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} multiferroic heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Savitha Pillai, S.; Kojima, H.; Itoh, M.; Taniyama, T.

    2015-08-17

    We report lateral electric-field-driven sizable changes in the magnetoresistance of Co/Cu/Fe tri-layered wires on BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal. While the observed change is marginal in the tetragonal phase of BaTiO{sub 3}, it reaches over 40% in the orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases with an electric field of 66 kV/cm. We attribute it to possible electric-field-induced variations of the spin-dependent electronic structures, i.e., spin polarization, of the Fe via interfacial strain transfer from BaTiO{sub 3}. The contrasting results for the different phases of BaTiO{sub 3} are discussed, associated with the distinct aspects of the ferroelectric polarization switching processes in each phase.

  8. Local structure investigation of (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals and its correlation with magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, N.; Doke, S.; Lohar, A.; Mahamuni, Shailaja; Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Choudhary, R. J.; Mondal, P.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2016-03-01

    Pure, Co doped and (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been prepared by wet chemical route at room temperature to investigate the effect of Cu doping in Co doped ZnO nanocrystals . The nanocrystals have initially been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman, optical absorption and EPR spectroscopy and the results were corroborated with DFT based electronic structure calculations. Magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated by studying their magnetic hysteresis behavior and temperature dependence of susceptibilities. Finally the local structure at the host and dopant sites of the nanocrystals have been investigated by Zn, Co and Cu K edges EXAFS measurements with synchrotron radiation to explain their experimentally observed magnetic properties.

  9. Giant magnetoresistance studies in evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu and Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftek, E.; Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, Neil

    1997-04-01

    Room temperature giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and magnetic properties of (Ni-Fe/Cu)n and (Ni-Fe-Co/Cu)n multilayers were investigated. Alternating layers of Ni-Fe-(Co) and Cu were electron-beam evaporated in a computer-controlled high-vacuum system at base pressure of ⩽4×10-8 Torr and deposition rates of ⩽2 Å/s. To complement and expand our previous investigation,1 GMR properties were additionally studied here as a function of cobalt content of Ni-Fe-Co films, the number (n) of bilayers, deposition temperature, and type of buffer layer. The Co content was varied from 7 to 17 at. %, and the number of bilayers ranged from n=8 to 20. No significant GMR was observed in the as-deposited multilayers. To produce tangible GMR, these multilayers were annealed between 300 and 360 °C for 2 h in a 150 Oe magnetic field in an argon atmosphere. The GMR effect (ΔR/R) was essentially independent of copper spacer thickness, which varied between 25 and 30 Å. For Co containing multilayers the highest ΔR/R=7.6% was obtained for 17 at. % Co deposited at 100 °C. The ΔR/R in all Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers was sensitive to the deposition temperature, and R-H loops always showed significant hysteresis independent of the type of buffer layer. For application of these materials to very high density reproduce heads,2 the best results were obtained for (27 Å NiFe/25 Å Cu)14-18 multilayers deposited at 160 °C on 70 Å Ta buffer layer. For example, n=17 multilayers annealed at 350 °C exhibited ΔR/R=7.5%, half-width at half-maximum of ˜50 Oe, essentially no anisotropy, and virtually zero hysteresis (Fig. 1). Frequency dependent permeability measurements showed constant permeability between 10 and 200 MHz. Low- and high-angle x-ray diffraction as well as atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the effect of different geometries of multilayers on structure and roughness and to correlate them with GMR properties.

  10. Effect of La3+ Impurity on Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Co-Cu-Cr-Fe Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Vivek; Kadam, R H; Mane, M L; Shirsath, Sagar E; Kadam, A B; Mane, D R

    2015-06-01

    In this work a series of Co0.7Cu0.3Cr0.5La(x)Fe1.5-(x)O4 were synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion technique through the incorporation of La3+ into the raw powders. The structural magnetic and resistivity properties of the synthesized Co-Cu-Cr-La ferrites were investigated. X-ray diffraction data indicated that, after La3+ doping, samples consisted of the main spinel phase in combination with a small amount of a foreign LaFeO3 phase. The addition of La3+ resulted in the reduction of particle size and an increase of porosity of the synthesized samples. The infrared spectra were recorded on the range from 300-800 cm(-1). The two primary bands corresponding to tetrahedral v1 at 595-605 cm(-1) and octahedral v2 at 389-413 cm(-1) were observed. The octahedral site radii increased rapidly with La3+ substitution while the tetrahedral site radii slowly increased. Deviation from the ideal oxygen positional parameter is found to decrease with La3+ substitution. The saturation magnetization of the samples decreased with the amount of La3+ ions doped and the coercivity shows an opposite trend. La3+ substitution affects the hopping between Fe2+ <-> Fe3+, resulted in increase in resistivity. PMID:26369038

  11. Mineralogy and trace element geochemistry of the Co- and Cu-bearing sulfides from the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zou, Fenghui; Wang, Li; Yu, Liangliang; Hu, Mingyue

    2015-12-01

    Hosted within the metamorphosed, neritic siliciclastic rocks and sedimentary carbonates of the Proterozoic Shilu Group, the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province of South China comprises the upper Fe- and the lower Co-Cu ore layers. Combined with the field observation, the mineralogical and geochemical studies of sulfides using electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses recognized three types of Co-Cu ores. Type I is represented by massive ores and mainly comprises the first generation of pyrite (PyI) which occurred either as recrystallized, subhedral to euhedral microcrystal aggregates (PyIa) or as elongated, fine-grained euhedral grains (PyIb) with an orientated alignment parallel to S1 foliation. Type II is banded, disseminated and brecciated ores, and composed of the second generation of pyrite (PyII) which displays internal rhythmic growth zoning, the first generations of chalcopyrite (CcpI) and pyrrhotite (PoI), and associated Co-(Ni)-(As)-sulfide minerals. Type III occurring as veins or veinlets mainly consists of the third generation of pyrite (PyIII) and the second generations of chalcopyrite (CcpII) and pyrrhotite (PoII), of which PyIII appears as subhedral to euhedrall grains or as rims of composite pyrite. The moderate Co and As, and high Ni contents as well as the low Co/Ni ratios (∼2-5) in PyI indicate a sedimentary-metamorphic origin for Type I ores. The higher Co, Ni and As concentrations in PyIb relative to PyIa likely was related to an inhomogeneous deformation-metamorphism. The highest Co (av. 51,195 ppm) in PyII and Ni (av. 3374 ppm) in PoI most likely were linked to the preferred incorporation of Co into pyrite and Ni into pyrrhotite. Combined with the high Ag concentrations in CcpI (av. 266 ppm) and PyII (av. 13.32 ppm), the high Co/Ni ratios in PyII (av. 1241) suggest the derivation of Type II ores from a Co-Cu-Ni-Ag-rich hydrothermal fluid. Further, up to 9 wt.% Co concentrations in PyII show a temperature condition of

  12. The Grassman-metal Conjugate Gradient Method (DFT) and its application to composite thin metal films of Co, Cu and Ni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, Andrew; Raczkowski, David; Leung, Mary Ann; Wang, Lin-Wang; An, Joonhee; van Hove, Michel A.

    2003-03-01

    We will present the Grassman-metal conjugate gradient (GMCG) method for iterative diagonalization for the solution of the Kohn-Sham equations with a plane wave basis set. This is an all-bands method with variable occupancy for iterative diagonalization at fixed charge density. We will then present some results for sandwiches of Co, Cu and Ni systems which exhibit quantum well states. In particular we will show the effect of a single Ni layer at different positions on Quantum well states in a Co/Cu system. We have found that these systems are extremely difficult to converge without the use of the Grassman-metal approach. (This work was supported by the Director, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Division of Mathematical, Information and Computational Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098)

  13. Expansion Hamiltonian model for a diatomic molecule adsorbed on a surface: Vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system including surface vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.

  14. Expansion Hamiltonian model for a diatomic molecule adsorbed on a surface: Vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system including surface vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2015-10-28

    Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.

  15. Structural and optical investigations of [N(C3H7)4]2MeBr4 (Me = Zn, Co, Cu) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Radoslaw; Suchanska, Malgorzata

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the method of structural and optical properties of novel crystals of the [N(C3H7)4]2MeBr4 (Me = Zn, Co, Cu) will be presented. The X-ray investigations were carried out using four-circle diffractometer KM4-CCD at room temperature Optical spectra of samples were measured using AVS-S2000 and 1725 FI -IR spectrometers. Connections between optical properties of the studied crystals and electronic configuration of transition metal ions will be considered. An influence of metal ion substitution on the shape of the optical spectra of crystals will be also discussed.

  16. Non-free-electron momentum- and thickness-dependent evolution ofquantum well states in the Cu/Co/Cu(001) system

    SciTech Connect

    Rotenberg, Eli; Wu, Y.Z.; An, Joonhee M.; Van Hove, Michel A.; Canning, Andrew; Wang, Lin-Wang; Qiu, Z.Q.

    2005-05-21

    We present systematic k{sub {parallel}}-dependent measurements of the Fermi surface and underlying band structure of quantum well states in Cu/Co/Cu(001). Compared to bands from normal emission, we find a complicated evolution of ''split'' QW states as a function of the thicknesses of both the copper overlayer and the cobalt barrier layer. Self-consistent calculations show that the penetration of the quantum well states into the cobalt barrier layer is significant and leads to the observed very non-free-electron behavior of these states.

  17. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Ranu Schütz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-03-14

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H{sub C}) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism.

  18. Self-regulating homogenous growth of high-quality graphene on Co-Cu composite substrate for layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianquan; Huang, Fuqiang; Wan, Dongyun; Bi, Hui; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2013-06-01

    layer. High quality single-layered graphene films with a 98% yield were prepared on an 80 nm-Co-coated Cu foil and insensitive to growth temperature and time. More importantly, this type of composite substrate has also been developed to grow AB-stacked bilayers and three-layer graphene with 99% surface coverage and absence of defects. The approach is opening up a new avenue for high-quality graphene production with precise layer control through composite substrate design. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional characteristics of graphene films with different layer (optical microscope and SEM images, Raman mapping of FWHM, XPS profiles); measurements of electrical properties; explanation for tolerance of Co-Cu substrate to variations; calculation procedures of minimum thickness for Co layer. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33124e

  19. Spin-orbit torques and spin accumulation in FePt/Pt and Co/Cu thin films from first principles: The role of impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géranton, Guillaume; Zimmermann, Bernd; Long, Nguyen H.; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Blügel, Stefan; Freimuth, Frank; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    Using the Boltzmann formalism based on the first principles electronic structure and scattering rates, we investigate the current-induced spin accumulation and spin-orbit torques in FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of substitutional impurities. In FePt/Pt bilayers we consider the effect of intermixing of Fe and Pt atoms in the FePt layer and find a crucial dependence of spin accumulation and spin-orbit torques on the details of the distribution of these defects. In Co/Cu bilayers we predict that the magnitude and sign of the spin-orbit torque and spin accumulation depend very sensitively on the type of the impurities used to dope the Cu substrate. Moreover, simultaneously with impurity-driven scattering, we consider the effect of an additional constant quasiparticle broadening of the states at the Fermi surface to simulate phonon scattering at room temperature and discover that even a small broadening of the order of 25 meV can drastically influence the magnitude of the considered effects. We explain our findings based on the analysis of the complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the spin accumulation and spin-orbit torques in these structurally and chemically nonuniform systems.

  20. Site preferences and effects of X (X = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) on the properties of NiAl: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongshan; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Shenggang; Zhu, Peixian; Zhu, Jingchuan

    2016-03-01

    The site preference of X (X = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) in NiAl and its effects on structural, electronic and elastic properties were investigated by performing first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). Formation enthalpy calculations show that adding X increases the formation enthalpy of NiAl, indicating that X addition reduces the stability of system. The site preference was investigated by calculating the transfer energy of NiAl alloys with X. The results further exhibit that Mn, Fe and Cu show no site preference, but Co tends to occupy Ni site. By analyzing electronic density of states, Mulliken population, overlap population and valence charge density, the electronic property and bond characters were discussed. The elastic property calculation shows that only substitution of Ni by Cu increased the plasticity of alloy, while in the other cases the plasticity was decreased.

  1. Facial synthesis of PtM (M = Fe, Co, Cu, Ni) bimetallic alloy nanosponges and their enhanced catalysis for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhijun; Zhai, Yanling; Dong, Shaojun

    2014-10-01

    Constructing electrocatalysts with enhanced activity and stability is necessary due to the increasing demands of the fuel cell industry. This work demonstrates a facile approach to synthesize well-defined three-dimensional (3D) PtM (M = Fe, Co, Cu, Ni) bimetallic alloy nanosponges (BANs) in the presence of Al. Significantly, with the aid of Al, the as-prepared BANs exhibit greatly enhanced electrochemistry catalytic activity in an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and PtFe BANs appear the best ORR property among the four BANs and commercial Pt/C catalysts. This work may provide a universal approach for convenient and large-scale fabrication of porous bimetallic nanocatalysts, thus providing promising potential application as an efficient cathodic component in fuel cells for industrial production. PMID:25223424

  2. Vortex domain wall propagation in periodically modulated diameter FeCoCu nanowire as determined by the magneto-optical Kerr effect.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Ester M; Bran, Cristina; Del Real, Rafael P; Vázquez, Manuel

    2015-11-20

    Control over the magnetization reversal process of nanowires is essential to current advances in modern spintronic media and magnetic data storage. Much effort has been devoted to permalloy nanostrips with rectangular cross section and vanishing crystalline anisotropy. Our aim was to unveil and control the reversal process in FeCoCu nanowires with significant anisotropy and circular cross section with tailored periodical modulations in diameter. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements and their angular dependence performed on individual nanowires together with their analysis allow us to conclude that the demagnetization process takes place due to the propagation of a single vortex domain wall which is eventually pinned at given modulations with slightly higher energy barrier. In addition these results create new expectations for further controlling of the propagation of single and multiple domain walls. PMID:26501722

  3. Fast emulsion-based method for simultaneous determination of Co, Cu, Pb and Se in crude oil, gasoline and diesel by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luz, Maciel S; Nascimento, Angerson N; Oliveira, Pedro V

    2013-10-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Co, Cu, Pb and Se in crude oil, gasoline and diesel samples using emulsion-based sampling and GF AAS is proposed. 400mg of sample was weighted in volumetric flask following the sequential addition of 125 µL of hexane and 7.5 mL of Triton X-100(®) (20% mv(-1)). Subsequently, the mixture was stirred in ultrasonic bath, during 30 min, before dilution to 25 mL with deionized water. Aliquots of 20 μL of reference solution or sample emulsion were co-injected into the graphite tube with 10 μL of 2 g L(-1) Pd(NO3)2. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1300°C and 2250°C, respectively. The limits of detection (n=10, 3σ) and characteristic masses were 0.02 μg g(-1) (0.32 μg L(-1)) and 18 pg for Co, 0.03 μg g(-1) (0.48 μg L(-1)) and 15 pg for Cu, 0.04 μg g(-1) (0.64 μg L(-1)) and 48 pg for Pb, and 0.11 μg g(-1) (1.76 μg L(-1)) and 47 pg for Se. The reliabilities of the proposed method for Co and Se were checked by SRM(®) 1634c Residual Oil analysis. The found values are in accordance to the SRM at 95% confidence level (Student's t-test). Each sample was spiked with 0.18 μg g(-1) of Co, Cu, Pb and Se and the recoveries varied from 92% to 116% for Co, 83% to 117% for Cu, 72% to 117% for Pb, and 82% to 122% for Se. PMID:24054610

  4. Structural and magnetic characterization of as-prepared and annealed FeCoCu nanowire arrays in ordered anodic aluminum oxide templates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-González, B.; Bran, C.; Warnatz, T.; Vazquez, M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-04-07

    Herein, we report on the preparation, structure, and magnetic characterization of FeCoCu nanowire arrays grown by DC electrodeposition inside self-assembled ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. A systematic study of their structure has been performed both in as-prepared samples and after annealing in the temperature range up to 800 °C, although particular attention has been paid to annealing at 700 °C after which maximum magnetic hardening is achieved. The obtained nanowires have a diameter of 40 nm and their Fe{sub 0.28}Co{sub 0.67}Cu{sub 0.05} composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Focused ion-beam lamellas of two samples (as-prepared and annealed at 700 °C) were prepared for their imaging in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) perpendicularly to the electron beam, where the obtained EDS compositional mappings show a homogeneous distribution of the elements. X-ray diffraction analysis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirm that nanowires exhibit a bcc cubic structure (space group Im-3m). In addition, bright-dark field images show that the nanowires have a polycrystalline structure that remains essentially the same after annealing, but some modifications were observed: (i) an overall increase and sharpening of recrystallized grains, and (ii) an apparent shrinkage of the nanowires diameter. Obtained SAED patterns also show strong textured components with determined <111> and <112> crystalline directions parallel to the wires growth direction. The presence of both directions was also confirmed in the HRTEM images doing Fourier transform analyses. Magnetic measurements show strong magnetic anisotropy with magnetization easy axis parallel to the nanowires in as-prepared and annealed samples. The magnetic properties are tuned by suitable thermal treatments so that, maximum enhanced coercivity (∼2.7 kOe) and normalized remanence (∼0.91 Ms) values are

  5. Geochemical and Nd isotopic constraints on provenance and depositional setting of the Shihuiding Formation in the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, Hainan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Shaohao; Cai, Jianxin; Xu, Deru; Zou, Fenghui; Wang, Zhilin; Wu, Chuanjun; Liu, Meng

    2016-04-01

    The Shihuiding Formation, a subordinate succession hosting the Fe-Co-Cu ores, is a suite of Neoproterozoic terrigenous clastic rocks occurring in the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district of the Hainan Island, South China. Integrated petrographical, geochemical, and Nd isotopic analyses have been carried out on 23 sandstone specimens of the Shihuiding Formation in order to understand their provenance and the tectonic setting of their deposition. The samples can be divided into two groups, quartzose sandstones (13 samples) and ferruginous sandstones (10 samples). The ferruginous sandstones have average SiO2 and Fetotal contents of 77.23 wt.% and 18.09 wt.%, respectively, and this contrasts with the higher average SiO2 (94.04 wt.%) and lower Fetotal (2.67 wt.%) contents of the quartzose sandstones. The bivariant Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios indicate a predominantly recycled sedimentary provenance, and the low to medium degrees of weathering are commonly indicated by an average chemical index of maturity (CIM) of 81 and an average chemical index of alteration (CIA) of 68. The Shihuiding Formation sandstones have REE contents of 21-249 ppm, with LREE/HREE = 9.18 and δEu = 0.67. The εNd (970 Ma) values of -5.7 to -3.4, and model (TDM) ages of 2099-1773 Ma are compatible with a source mainly from the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group, a suite of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks intruded by ca. 1450 Ma granites. Quantitative provenance modeling indicates that the Shihuiding Formation sandstones are best modeled with a mixture of 29% plagioclase-amphibole gneiss (29 P), 38% quartz-muscovite schist (38 Q), and 33% granite (33 G) detritus. Mixing the εNd values of the sandstones, calculated at 970 Ma, indicates that the sediment received 22-47% (average 34%) of its detritus from the Baoban Group quartz-muscovite schists. Components from hydrothermal fluids may also have been involved during deposition of the Shihuiding Formation sandstones, as revealed by a bivariant Al/(Al + Fe + Mn

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of as-prepared and annealed FeCoCu nanowire arrays in ordered anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-González, B.; Bran, C.; Warnatz, T.; Rivas, J.; Vazquez, M.

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we report on the preparation, structure, and magnetic characterization of FeCoCu nanowire arrays grown by DC electrodeposition inside self-assembled ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. A systematic study of their structure has been performed both in as-prepared samples and after annealing in the temperature range up to 800 °C, although particular attention has been paid to annealing at 700 °C after which maximum magnetic hardening is achieved. The obtained nanowires have a diameter of 40 nm and their Fe0.28Co0.67Cu0.05 composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Focused ion-beam lamellas of two samples (as-prepared and annealed at 700 °C) were prepared for their imaging in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) perpendicularly to the electron beam, where the obtained EDS compositional mappings show a homogeneous distribution of the elements. X-ray diffraction analysis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirm that nanowires exhibit a bcc cubic structure (space group Im-3m). In addition, bright-dark field images show that the nanowires have a polycrystalline structure that remains essentially the same after annealing, but some modifications were observed: (i) an overall increase and sharpening of recrystallized grains, and (ii) an apparent shrinkage of the nanowires diameter. Obtained SAED patterns also show strong textured components with determined ⟨111⟩ and ⟨112⟩ crystalline directions parallel to the wires growth direction. The presence of both directions was also confirmed in the HRTEM images doing Fourier transform analyses. Magnetic measurements show strong magnetic anisotropy with magnetization easy axis parallel to the nanowires in as-prepared and annealed samples. The magnetic properties are tuned by suitable thermal treatments so that, maximum enhanced coercivity (˜2.7 kOe) and normalized remanence (˜0.91 Ms) values are achieved after annealing

  7. Temporal dynamics of pore water concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn and their controlling factors in a contaminated floodplain soil assessed by undisturbed groundwater lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to assess the dynamics of pore water concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and their controlling factors (EH, pH, DOC, Fe, Mn, and SO4(2-)) in a contaminated floodplain soil under different flood-dry-cycles. Two parallel undisturbed groundwater lysimeters (mean values presented) were used for long term (LT; 94 days) and short term (ST; 21 days) flood-dry-cycles. Reducing conditions under LT lead to low EH and pH, while DOC, Co, Fe, Mn, and Ni increased. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, and SO4(2-) increased under oxidizing conditions during ST. Cobalt and Ni revealed a similar behavior which seem to governed by EH/pH, Mn, Fe, and DOC. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn reveal a similar fate; their dynamics were affected by EH/pH, DOC, and SO4(2-). Our findings suggest that a release of Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn under different flood-dry-cycles can assumed what might create potential environmental risks in using metal-enriched floodplain soils. PMID:24861239

  8. Magnetic and magnetoresistance studies of the evolution of the magnetic layer structure with Co layer thickness in electrodeposited Co-Cu/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir Kumar; Chowdhury, Prashanta; Dogra, Anjana

    2013-02-01

    The structural transformation of electrochemically deposited Co-Cu/Cu multilayers with magnetic layer thickness was monitored via measurements of magnetization and magnetoresistance. For this, electrodeposition of [Co (tCo nm)/Cu (4 nm)]50 multilayers were carried out by varying the Co-layer thickness (tCo) down to 0.2 nm from a sulfate based single solution electrolyte. Magnetization measurements showed the appearance of anisotropy, increase in remanence magnetization and coercivity with systematic increase of tCo from 0.2 to 1 nm. Magnetic field direction dependent magnetoresistance (MR) measurements revealed that the isotropy in MR changes with tCo from tridimensional at 0.2 nm to in-plane at 0.4 nm to fully anisotropic at 1.0 nm. This illustrated that a fully granular magnetic Co-layer structure (tCo=0.2 nm) transforms into discontinuous layered one (tCo=0.4 nm) due to coalescence of suparparamagnetic regions to a continuous ferromagnetic layer (tCo=1 nm).

  9. Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) for measuring Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in Amazonian rivers.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Lauren Nozomi Marques; Colaço, Camila Destro; Menegário, Amauri Antonio; Domingos, Roberto Naves; Kiang, Chang Hung; Pascoaloto, Domitila

    2014-02-01

    Studies concerning the lability and bioavailability of trace metals have played a prominent role in the search for contamination of water resources. This work describes the first application yet of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) to the determination of the fraction of free plus labile metals in waters from the Amazon Basin. Due to the complexity of the use of DGT for samples with low ionic strength and high organic matter content (characteristic of Amazonian rivers), a new analytical procedure was developed. The method is based on the determinations of apparent diffusion coefficients (Dap) in the laboratory, by performing deployments in samples collected in the corresponding sites of study. The Dap thereby determined is then used for in situ measurements. The suitability of the proposed approach for determination of labile Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in the Amazon River and Rio Negro (English: Black River) was evaluated. Except for Co, Mn (in a deployment at Rio Negro), Ni and Zn (in a deployment at Amazon River), labile in situ measurements were lower or similar to dissolved concentrations, indicating suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:24052239

  10. Magnetic, Optical, and Magnetooptical Properties of Spinel-Type ACr2X4 (A=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd; X=O, S, Se)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgushi, Kenya; Okimoto, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2008-03-01

    A comprehensive study of magnetic, optical, and magnetooptical properties was carried out for single crystals of the spinel-type ACr2X4 (A=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Cd; X=O, S, and Se). The optical reflectivity measurements for 0.1-30 eV revealed a wide variation in electronic structures on a large energy scale between oxides (X=O) and chalcogenides (X=S and Se). For A=Fe and Co, we observed the intra-atomic d-d transitions of A2+ ions with a tetrahedral coordination, and successfully deduced the crystal field splitting Δ E, the Racah parameter B, and the spin-orbit coupling constant \\zeta by analysis based on the ligand field theory. A comparison of these optical parameters between oxides and chalcogenides indicated the strong covalency effect in the chalcogenides. In A=Cu, the insulator-metal transition between X=O and Se was clearly demonstrated by optical conductivity spectra. Magnetic properties were discussed in relation to electronic structures. A compound with a small optical gap is typically a ferrimagnet with antiparallel arrangements of A2+ and Cr3+ spins, whereas a compound with a large optical gap undergoes first-order phase transition into spiral spin ordering at a low temperature. We found that the magnetic anisotropy constants K1 for ACr2S4 (A=Mn, Fe, and Co) are approximately scaled by the inverse of the intra-atomic d-d transition energies of A2+ ions in agreement with the second-order perturbation theory for single-ion anisotropy. The magnetooptical spectra in a wide energy range (0.2-4.5 eV) were measured for chalcogenides focusing on the d-d transition resonance. We observed gigantic magnetooptical signals up to 4.1° in the energy range of 4A2 →{4}T2 and 4A2 →{4}T1 transitions of Co2+ ions for CoCr2S4, and analyzed them in the framework of the ligand field theory. We propose that the strong covalency of the ligand sulfur, as well as the local breakdown of inversion symmetry, in the tetrahedral site plays a crucial role in the enhancement

  11. Analysis of molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-vis) and quantum chemical calculations of free and ligand 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid in metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2013-12-01

    In this study, molecular geometries, experimental vibrational wavenumbers, electronic properties and quantum chemical calculations of 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid molecule, (C6H4O3S), and its metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn) which are used as pharmacologic agents have been investigated experimentally by FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Meanwhile the vibrational calculations were verified by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets in the ground state, for free TPGA molecule and its metal halide complexes, respectively, for the first time. The calculated fundamental vibrational frequencies for the title compounds are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Effect of plasma-chemical and thermal treatment in oxygen on the activity of Na3ZrM(PO4)3 phosphates (M = Zn, Co, Cu) in the transformation of butanol-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylinina, A. I.; Povarova, E. I.; Mikhalenko, I. I.; Yagodovskaya, T. V.

    2013-06-01

    The catalytic properties of plasma-chemically and thermally treated triple zirconium orthophosphates Na3ZrM(PO4)3 (M = Zn, Co, Cu) in the transformation of butanol-2 are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that the surface composition of the samples differs from the stoichiometry, especially in the case of M = Cu. The partial reduction of copper ions occurs during plasma-chemical treatment (PCT), while the amount of Cu on the surface of Na3ZrCu(PO4)3 diminishes. Treatment in an oxygen glow discharge results in a 3-8 times greater yield of the alcohol dehydrogenation product, methyl ethyl ketone. The energy of the alcohol's bonds with the surface is reduced and the dehydration active sites become fully inactivated. In contrast, thermal treatment (TT) results in an increase in the activity of Na3ZrM(PO4)3 in the dehydration of butanol-2.

  13. FT-IR, Micro-Raman and UV-vis spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigations of free 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and its metal (Co, Cu and Zn) halide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2013-10-01

    In this study the elemental analysis results, molecular geometries, vibrational and electronic absorption spectra of free 2,2'-dithiodipyridine(C10H8N2S2), (or DTDP) (with synonym, 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide) and M(C10H8N2S2)Cl2 (M = Co, Cu and Zn) complexes have been reported. Vibrational wavenumbers of free DTDP and its metal halide complexes have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP calculation method with 6-31++G(d,p) and Lanl2DZ basis sets, respectively, in the ground state, for the first time. The calculated fundamental vibrational frequencies are in a good agreement with experimental data. The HOMO, LUMO and MEP analyses of all compounds are performed by DFT method.

  14. Layered Molecule-Based Magnets Formed by Decamethylmetallocenium Cations and Two-Dimensional Bimetallic Complexes [ MIIRu III(ox) 3] -( MII=;Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn; ox=oxalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, Eugenio; Galán-Mascarós, José R.; Gómez-García, Carlos J.; Martínez-Agudo, José M.; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Waerenborgh, Joao C.; Almeida, Manuel

    2001-07-01

    A new series of hybrid organometallic-inorganic layered magnets with formula [ZIIICp*2] [MIIRuIII(ox)3] (ZIII=Co and Fe; MII=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn; ox=oxalate: Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) has been prepared. All of these compounds are isostructural to the previously reported [ZIIICp*2] [MIIMIII(ox)3] (MIII=Cr, Fe) series and crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m, as found by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. They are novel examples of magnetic materials formed by bimetallic oxalate-based extended layers separated by layers of organometallic cations. The magnetic properties of all these compounds have been investigated (ac and dc magnetic susceptibilities and field dependence of the isothermal magnetization at 2 K). In particular, it has been found that FeII and CoII derivatives behave as magnets with ordering temperatures of 12.8 and 2.8 K, respectively, while no long-range magnetic ordering has been detected down to 2 K in the MnII and CuII derivatives. The magnetic ordering in the FeII derivatives has been confirmed through Mössbauer spectroscopy. This technique has also made it possible to observe the spin polarization of the paramagnetic [FeCp*2]+ units caused by the internal magnetic field created by the bimetallic layers in the ordered state.

  15. Novel Pulse Electrodeposited Co-Cu-Zn Nanowire/tubeCatalysts for C1-C4 Alcohols and C2 - C6 (except C5) Hydrocarbons from CO and H2

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Schwartz, Viviane; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; More, Karren Leslie; Spivey, James J

    2012-01-01

    Co-Cu-ZnO nanowire/tube catalysts were synthesized using pulse electrodeposition technique from a single aqueous electrolyte solution using a template synthesis technique. They were then tested as catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO to alcohols and higher hydrocarbons. Nanowires/tubes were grown inside the pores of membranes using a three-step sequential deposition process. First, a low current of -6.9 mA/cm{sup 2} was applied for 300 ms for Cu deposition, then a high current density of -11.5 mA/cm{sup 2} for t ms (t = 500, 600, 750 ms) was applied for Co deposition, and finally no current was applied for 1200 ms so that the ions near the cathode replenish. The surface had a significantly different composition than the bulk. On the surface, there was more Co, less Cu, and more Zn. The catalyst showed the alcohol (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) selectivity of 20.9 %C at H{sub 2}/CO = 3/1, GHSV = 16,000 scc/h gcat, temperature = 270 C, pressure = 15 bar, and time-on-stream = 65 h.

  16. Novel Pulse Electrodeposited Co Cu ZnO Nanowire/tube Catalysts for C1 C4 Alcohols and C2 C6 (Except C5) Hydrocarbons from CO and H2

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Schwartz, Viviane; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Spivey, James J

    2012-01-01

    Co Cu ZnO nanowire/tube catalysts were synthesized using pulse electrodeposition technique from a single aqueous electrolyte solution using a template synthesis technique. They were then tested as catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO to alcohols and higher hydrocarbons. Nanowires/ tubes were grown inside the pores of membranes using a three-step sequential deposition process. First, a low current of 6.9 mA/cm2 was applied for 300 ms for Cu deposition, then a high current density of 11.5 mA/cm2 for t ms (t = 500, 600, 750 ms) was applied for Co deposition, and finally no current was applied for 1200 ms so that the ions near the cathode replenish. The surface had a significantly different composition than the bulk. On the surface, there was more Co, less Cu, and more Zn. The catalyst showed the alcohol (C1 C4) selectivity of 20.9 %C at H2/CO = 3/1, GHSV = 16 000 scc/h gcat, temperature = 270 C, pressure = 15 bar, and time-onstream = 65 h.

  17. Distribution of selected essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) trace elements among protein fractions from hepatic cytosol of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.).

    PubMed

    Krasnići, Nesrete; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Raspor, Biserka

    2013-04-01

    Association of selected essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) trace elements with cytosolic proteins of different molecular masses was described for the liver of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from weakly contaminated Sutla River in Croatia. The principal aim was to establish basic trace element distributions among protein fractions characteristic for the fish living in the conditions of low metal exposure in the water. The fractionation of chub hepatic cytosols was carried out by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC; Superdex™ 200 10/300 GL column), and measurements were performed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS). Elution profiles of essential elements were mostly characterized by broad peaks covering wide range of molecular masses, as a sign of incorporation of essential elements in various proteins within hepatic cytosol. Exceptions were Cu and Fe, with elution profiles characterized by sharp, narrow peaks indicating their probable association with specific proteins, metallothionein (MT), and ferritin, respectively. The main feature of the elution profile of nonessential metal Cd was also single sharp, narrow peak, coinciding with MT elution time, and indicating almost complete Cd detoxification by MT under the conditions of weak metal exposure in the water (dissolved Cd concentration ≤0.3 μg L(-1)). Contrary, nonessential metal Pb was observed to bind to wide spectrum of proteins, mostly of medium molecular masses (30-100 kDa), after exposure to dissolved Pb concentration of ~1 μg L(-1). The obtained information within this study presents the starting point for identification and characterization of specific metal/metalloid-binding proteins in chub hepatic cytosol, which could be further used as markers of metal/metalloid exposure or effect on fish. PMID:22886752

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Proterozoic metaclastic-sedimentary rocks in Hainan Province of South China: New constraints on the depositional time, source area, and tectonic setting of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Hu, Guocheng; Yu, Liangliang; Wu, Chuanjun; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cai, Jianxin; Shan, Qiang; Hou, Maozhou; Chen, Huayong

    2015-12-01

    The Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, located at Hainan Province of South China, is well known for high-grade hematite-rich Fe ores and also two Precambrian host successions, i.e. the Shilu Group and the overlying Shihuiding Formation. This district has been interpreted as a banded iron formation (BIF) deposit-type, but its depositional time, source area and depositional setting have been in debate due to poor geochronological work. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating aided by cathodoluminescence imaging has been carried out on both the Shilu Group and Shihuiding Formation. Most of the zircon grains from both the successions are subrounded to rounded in morphology and have age spectra between 2000 Ma and 900 Ma with two predominant peaks at ca. 1460-1340 Ma and 1070 Ma, and three subordinate peaks at ca. 1740-1660 Ma, 1220 Ma and 970 Ma. The similar age distribution suggests the same depositional system for both successions. Linked to the geological and paleontological signatures, the Shihuiding Formation is better re-interpreted as the top, i.e. Seventh member of the Shilu Group, rather than a distinct Formation. The youngest statistical zircon age peaks for both successions, i.e. ca. 1070-970 Ma may define the maximum depositional time of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. At least two erosional sources are required for deposition of the studied detrital zircons, with one proximal to provide the least abraded zircons and the other distal or recycled to offer the largely abraded zircons. The predominance of rounded or subrounded zircons over angular zircons probably implies a relatively stable tectonic setting during deposition. Given the Precambrian tectonics of Hainan Island, a retro-arc foreland basin is proposed for the deposition of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs. In comparison with those from the South China and other typical Grenvillian orogens, the detrital zircon age populations reveal that Hainan Island had crystalline basement similar to neither the Yangtze

  19. London penetration depth measurements in Ba (Fe1-xTx)2As2(T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Ryan T.

    2011-01-01

    The London penetration depth has been measured in various doping levels of single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors by utilizing a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) apparatus. All in-plane penetration depth measurements exhibit a power law temperature dependence of the form Δλab(T) = CTn, indicating the existence of low-temperature, normal state quasiparticles all the way down to the lowest measured temperature, which was typically 500 mK. Several different doping concentrations from the Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni) systems have been measured and the doping dependence of the power law exponent, n, is compared to results from measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat. In addition, a novel method has been developed to allow for the measurement of the zero temperature value of the in-plane penetration depth, λab(0), by using TDR frequency shifts. By using this technique, the doping dependence of λab(0) has been measured in the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 series, which has allowed also for the construction of the doping-dependent superfluid phase stiffness, ρs(T) = [λ(0)/λ(T)]2. By studying the effects of disorder on these superconductors using heavy ion irradiation, it has been determined that the observed power law temperature dependence likely arises from pair-breaking impurity scattering contributions, which is consistent with the proposed s±-wave symmetry of the superconducting gap in the dirty scattering limit. This hypothesis is supported by the measurement of an exponential temperature dependence of the penetration depth in the intrinsically clean LiFeAs, indicative of a nodeless superconducting gap.

  20. Fluid sources and metallogenesis in the Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, U.S.A.: Insights from major-element and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trumbull, R.B.; Slack, J.F.; Krienitz, M.-S.; Belkin, H.E.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline is a widespread mineral in the Mesoproterozoic Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, where it occurs in both mineralized zones and wallrocks. We report here major-element and B-isotope compositions of tourmaline from stratabound sulfide deposits and their metasedimentary wallrocks, from mineralized and barren pipes of tourmaline breccia, from late barren quartz veins, and from Mesoproterozoic granite. The tourmalines are aluminous, intermediate in the schorl-dravite series, with Fe/(Fe + Mg) values of 0.30 to 0.85, and 10 to 50% X-site vacancies. Compositional zoning is prominent only in tourmaline from breccias and quartz veins; crystal rims are enriched in Mg, Ca and Ti, and depleted in Fe and Al relative to cores. The chemical composition of tourmaline does not correlate with the presence or absence of mineralization. The ??11B values fall into two groups. Isotopically light tourmaline (-21.7 to-7.6%o) occurs in unmineralized samples from wallrocks, late quartz veins and Mesoproterozoic granite, whereas heavy tourmaline (-6.9 to +3.2%o) is spatially associated with mineralization (stratabound and breccia-hosted), and is also found in barren breccia. At an inferred temperature of 300??C, boron in the hydrothermal fluid associated with mineralization had ??11B values of-3 to +7%o. The high end of this range indicates a marine source of the boron. A likely scenario involves leaching of boron principally from marine carbonate beds or B-bearing evaporites in Mesoproterozoic strata of the region. The ??11B values of the isotopically light tourmaline in the sulfide deposits are attributed to recrystallization during Cretaceous metamorphism, superimposed on a light boron component derived from footwall siliciclastic sediments (e.g., marine clays) during Mesoproterozoic mineralization, and possibly a minor component of light boron from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The metal association of Bi-Be-Y-REE in the Blackbird ores suggests some magmatic input

  1. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  2. An ICP-MS procedure to determine Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in oceanic waters using in-line flow-injection with solid-phase extraction for preconcentration.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jeanette E; Watson, Roslyn J; Butler, Edward C V

    2013-10-15

    An automated procedure including both in-line preconcentration and multi-element determination by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been developed for the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in open-ocean samples. The method relies on flow injection of the sample through a minicolumn of chelating (iminodiacetate) sorbent to preconcentrate the trace metals, while simultaneously eliminating the major cations and anions of seawater. The effectiveness of this step is tested and reliability in results are secured with a rigorous process of quality assurance comprising 36 calibration and reference samples in a run for analysis of 24 oceanic seawaters in a 6-h program. The in-line configuration and procedures presented minimise analyst operations and exposure to contamination. Seawater samples are used for calibration providing a true matrix match. The continuous automated pH measurement registers that chelation occurs within a selected narrow pH range and monitors the consistency of the entire analytical sequence. The eluent (0.8M HNO3) is sufficiently strong to elute the six metals in 39 s at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min, while being compatible for prolonged use with the mass spectrometer. Throughput is one sample of 7 mL every 6 min. Detection limits were Co 3.2 pM, Ni 23 pM, Cu 46 pM, Zn 71 pM, Cd 2.7 pM and Pb 1.5 pM with coefficients of variation ranging from 3.4% to 8.6% (n=14) and linearity of calibration established beyond the observed concentration range of each trace metal in ocean waters. Recoveries were Co 96.7%, Ni 102%, Cu 102%, Zn 98.1%, Cd 92.2% and Pb 97.6%. The method has been used to analyse ~800 samples from three voyages in the Southern Ocean and Tasman Sea. It has the potential to be extended to other trace elements in ocean waters. PMID:24054694

  3. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter

    2015-02-01

    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  4. Effect of cation substitution at the B site on the oxygen semi-permeation flux in La0.5Ba0.5Fe0.7B0.3O3-δ dense perovskite membranes with B = Al, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Ti and Zn (part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, M.; Geffroy, P.-M.; Fouletier, J.; Richet, N.; Del Gallo, P.; Chartier, T.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the effect of cation substitution at the B site on the oxygen semi-permeation performances. Particular attention is given here to identify the impact of cation substitution at the B site on oxygen diffusion and oxygen surface-exchange kinetics in the La0.5Ba0.5Fe0.7B0.3O3-δ perovskite membrane series with B = Al, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Ti and Zn. This study clearly shows that the prediction of the oxygen semi-permeation performances of membrane materials from the nature of cation at the A or B sites in perovskite structure is quite complex. The cation substitution at the B-site has a low impact on the nature of rate-determining step and a significant impact on oxygen semi-permeation performances, contrary to the cation substitution at A-site. Unfortunately, it is not possible to establish a relevant trend about the effect of the nature of cation in the A or B sites in perovskite structure on oxygen diffusion and the oxygen surface-exchange kinetics.

  5. Co-Cu-Si (Cobalt-Copper-Silicon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Cobalt-Copper-Silicon.

  6. Thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of ternary Co-Cu-Si alloys with equiatomic Co/Cu ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Kai; Wei, Bingbo

    2016-04-01

    Different amounts of Si element were introduced into binary Co50Cu50 alloy to investigate the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of ternary Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x (x  =  10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 at%) alloys. Their liquidus and solidus temperatures versus Si content were determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It was found that the addition of Si element depressed both the liquidus and solidus temperatures as compared with binary Co50Cu50 alloy. In particular, the additions of 10 and 20 at% Si remarkably reduced the critical undercooling for liquid demixing to only 3 and 1 K, whereas no liquid phase separation took place in other Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloys. The relationship between the enthalpy of fusion and alloy composition was also established by a polynomial function on the basis of the measured data. The solidification microstructures of the DSC samples were investigated corresponding to the calorimetric signals, based on which the solidification pathway for each Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloy was elucidated. The Si element displays stronger affinity with the Co element than the Cu element. As Si content rises, the pseudobinary eutectic (Co  +  Co2Si), (Co2Si  +  CoSi), (CoSi  +  CoSi2) and (Cu3Si  +  Si) structures were successively formed, and there were no ternary intermetallic compounds in these alloys. The thermal diffusivity of solid ternary Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloys was determined by a laser flash method in a wide temperature range from 300 to 1180 K, which showed a decreasing tendency with the increase of Si content.

  7. Topology of spin meron pairs in coupled Ni/Fe/Co/Cu(001) disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.; Li, J.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Young, A. T.; Li, Q.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The meron is a special topological object that carries only one-half of the topological charge unit. In condensed matter physics, a spin meron corresponds to one-half of a spin skyrmion. As compared to the many fascinating topological properties of skyrmion materials, little is known of the properties of spin merons especially about their formation. It was confirmed only recently that hedgehog merons could exist in pairs with opposite helicities via a spin flux closure. However, it is unclear whether a single hedgehog meron could ever exist by pairing with another type of meron. Using element-resolved magnetic imaging measurements on epitaxial trilayer disks, we show that a spin meron with a full range of helicity, including the hedgehog meron, can be stabilized by pairing with another vortex meron with a fine tuning of the magnetic coupling between the two merons. Furthermore, the meron divergence is fully controlled by the polarity of the vortex meron, independent of the vortex helicity.

  8. Solidification mechanism transition of liquid Co-Cu-Ni ternary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, D. Y.; Wang, H. P.; Dai, F. P.; Langevin, D.; Wei, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report a solidification mechanism transition of liquid ternary Co45Cu45Ni10 alloy when it solidifies at a critical undercooling of about 344 K. When undercooling at Δ T<344 K, the solidification process is characterized by primary S (Co) dendritic growth and a subsequent peritectic transition. The dendritic growth velocity of S (Co) dendrite increases with the rise of undercooling. However, once Δ T>344 K, the solidification velocity decreases with the increase of undercooling. In this case, liquid/liquid phase separation takes place prior to solidification. The minor L2 (Cu) droplets hinder the motion of the solidification front, and a monotectic transition may occur in the major L1 phase. These facts caused by metastable phase separation are responsible for the slow growth at high undercoolings.

  9. Simultaneous in-situ synthesis and characterization of Co@Cu core-shell nanoparticle arrays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2014-12-23

    Core-shell nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their unique and tunable properties relative to bulk structures of the same materials, making core-shell nanoparticles candidates for a variety of applications with multiple functionalities.[1,2] Intriguing magnetic behavior can be tailored by variation of size, interface, crystal orientation, and composition, and core-shell nanostructures with noble-metal shells yield novel optical responses[3] and enhanced electrocatalytic activity.[4

  10. Materials Data on CoCuO2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on CoCu2O3 (SG:59) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-Co(Cu)-Al-B amorphous alloys prepared by nonequilibrium techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Eckert, J.; Roth, S.; Löser, W.; Ram, S.; Schultz, L.

    2002-03-01

    The amorphous alloys Nd40Fe40Co5Al8B7, Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8, and Nd57Fe20Cu5Al10B8 were prepared by copper mold casting, melt spinning, and mechanical alloying. Despite their similar x-ray diffraction patterns, samples display different magnetic and thermal behavior correlated with the method of preparation. The fully amorphous melt-spun ribbons exhibit relatively soft magnetic properties with coercivities ≈40 kA/m at room temperature and a Curie temperature (TC)≈474 K. Apparently only the mold-cast cylinders of 3 mm diameter show hard magnetic behavior with a coercivity in the range of 258-270 kA/m (depending on composition) and have approximately the same TC as that of the melt-spun ribbons. An additional magnetic transition at 585 K due to the presence of Nd2Fe14B phase in the case of Nd40Fe40Co5Al8B7 cast rod has been observed. Heat treatment above crystallization temperature in as-cast Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8 and Nd57Fe20Cu5Al10B8 samples destroys the hard magnetic properties. In contrast, mechanically alloyed amorphous samples are soft magnetic with maximum coercivity up to 11 kA/m but show an entirely different TC≈680-740 K, which is rather characteristic of an Fe solid solution. The magnetic properties are discussed in terms of different local atomic environment and cluster sizes in amorphous samples prepared by different methods.

  13. Fluoride-rich, hydrofluorothermal routes to functional transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) fluorophosphates.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jennifer A; Williams, Edward R; Weller, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluorothermal methods are shown to offer a facile route to a very large family of mid-late first row, transition metal fluorophosphates with 50 new compounds identified to date for manganese(III), iron(III), cobalt(II), and copper(II). Reactions of a transition metal fluoride with a phosphate source in a very low-water, high-fluoride content system and in the presence of framework charge balancing metal cations or template molecular cations, lead to materials with structures formed from linked M(O,F)(n) and P(O,F)(n) polyhedra. The structures of these materials, which contain a variety of 1, 2, and 3-dimensional motifs with a level of framework termination dependent upon their fluoride content, show numerous useful characteristics for functionality and applications. The new and unusual features of these fluorophosphate materials include interlayer spaces or channels lined with fluoride ions, metal polyhedra, M(O,F)(n), linked through vertex, edge, or face-sharing, and μ(2), μ(3), and μ(4) bridging fluoride ions. Preliminary characterization of the properties of some of these metal fluorophosphates is reported, including reductive lithium ion insertion, of interest for Li-ion battery positive electrodes, ion exchange reactions, the formation of nanoporous material derivatives through template destruction, and magnetic susceptibility behaviors. PMID:21553852

  14. Simultaneous in-situ synthesis and characterization of Co@Cu core-shell nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2014-12-23

    Core-shell nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their unique and tunable properties relative to bulk structures of the same materials, making core-shell nanoparticles candidates for a variety of applications with multiple functionalities.[1,2] Intriguing magnetic behavior can be tailored by variation of size, interface, crystal orientation, and composition, and core-shell nanostructures with noble-metal shells yield novel optical responses[3] and enhanced electrocatalytic activity.[4]

  15. Factors that Influence the Price of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rare Earth Elements, and Zn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.; Bray, E. Lee; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Fenton, Michael D.; Guberman, David E.; Hedrick, James B.; Jorgenson, John D.; Kuck, Peter H.; Shedd, Kim B.; Tolcin, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a presentation delivered at The 12th International Battery Materials Recycling Seminar, March 17-20, 2008, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., about the factors that influence prices for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, rare earth elements, and zinc. These are a diverse group of metals that are of interest to the battery recycling industry. Because the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) closely monitors, yet neither buys nor sells, metal commodities, it is an unbiased source of metal price information and analysis. The authors used information about these and other metals collected and published by the USGS (U.S. production, trade, stocks, and prices and world production) and internationally (consumption and stocks by country) from industry organizations, because metal markets are influenced by activities and events over the entire globe. Long-term prices in this report, represented by unit values, were adjusted to 1998 constant dollars to remove the effects of inflation. A previous USGS study in this subject area was 'Economic Drivers of Mineral Supply' by Lorie A. Wagner, Daniel E. Sullivan, and John L. Sznopek (USGS Open File Report 02-335). By seeking a common cause for common behavior of prices among the various metal commodities, the authors found that major factors that influence prices of metal commodities were international events such as wars and recessions, and national events such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and economic growth in China, which started its open door policy in the 1970s but did not have significant market impact until the 1990s. Metal commodity prices also responded to commodity-specific events such as tariff or usage changes or mine strikes. It is shown that the prices of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc are at historic highs, that world stocks are at (or near) historic lows, and that China's consumption of these metals had increased substantially, making it the world's leading consumer of these metals.

  16. Low-dimensional multiplexing: the magneto-optical Kerr effect in an individual FeCoCu nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their selective and fascinating effects, metallic nanoparticles have become a very significant topic for science. A modification in morphology and structure of low-dimensional materials can result in extraordinary ultrafast physical phenomena. New findings related to electronic, optical and magnetic processes have emerged from surface plasmon resonance excitations in nanoparticles. Moreover, multi-functional systems can be obtained from the integration of different elements in a nanostructured configuration. Recently, Palmero et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 461001) have reported magneto-optical Kerr effect explorations in individual FeCuCo nanowires; the influence of tailored morphologies exhibited by particular samples was analyzed. An important magnetization reversal action was revealed and it was concluded that the demagnetization may be responsible for vortex domain wall propagation. The report can provide a solid base for future research and immediate applications in modern spintronics or magnetic data storage can be contemplated.

  17. Materials Data on Sr2GdCoCu2O7 (SG:46) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on CoCuH18N6Cl5 (SG:228) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. A Facile Synthesis of MPd (M=Co, Cu) Nanoparticles and Their Catalysis for Formic Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Vismadeb; Chi, Miaofang; Mankin, Max; Liu, Yi; Metin, Onder; Sun, Daohua; More, Karren Leslie; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse CoPd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and studied for catalytic formic acid (HCOOH) oxidation (FAO). The NPs were prepared by coreduction of Co(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) and PdBr2 at 260 C in oleylamine and trioctylphosphine, and their sizes (5-12 nm) and compositions (Co10Pd90 to Co60Pd40) were controlled by heating ramp rate, metal salt concentration, or metal molar ratios. The 8 nm CoPd NPs were activated for HCOOH oxidation by a simple ethanol wash. In 0.1 M HClO4 and 2 M HCOOH solution, their catalytic activities followed the trend of Co50Pd50 > Co60Pd40 > Co10Pd90 > Pd. The Co50Pd50 NPs had an oxidation peak at 0.4 V with a peak current density of 774 A/gPd. As a comparison, commercial Pd catalysts showed an oxidation peak at 0.75 V with peak current density of only 254 A/gPd. The synthesis procedure could also be extended to prepare CuPd NPs when Co(acac)2 was replaced by Cu(ac)2 (ac = acetate) in an otherwise identical condition. The CuPd NPs were less active catalysts than CoPd or even Pd for FAO in HClO4 solution. The synthesis provides a general approach to Pd-based bimetallic NPs and will enable further investigation of Pd-based alloy NPs for electro-oxidation and other catalytic reactions.

  20. Biotransfer, bioaccumulation and effects of herbivore dietary Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn on growth and development of the insect predator Podisus maculiventris (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased metal availability in the environment can detrimentally impact the growth and development of organisms at all trophic levels of a food web, in part because metals can be biotransferred or bioaccumulated between trophic levels. We evaluated the survival, growth, and development of a general...

  1. XAFS study on the temperature-dependent occupation sites of Co codopants in (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengchun; Zhang, Shibao; Pan, Zhiyun; Yan, Wensheng; Liu, Qinghua; Yao, Tao; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Elemental codoping has been an effective way to regulate the structural and electronic properties of semiconductors. By using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, we investigate the local structure and spatial occupations of Co dopants in Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition method. It is revealed that the Co dopants are substantially incorporated into ZnO matrix when the deposition temperature is increased up to 650 °C, although the preferential orientation of ZnO film is changed. The results provide experimental guidance in the synthesis of the co-doped ZnO based dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Effects of ZnO Content on Piezoelectric, Dielectric, and Magnetic Properties of Sr-Modified PZT-PMW-PNN/(Ni-Co-Cu) ME Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Xiaolian; Wang, Juanjuan; Kang, Chao; Dong, Mingyuan; Yang, Zupei

    2015-10-01

    SrCO3/ZnO-codoped 0.9Pb1- y Sr y [(Zr0.23Ti0.36)-(Mg1/2W1/2)-(Ni1/3Nb2/3)]O3-0.10 Ni0.8Co0.1Cu0.1Fe2O4 + xZnO ceramics have been prepared via a solid-state reaction method. The effects of the SrCO3 and ZnO contents on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The SrCO3 and ZnO contents had a significant effect on the electrical properties of the specimens. The composite with 0.2 mol.% SrCO3 and 0.2 wt.% ZnO content sintered at 1170°C exhibited good performance with d 33 = 332 pC/N, ɛ r = 2433 (1 kHz), ɛ m = 23,787 (1 kHz), T c = 196°C, and d E/d H = 424 μV/cm Oe. The results indicate that this system has potential as a magnetoelectric material for multifunctional applications.

  3. Ferromagnetic mechanism of (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films with different Co concentrations investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huan; Du, Xiaosong; Xu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt/copper-codoped ZnO nanoparticles, synthesized with different Co concentrations by a sol-gel method using ethanol as solvent, were studied via XPS. Hexagonal wurtzite structure was found in all samples, with no evidence of any secondary phase. The average crystallite size of the samples was around 20-30 nm, altered significantly with increasing Co concentration. Copper ions and Cobalt ions are indeed substituted into the ZnO lattice at the Zn2+ site, as shown by XRD and XPS. Further studies showed dramatic changes of Cu valence from +2 to +1 as the Co concentration level exceeds 1%, accompanied by a blue-shift of the optical bandgap from 3.01 to 3.13 eV. Ferromagnetism of the Co-doped Zn0.95Cu0.05O thin films was observed and found to be tunable - a phenomenon associated with the valence state of the Cu ions and the existence of some defects like oxygen vacancies in the films.

  4. Influence of alloying effect on X-ray fluorescence parameters of Co and Cu in CoCuAg alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylikci, Nuray Kup; Tiraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydin, Gökhan; Cengiz, Erhan; Aylikci, Volkan; Bakkaloğlu, Ömer Faruk

    2009-06-01

    In this study, K β/K α X-ray intensity ratios, σ, σ production cross-sections and ωK fluorescence yields of Co and Cu and L β/L α X-ray intensity ratios, σ, σ production cross-sections and ϖ average fluorescence yields of Ag in pure metals and in different alloy compositions were measured. In this study, alloying effects on the σ production cross-sections of Co and Cu were investigated and changes interpreted according to the rearrangement of valance state electrons and the charge transfer process between the 3d elements (Co and Cu) and Ag.

  5. Half-lives and branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, P.; Estrade, A.; Montes, F.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Pfeiffer, B.; Clement, R. R. C.; Mueller, W. F.; Morton, A. C.; Pereira, J.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Liddick, S. N.; Mantica, P. F.

    2010-08-15

    The {beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission (P{sub n} values) for {sup 74}Co (18{+-}15%) and {sup 75-77}Ni (10{+-}2.8%, 14{+-}3.6%, and 30{+-}24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the P{sub n} values of {sup 77-79}Cu, {sup 79,81}Zn, and {sup 82}Ga. For {sup 77-79}Cu and for {sup 81}Zn we obtain significantly larger P{sub n} values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of {sup 75}Co (30{+-}11 ms) and {sup 80}Cu (170{sub -50}{sup +110} ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity of CdxZn1-xS nanocrystals by surface loading MS (M = Ni, Co, Cu) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiazang; Li, Na; Zheng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jianghong; Zhu, Zhenping

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of metal sulfides as co-catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light irradiation, we have loaded small amounts of transition-metal sulfides (MS), such as NiS, CoS and CuS, onto the surface of CdxZn1-xS solid solution. It can be found that the rate of H2 evolution over the MS/Cd0.4Zn0.6S was 5 times higher than that of the pure Cd0.4Zn0.6S, and is comparable to the Cd0.4Zn0.6S modified with 1 wt% platinum (Pt) co-catalysts. The MS/Cd0.4Zn0.6S photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It can be speculated that the MS provided active sites for H2 production and caused the migration of excited electrons from Cd0.4Zn0.6S toward MS, leading to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  7. Half-lives and branchings for β-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, P.; Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Clement, R. R. C.; Estrade, A.; Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Liddick, S. N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Mantica, P. F.; Möller, P.; Mueller, W. F.; Montes, F.; Morton, A. C.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Pereira, J.; Pfeiffer, B.; Reeder, P.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Tomlin, B. E.; Walters, W. B.; Wöhr, A.

    2010-08-01

    The β decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL β-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for β-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for Co74 (18±15%) and Ni75-77 (10±2.8%, 14±3.6%, and 30±24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of Cu77-79, Zn79,81, and Ga82. For Cu77-79 and for Zn81 we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of Co75 (30±11 ms) and Cu80 (170-50+110 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

  8. A spectroscopic study of the reaction of Cu atoms with CO in a rotating cryostat: Evidence for the formation of CuCO, Cu(CO) sub 3 , and Cu sub 2 (CO) sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Chenier, J.H.B.; Hampson, C.A.; Howard, J.A.; Mile, B. )

    1989-01-12

    Reaction of {sup 63}Cu atoms with CO has been studied in inert hydrocarbon matrices in a rotating cryostat at 77 K at EPR, FTIR, and UV/visible spectroscopy. CuCO and Cu(CO){sub 3} have been identified by EPR spectroscopy. CuCO has the magnetic parameters a{sub 63} = 3961 MHz, a{sub 13} = 191 MHz, and g = 1.9966 and is a linear molecule with most of the unpaired spin located in an sp-hybridized orbital on Cu. It is unstable and disappears rapidly above 77 K. Cu(CO){sub 3} is a planar trigonal {pi} radical with a {sup 2}A{sub 2}{prime}{prime} electronic ground state and a{sub 17} = 11.2 MHz which indicates significant unpaired spin population on the ligands. It has three infrared bands at 1998, 1988, and 1978 cm{sup {minus}1} which are assigned to the CO stretching mode of a D{sub 3h} molecule in three different trapping sites and is significantly more stable than CuCO. There are no bands in the FTIR spectra from Cu(CO){sub 2}. Cu{sub 2}(CO){sub 6} is formed in significant yields in adamantane and cyclohexane at 77 K and has a major CO stretching mode at 2035 cm{sup {minus}1}. Optical spectra of Cu(CO){sub 3} and Cu{sub 2}(CO){sub 6} in adamantane have {sup 2}A{sub 1}{prime} {l arrow} {sup 2}A{sub 2}{prime}{prime} and {sigma}* {l arrow} {sigma} electronic transitions at 565 and 405 nm, respectively.

  9. Theoretical electron scattering amplitudes and spin polarizations. Electron energies 100 to 1500 eV Part II. Be, N, O, Al, Cl, V, Co, Cu, As, Nb, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, and Ta targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildhaber, M. L.; Wikle, C. K.; Anderson, C. J.; Franz, K. J.; Moran, E. H.; Dey, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have brought substantive changes in land use and climate across the earth, prompting a need to think of population and community ecology not as a static entity, but as a dynamic process. Increasingly there is evidence of ecological changes due to climate change. Although much of this evidence comes from ground-truth observations of biogeographic data, there is increasing reliance on models that relate climate variables to biological systems. Such models can then be used to explore potential changes to population and community level ecological systems in response to climate scenarios as obtained from global climate models (GCMs). A key issue associated with modeling ecosystem response to climate is GCM downscaling to regional and local ecological/biological response models that can be used in vulnerability and risk assessments of the potential effects of climate change. The need is for an explicit means for scaling results up or down multiple hierarchical levels and an effective assessment of the level of uncertainty surrounding current knowledge, data, and data collection methods with these goals identified as in need of acceleration in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program FY2009 Implementation Priorities. In the end, such work should provide the information needed to develop adaptation and mitigation methodologies to minimize the effects of directional and nonlinear climate change on the Nation's land, water, ecosystems, and biological populations. We are working to develop an approach that includes multi-scale and hierarchical Bayesian modeling of Missouri River sturgeon population dynamics. Statistical linkages are defined to quantify implications of climate on fish populations of the Missouri River ecosystem. This approach is a hybrid between physical (deterministic) downscaling and statistical downscaling, recognizing that there is uncertainty in both. The model must include linkages between climate and habitat, and between habitat and population. A key advantage of the hierarchical approach used in this study is that it incorporates various sources of observations and includes established scientific knowledge, and associated uncertainties. The goal is to evaluate the potential distributional changes in an ecological system, given distributional changes implied by a series of linked climate and system models under various emissions/use scenarios. The predictive modeling system being developed will be a powerful tool for evaluating management options for coping with global change consequences and assessing uncertainty of those evaluations. Specifically for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), we are already able to assess potential effects of any climate scenario on growth and population size distribution. Future models will incorporate survival and reproduction. Ultimately, these models provide guidance for successful recovery and conservation of the pallid sturgeon. Here we present a basic outline of the approach we are developing and a simple pallid sturgeon example to demonstrate how multiple scales and parameter uncertainty are incorporated.

  10. Structural/magnetic phase transitions and superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xTMx)2As2 (TM=Co, Ni, Cu, Co/Cu, Rh and Pd) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Ni

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1911, superconductivity has been one of the most actively studied fields in condensed matter physics and has attracted immense experimental and theoretical effort. At this point in time, with more and more superconductors discovered in elements, alloys, intermetallic compounds and oxides, it is becoming clear that superconductivity is actually not so rare in nature. Almost half of the elements in the periodic table and hundreds of compounds have been found to be superconducting. Fig. 1.1 shows the milestones in discovering higher Tc superconductors. Among the elemental superconductors, Niobium has the highest superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of 9.5 K. This record held for more than ten years, until the discovery of niobium nitride which superconducts below 16 K. It took another thirty years for Tc to increase from 16 K in niobium nitride to 23 K in niobium germanium.

  11. Self-encapsulation of [MII(phen)2(H2O)2]2+ (M=Co, Zn) in one-dimensional nanochannels of [MII(H2O)6(BTC)2]4- (M=Co, Cu, Mn): a high HQ/CAT ratio catalyst for hydroxylation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jianhong; Kong, Lingtao; Huang, Zixiang; Liu, Jinhuai

    2008-06-01

    Four novel three-dimensional (3D) microporous supramolecular compounds containing nanosized channels, namely, [Co(phen)2(H2O)2]2[Co(H2O)6].2BTC.21.5H2O (1), [Co(phen)2(H2O)2]2[Cu(H2O)6].2BTC.21.5H2O (2), [Co(phen)2(H2O)2]2[Mn(H2O)6].2BTC.18H2O (3), and [Zn(phen)2(H2O)2]2[Mn(H2O)6].2BTC.22.5H2O (4), were synthesized from 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and the transition-metal salt(s) by self-assembly. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis showed that the resulting 3D microporous supramolecular frameworks consist of a two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen-bonded host framework of [MII(H2O)6(BTC)2]4- (M=Co for 1, Cu for 2, Mn for 3, 4) with rectangular-shaped cavities containing [MII(phen)2(H2O)2]2+ (M=Co for 1-3, Zn for 4) guests. The guest complex is encapsulated in the 2D hydrogen-bonded host framework by hydrogen bonding and aromatic pi-pi stacking interactions, forming the 3D hydrogen-bonded framework. The catalytic activities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 were studied using hydroxylation of phenols with 30% aqueous H2O2 as a test reaction. The compounds displayed a good phenol conversion ratio and excellent channel selectivity in the hydroxylation reaction, with a maximum hydroquinone (HQ)/catechol (CAT) ratio of 3.9. PMID:18439004

  12. Hydrogen Dissociation, Spillover, and Desorption from Cu-Supported Co Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Emily A; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Murphy, Colin J; Liriano, Melissa L; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Co-Cu nanoparticles have recently been explored for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as a way to combine the long chain selectivity of Co with Cu's activity for alcohol formation in order to synthesize oxygenated transportation fuels. Depending on particle size, hydrogen dissociation can be a rate-determining step in cobalt-catalyzed FTS. To understand the fundamentals of uptake and release of hydrogen from the Co/Cu bimetallic system, we prepared well-defined Co nanoparticles on Cu(111). We demonstrate that hydrogen spills over from dissociation sites on the Co nanoparticles to the Cu(111) surface via the Co-Cu interface and that desorption of H occurs at a temperature that is lower than from Co or Cu alone, which we attribute to the Co-Cu interface sites. From this data, we have constructed an energy landscape for the facile dissociation, spillover, and desorption of hydrogen on the Co-Cu bimetallic system. PMID:26278448

  13. Possible Impactor Remnants on Shatter Cone Surfaces from the Steinheim Basin, SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, E.; Schmieder, M.

    2015-07-01

    Surfaces of Steinheim shatter cones are covered by mineral coatings that consist of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Pt, and Au mineral assemblages. A plausible explanation is that they represent impactor matter remobilized in an impact-induced hydrothermal system.

  14. Influence of atomic tip structure on the intensity of inelastic tunneling spectroscopy data analyzed by combined scanning tunneling spectroscopy, force microscopy, and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Norio; Gustafsson, Alexander; Peronio, Angelo; Paulsson, Magnus; Arai, Toyoko; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2016-04-01

    Achieving a high intensity in inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is important for precise measurements. The intensity of the IETS signal can vary by up to a factor of 3 for various tips without an apparent reason accessible by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) alone. Here, we show that combining STM and IETS with atomic force microscopy enables carbon monoxide front-atom identification, revealing that high IETS intensities for CO/Cu(111) are obtained for single-atom tips, while the intensity drops sharply for multiatom tips. Adsorption of the CO molecule on a Cu adatom [CO/Cu/Cu(111)] such that the molecule is elevated over the substrate strongly diminishes the tip dependence of IETS intensity, showing that an elevated position channels most of the tunneling current through the CO molecule even for multiatom tips, while a large fraction of the tunneling current bypasses the CO molecule in the case of CO/Cu(111).

  15. Calculating formation range of binary amorphous alloys fabricated by electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangwei; Liao, Shuzhi; Shu, Xiaolin; Xie, Haowen

    2016-06-01

    A lot of amorphous alloy deposits in the binary (Ni, Co, Cu)-(P, B) alloy systems fabricated by electroless plating (EP) have been reported up to date. But no one reported their theoretical modeling of the amorphous formation and calculated their concentration range of amorphous formation (RAF). Using Miedema model and subregular model scheme, the RAFs for the six EP (Ni, Co, Cu)-(P, B) alloys and three Ni-Cu, Ni-Co and Co-Cu alloys have been calculated systematically for the first time. The calculated results are in agreement with experimental observations. Experiments and calculations for the RAFs in the latter three alloy systems reveal that not any RAF formed except crystalline states. The huge difference between the six metal-metalloid alloys and three metal-metal alloys in RAF has been discussed in detail in the paper.

  16. Co and Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films—A magnetically soft nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Venkataraman, V.; Henne, B.; Ollefs, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Co/Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films has been grown on sapphire substrates to investigate the possibilities of tailoring the magnetic properties in functional ZnO-Co/Cu nano-composites. The growth was performed using reactive magnetron sputtering varying the oxygen partial pressure to tune the incorporation of the dopants and the resulting valence state. At high oxygen pressures, Co2+ is formed and the resulting magnetic properties are very similar to phase pure paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO samples. However, the formation of a secondary CuO phase reduces the overall structural quality of the layers and virtually no substitutional incorporation of Cu2+ in ZnO could be evidenced. At low oxygen pressures, a significant fraction of metallic Co and Cu forming nanometer-sized superparamagnetic precipitates of a Co/Cu alloy can be evidenced which are embedded in a ZnO host matrix.

  17. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  18. Protective Effects of Estradiol on Ethanol-induced Bone Loss Involves Inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Osteoblasts and Downstream Activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL Signaling Cascade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone loss occurs following chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption in males and cycling females in part as a result of increased bone resorption. We have demonstrated in vivo that estradiol treatment can reverse this effect. Using osteoclast precursors from bone marrow and osteoblast/pre-osteoclast co-cu...

  19. Specificity of aequorin luminescence to calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimomura, O.; Johnson, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    The presence of Pb(++), Co(++), Cu(++), and Cd(++), each of which possesses a certain luminescence-triggering activity of aequorin, potentially interferes with the specificity of the aequorin luminescence response to Ca(++). Interference by the above cations can be eliminated, without influencing the sensitivity of the luminescence of aequorin to Ca(++), by adding 1 mM of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate.

  20. Tailoring magnetic properties in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires: The role of Cu additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to report the role of Cu additive in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires (NWs) with diameters from 30 to 75 nm, embedded in porous aluminum oxide templates. This features the role of Cu additive in composition and crystalline characteristics as well as in the magnetic properties of Co NWs. Increasing the duration of off-time between pulses during the electrodeposition of Co NWs made it possible to increase the amount of Cu content, so that Co-rich CoCu NWs were obtained. The parallel coercivity and squareness values increased up to 1500 Oe and 0.8 for 30 nm diameter Co94Cu6 NWs, starting from 500 Oe and 0.3 for pure Co NWs. On the other hand, although there was a substantial difference between the crystalline characteristics of 75 nm diameter pure Co and CoCu NWs, no considerable change in their magnetic properties was observed using hysteresis loop measurements. In this respect, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis revealed strong inter-wire magnetostatic interactions for the CoCu NWs. Moreover, we studied the effect of thermal annealing, which resulted in an increase in the coercivity of CoCu NWs with different diameters up to 15%. As a result, the addition of small amount of Cu provides an alternative approach to tailoring the magnetic properties of Co NWs.

  1. Influence of metal-containing carbon fibers on the properties of carbon-filled plastics based on aromatic polyamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burya, A. I.; Safonova, A. M.; Rula, I. V.

    2012-07-01

    The influence of metal-containing carbon fibers on the thermal properties of carbon-filled phenylone-based plastics has been investigated. It has been shown that carbometallic fibers containing in their composition 20- 30 mass % of a finely dispersed metal (Co, Cu) are promising fillers of phenylone C-2 for making carbonfilled plastics working in frictional units of various machines and mechanisms.

  2. Hreels Studies of Surface Phonons in Ultrathin Epitaxial Films, NICKEL/COPPER(001) and COBALT/COPPER(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Sung

    High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) is applied to observe surface phonons in ultrathin epitaxial overlayers on the Cu(001) substrate surfaces, Ni/Cu(001) and Co/Co(001), along the high symmetry directions (from |Gamma to |{X} and from |Gamma to |{ M}). From analysis of the phonon dispersion curves and scattering cross sections, information about structure and elastic properties of the overlayers is obtained. As preliminary work, the substrate surface, Cu(001), is studied extensively to clarify the still unsettled characterization of its surface by finding salient surface sensitive modes, the gap mode(S_6) and the S _2 mode, and applying a first principles calculation analysis for the first time. Finally, the bonding properties of the overlayer surfaces are studied by observing adsorbate--substrate vibrations in ordered oxygen adlayers, C(2 x 2) O/Co/Cu, P(2 x 2) O/Co/Cu(001) and C(2 x 2) O/Ni/Cu(001).

  3. Evidence of the nature of core-level photoemission satellites using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-04-01

    The authors present a unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level photoemission satellites by examining the satellite diffraction pattern in the Angle Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) mode. They show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. They present ARPEFS data for the carbon 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2xl)CO/Ni(110), nitrogen 1s from c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100), cobalt 1s from p(1x1)Co/Cu(100), and nickel 3p from clean nickel (111). The satellite peaks and tails of the Doniach-Sunjic line shapes in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature.

  4. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop followed by ICP-MS for the simultaneous determination of heavy metals in wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Zhu, Hui; Al-Hamadani, Sulala M. Z. F.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn. The influences of analytical parameters, including pH, extraction solvent volume, disperser solvent volume, concentration of chelating agent on the quantitative recoveries of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn were investigated. The effect of the interfering ions on the analytes recovery was also investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.97-2.18 ng L-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.62-4.51% (n = 7, C = 20 ng L-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ultra trace metals in wastewater samples.

  5. Effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the formation of SmCo{sub 5}(0001) epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-05-15

    SmCo{sub 5}(0001) epitaxial thin films were prepared on Cu(111) underlayers heteroepitaxially grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) single-crystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the crystallographic properties of SmCo{sub 5}(0001) epitaxial films were investigated. The Cu atoms of underlayer diffuse into the SmCo{sub 5} film and substitute the Co sites in SmCo{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Co,Cu){sub 5}. The ordered phase formation is enhanced with increasing the substrate temperature and with increasing the Cu underlayer thickness. The Cu atom diffusion into the SmCo{sub 5} film is assisting the formation of Sm(Co,Cu){sub 5} ordered phase.

  6. Detecting Rashba fields at the interface between Co and Si oxide by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhagen, T. G. A.; Leermakers, I.; van Ruitenbeek, J. M.; Aarts, J.

    2015-05-01

    We report ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments on thin magnetic Co layers either sandwiched symmetrically between Cu and Pt, or sandwiched asymmetrically between a Cu or Pt layer on one side and a SiOx substrate on the other. In the symmetric samples, we find well-known behavior, namely, the FMR linewidth Δ Hp p is significantly larger for the case of Pt than for the case of Cu. This is due to the larger spin scattering in the Pt layer. However, for the asymmetric Co/Cu bilayers, the linewidth is much larger than for the symmetric Cu/Co/Cu trilayers and not much different from the linewidth of Co/Pt bilayers. We argue this to be due to the Rashba effect at the SiOx/Co interface, which gives rise to effective magnetic fields interacting with the electron spins in the Co layer and which can be measured without reverting to transport measurements.

  7. Mesoscopic thin-film magnetic rings (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. A.; Castaño, F. J.; Morecroft, D.; Jung, W.; Smith, Henry I.; Moore, T. A.; Hayward, T. J.; Bland, J. A. C.; Bromwich, T. J.; Petford-Long, A. K.

    2006-04-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetoresistance of thin-film circular and elliptical magnetic rings made from Co, NiFe, NiFe/FeMn, and Co/Cu/NiFe have been explored. Single-layer rings show stable onion and vortex states and metastable twisted states containing a 360° wall. For NiFe rings, four-point magnetotransport results can be explained quantitatively by anisotropic magnetoresistance. NiFe/FeMn exchange-biased rings show offset hysteresis loops, and the easy axis is determined by a combination of the ring ellipticity and the exchange coupling. In Co/Cu/NiFe multilayer rings the behavior is dominated by the magnetostatic coupling between the domain walls in the Co and NiFe. In the major loop the giant magnetoresistance varies between three distinct levels corresponding to combinations of onion and vortex states in the NiFe and Co layers.

  8. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce-MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18O2 isotopic exchange and O2-H2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  9. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of CoχCuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials. PMID:26568442

  10. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of CoχCuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials.

  11. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, S. V. Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-15

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  12. Differential tolerance of Sulfolobus strains to transition metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.W.; Sass, Risanico S.; Risatti, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strains 98-3 and B12, and S. solfataricus ATCC 35091 were evaluated for tolerance to Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Mg. The tolerance of strains 98-3 and ATCC 35091 to these metals was Mg > Zn > Cd > Cu ??? Co > Ni. For B12, however, the order of tolerance was Mg > Cd > Zn = Co > Ni > Cu. Tolerance to these metals is also presented as a potentially useful taxonomic indicator.

  13. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  14. Second Harmonic Detection of Spin-Dependent Transport in Magnetic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Ming; Granville, S.; Yu, Da-Peng; J-ph., Ansermet

    2010-02-01

    Detection of the second harmonic response of magnetic nanostructures to an ac current is shown to be a very sensitive probe of the magnetization reversal process. A temperature oscillation is obtained by Joule heating instead of using a laser as the heat source, as in thermo-galvanic voltage measurements (TGV). Joule heating is used to produce a large local temperature gradient in asymmetric Co/Cu/Co spin valves. Evidence is found for an effect of a heat current on magnetization.

  15. Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.

  16. A mineralized breccia pipe in Monhawk Canyon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Van Gosen, B.S.; Balcer, R.A.; Scott, J.H.; Mascarenas, J.F.; Bedinger, G.M.; Burmaster, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book reports on hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona. High-grade U ore, and potentially economic concentrations of Ag, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in some pipes, has stimulated mining activity there. More than 900 confirmed and suspected breccia pipes have been mapped by this study. One pipe was chosen for exploration drilling in 1984 because it exhibited all preestablished exploration criteria. Five rotary and core holes were drilled into this pipe; they contained mineralized breccia.

  17. Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Li, B. C.; Tracy, Brian D.; Zhang, J.; Kim, D. R.; Smith, David J.; Chen, T. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

  18. Physicochemical properties and catalytic activity of metal tetraphenyl porphins in the oxidation of alkylaromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobotaeva, N. S.; Skorokhodova, T. S.; Kokova, D. A.

    2013-06-01

    We consider the effect of complexing metal in a tetraphenylporphin molecule on its catalytic activity in oxidizing alkylaromatic hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen. The catalytic activity of metal porphyrins (Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and In TPP) is found to depend on their oxidation potentials and the distribution of electron density in the molecule. The electron-donating compound imidazole is shown to affect the oxidation rate.

  19. Thermo-sensitive spin valve based on layered artificial ferrimagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalov, A. V.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the temperature and magnetic field dependences of magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of Gd-Co/Co/Cu/Co spin valves were comparatively analyzed. It was observed that the Gd-Co/Co bilayer structure exhibited macroscopic ferrimagnetic behavior. It was shown that the temperature dependence of magnetization of Gd-Co/Co layered artificial ferrimagnet could be the basis for the creation of a thermo-sensitive spin valve.

  20. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  1. Magnetoresistance studies of multilayers including hard magnetic CoSm layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mibu, K.; Nagahama, T.; Shinjo, T.

    1996-04-01

    Cobalt-samarium alloy films were prepared by alternate deposition of Co and Sm in the presence of an external magnetic field to obtain thin magnetic layers with large in-plane coercive fields. These anisotropic CoSm layers were used as hard magnetic layers of noncoupled-type magnetoresistance multilayers or as pinning layers of spin-valve structures. Large magnetoresistance changes up to 4.6% were attained in the CoSm/Co/Cu/NiFe system.

  2. In situ characterization of Cu-Co oxides for catalytic application.

    PubMed

    Tian, Z Y; Vieker, H; Kouotou, P Mountapmbeme; Beyer, A

    2015-01-01

    In situ emission and absorption FTIR methods were employed to characterize the spatially resolved structure of binary Co-Cu oxides for low-temperature oxidation of CO and propene. Co-Cu oxide catalysts were controllably synthesized by pulsed-spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition. XRD, FTIR, XPS, UV-vis and helium ion microscopy (HIM) were employed to characterize the as-prepared thin films in terms of structure, composition, optical and thermal properties as well as morphology. In situ emission FTIR spectroscopy indicates that Co3O4, CuCo2O4 and CuO are thermally stable at 650, 655 and 450 °C, respectively. The catalytic tests with absorption FTIR display that the involvement of Co-Cu oxides can initiate CO and C3H6 oxidation at lower temperatures. The results indicate that in situ emission and absorption FTIR are useful techniques to explore the thermal properties and catalytic performance of functional materials, allowing many potential applications in tailoring their temporally and spatially resolved structure-property relationships. PMID:25619852

  3. Synthesis and characterization of reduced heme and heme/copper carbonmonoxy species.

    PubMed

    Kretzer, Ryan M; Ghiladi, Reza A; Lebeau, Estelle L; Liang, Hong-Chang; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2003-05-01

    Carbon monoxide readily binds to heme and copper proteins, acting as a competitive inhibitor of dioxygen. As such, CO serves as a probe of protein metal active sites. In our ongoing efforts to mimic the active site of cytochrome c oxidase, reactivity toward carbon monoxide offers a unique opportunity to gain insight into the binding and spectroscopic characteristics of synthetic model compounds. In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of CO-adducts of ((5/6)L)Fe(II), [((5/6)L)Fe(II)...Cu(I)](B(C(6)F(5))(4)), and [(TMPA)Cu(I)(CH(3)CN)](B(C(6)F(5))(4)), where TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and (5/6)L = a tetraarylporphyrinate tethered in either the 5-position ((5)L) or 6-position ((6)L) to a TMPA copper binding moiety. Reaction of ((5/6)L)Fe(II) [in THF (293 K): UV-vis 424 (Soret), 543-544 nm; (1)H NMR delta(pyrrole) 52-59 ppm (4 peaks); (2)H NMR (from ((5)L-d(8))Fe(II)) delta(pyrrole) 53.3, 54.5, 55.8, 56.4 ppm] with CO in solution at RT yielded ((5/6)L)Fe(II)-CO [in THF (293 K): UV-vis 413-414 (Soret), 532-533 nm; IR nu(CO)(Fe) 1976-1978 cm(-1); (1)H NMR delta(pyrrole) 8.8 ppm; (2)H NMR (from ((5)L-d(8))Fe(II)-CO) delta(pyrrole) 8.9 ppm; (13)C NMR delta((CO)Fe) 206.8-207.1 ppm (2 peaks)]. Experiments repeated in acetonitrile, acetone, toluene, and dichloromethane showed similar spectroscopic data. Binding of CO resulted in a change from five-coordinate, high-spin Fe(II) to six-coordinate, low-spin Fe(II), as evidenced by the upfield shift of the pyrrole resonances to the diamagnetic region ((1)H and (2)H NMR spectra). Addition of CO to [((5/6)L)Fe(II)...Cu(I)](B(C(6)F(5))(4)) [in THF (293 K): UV-vis ((6)L only) 424 (Soret), 546 nm; (1)H NMR delta(pyrrole) 54-59 ppm (multiple peaks); (2)H NMR (from [((5)L-d(8))Fe(II).Cu(I)](B(C(6)F(5))(4))) delta(pyrrole) 53.4 ppm (br)] gave the bis-carbonyl adduct [((5/6)L)Fe(II)-CO...Cu(I)-CO](B(C(6)F(5))(4)) [in THF (293 K): UV-vis ((6)L only) 413 (Soret), 532 nm; IR nu(CO)(Fe) 1971-1973 cm(-1), nu(CO)(Cu

  4. Preparation and structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}/Cu{sup 2+} doped hematite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Srikrishna Ramya, S.I. Mahadevan, C.K.

    2014-03-15

    Pure and Mn{sup 2+} / Co{sup 2+} / Cu{sup 2+} doped (1 and 2 at.%) spherical hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal method using a domestic microwave oven. XRD measurements confirm that all the seven nanocrystals prepared consist of nanocrystalline hematite phase without any other phases. The energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the phase purity of the nanocrystals prepared. TEM analysis shows the average particle sizes within the range 33–51 nm. Optical absorption measurements indicate that all the three dopants enhance the optical transmittance and reflectance. A red shift is observed in the bandgap energy values estimated from optical absorption and reflectance spectra. Results of magnetic measurements made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties (coercivity, retentivity and saturationmagnetization) due to doping. Results of magnetic measurements indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties. Results of AC electrical measurements made at various temperatures in the range 40–130 °C and frequencies in the range 100 Hz –1 MHz indicate low dielectric constants and AC electrical conductivities and consequently show the occurrence of nanoconfined states. -- Graphical abstract: The indexed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the seven nanocrystals indicate the rhombohedral structure of hematite (JCPDS card No.13-0534). No impurity phase like oxides of Mn or Co or Cu was detected above equipment limit. The average crystallite (grain) sizes estimated using the Scherrer's formula. Highlights: • Pure and Mn/Co/Cu-doped hematite nanocrystals have been prepared. • The method adopted for the preparation is simple, economical and scalable. • Prepared nanocrystals are spherical in shape with good crystallinity and phase purity. • Mn/Co/Cu-doping enhances the optical transmittance

  5. Multielement trace determinations in A1 2O 3 ceramic powders by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with special reference to on-line trace preconcentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, D.; Leis, F.; Tölg, G.; Tschöpel, P.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    1994-12-01

    The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of trace elements in Al 2O 3 powders is reported. Special interest is given to a preconcentration of the trace elements by on-line coupling of chromatography to ICP-MS. This is based on the complexation of Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mn, Ni, V and Zn with hexamethylene-dithiocarbamate (HMDC), their preconcentration on a C18 RP column by reversed phase liquid chromatography and their elution with CH 3OH-H 2O mixtures. A direct coupling of the HPLC system to the ICP-MS has been realized by high pressure pneumatic nebulization using desolvation. With the Chromatographie method developed, removal of the AI by at least 99% was achieved. For the trace elements V, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu and Ga, high and reproducible recoveries (ranging from 96-99%) were reached. The method developed has been shown to considerably enhance the power of detection as compared with direct procedures, namely down to 0.02-0.16 ( μg/g for V and Fe, respectively. The possibilities of the method are shown by the determinations of V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn and Ga at the μg/g level in A1 2O 3 powders. The accuracy of the method at the 0.06 to 9.0 μg/g level for Co and Fe, respectively, is demonstrated by a comparison with results of independent methods from the literature.

  6. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. as trace element bioindicators: statistical comparison of bioaccumulative properties.

    PubMed

    Dołegowska, Sabina; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Michalik, Artur

    2013-02-01

    The principal objective of this study was to compare bioaccumulative properties of two terrestrial moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area (south-central Poland), using various statistical techniques. Forty-six moss samples from 23 sampling sites located within the city limits were analyzed for 33 trace elements. The results indicated that 17 elements (Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sm, V, Y) dominated in H. splendens, whereas only three elements (Mn, Sr, Zn) occurred in excessive amounts in P. schreberi. No differences in the distribution pattern of Dy, Er, Ho, Sn, Tb, Th and Yb were observed. The element concentration ratio (PI/Hy) varied from 0.50 to 1.19. For 14 elements (Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sm, Th, V), PI/Hy < 1; for 4 elements (Cd, Mn, Sr, Zn), PI/Hy > 1; for 7 elements (Ba, Dy, Er, Eu, Pr, Y, Yb), PI/Hy = equalled 1. Czekanowski's method showed similarities in rare earth element concentrations for both moss species. The cluster analysis exhibited three significant clusters at D(link)/D(max) x 100 < 50 for both moss species. Strong positive Spearman correlations between both moss species were recorded for the following pairs: Ba-Ba, Co-Co, Er-Er, Eu-Eu, Gd Gd, Mn-Mn, Ni-Ni, Pb-Pb, Pr-Pr, Sm-Sm, Th-Th, Y-Y, and Yb-Yb. Nonparametric tests (Sign test, Wilcoxon tests) showed statistically significant differences only for Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr. The scanning electron microscope study of H. splendens and P. schreberi revealed a different morphology of these species with no injuries. PMID:23596955

  7. Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ni; Lu, Xinwei; Chao, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of the environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs) As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining were measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and their contamination levels were assessed based on enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining are 0.1–0.8, 2.7–10.9, 0.7–5.2, 0.3–1.1, 0.6–2.5, 1.2–11.1, 0.7–1.3 and 0.4–2.9 times the background values of Qinghai soil, respectively. The calculated EF and Igeo values reveal the order Co > Pb > Cu > Zn > V > Ni > Mn > As. The EF and Igeo values of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher indicating that there is considerable pollution by these elements in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles, especially for Co. The EF and Igeo of Mn, Ni and V are lower and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Mn, Ni and V pollution in the studied samples. The mean value of PLIsite is 1.14, indicating a slightly pollution in the whole city of Xining. The order of PLIarea for the five tested districts is Center District (CD) > East District (ED) > West District (WD) > North District (ND) > South District (SD), showing that ESEs pollution in the South District is the lightest while it is the highest in the Central District. PMID:24590050

  8. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mosendz, O.; Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L{sub 3} absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-rays at the Co and Cu L{sub 3} absorption edges.

  9. A new method for separating first row transition metals and actinides from synthetic melt glass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roman, Audrey Rae; Bond, Evelyn M.

    2016-01-14

    A new method was developed for separating Co, Fe, and Sc from complex debris matrices using the extraction chromatography resin DGA. The activation products Co-58, Mn-54, and Sc-46 were used to characterize the separation of the synthetic melt glass solutions. In the separation scheme that was developed, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Sc, and Ti were separated from the rest of the sample constituents. In this paper, the synthetic melt glass separation method, efficiency, recoveries, and the length of procedure will be discussed. In conclusion, batch contact adsorption studies for Na and Sc for DGA resin are discussed as well.

  10. Development of a gas cell-based laser ion source for RIKEN PALIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Noto, T.; Iimura, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Furukawa, T.; Itou, Y.; Schury, P.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hirayama, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We developed a prototype laser ionization gas cell with a beam extraction system. This device is for use of PArasitic Laser Ion-Source (PALIS), which will be implemented into RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS as a part of SLOWRI. Off-line resonant laser ionization for stable Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Nb, Sn, In and Pd inside the gas cell, ion extraction and transport to the high-vacuum region via SPIG and QMS have been confirmed (Sonoda et al, Nucl Instrum Meth B 295:1, 2013).

  11. Microanalysis of old violin varnishes by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Meyer, Friedrich

    1997-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to characterize elements (with Z>13) contained in varnishes applied by prominent violin makers during the last five centuries. Direct analyses of small flakes with masses <20 μg show a variety of elements. Some of these elements could be related to key elements of inorganic pigments and additives used to control some of the properties of a varnish. Higher amounts of Fe, As and Pb were found in old products, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were used in more recent varnishes.

  12. Vinyl polymer agglomerate based transition metal cation chelating ion-exchange resin containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline functional group

    SciTech Connect

    Landing, W.M.; Haraldsson, C.; Paxeus, N.

    1986-12-01

    A simple synthetic route has been developed for the immobilization of 8-hydroxyquinoline onto Fractogel TSK, a highly porous, mechanically and chemically stable, hydrophilic organic resin gel. The product exhibits an exchange capacity comparable to the highest values reported for silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline but is more stable at high pH. The resin's selectivity and efficiency of collection of cationic metal species from freshwater and seawater were investigated. The resin was used in a column sequence to obtain concentration and speciation data for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Cd in an organic-rich freshwater sample.

  13. A mineralized breccia pipe in Mohawk Canyon, Arizona; lithologic and geophysical logs

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Van Gosen, B.S.; Balcer, R.A.; Scott, J.H.; Mascarenas, J.F.; Bedinger, G.M.; Burmaster, B.

    1988-01-01

    Hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in northern Arizona. High-grade U ore, and potentially economic concentrations of Ag, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in some pipes, has stimulated mining activity there. More than 900 confirmed and suspected breccia pipes have been mapped by this study. One pipe was chosen for exploration drilling 1984 because it exhibited all preestablished exploration criteria. Five rotary and core holes were drilled into this pipe; they contained mineralized breccia and zones of U-, Cu-, and Ni-mineralized rock.

  14. Manipulation of pure spin current in ferromagnetic metals independent of magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Huang, S. Y.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    Upon the injection of a pure spin current, a ferromagnet, similar to a nonmagnetic metal, also exhibits inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). We show in Co/Cu/YIG, where the thin Cu layer allows transmission of spin current from YIG into Co but decouples the two ferromagnets, that the interaction between ISHE and ferromagnetic ordering in Co can be unambiguously investigated. By switching on and off the pure spin current contribution, we demonstrate that the ISHE in Co is independent of the direction of the Co magnetization, which clearly suggests that the ISHE in Co is dominated not by the extrinsic impurity scatterings, but from the intrinsic origin.

  15. Trace element partitioning between taenite and kamacite - Relationship to the cooling rates of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Malvin, Daniel J.; Wasson, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine Ni, Co, Cu, Ga, As, Au, W, Re and Ir in taenite lamellae isolated by acid dissolution from eight iron meteorites from groups IA, IIIAB and IVA. Taenite is enriched in Ni, Cu, Ga, As, Au, W, Re and Ir relative to kamacite, whereas taenite is depleted in Co. Taenite/kamacite partition ratios in slowly cooled IAB meteorites are farther from unity than those in rapidly cooled IVA meteorites. Taenite/kamacite partition ratios for Cu, Ir, Au and Co may be sensitive cooling rate indicators.

  16. Electrochemical and corrosion properties of YNi{sub 2.5}M{sub 0.5} (M = Ni, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn) hybride-forming alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Korobov, I.I.; Vasina, S.Ya.; Petrii, O.A.

    1995-06-01

    Hydrogen sorption by electrode materials based on YNi{sub 2.5}M{sub 0.5} (M = Ni, Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn) intermetallic compounds (IMC) with Cu and PTFE binders is studied in 1 M NaOH solution. The obtained reversible electrochemical capacities correspond to YNi{sub 2.5}M{sub 0.5}H{sub 1.3-1.7} hybrides which are stable at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The application of Cu binder allows one to more completely use the material sorption capacity and promotes both extraction and sorption of hydrogen by IMC.

  17. Current-driven vortex formation in a magnetic multilayer ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Chunghee; Ng, B. G.; Castaño, F. J.; Mascaro, M. D.; Ross, C. A.

    2009-02-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion has been studied in the NiFe layer of a Co/Cu/NiFe thin film ring using giant-magnetoresistance measurements in a four-point contact geometry. The NiFe layer is initially in an onion state configuration with two 180° DWs. An electric current drives the walls around the ring so that they annihilate and the NiFe layer forms a DW-free vortex state. The direction of motion of the two DWs is determined by the current polarity, enabling the vortex chirality to be selected.

  18. Current-induced resonant depinning of a transverse magnetic domain wall in a spin valve nanostrip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Grollier, J.; Deranlot, C.; Lemaître, Y.; Xavier, S.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.

    2010-11-01

    We study the impact of rf and dc currents on domain wall depinning in the soft layer of a 120 nm wide Co/Cu/NiFe spin valve nanostrip. A strong resonant reduction in the depinning field (from ˜75 to 25 Oe) is observed for rf currents near 3.5 GHz. Notably, the features of the resonant depinning depend not only on the rf current but also on the simultaneously applied dc current. Consequently, we discuss both the role of the adiabatic spin torque at resonance and that of the current generated Oersted fields.

  19. Exchange torque and spin transfer between spin polarized current and ferromagnetic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrowe, J.-E.; Fábián, A.; Guittienne, Ph.; Hoffer, X.; Kelly, D.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.; Olive, E.

    2002-05-01

    Magnetization reversal triggered by spin injection is measured in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co pillars (diameter about 60 nm). Two protocols are used. (i) switching of magnetization after a current pulse is monitored as a function of applied field. The maximum offset from the switching field at which irreversible switching occurs is a measure of the strength of the effect; and (ii) irreversible and reversible magnetization changes are observed while the current is ramped at fixed applied field. (i) and (ii) show that irreversible transitions occur only from antiparallel to parallel magnetic configurations and for electrons flow from the polarizer to the analyzer.

  20. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. V.; Ene, A.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  1. Cobalt-catalyzed intermolecular C(sp(2))-O cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Debasish; Tripathy, Manisha; Maity, Pintu; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt(II)-catalyzed C(sp(2) )O cross-coupling between aryl/heteroaryl alcohols and vinyl/aryl halides in the presence of Cu(I) has been achieved under ligand-free conditions. In this reaction, copper plays a significant role in transmetalation rather than being directly involved in the CO coupling. This unique Co/Cu-dual catalyst system provides an easy access to a library of aryl-vinyl, heteroaryl-styryl, aryl-aryl, and heteroaryl-heteroaryl ethers in the absence of any ligand or additive. PMID:25926040

  2. Digital biomagnetism: Electrodeposited multilayer magnetic barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palfreyman, Justin J.; Cooper, Joshaniel F. K.; van Belle, Frieda; Hong, Bingyan; Hayward, Tom J.; Lopalco, Maria; Bradley, Mark; Mitrelias, Thanos; Bland, J. Anthony C.

    2009-05-01

    A novel magnetic encoding technique for performing high-throughput biological assays is presented. Electrodeposited Ni/Cu and Co/Cu multilayer pillar structures with a diameter of 15 μm and a thickness up to 10 μm are presented as "magnetic barcodes", where the number of unique codes possible increases exponentially with a linear increase in length. A gold cap facilitates the growth of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), while microdrop printing allows efficient generation of large libraries of tagged probes. Coercivity-tuning techniques are used to exploit a non-proximity encoding methodology compatible with microfluidic flow.

  3. Optimisation of flame parameters for simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace elements in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A study is described that identifies the optimum operating conditions for the accurate determination of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Bi and Cd using simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry. Accuracy was measured in terms of the percentage recoveries of the analytes based on certified values in nine standard reference materials. In addition to identifying optimum operating conditions for accurate analysis, conditions resulting in serious matrix interferences and the magnitude of the interferences were determined. The listed elements can be measured with acceptable accuracy in a lean to stoicheiometric flame at measurement heights ???5-10 mm above the burner.

  4. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of heteronuclear cobalt(II)-copper(II) complex of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Mohamed, Rabah H.; Mostafa, M. Abd El Zaher

    2005-12-01

    A bright green CoCu(PMP)(OH) 2(H 2O) 2 complex was synthesized. Its structure was elucidated and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Both cobalt and copper atoms attain tetrahedral geometry. The complex was investigated by the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The dielectric parameters are discussed in terms of temperature and frequency changes. The conductivity of the complex decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range 30-100 °C, while above this temperature range stepwise increase in the conductivity was observed.

  5. Assorted morphosynthesis: access to multi-faceted nano-architectures from a super-responsive dual π-functional amphiphilic construct.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Deepak; Shukla, Jyoti; Dana, Srikanta; Rani, Varsha; Ajayakumar, M R; Rawat, Kamla; Mandal, Kalyanashis; Yadav, Premlata; Ghosh, Subhasis; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2015-10-25

    An electronically segmented amphiphile was created by conjugating two π-functional units hydroxyquinoline and naphthalenediimide (HQ/NDI) for the first time. The differential electrostatic potential of the π-surfaces, H-bonding units, etc. trigger a manifold response and direct the assembly of a unique collection of seven diverse nano-architectures. Chiral assembly, distinct classes of fibers, 3-D sheets, and metallo-spheres/fibrils with μM levels of Co/Cu/Zn(ii) ions emerged from this new approach of assorted morphosynthesis under ambient conditions. PMID:26194349

  6. Four-state magnetic configuration in a tri-layer asymmetric ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Horia; Fortuna, Franck; Delaunay, Renaud; Spezzani, Carlo; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Ring-shaped multilayered sub-micron dots have the potential for the development of non-volatile multi-bit devices. We show that a Co/Cu/FeNi asymmetric ring can take four distinct remanent magnetic states, each one stabilized by applying a magnetic field pulse along one of four in-plane orthogonal directions. We use element selective x-ray holography for imaging the Co magnetic configuration following a magnetic pulse. Micro-magnetic simulations support our experimental findings; they also provide an estimate of the system magnetization dynamics, setting out the conditions for further time-resolved experiments.

  7. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  8. A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary site at Flaxbourne River, New Zealand - Biostratigraphy and geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, C. P.; Brooks, Robert R.; Wilson, Shane M.; Reeves, Roger D.; Orth, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of biostratigraphy data, it is shown that the Flaxbourne River Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is among the most complete and least disturbed marine sequences yet found; this is particularly true with respect to its post-Ir anomaly and prelowermost Paleocene sequence. INAA and ICP analyses reveal that the boundary clay is also enriched in Cr and Ni, mainly from meteoritic material, and As, Co, Cu, Sb, and Zn from terrestrial sources. It is found that Zn/Sb, As/Sb, and Zn/As ratios generally fall between crustal and oceanic values, suggesting contributions from both sources.

  9. Coordination chemistry of poly(thioether)borate ligands.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Charles G

    2010-08-01

    This review traces the development and application of the tris(thioether)borate ligands, tripodal ligands with highly polarizable thioether donors. Areas of emphasis include the basic coordination chemistry of the mid-to-late first row transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), and the role of the thioether substituent in directing complex formation, the modeling of zinc thiolate protein active sites, high-spin organo-iron and organo-cobalt chemistry, the preparation of monovalent complexes of Fe, Co and Ni, and dioxygen and sulfur activation by monovalent nickel complexes. PMID:20607091

  10. Twenty-eight element concentrations in mane hair samples of adult riding horses determined by particle-induced X-ray emission.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kimi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Momoko; Sera, Koichiro; Asano, Ryuji; Sakai, Takeo

    2005-11-01

    The concentrations of 28 elements (Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Y, and Zn) were measured in mane hair by the particle-induced X-ray emission method. Except for Br, Cl, K, S, and P, the trace element concentrations in mane hair of horses are similar to literature values for human hair. The values obtained are not dependent on the horse's age, breed, and sex and could be used as reference values in the assessment of diseases and nutritional status in equines. PMID:16217138

  11. Synthesis of Co-based bimetallic nanocrystals with one-dimensional structure for selective control on syngas conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Rongbin; Zhao, Yonghui; Yu, Lujing; Song, Jianjun; Huang, Shuangshuang; Zhong, Liangshu; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Co-based bimetallic nanocrystals with one-dimensional (1D) branches were synthesized by the heterogeneous nucleation of Co atoms onto prenucleated seeds, such as Pd or Cu, through a facile wet-chemical route. The peripheral branches (rod-like) of the Co-Pd and Co-Cu nanocrystals were outspread along the (001) direction and were enclosed by (101) facets. By switching the prenucleated metals to form robust Co-Pd or Co-Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts, the selectivity of CO hydrogenation could be adjusted purposely towards heavy paraffins, light olefins or oxygenates. The Anderson-Schulz-Flory chain-lengthening probabilities for products were up to 0.9 over Co-Pd nanocrystals, showing that long-chain hydrocarbons can be formed with high selectivity using the targeted design of Co-Pd nanocrystal catalysts. These Co-based bimetallic nanocrystals with a 1D structure exhibited superior catalytic activities over the corresponding Co-based nanoparticles for synthesis gas conversion.Co-based bimetallic nanocrystals with one-dimensional (1D) branches were synthesized by the heterogeneous nucleation of Co atoms onto prenucleated seeds, such as Pd or Cu, through a facile wet-chemical route. The peripheral branches (rod-like) of the Co-Pd and Co-Cu nanocrystals were outspread along the (001) direction and were enclosed by (101) facets. By switching the prenucleated metals to form robust Co-Pd or Co-Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts, the selectivity of CO hydrogenation could be adjusted purposely towards heavy paraffins, light olefins or oxygenates. The Anderson-Schulz-Flory chain-lengthening probabilities for products were up to 0.9 over Co-Pd nanocrystals, showing that long-chain hydrocarbons can be formed with high selectivity using the targeted design of Co-Pd nanocrystal catalysts. These Co-based bimetallic nanocrystals with a 1D structure exhibited superior catalytic activities over the corresponding Co-based nanoparticles for synthesis gas conversion. Electronic supplementary

  12. Study of Low Energy Electron Inelastic Scattering Mechanisms Using Spin Sensitive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hongbing

    1995-01-01

    Spin sensitive electron spectroscopies were used to study low energy electron inelastic scattering from metal surfaces and thin films. In these experiments, a beam of spin polarized electrons from a GaAs source is directed on the sample surface, and the spin polarization and intensity are measured as a function of energy loss and scattering angle by a Mott electron polarimeter coupled with a concentric hemispherical energy analyzer. Systematic studies of the angular dependence of inelastically scattered electrons were conducted on a Cu(100) surface, and Mo/Cu(100), non-magnetized Fe/Cu(100), and Co/Cu(100) films. The polarization and intensity of scattered electrons were measured as function of energy loss and scattering angle. Further studies were also conducted on Ag(100) surface and amorphous Cu/Ag(100) films. From the experimental results, the angular distributions of dipole and impact scattered electrons can be determined individually and both are found to peak in the specular scattering direction. Preliminary studies were conducted on magnetized Co/Cu(100) films. The spin dependent scattering intensity asymmetry was measured, with a clearly observable peak at energy loss of ~1 eV, which coincides with the band splitting. The polarizations of secondary electrons produced by an unpolarized primary beam were also measured. The polarizations can be related to the band polarization of magnetized cobalt films.

  13. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    PubMed

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (<4%). According with the total metal concentrations, background levels and normalised enrichment factors (NEF) of the metals studied, the impact of the Peña Colorada iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities. PMID:17997460

  14. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K.

    1999-04-01

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  15. Human contribution to trace elements in urban areas as measured in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) bark.

    PubMed

    Minganti, Vincenzo; Drava, Giuliana; Giordani, Paolo; Malaspina, Paola; Modenesi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of human activities on the presence of trace elements in the atmosphere was evaluated by analyzing samples of holm oak bark, collected in Italy in a large city, in a small town, and in a reference area, scarcely inhabited. In all cases, point sources of pollution were excluded (e.g., industries and incinerators). The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The element concentrations in the small town are not different from the reference area, except for Pb and Cu, while the samples collected in the large city show higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn with respect to the rural area. In particular, the Pb levels in the large city are approximately 16 times higher than in the reference site, and five times higher than in the small town. Most element concentrations are correlated in the large city, while in the reference site, only a few significant correlations between elements were found. Even in the absence of specific sources of pollution, populations living in big cities are exposed to higher concentrations of trace elements than those living in rural environments or in small urban centers. PMID:27000118

  16. Single Molecule Mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zhang, Yanxing; Ho, Wilson; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Wilson Ho, Shaowei Li Team

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through bending and stretching of chemical bonds. Using the reciprocating movement of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), mechanical energy can be provided to a single molecule sandwiched between the tip and substrate. When the mechanical pulse center was moved to the outer ring feature of a CO molecule, the reaction rate was significantly increased compared with bare Cu surface and over Au atoms. First, DFT calculations show that the presence of CO makes the Cu cavity more attractive toward H2 Second, H2 prefers the horizontal adsorption geometry in the Cu-Cu and Au-Cu cavities and no hybridization occurs between the antibonding states of H2 and states of Cu atoms. While H2 loses electrons from its bonding state in all three cavities, the filling of its anti-bonding state only occurs in the CO-Cu cavity. Both make the CO-Cu cavity much more effectively to chop the H2 molecule. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  17. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  18. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat. PMID:26573314

  19. Heavy metal removal from sludge with organic chelators: Comparative study of N, N-bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Suanon, Fidèle; Sun, Qian; Dimon, Biaou; Mama, Daouda; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The applicability and performance of a new generation of biodegradable chelator, N, N-Bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid (GLDA), for extracting heavy metals from sewage sludge was carried out and compared with citric acid (CA). Targeted metals included Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, and their contents in the raw sludge were 63.1, 73.4, 1103.2, 2060.3, 483.9 and 604.1 mg kg(-1) (dry sludge basis), respectively. Metals were divided into six fractions including water soluble, exchangeable, carbonates bound, Fe-Mn bound, organic matters bound and residual fraction via chemical fractionation. Washing results showed that in general GLDA exhibited better performance compared with CA, with removal efficiency of 83.9, 87.3, 81.2, 85.6, 89.3 and 90.2% for Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively at equilibrium pH = 3.3. Residual metals were better stabilized in the GLAD-washed sludge than in the CA-washed sludge, and were mostly tightly bonded to the residual fraction. Furthermore, CA promoted phosphorus (P) release while GLDA had an opposite effect and tended to retain P within sludge, which could be beneficial for further application in agricultural use. Findings from this study suggested that GLDA could be a potential replacement for refractory and less environmentally-friendly chelators in the extraction of metals from sludge. PMID:26520041

  20. Health risk assessment of urban population exposure to contaminants in the soils of the Southern Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, N. A.; Tarasova, N. P.; Osipov, K. Yu.; Maximova, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the human health risk due to exposure of Co, Cu, As, Mn contained in soils of the Southern Kuzbass, where the coal industry is developed. Soil samples of 200 were taken in Mezhdurechensk - city with intensive coal mining and processing industries. The content of heavy metals in samples were determined using the electron spectroscopy. Several samples were also investigated by methods of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With regard to the effects of heavy metals on the adult population health the total Hazard Index (HI) for ingestion and inhalation routes was 0.87×10-1 and 7.8×10-1 respectively. According to the contribution of Co, Cu, As, Mn to the total HI the elements form the decreasing series Mn (0,42-0,50)> Co (0.18-0.20)> Cu (0,13-0,19 )> As (0,05-0,09). These chemical elements are present in the organic and inorganic forms in coals and coal wastes. Ranking the city territory has shown that administrative districts have different HI values (8.4 10-1 - 8.8 10-1). When analyzing the human health risks of coal mining and coal-processing enterprises the impact of heavy metals as components of coals and combustion products should be taken into account.

  1. Identifying Hot-Spots of Metal Contamination in Campus Dust of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lu, Xinwei; Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools, and universities in the city of Xi'an, China, were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The pollution levels and hotspots of metals were analyzed using a geoaccumulation index and Local Moran's I, an indicator of spatial association, respectively. The dust samples from the campuses had metal concentrations higher than background levels, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ba. The pollution assessment indicated that the campus dusts were not contaminated with As, Mn, Ni, or V, were moderately or not contaminated with Ba and Cr and were moderately to strongly contaminated with Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Local Moran's I analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and outliers and indicated that the pollution with these 10 metals occurred in significant high-high spatial clusters, low-high, or even high-low spatial outliers. As, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn had important high-high patterns in the center of Xi'an. The western and southwestern regions of the study area, i.e., areas of old and high-tech industries, have strongly contributed to the Co content in the campus dust. PMID:27271645

  2. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A; Xin, Huolin L; Abruña, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd-Co-Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications. PMID:27336795

  3. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

  4. Multiple metals exposure and neurotoxic risk in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Basu, Niladri

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the authors determined concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) in the brains and livers of 46 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states, Michigan and Minnesota. To explore whether exposures are of neurological concern, the authors assessed their associations with neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] and γ-aminobutyric acid A [GABA(A)]) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase [GS] and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD]) that play critical roles in vertebrate neurobehavior and reproduction. For most elements, levels in the livers and brains did not differ between region and gender. Hepatic Pb levels averaged 33.1 ppm (dry wt), 30.4% of all carcasses exceeded proposed avian Pb thresholds (>26.4 ppm), and in 30.8% of the birds examined evidence of Pb pellets or fragments was found. Significant changes in the activities of GS and GAD were related to brain concentrations of several metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Zn). No relationships were found among any of the nine elements and NMDA or GABA(A) receptor levels. When combined with the authors' previous study on these same eagles that showed Hg-associated alterations in GS, GAD, and NMDA receptor levels, the present research suggests that bald eagles are exposed to various elements, especially Pb and Hg, that are capable of causing changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The functional significance of these neurochemical changes warrants attention. PMID:22170515

  5. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:24387682

  6. Single domain to vortex state transition in multilayered cobalt/copper nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jared; Greene, Peter; Dumas, Randy K.; Liu, Kai

    2008-08-01

    Multilayered magnetic nanowires provide ideal platforms for nanomagnetism and spin-transport studies. They exhibit complex magnetization reversal behaviors as dimensions of the magnetic components are varied, which are difficult to probe since the magnetic entities are buried inside the nanowires. We have captured magnetic and magnetoresistance "fingerprints" of Co nanodiscs in Co/Cu multilayered nanowires as they undergo a single domain to vortex state transition, using a first-order reversal curve (FORC) method. The Co/Cu multilayered nanowires have been synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. In 50 nm diameter nanowires of [Co(5nm)/Cu(8nm)]400, a 10% magnetoresistance effect is observed at 300 K. In 200 nm diameter nanowires, the magnetic configurations can be tuned by adjusting the Co nanodisc aspect ratio. The thinnest nanodiscs exhibit single domain behavior. The thicker ones exhibit vortex states, where the nucleation and annihilation of the vortices are manifested as butterfly-like features in the FORC distributions. The magnetoresistance effect shows different characteristics, which correspond to the different magnetic configurations of the Co nanodiscs.

  7. Accumulation and source of heavy metals in sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjie; Lu, Xinwei; Yang, Linna; Wang, Lijun

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation and source of heavy metals As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the surface sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China were determined by enrichment factor and multi-variate statistical analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis, were used to identify the possible sources of the heavy metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the reservoir sediment are higher than their corresponding concentrations in the control sample, indicating all analyzed heavy metals accumulated in the surface sediments. The values of the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediment divided by their corresponding concentrations in the control sample increase in the order of Ba = CrCo, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn are in the range of 2‒5, displaying moderate enrichment. Combining the results of correlation coefficient analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and V have mixed sources of natural and industrial sources and local consumption residues; Pb and Zn mainly originate from industrial activities, while Ba and Cr primarily originate from natural sources.

  8. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Tenth quarterly report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1993-03-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of formation of alcohols and other oxygenates from syngas over supported catalysts. Probe molecules are added in situ during the reaction to help delineate reaction pathways and identify reaction intermediate species. The key of our study is to investigate how the species generated by these probe molecules interact with surface species present during oxygenate formation. The catalysts chosen for this investigation is Co/Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Detailed motivations for studying this system as well as using CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} as the probe molecule were given in a previous report. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments were carried out on calcined and reduced samples of Co(0%)/Cu/ZnO and Co(10%)/Cu/ZnO catalysts. The extent of reduction of the copper and cobalt phases in the Co(0,5 and l0%)/Cu/ZnO catalysts was estimated from XPS, TPR, and XRD results. (C) A Co(5%) /Al/{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared to be used as a base catalyst for the study of probe molecule addition. CO hydrogenation under the same conditions used before was conducted over the Co(5%)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as well as a Co/Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (ZC45) prepared by coprecipitation method.

  9. Multi-element analysis of manganese nodules by atomic absorption spectrometry without chemical separation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.; Harnly, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Five manganese nodules, including the USGS reference nodules A-1 and P-1, were analyzed for Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn without prior chemical separation by using a simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometer with an air-cetylene flame. The nodules were prepared in three digestion matrices. One of these solutions was measured using sixteen different combinations of burner height and air/acetylene ratios. Results for A-1 and P-1 are compared to recommended values and results for all nodules are compared to those obtained with an inductively coupled plasma. The elements Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are simultaneously determined with a composite recovery for all elements of 100 ?? 7%, independent of the digestion matrices, heights in the flame, or flame stoichiometries examined. Individual recoveries for Co, K, and Ni are considerably poorer in two digests than this composite figure, however. The optimum individual recoveries of 100 ?? 5% and imprecisions of 1-4%, except for zinc, are obtained when Co, K, Mn, Na and Ni are determined simultaneously in a concentrated digest, and in another analytical sequence, when Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn are measured simultaneously after dilution. Determination of manganese is equally accurate in the two sequences; its measurement in both assures internal consistency between the two measurement sequences. This approach improves analytical efficiency over that for conventional atomic absorption methods, while minimizing loss of accuracy or precision for individual elements. ?? 1982.

  10. Configurational dependence of the magnetization dynamics in spin valve systems: Influence of spin pumping and domain wall induced coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikhov, R.; Abrudan, R.; Brüssing, F.; Gross, K.; Luo, C.; Westerholt, K.; Zabel, H.; Radu, F.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2012-10-01

    Using time-resolved x-ray resonant magnetic scattering we report on the precessional dynamics of spin valve systems with parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) orientation of the ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layers. Previously we observed in Co/Cu/Ni81Fe19(Py) spin valve systems an increase of the magnetic damping parameter in Py with changing magnetization direction of Py and Co layers from P to AP orientation [Salikhov , Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3633115 99, 092509 (2011)]. We attributed this finding to the configurational dependence of the spin pumping effect [Kim and Chappert, J. Magn. Magn. Mater.JMMMDC0304-885310.1016/j.jmmm.2004.09.036 286, 56 (2005)]. Here we extend our earlier findings by investigating the temperature dependence of the spin pumping effect and possible other causes for the configurational dependence of the damping parameter, such as domain wall induced coupling or magnetic dipole coupling. The main focus is on Co/Cu/Py trilayers and on Co2MnGe/V/Py trilayers with spin valve properties.

  11. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-06-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd-Co-Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.

  12. Synthesis and thermodynamic study of transition metal ion (Mn²⁺, Co²⁺, Cu²⁺, and Zn²⁺) exchanged zeolites A and Y.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Transition metal cations (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) containing zeolites A and Y were synthesized by ion exchange and their thermochemistry was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of formation from oxides for Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn zeolites A range from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 67.6 ± 5.5 kJ mol(-1) and those for Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn zeolites Y range from 8.0 ± 2.0 to 32.6 ± 1.8 kJ mol(-1). All these zeolites are thus metastable with respect to oxide components and to other dense phases. The formation enthalpies of Mn and Zn exchanged zeolites A and Y are less endothermic than those of corresponding Co and Cu exchanged A and Y. These energetics are consistent with metal oxygen bond lengths and related to crystal field effects of transition metal ions. Similar thermodynamic trends have been seen in transition metal containing spinel, olivine and pyroxene materials. The enthalpies of exchange of transition metals in zeolites A and Y with sodium in aqueous solution are calculated and suggest that these zeolites could be reasonably effective sorbents for heavy metal waste. PMID:27009783

  13. Co adatoms on Cu surfaces: Ballistic conductance and Kondo temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, P. P.; Requist, R.; Smogunov, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-07-01

    The Kondo zero-bias anomaly of Co adatoms probed by scanning tunneling microscopy is known to depend on the height of the tip above the surface, and this dependence is different on different low index Cu surfaces. On the (100) surface, the Kondo temperature first decreases then increases as the tip approaches the adatom, while on the (111) surface it is virtually unaffected. These trends are captured by combined density functional theory and numerical renormalization-group calculations. The adatoms are found to be described by an S =1 Anderson model on both surfaces, and ab initio calculations help identify the symmetry of the active d orbitals. We correctly reproduce the Fano line shape of the zero-bias anomaly for Co/Cu(100) in the tunneling regime but not in the contact regime, where it is probably dependent on the details of the tip and contact geometry. The line shape for Co/Cu(111) is presumably affected by the presence of surface states, which are not included in our method. We also discuss the role of symmetry, which is preserved in our model scattering geometry but most likely broken in experimental conditions.

  14. Anthropogenic contamination of metals in sediments of the Santa Rosalía harbor, Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    Shumilin, Evgueni; Jiménez-Illescas, Ángel Rafael; López-López, Silverio

    2013-03-01

    To know the environment impact on a harbor of the Santa Rosalía port on the Baja California peninsula, the concentrations of metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, U and Zn) in harbor sediments were determined for 13 stations and compared with their average upper Earth´s crust abundance. The mean enrichment factors, calculated using Al as a normalizer, were higher than the unity for Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn. Concentrations of slightly enriched Cd in the sediments are below the effect range low (ERL) sediment quality guidelines value only at three stations. The levels of Pb in the harbor sediments at four stations (1, 6, 9 and 11) are between the ERL (46.7 mg kg(-1)) and the effect range medium (ERM) (218 mg kg(-1)), and Pb content in the rest of the sediment samples is higher than the ERM, demonstrating the high extent of the anthropogenic impact of this metal on the sedimentary environment. The total concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Cu (3,390 ± 804 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (1,916 ± 749 mg kg(-1)) very strongly exceed their ERM, showing a high possibility of toxicological danger for marine biota, living inside or entering the harbor. PMID:23277367

  15. Identifying Hot-Spots of Metal Contamination in Campus Dust of Xi’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Lu, Xinwei; Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools, and universities in the city of Xi’an, China, were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The pollution levels and hotspots of metals were analyzed using a geoaccumulation index and Local Moran’s I, an indicator of spatial association, respectively. The dust samples from the campuses had metal concentrations higher than background levels, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ba. The pollution assessment indicated that the campus dusts were not contaminated with As, Mn, Ni, or V, were moderately or not contaminated with Ba and Cr and were moderately to strongly contaminated with Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Local Moran’s I analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and outliers and indicated that the pollution with these 10 metals occurred in significant high-high spatial clusters, low-high, or even high-low spatial outliers. As, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn had important high-high patterns in the center of Xi’an. The western and southwestern regions of the study area, i.e., areas of old and high-tech industries, have strongly contributed to the Co content in the campus dust. PMID:27271645

  16. Effect of annealing treatment on the crystallisation and leaching of dumped base metal smelter slags.

    PubMed

    Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mbaya, Richard K; Mochubele, Emela A

    2010-11-15

    Leaching tests of base metals contained in two smelter slags were undertaken in ammonia and nitric acid solutions aiming to recover Co, Cu and Zn. Leaching tests were conducted at 25 and 60°C at pH=0 and 3 in HNO(3) and pH=12 in NH(4)OH media. XRD analysis revealed that the dumped slags were amorphous. Annealing these slags at 1180°C produced crystalline phases comprising diopside, magnetite and fayalite. SEM and EDS analysis revealed that Cu and Pb compounds have concentrated in the magnetite phase, whereas another phase rich in Zn and Cu was located in the diopside matrix. ICP-OES analysis of the pregnant leaching solutions (PLS) showed that 30-60% of Co, Cu and Zn were released from the amorphous slags treated in HNO(3) at pH=0, and lesser in ammonia. However, the contamination by Fe and Pb was higher at pH=0. The contamination of the PLS obtained by leaching of the crystallised slags remained low. The low Fe and Pb contamination was attributed in this case to the chemical stability of the crystalline phases formed upon annealing treatment. The higher solubilisation of metals contained in amorphous slags was attributed to the collapse of silicate structures during nitric acid leaching at pH∼0. PMID:20674164

  17. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina; West, A. Joshua; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; González, Natalia; Sobrino, Cristina; Huete-Ortega, María.; Fernández, Ana; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Vidal, Montserrat; Blasco, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  18. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly

  19. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p < 0.05) between the fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and those of iron (Fe) at both sites, (ii) positive correlations (r = 0.82–0.98, p < 0.01, n = 9) between the fluxes of elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the mass accumulation rates at the offshore site, (iii) the low enrichment factors (EF < 5) of those trace elements, and (iv) the temporal consistencies of the isotopic composition of Pb in the sediment. These measurements indicate that accelerated weathering, rather than industrialization, accounts for most of the increases in trace element fluxes to Lake Tanganyika in spite of the development of mining and smelting operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions

  20. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Textural data at all scales indicate that the host sites for veins and the tectonic evolution of both host rocks and mineral deposits were kinematically linked to Late Cretaceous regional thrust faulting. Heat, fluids, and conduits for generation and circulation of fluids were part of the regional crustal thickening. The faulting also juxtaposed metaevaporite layers in the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation over Blackbird district host rocks. We conclude that this facilitated chemical exchange between juxtaposed units resulting in leaching of critical elements (Cl, K, B, Na) from metaevaporites to produce brines, scavenging of metals (Co, Cu, etc) from rocks in the region, and, finally, concentrating metals in the lower-plate ramp structures. Although the ultimate source of the metals remains undetermined, the present Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) Blackbird ore deposits formed during Late Cretaceous compressional deformation.

  1. Application of High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS): determination of trace elements in tea and tisanes.

    PubMed

    Paz-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Domínguez-González, María Raquel; Aboal-Somoza, Manuel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    A new application of HR-CS FAAS (High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) has been developed for the determination of several trace elements (Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Na and Zn) in infusions made from tea, rooibos and tea with seaweed samples. The proposed methods are fast, inexpensive and show good performances: the mean analytical recovery was approximately 100%. The mean limit of detection was 29.4 μg/l, and the mean limit of quantification was 98.0 μg/l (both limits refer to the brewed samples). Due to the matrix effect observed, the standard addition method had to be applied. Preliminary classification (based on metal contents) using chemometric techniques such as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and CA (Cluster Analysis), was successful for infusions made from rooibos and tea with seaweed, but inconclusive for black and green teas. PMID:25306375

  2. Atomistic Modeling of Nanostructures via the BFS Quantum Approximate Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Garces, Jorge E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Farias, D.

    2003-01-01

    Ideally, computational modeling techniques for nanoscopic physics would be able to perform free of limitations on the type and number of elements, while providing comparable accuracy when dealing with bulk or surface problems. Computational efficiency is also desirable, if not mandatory, for properly dealing with the complexity of typical nano-strucured systems. A quantum approximate technique, the BFS method for alloys, which attempts to meet these demands, is introduced for the calculation of the energetics of nanostructures. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated through analysis of diverse systems, including multi-phase precipitation in a five element Ni-Al-Ti-Cr-Cu alloy and the formation of mixed composition Co-Cu islands on a metallic Cu(III) substrate.

  3. A metabolomic study on the biological effects of metal pollutions in oysters Crassostrea sikamea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    Metal pollution has become a great threat to organisms in the estuaries in South China. In the present study, the oysters Crassostrea sikamea were collected from one clean (Jiuzhen) and five metal polluted sites (Baijiao, Fugong, Gongqian, Jinshan and Songyu). The tissue metal concentrations in oysters indicated that the five metal sites were polluted by several metals, including Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd and Pb with different patterns. Especially, Cu and Zn were the major contaminants in Baijiao, Fugong and Jinshan sites. The metabolic responses in oysters C. sikamea indicated that the metal pollutions in BJ, FG, JS and SY sites induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism via different metabolic pathways. However, the metal pollution in GQ site mainly influenced the osmotic regulation in the oysters C. sikamea. This study demonstrates that NMR-based metabolomics is useful to characterize metabolic responses induced by metal pollution. PMID:26616746

  4. Characterizing structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles embedded in silica with XAS, SAXS and auxiliary techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Leandro L.; Kluth, Patrick; Giulian, Raquel; Sprouster, David J.; Johannessen, Bernt; Foran, Garry J.; Cookson, David J.; Ridgway, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron-based techniques were combined with conventional analysis methods to probe in detail the structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles grown in a silica matrix by ion implantation and thermal annealing, as well as the evolution of such properties as a function of nanoparticle size. This original approach was successfully applied for several elemental nanoparticles (Au, Co, Cu, Ge, Pt) and the outcomes for Ge are reported here, illustrating the power of this combined methodology. The thorough analysis of XANES, EXAFS, SAXS, TEM and Raman data for Ge nanoparticles with mean diameters between 4 and 9 nm revealed that the peculiar properties of embedded Ge nanoparticles, like the existence of amorphous Ge layers between the silica matrix and the crystalline nanoparticle core, are strongly dependent on particle size and mainly governed by the variation in the surface area-to-volume ratio. Such detailed information provides valuable input for the efficient planning of technological applications.

  5. Decoupling strain and ligand effects in ternary nanoparticles for improved ORR electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul C; Lysgaard, Steen; Hansen, Heine A; Vegge, Tejs

    2016-09-21

    Ternary Pt-Au-M (M = 3d transition metal) nanoparticles show reduced OH adsorption energies and improved activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to pure Pt nanoparticles, as obtained by density functional theory. The strain and ligand effects in nanoparticles are decoupled and correlated with the extended Pt(111) surface for benchmarking. The ternary metal in the core allows for tuning the catalytic activity through strain effects. Pt-Au-M for M = Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn nanoparticles are of particular interest as they exhibit an optimal contribution of strain, ligand effects and stability. Good agreement is found with experimental studies showing increased activity of Pt-Au-Fe/Ni nanoparticles, and mid to late 3d transition metals are predicted to exhibit enhance activity and stability with respect to pure Pt nanoparticles. PMID:27550572

  6. Decoupling of the superconducting and magnetic/structural phase transitions in electron-doped BaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, P.C.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Ni, Ni; Yan, J.Q.; Kracher, A.

    2009-08-03

    Study and comparison of over 30 examples of electron-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} for transition metal (TM) = Co, Ni, Cu, and (Co/Cu mixtures) have led to an understanding that the suppression of the structural/antiferromagnetic phase transition to low-enough temperature in these compounds is a necessary condition for superconductivity but not a sufficient one. Whereas the structural/antiferromagnetic transitions are suppressed by the number of TM dopant ions (or changes in the c axis) the superconducting dome exists over a limited range of values of the number of valence electrons added by doping (or values of the a/c ratio). By choosing which combination of dopants is used we can change the relative positions of the upper phase lines and the superconducting dome, even to the extreme limit of suppressing the upper structural and magnetic phase transitions without the stabilization of a lower-temperature superconducting dome.

  7. Heavy metal pollution assessment in relation to sediment properties in the coastal sediments of the southern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Akbari, Atefeh

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate major elements and heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Vanadium (V), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in surface sediments of the southern Caspian Sea. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order of: V>Cr>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb>As. Correlations between elements showed that sediment TOM, grain size and chemical composition are the main factors that influence the distribution of heavy metals. According to the pollution load index (PLI), sediments from some sampling sites were polluted. Concentrations of Ni, As, Cr and Cu were higher than sediment quality guidelines at some sampling sites, implying potential adverse impacts of these metals. PMID:25583242

  8. Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassby, D. L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H. W.; Roquemore, A. L.; Barcelo, T. W.; Kumar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T2 production in a moderated 3He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D-T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies.

  9. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  10. Exchange Coupling of Spin-Crossover Molecules to Ferromagnetic Co Islands.

    PubMed

    Gueddida, Saber; Gruber, Manuel; Miyamachi, Toshio; Beaurepaire, Eric; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Alouani, Mebarek

    2016-03-01

    The properties of Fe(1,10-phenanthroline)2(NCS)2 (Fe-phen) molecules deposited on Co/Cu(111) are studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) operated in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature (4 K) and ab initio calculations. Both the experimental and theoretical results are used to identify the high-spin (HS) state of Fe-phen. Additionally, the calculations reveal a strong spin-polarization of the density of states (DOS) and is validated experimentally using the spin sensitivity of spin-polarized STM. Finally, it is shown that the magnetic moment of the Fe-ion within HS Fe-phen is strongly magnetically coupled to the underlying magnetic Co through the NCS groups. These findings enable promising spintronic perspectives. PMID:26895075

  11. Analysis of essential elements in Pito—a cereal food drink and its brands by the single-comparator method of neutron activation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adazabra, Aaron N; Ntiforo, Apori; Bamford, Samuel A

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the single-comparator method has been used for the multielement determination of essential elements in two main types of Pito brewed locally in Ghana. The precision and accuracy of the analytical method was validated and found to be within 10%. In all, eight different brands of Pito depending on the type of cereal crop used in brewing were analyzed for 13 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, and Zn). It was observed that all brands were particularly enriched in nutrient elements Cl, Mg, and K. The rest were generally found in varying concentrations. As these elements are bioavailable in natural form, perhaps in combination with organic constituents, they are likely to be easily digested and assimilated by the human body. Arsenic, a toxic element, was found in insignificant amounts suggesting that it was within safe limits. PMID:24936292

  12. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity

  13. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2006-08-15

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

  14. Heavy metals in water, sediments, plants and fish of Kali Nadi U. P. (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Uddin, R.; Khan, A.U. )

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals viz., Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the water, sediments, plants and fish samples collected from the Kali Nadi (India) have been determined. The studies have shown that there was considerable variation in the concentration of heavy metals from one sampling station to the other which may be due to the variation in the quality of industrial and sewage wastes being added to the river at different places. The orders of the concentration of heavy metals in water, sediments, plants (Eicchornia crassipes) and fish (Heteropnuestes fossilis) were Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd; Fe > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Cd; Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr > Cd and Fe > Zn > Mn > Ni > Pb >Co > Cr > Cu > Cd, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental contamination at an abandoned mining site using multivariate statistical techniques--the Rodalquilar (Southern Spain) mining district.

    PubMed

    Bagur, M G; Morales, S; López-Chicano, M

    2009-11-15

    Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to water samples recollected in Rodalquilar mining district (Southern Spain) in order to identify different sources of environmental pollution caused by the abandoned mining industry. The effect of the mining activity on waters was monitored determining the concentration of eleven elements (Mn, Ba, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Au and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Box-Cox transformation has been used to transform the data set in normal form in order to minimize the non-normal distribution of the geochemical data. The environmental impact is affected mainly by the mining activity developed in the zone, the acid drainage and finally by the chemical treatment used for the benefit of gold. PMID:19782239

  16. Atomic Decay Data for Modeling K Lines of Iron Peak and Light Odd-Z Elements*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.; Garcia, J.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Complete data sets of level energies, transition wavelengths, A-values, radiative and Auger widths and fluorescence yields for K-vacancy levels of the F, Na, P, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn isonuclear sequences have been computed by a Hartree-Fock method that includes relativistic corrections as implemented in Cowan's atomic structure computer suite. The atomic parameters for more than 3 million fine-structure K lines have been determined. Ions with electron number N greater than 9 are treated for the first time, and detailed comparisons with available measurements and theoretical data for ions with N less than or equal to 9 are carried out in order to estimate reliable accuracy ratings.

  17. Dual function armchair graphene nanoribbon-based spin-photodetector: Optical spin-valve and light helicity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ostovari, Fatemeh; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2014-08-18

    We show an armchair graphene nanoribbon channel connected between asymmetric ferromagnetic source-drain structure—i.e., p-type Co/Au/graphene source and n-type Co/Cu/graphene drain—can operate as dual function spin-photodetector, under zero external biases at room temperature. It can function as an optical spin-valve with magnetoresistance of greater than 60% and responsivity as high as 25.12 A/mW, when irradiated by an un-polarized light of energy ∼3.03 eV. Under a circularly polarized illumination, this optical spin-valve can also operate as a light helicity detector. The calculated magnetoresistances for right and left circularly polarized lights are both greater than 60%.

  18. Simulation of the potential effects of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage activities on the mobilization and speciation of metals.

    PubMed

    de Orte, Manoela Romanó; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-09-15

    One of the main risks associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) activities is the leakage of the stored CO2, which can result in several effects on the ecosystem. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to provide data on the possible effects of CO2 leakage from CCS on the mobility of metals previously trapped in sediments. Metal-contaminated sediments were collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection using different pH treatments. The test lasted 10 days, and samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment for metal analysis. The results revealed increases in the mobility of metals such as Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn due to pH decreases. Geochemical modeling demonstrated that acidification influenced the speciation of the metals, increasing the concentrations of their free forms. These data suggest the possible sediment contamination consequences of accidental CO2 leakage during CCS activities. PMID:25125286

  19. Intermolecular nonradiative energy transfer in clusters with plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, M. G.; Stepanov, V. N.; Kruchinin, N. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of carbon (fullerenes, nanotubes) and metal (Ni, Co, Cu, Ag) nanoparticles on the nonradiative electronic excitation energy transfer between the molecules of organic dyes (acrylic orange as a donor and Nile blue as an acceptor) in alcohol solutions of polyvinylbutyral is studied. It is found that, at particular concentrations of the mixture components, plasmonic nanoparticles affect the nonradiative electronic excitation energy transfer, which is manifested in an increase in the intensity of sensitized fluorescence of acceptors with simultaneous quenching of the fluorescence of donors. A very simple model is proposed to illustrate the observed redistribution of luminescence intensity between the spectral bands of the general spectrum. Molecular-dynamic calculations of the structure of nanocomposites performed for the same purpose confirmed the formation of associated molecular plasmonic complexes fixed by macrochain links.

  20. Adsorption of SO2 molecule on doped (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zun-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Adsorptions of SO2 on Al-, Ca-, Co-, Cu-, Ge-, Ni-, and Si-doped (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) have been studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory in order to exploit their potential applications as SO2 gas sensors. The electronic properties of the BNNT-molecule adsorption adducts are strongly dependent on the dopants. The most stable adsorption geometries, adsorption energies, charge transfers, and density of states of these systems are thoroughly discussed. This work reveals that the sensitivity of (8, 0) BNNT based chemical gas sensors for SO2 can be drastically improved by introducing appropriate dopant. Si is found to be the best choice among all the dopants.

  1. Rainwater composition in eight arctic catchments in northern Europe (Finland, Norway and Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Volden, Tore; Äyräs, Matti; Niskavaara, Heikki; Chekushin, Viktor A.; Pavlov, Vladimir A.

    Monthly rainwater samples were collected during the summer of 1994 in eight arctic catchments in northern Europe (four in Russia, three in Finland, one in Norway), at different distances and wind directions from the emissions of the Russian nickel ore mining, roasting and smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula. Three stations consisting of five samplers each were placed in open areas in all the catchments. Results show that close to the smelters in Monchegorsk, rainwater is strongly enriched in Ni (633 x), Co, Cu, As, Mo, Al (36 x), V, Cd, Sb, Pb (11 x), Zn, Fe, Sr, Na, S/SO 4 (6 x), Cl, Cr, Se (4 x) and Ag when compared to a Finnish background catchment. Three sources of elements can be differentiated: natural dust, sea spray and anthropogenic (smokestack emissions and dust). Correlation diagrams and element ratios can be used to identify the different industrial processes and even ore feed changes at one smelter.

  2. Thermodynamic description of heat and spin transport in magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravier, Laurent; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Reuse, François; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Spin-dependent heat and charge transport perpendicular to the plane of magnetic Co/Cu multilayers was studied experimentally and interpreted in the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The thermogalvanic voltage(TGV) is introduced. It measures the ac voltage response to a small temperature oscillation while a dc current is driven through the sample. TGV presents a magnetic response (MTGV) of 50%, much larger than magnetoresistance (GMR) and the magneto-thermoelectrical power (MTEP). The linear equations for transport of heat, charge, and spin-polarized currents in magnetic and nonmagnetic mediums are applied to a multilayer structure. The role of spin mixing in GMR, MTEP, and MTGV is shown. In particular, the asymmetry of the spin-mixing gives rise to spin-dependent effective Peltier coefficients. The three measurements can be accounted for with two parameters expressing the spin dependence of the transport coefficients.

  3. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

    2012-05-01

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  4. A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part II. distribution behaviors of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, and Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pengfu; Neuschütz, Dieter

    2001-04-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and Bi among the gas, matte, and slag phases has been investigated. It was found that the distribution behavior of Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, and Bi in the nickel smelting furnace depends on process parameters such as the smelting temperature, matte grade, oxygen enrichment, Fe/SiO2 ratio in the slag, Cu/Ni ratio in charge, and oil/air ratio. The parameters also have an influence on the behavior of Fe3O4 in the slag.

  5. Long-chain terminal alcohols through catalytic CO hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yizhi; Chitry, Véronique; Liddicoat, Peter; Felfer, Peter; Cairney, Julie; Ringer, Simon; Kruse, Norbert

    2013-05-15

    We show that long-chain 1-alcohols can be produced with high selectivities using heterogeneous CO hydrogenation catalysis. This breakthrough is achieved through the targeted design of "CoCuMn" nanosized core-shell particles using co-precipitation of metal salts into oxalate precursors and subsequent thermal decomposition. Using stoichiometric CO/H2 feeds, the selectivities to 1-alcohols or combined 1-alcohols/1-alkenes are usually higher than 60% and occasionally up to 95%. The Anderson-Schulz-Flory chain-lengthening probabilities for these products are higher than 0.6, but usually below 0.9 so as to optimize the C8-C14 slate as feedstock for plasticizers, lubricants, or detergents. PMID:23634891

  6. Application of spouted bed elutriation in the recycling of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuol, Daniel A.; Toniasso, Camila; Jiménez, Bernardo M.; Meili, Lucas; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Tanabe, Eduardo H.; Aguiar, Mônica L.

    2015-02-01

    The growing environmental concern, associated with the continuous increase in electronic equipment production, has induced the development of new technologies to recycle the large number of spent batteries generated in recent years. The amount of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) tends to grow over the next years. These batteries are composed by valuable metals, such as Li, Co, Cu and Al, which can be recovered. Thus, the present work is carried out in two main steps: In the first step, a characterization of the LIBs is performed. Batteries from different brands and models are dismantled and their components characterized regarding to the chemical composition and main phases. In the second step, a sample of LIBs is shredded and the different materials present are separated by spouted bed elutriation. The results show that spouted bed elutriation is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain the separation of the different materials (polymers, metals, active electrode materials) present in spent LIBs.

  7. Analysis of essential elements in Pito-a cereal food drink and its brands by the single-comparator method of neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, Aaron N; Ntiforo, Apori; Bamford, Samuel A

    2014-05-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the single-comparator method has been used for the multielement determination of essential elements in two main types of Pito brewed locally in Ghana. The precision and accuracy of the analytical method was validated and found to be within 10%. In all, eight different brands of Pito depending on the type of cereal crop used in brewing were analyzed for 13 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, and Zn). It was observed that all brands were particularly enriched in nutrient elements Cl, Mg, and K. The rest were generally found in varying concentrations. As these elements are bioavailable in natural form, perhaps in combination with organic constituents, they are likely to be easily digested and assimilated by the human body. Arsenic, a toxic element, was found in insignificant amounts suggesting that it was within safe limits. PMID:24936292

  8. Analysis of trace metals in water by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry using sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate for preconcentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Motooka, J.M.; Willson, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Since concentrations of trace elements in most natural waters seldom exceed the ??g/L level, analysis of trace elements in natural waters by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) requires a preconcentration procedure. The elements Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, W, and Zn were separated and concentrated from 500 mL of water by coprecipitating them with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate (NaDBDTC) using nickel or silver as a carrier. The precipitated trace elements were collected on a membrane filter, redissolved from the filter with hot nitric and hydrochloric acids, and analyzed using ICP. Recoveries for all the trace elements except tungsten exceeded 80%. Coprecipitation of trace elements with NaDBDTC eliminated the use of difficult-to-inject organic solvents, and NaDBDTC coprecipitated a wider array of trace elements than ammoniumpyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), another commonly used coprecipitate.

  9. Characterizing structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles embedded in silica with XAS, SAXS and auxiliary techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Leandro L.; Kluth, Patrick; Giulian, Raquel; Sprouster, David J.; Ridgway, Mark C.; Johannessen, Bernt; Foran, Garry J.; Cookson, David J.

    2009-01-29

    Synchrotron-based techniques were combined with conventional analysis methods to probe in detail the structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles grown in a silica matrix by ion implantation and thermal annealing, as well as the evolution of such properties as a function of nanoparticle size. This original approach was successfully applied for several elemental nanoparticles (Au, Co, Cu, Ge, Pt) and the outcomes for Ge are reported here, illustrating the power of this combined methodology. The thorough analysis of XANES, EXAFS, SAXS, TEM and Raman data for Ge nanoparticles with mean diameters between 4 and 9 nm revealed that the peculiar properties of embedded Ge nanoparticles, like the existence of amorphous Ge layers between the silica matrix and the crystalline nanoparticle core, are strongly dependent on particle size and mainly governed by the variation in the surface area-to-volume ratio. Such detailed information provides valuable input for the efficient planning of technological applications.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and conductivity studies of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Narsimulu, D.; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2015-06-24

    Transition metal ferrites with general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A=Co, Cu, Mn, Zn, B=Fe{sup +3}) could be used as an anode materials in lithium ion battery (LIB), because, lithium ion batteries fabricated using ferrite materials show the high capacity than commonly used graphite. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with cubic spinel structured material was prepared by acrylamide assisted citrate combustion process. Phase, structural coordination and thermal behavior of the prepared ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectra and TG/DTA thermogram respectively. Morphology and specific surface area of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were identified by SEM and BET surface analyzer respectively and its conductivity studies were made through impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Controlled rotation of the exchange-bias direction in IrMn/Cu/Co via ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.; Geshev, J.; Nicolodi, S.; Pereira, L. G.; Schmidt, J. E.; Grande, P. L.

    2008-07-28

    Co/Cu/IrMn films were irradiated with 40 keV He{sup +} ions varying the fluence and the current, with magnetic field applied at 120 deg. with respect to the original exchange-bias direction. The angular variations of the exchange-bias field of the irradiated samples were compared with those of the as-made and the thermally annealed films. Gradual deviation of the exchange-bias direction with the fluence increase was observed. Complete reorientation of the easy axes of both ferromagnet and antiferromagnet toward that of the field applied during irradiation was achieved for fluences higher than 1x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, accompanied with a significant enhancement of the exchange-bias field.

  12. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes.

    PubMed

    Skodras, G; Prokopidou, M; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2006-08-01

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. PMID:16841309

  13. Information storage materials: nanoscale characterisation by three-dimensional atom probe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.; Petford-Long, A.K.; Ma, Y.Q; Cerezo, A

    2004-06-07

    The development of nanoscale magnetic materials for applications in information storage systems relies heavily on the ability to engineer the properties of the layered structures from which such materials are fabricated. These properties are strongly dependent on the nature of the interfaces between the individual nanoscale magnetic layers, so knowledge of the interface chemistry is crucial. In this paper, we discuss the application of three-dimensional atom probe analysis to the characterisation of layered magnetic materials, including details of specimen preparation techniques required for this type of analysis. Recent results are presented on the characterisation of interfaces in Co/Cu or CoFe/Cu multilayers, which form part of the read sensor in magnetic recording heads, and Co/Pd multilayers, which are being considered for use as perpendicular recording media.

  14. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in trophosome and vestimentum of the tube worm Riftia pachyptila from Guaymas basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J.; Páez-Osuna, F.; Soto, Luis A.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty two specimens of vestimentiferan tube worms Riftia pachyptila were collected from Guaymas Basin. The distribution of ten trace metals in trophosome and vestimentum was investigated. Highest mean concentrations of Co, Cu and Fe were detected in the trophosome; while higher mean levels of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the vestimentum. However, the t-student test resulted in significant differences (p<0.05) only in the case of Co. Cd and Fe concentrations in vestimentum increased accordingly with the size of specimens. With respect to vent fluids, extreme uptake seems to be a characteristic of R. pachyptila in the case of Cu and Zn but not for the rest of the analyzed metals. Studies concerning accumulation mechanisms of trace metals in R. pachyptila are needed, particularly on the capacity of this organism to tolerate elevated levels of elements considered as non-essential.

  15. Polyelemental nanoparticle libraries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Xiaolong; Hedrick, James L; Xie, Zhuang; Wang, Shunzhi; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Hersam, Mark C; Dravid, Vinayak P; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-06-24

    Multimetallic nanoparticles are useful in many fields, yet there are no effective strategies for synthesizing libraries of such structures, in which architectures can be explored in a systematic and site-specific manner. The absence of these capabilities precludes the possibility of comprehensively exploring such systems. We present systematic studies of individual polyelemental particle systems, in which composition and size can be independently controlled and structure formation (alloy versus phase-separated state) can be understood. We made libraries consisting of every combination of five metallic elements (Au, Ag, Co, Cu, and Ni) through polymer nanoreactor-mediated synthesis. Important insight into the factors that lead to alloy formation and phase segregation at the nanoscale were obtained, and routes to libraries of nanostructures that cannot be made by conventional methods were developed. PMID:27339985

  16. Bioaccumulation of metals in three freshwater mussel species exposed in situ during and after dredging at a coal ash spill site (Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant).

    PubMed

    Otter, Ryan R; McKinney, David; Brown, Bobby; Lainer, Susan; Monroe, William; Hubbs, Don; Read, Bob

    2015-06-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing coal fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant (TN, USA) failed, and within months, dredging operations began to remove ash-contaminated sediments. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the bioaccumulation of metals in three mussel species during and after dredging operations. Mussels were caged for approximately 1 year during dredging and after, and then mussel condition index values and As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Se, Hg, U, Fe, Mg, Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ag, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn concentrations in soft tissue were determined via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometery. Overall, the differences observed in metal bioaccumulation and mussel health suggest that mussels in the immediate downstream area of the dredging site may have been impacted, as evidenced by a significant decrease in mussel condition index values, but that this impact did not result in increased tissue concentrations of metals. PMID:25957195

  17. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kirklin, S.; Wolverton, C.; Stooksbury, Shelby L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.

  18. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kirklin, S.; Wolverton, C.; Stooksbury, Shelby L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model hasmore » been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.« less

  19. Impact of biofumigation with solarization on degradation of pesticides and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Fernández, Pedro; Hellín, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2008-08-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation (with sheep and chicken manure) combined with solarization on the dissipation of pesticides (pyrifenox, DDT and dieldrin), and on soil metals accumulation. The treatments consisted of a control, and soil disinfestations by biofumigation combined with solarization (B+S) for two, four, five, six consecutive years. B+S enhanced the dissipation of pyrifenox with regard to control treatment. Significant differences were not detected among plots disinfected with B+S for consecutive years. On the other hand, B+S had no effect on the dissipation of DDT and dieldrin, probably due to the resistance of these pesticides to microbial degradation and/or high temperatures. Biofumigation is considered to be an environmentally safe practice, since no accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, or Zn was observed after the subsequent application of organic matter through the treatments. PMID:18665988

  20. Nanosecond ligand migration and functional protein relaxation in ba3 oxidoreductase: Structures of the B0, B1 and B2 intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, Antonis; Soulimane, Tewfik; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2016-09-01

    Nanosecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy (nTRS (2) -FTIR) has been applied to literally probe the active site of the carbon monoxide (CO)-bound thermophilic ba3 heme-copper oxidoreductase as it executes its function. The nTRS (2) - snapshots of the photolysed heme a3 Fe-CO/CuB species captured a "transition state" whose side chains prevent the photolysed CO to enter the docking cavity. There are three sets of ba3 photoproduct bands of docked CO with different orientation exhibiting different kinetics. The trajectories of the "docked" CO at 2122, 2129 and 2137cm(-1) is referred to in the literature as B2, B1 and B0 intermediate states, respectively. The present data provided direct evidence for the role of water in controlling ligand orientation in an intracavity protein environment. PMID:27207588

  1. Arsenic and trace metals in commercially important bivalves, Anadara granosa and Paphia undulata

    SciTech Connect

    Mat, I. )

    1994-06-01

    The semi-culture of marine bivalves particularly Anadara granosa is of considerable economic importance in Malaysia. Currently, about 4-5000 ha of mudflats along the west coast are utilized for this purpose. Therefore, contamination of the highly productive mudflats with heavy metals tend to be accumulated in the filter feeding organisms such as bivalve molluscs which often serve as important environmental sinks of heavy metals. Bivalve molluscs, A. granosa and Paphia undulata are commercially important seafoods and popular among the locals in Malaysia. With this point in mind, it is intended to evaluate the concentration levels of arsenic as well as trace metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb) in both species derived from retail outlets in the city of Kuala Lumpur. Although this analysis may not indicate the site of capture but may act as a direct check on the contamination of seafoods available to the consumers. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Ashley, Paul M

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. PMID:21550704

  3. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis. PMID:21584757

  4. Current-voltage-temperature characteristics and magnetic response of Co/n-CuO/p-Si/Al heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Menyawy, E. M.; Ashery, A.; Azab, A. M.; Zeama, M. G.

    2014-07-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) films with n-type conductivity and polycrystalline structure were successfully synthesized onto p-Si substrates by simple thermal oxidation of copper films prepared by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Scanning electron microscope showed that the films consist of spherical particles with a diameter in the range of 0.5-0.67 μm. The dark current-voltage characteristics of Co/n-CuO/p-Si/Al diode were investigated in temperature range 300-390 K. The ideality factor and barrier height were determined in terms of thermionic emission theory. Norde's function was used for determining the barrier height and series resistance. At relatively higher applied voltage, space charge limited current dominated by exponential trap of distribution is the operating conduction mechanism. The Co/CuO/p-Si multilayers showed ferromagnetic response in which the coercivity and saturation magnetization are evaluated.

  5. Isolation, growth, ultrastructure, and metal tolerance of the green alga, Chlamydomonas acidophila (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Tominaga, N

    2001-12-01

    An acidophilic volvocine flagellate, Chlamydomonas acidophila (Volvocales) that was isolated from an acid lake, Katanuma, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan was studied for growth, ultrastructural characterization, and metal tolerance. Chlamydomonas acidophila is obligately photoautotrophic, and did not grow in the cultures containing acetate or citrate even in the light. The optimum pH for growth was 3.5-4.5. To characterize metal tolerance, the toxic effects of Cd, Co, Cu, and Zn on this alga were also studied. Effective metal concentrations, which limited the growth by 50%, EC50 were measured, after 72 h of static exposure. EC50s were 14.4 microM Cd2+, 81.3 microM Co2+, 141 microM Cu2+, and 1.16 mM Zn2+ for 72 h of exposure. Thus, this alga had stronger tolerance to these metals than other species in the genus Chlamydomonas. PMID:11826960

  6. Physicochemical Analysis of Indicator Lichens as a Component of Conservation Area Baseline Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Notov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The gross and average contents of 15 metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ge, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, V, and Zn) in samples of Hypogymnia physodes collected from a reserve area in Tver Region were determined using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Apparently, most of these elements appeared as a result of transboundary transfer. Their concentration in lichens depended on the atmospheric humidity. An excess of moisture in ecotopes located near rivers and swamps increased the gross concentration of separate elements in the lichens. The average contents of most elements in the specimens were within permissible limits, which allowed possible baseline element concentration ranges for this region to be established.

  7. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by

  8. Determining the geographical origin of Sechium edule fruits by multielement analysis and advanced chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Melisa J; Fechner, Diana C; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Pellerano, Roberto G

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the determination and evaluation of the major and trace element composition (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn) of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz fruits collected from four different places of production in Corrientes province, Argentina. Element concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave digestion. The accuracy was confirmed with standard reference material of spinach leaves (NIST, 1570a) and spiking tests. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to the results for discriminating the geographical origin of S. edule fruits. Finally, the LDA method was found to perform best with up to 90% accuracy rate based on the following elements: Ca, Ba, Cu, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn. PMID:27211642

  9. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. VIII - Iron meteorites and the cosmochemical history of the metal phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. R.; Larimer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition of the metal phase of iron meteorites is traced through an idealized traditional history from condensation, oxidation, and accretion in the nebula to melting, segregation, and freezing in a parent body, considering the following fifteen elements: Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, and Ru. Twelve iron meteorite groups resolved by Scott and Wasson (1975) are considered in the framework of cosmochemical historical analysis. The parent bodies of five of these groups seem to have had a traditional history. The others seem to have had more unusual histories. For example, the composition of the metal in group IVB matches that predicted for the metal condensate at 1270 K, implying accretion at high temperatures; and the metal in group IVA has a composition indicative of aggregates undergoing progressive stages of partial melting.

  10. Polyelemental nanoparticle libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Xiaolong; Hedrick, James L.; Xie, Zhuang; Wang, Shunzhi; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Hersam, Mark C.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2016-06-01

    Multimetallic nanoparticles are useful in many fields, yet there are no effective strategies for synthesizing libraries of such structures, in which architectures can be explored in a systematic and site-specific manner. The absence of these capabilities precludes the possibility of comprehensively exploring such systems. We present systematic studies of individual polyelemental particle systems, in which composition and size can be independently controlled and structure formation (alloy versus phase-separated state) can be understood. We made libraries consisting of every combination of five metallic elements (Au, Ag, Co, Cu, and Ni) through polymer nanoreactor–mediated synthesis. Important insight into the factors that lead to alloy formation and phase segregation at the nanoscale were obtained, and routes to libraries of nanostructures that cannot be made by conventional methods were developed.

  11. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples with the lowest pH values, highest specific conductances, and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, and particularly Zn and the REEs are all found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH values, lower specific conductances, lower metal concentrations, and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH values and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb, and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not support, and probably never have supported, significant megascopic faunal aquatic life.

  12. High-temperature electron irradiation and radiation-thermal technology for utilization, purification and production of some metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovetskii, Yu.; Panteleev, D.; Lunin, V.

    1998-06-01

    High-temperature irradiation by the beam of 1.2-1.6 MeV accelerated electrons has been used for production Pt, Pd, Mo, Co, Cu and Ni from desactivated Pt(Pd)-containing reforming catalysts, molybdenum sulfide hydrodesulphurization catalysts and hydrogenation catalyst waste material. The radiation-induced decomposition of supported Ni(Co)-Mo/Al 2O 3 sulfide catalyst and organic fragments of hydrogenation catalyst wastes has been studied. Radiolysis product distributions are shown as function of time (time up to 1, 0 h) and temperature (570-1400K). There was made a principle scheme of the first technological unit for radiation-thermal utilization, purification and production of some metals from solid wastes material.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and conductivity studies of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narsimulu, D.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2015-06-01

    Transition metal ferrites with general formula AB2O4 (A=Co, Cu, Mn, Zn, B=Fe+3) could be used as an anode materials in lithium ion battery (LIB), because, lithium ion batteries fabricated using ferrite materials show the high capacity than commonly used graphite. The ZnFe2O4 with cubic spinel structured material was prepared by acrylamide assisted citrate combustion process. Phase, structural coordination and thermal behavior of the prepared ZnFe2O4 were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectra and TG/DTA thermogram respectively. Morphology and specific surface area of the ZnFe2O4 were identified by SEM and BET surface analyzer respectively and its conductivity studies were made through impedance spectroscopy.

  14. Studies on CO 2 decomposition over H 2-reduced MFe 2O 4 (M = Ni, Cu, Co, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingjuan; Wu, Rui; Liu, Huadong; Xu, Wenju; Chen, Linshen; Chen, Songying

    2011-12-01

    Decomposition of CO 2 over reduced MFe 2O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Cu, Zn) was studied by H 2-TPR, H 2-TG, and CO 2-TG. XRD Rietveld analysis was used for determining phase composition and crystallite size of reduced and oxidized samples. The results indicate that spinel CoFe 2O 4 and CuFe 2O 4 are reduced to metals by H 2, while ZnFe 2O 4 and NiFe 2O 4 only partly reduced at 350 °C. The CoFe 2O 4 spinel ferrite shows the best activity in decomposing CO 2 and the ZnFe 2O 4 shows the best recovery ability in the process of redox.

  15. Perpendicular Giant Magnetoresistance Studies of Spin-Dependent Scattering in Magnetic Multilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing

    1995-01-01

    We present new measurements of Giant (negative) Magnetoresistance (GMR) in Ferromagnetic/Non-magnetic (F/N) metal multilayers in the Current Perpendicular to the layer Plane (CPP) geometry. At low temperature, when the spin diffusion lengths l_sp{sf} {N} and l_sp{sf }{F} in the N and F metals are longer than the layer thicknesses, t_{N } and t_{F}, and the elastic mean-free-paths lambda _sp{el}{N} and lambda_sp{el}{F}, a simple two current, series resistor model should describe CPP data. Prior work in our group showed that this model describes well data on Co/Ag, Co/Cu, and Permalloy (Py)/Cu. The present thesis both tests this model further, and first tests an extension of the model by Valet and Fert to shorter spin-diffusion lengths. The intrinsic CPP quantity is the area A times total resistance R_{t} of the multilayer. The first study in this thesis extends work by Lee in testing the model's prediction that a plot of a certain square root quantity sqrt {[ AR_{T}(H_{o })-AR_{T}(H_{s}) ] AR_{T}(H_{o}) } versus the bilayer number N should give the same straight line for a given F/N pair and for the same pair upon alloying the N-metal with impurities (e.g., Sn) that don't flip spins. Importantly, the prediction is independent of the specific values of the parameters of the multilayer. We show that samples of Co/Ag and Co/AgSn with fixed t_{Co}=t_ {N} obey the prediction. In the previous test, the experimental quantities AR_{t}(H_{o }) and AR_{t}(H_ {s})--H_{rm o} is the state of the sample as initially prepared and H_{rm s} is the state after taking the sample to above the saturation field H_{rm s} where the resistance stops decreasing--were taken to closely represent, respectively, AR_sp{t} {AP} and AR_sp{t} {P}, the states of anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) alignment of the magnetizations of adjacent F layers that are assumed in the models. In our second study, we test this assumption quantitatively. We made a set of (Co/Cu/Py/Cu) _{N } quadrilayers, measured

  16. Trace metal enrichment and organic matter sources in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea along southwest India (Kerala coast).

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S K; Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sujatha, C H

    2015-12-30

    The geochemical distribution and enrichment of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the surface sediments of Arabian Sea, along southwest India, Kerala coast. The results of geochemical indices indicated that surficial sediments of five transects are uncontaminated with respect to Mn, Zn and Cu, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Co and Ni, and moderately to strongly contaminated with Pb. The deposition of trace elements exhibited three different patterns i) Cd and Zn enhanced with settling biodetritus from the upwelled waters, ii) Pb, Co and Ni show higher enrichment, evidenced by the association through adsorption of iron-manganese nodules onto clay minerals and iii) Cu enrichment observed close to major urban sectors, initiated by the precipitation as Cu sulfides. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to confirm the origin information of metals and the nature of organic matter composition. PMID:26602174

  17. Local environment of metal ions in phthalocyanines: K-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; d'Acapito, F; Amidani, L; Boscherini, F; Pedio, M

    2016-09-14

    We report a detailed study of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of four transition metal phthalocyanines (MPc, M = Fe, Co, Cu and Zn). We identify the important single and multiple scattering contributions to the spectra in the extended energy range and provide a robust treatment of thermal damping; thus, a generally applicable model for the interpretation of X-ray absorption fine structure spectra is proposed. Consistent variations of bond lengths and Debye Waller factors are found as a function of atomic number of the metal ion, indicating a variation of the metal-ligand bond strength which correlates with the spatial arrangement and occupation of molecular orbitals. We also provide an interpretation of the near edge spectral features in the framework of a full potential real space multiple scattering approach and provide a connection to the local electronic structure. PMID:27510989

  18. Toxicological impact assessment of heavy metal contamination on macrobenthic communities in southern coastal sediments of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dhong-il; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Jeong, Do Hyun; Jung, Hoi Soo

    2013-08-15

    In the heavily industrialized Masan Bay of southern coast, Korea, the potential harmful effects of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Hg) were evaluated in terms of the pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk assessment index (ERI) methods, and the results obtained were considered alongside the health of the macrobenthic fauna communities. The results revealed that the bay sediments, especially in the inner bay and the outfall area of a sewage treatment plant, are exposed to moderate to serious levels of metal pollution. Hg and Cd contributed the most to the potential toxicity response indices in sediments recently deposited in the bay. The potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the bay was highlighted by the use of the benthic biological pollution index (BPI), suggesting that the ERI is a useful toxicity response index, which can quantify the overall ecological risk level to a target environment. PMID:23845190

  19. Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper cobalt deposits, central African Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailteux, J. L. H.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Lerouge, C.; Kaputo, A. K.; Milesi, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    The Neoproterozoic central African Copperbelt is one of the greatest sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co provinces in the world, totalling 140 Mt copper and 6 Mt cobalt and including several world-class deposits (⩾10 Mt copper). The origin of Cu-Co mineralisation in this province remains speculative, with the debate centred around syngenetic-diagenetic and hydrothermal-diagenetic hypotheses. The regional distribution of metals indicates that most of the cobalt-rich copper deposits are hosted in dolomites and dolomitic shales forming allochthonous units exposed in Congo and known as Congolese facies of the Katangan sedimentary succession (average Co:Cu = 1:13). The highest Co:Cu ratio (up to 3:1) occurs in ore deposits located along the southern structural block of the Lufilian Arc. The predominantly siliciclastic Zambian facies, exposed in Zambia and in SE Congo, forms para-autochthonous sedimentary units hosting ore deposits characterized by lower a Co:Cu ratio (average 1:57). Transitional lithofacies in Zambia (e.g. Baluba, Mindola) and in Congo (e.g. Lubembe) indicate a gradual transition in the Katangan basin during the deposition of laterally correlative clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks exposed in Zambia and in Congo, and are marked by Co:Cu ratios in the range 1:15. The main Cu-Co orebodies occur at the base of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup, which is characterized by evaporitic intertidal-supratidal sedimentary rocks. All additional lenticular orebodies known in the upper part of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup are hosted in similar sedimentary rocks, suggesting highly favourable conditions for the ore genesis in particular sedimentary environments. Pre-lithification sedimentary structures affecting disseminated sulphides indicate that metals were deposited before compaction and consolidation of the host sediment. The ore parageneses indicate several generations of sulphides marking syngenetic, early diagenetic and late diagenetic processes. Sulphur isotopic

  20. Synthesis and characterizations of microwave sintered ferrite powders and their composite films for practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannigrahi, S. R.; Pramoda, K. P.; Nugroho, F. A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Phase pure single phase ferrite powders of (NixR1-x)0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (R=Mn, Co, Cu; x=0, 0.5) were manufactured using microwave sintering at 930 °C for 10 min in air atmosphere. The powders were characterized for their structure, microstructure, thermal, and magnetic properties. Selected powders were used as fillers to prepare their composite films using polymethyl methacrylate polymers as matrix. The composite films were prepared using the melt blending approach and were tested for their microstructure, thermal, and magnetic hysteresis loop as well as 3D magnetic field space mappings using an electromagnetic compatibility scanner. Among the studied ferrites, cobalt doped ferrites and their composites showed the best electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness value and have potential for practical EMI shielding applications.

  1. Sequential extraction procedure for the determination of some trace elements in fertilizer samples.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Yunus Emre; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Total concentration of metal ions at trace levels does not give sufficient information about toxicity and biological availability of these elements in fertilizer samples. In the presented work, a sequential extraction procedure modified by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied to fractionate Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn levels in two fertilizer samples collected from cooperative agricultural retailers. The fractions extracted were exchangeable/dilute acid soluble, reducible bound to Fe/Mn oxides, oxidizable bound to organic matter and sulfides, and residual. The determination of analyte elements was done by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the procedure was validated with BCR-701 sediment certified reference material. The RSD of the procedure was less than 10%. PMID:25145134

  2. High post-annealing stability for perpendicular [Co/Ni] n multilayers by preventing interfacial diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Jiang, Shao-Long; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Han, Gang; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Yi-Wei; Wang, Dong-Wei; Feng, Chun; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports that by introducing an appropriate thickness of Cu spacer at a Co/Ni interface, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of [Co/Cu/Ni] n multilayers can be maintained at the annealing temperature as high as 400 °C, implying high post-annealing stability. X-ray reflectivity results demonstrate that the multilayers with Cu spacer exhibit good multilayer structure, indicating the weak intermixing of Co and Ni, which is one important reason for the enhanced post-annealing stability of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The result is of great importance for out-of-plane magnetized spintronic devices which need to be combined with complementary metal-oxide semiconductors.

  3. Size-dependent switching of multilayer magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. A.; Castaño, F. J.; Rodriguez, E.; Haratani, S.; Vögeli, B.; Smith, Henry I.

    2005-03-01

    Pseudo-spin-valve NiFe /Cu/NiFe, Co /Cu/Co, NiFe /Cu/Co films and magnetic tunnel junction films have been patterned into arrays of rectangular elements with widths of 40-140nm and aspect ratios of 1.5-18. The switching field of the hard and soft layers and the interaction field between the layers have been measured as a function of aspect ratio. In the pseudo-spin-valve structures the behavior is dominated by magnetostatic interactions between the layers, leading to antiparallel alignment of the hard and soft layers at remanence for small aspect ratios. Patterned tunnel junction films show weaker magnetostatic effects, and the exchange bias from the antiferromagnetic layer is preserved on patterning.

  4. Designing novel bulk metallic glass composites with a high aluminum content

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. P.; Gao, J. E.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, Z. P.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing challenge for forming Al-based BMGs and their matrix composites with a critical size larger than 1 mm have not been answered over the past three decades. In this paper, we reported formation of a series of BMG matrix composites which contain a high Al content up to 55 at.%. These composites can be cast at extraordinarily low cooling rates, compatible with maximum rod diameters of over a centimetre in copper mold casting. Our results indicate that proper additions of transition element Fe which have a positive heat of mixing with the main constituents La and Ce can appreciably improve the formability of the BMG matrix composites by suppressing the precipitation of Al(La,Ce) phase resulted from occurrence of the phase separation. However, the optimum content of Fe addition is strongly dependant on the total amount of the Al content in the Al-(CoCu)-(La,Ce) alloys. PMID:24284800

  5. Large Seebeck magnetic anisotropy in thin Co films embedded in Cu determined by ab initio investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Kratzer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The longitudinal thermopower of a Cu/Co/Cu trilayer system exhibits an oscillatory dependence on the thickness of the Co layer, a behavior related to the formation of quantum well states in the minority spin channel. In addition, it is found to be very sensitive to a switching between an in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. The resulting magnetothermopower (MTP) is therefore much larger than anticipated from the conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Our calculations establish a direct connection between the magnitude of the MTP signal and the asymmetry of the AMR around the Fermi energy. An enhancement of MTP based on this understanding may offer the possibility of implementing an efficient spin read-out thermoelectric device based on a single ferromagnetic layer.

  6. Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owor, Michael; Hartwig, Tina; Muwanga, Andrew; Zachmann, Dieter; Pohl, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Kilembe copper mine in western Uganda is a source of contaminants, mobilised from mine tailings into R. Rukoki flowing through a belt of wetlands into Lake George. Water and sediments were investigated on the lakeshore and the lakebed. Metal associations in the sediments reflect the Kilembe sulphide mineralisation. Enrichment of metals was compared between lakebed sediments, both for wet and dry seasons. Total C in a lakebed core shows a general increment, while Cu and Co decrease with depth. The contaminants are predominant (> 65%) in the ≤ 63 μm sediment size range with elevated Cu and Zn (> 28%), while Ni, Pb and Co are low (< 18%) in all the fractions. Sequential extraction of Fe for lakeshore sediment samples reveals low Fe mobility. Relatively higher mobility and biological availability is seen for Co, Cu and S. Heavy metal contents in lake waters are not an immediate risk to the aquatic environment.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants of kizilirmak delta (samsun, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Engin, M S; Uyanik, A; Kutbay, H G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb) were measured in water bodies including streams, bottom sediments and various wetland plants of Kızılırmak Delta. Kızılırmak Delta is one of the largest and the most important natural wetlands in Turkey and has been protected by Ramsar convention since 1993. The heavy metal concentrations in water were found lower than that of national standards for protected lakes and reserves. In bottom sediments and wetland plants, however, the accumulated amounts of different heavy metals varied in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb, and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co respectively. Heavy metal uptake of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Myriophyllum verticillatum plants among others were found far above the toxic levels and they might be used as bio-indicators and heavy metal accumulators in polluted natural areas. PMID:25174426

  8. Studies on salts of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4,6-trinitroanilino benzoic acid (TABA): potential energetic ballistic modifiers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P B; Reddy, T S; Nair, J K; Nazare, A N; Talawar, M B; Mukundan, T; Asthana, S N

    2005-08-31

    The Co/Cu/Ni/Fe salts of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4,6-trinitroanilino benzoic acid (TABA) were prepared and characterized during this work. All the salts exhibited exothermic decomposition in DSC. The FT-IR spectra of the gaseous products evolved during TGA of NTO salts indicated the release of NO2 and cleavage of NTO ring during the course of decomposition. Thermal decomposition of TABA salts also produced NO2 on decomposition. The transition metal salts enhanced the burning rates of AP-HTPB composite propellant evaluated during this work. The best catalytic effect was obtained with Fe-NTO salt which increased the burning rate to the extent of approximately 80% as well as brought down the pressure index (n) to 0.18 (2-9MPa). PMID:15939535

  9. A statistical study of environmental factors controlling concentrations of heavy metals in the burrowing bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Bryan, G. W.

    1982-07-01

    Multiple regression analyses indicate that the most important factors controlling Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the estuarine bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor are the concentrations of these metals in surface sediments and the partitioning of sediment-bound metals between different sediment constituents. Extraction of the sediments with 1-N HCl provides more information about the bioavailability of the metals than do extractions with five other techniques. Biologically available Cd and Co in solution contribute significantly to Cd and Co concentrations in both Scrobicularia and Nereis. Concentrations of Ag in Scrobicularia are reduced where Cu concentrations in sediments are high. An unexplained increase in concentrations of Cu in Scrobicularia at specific stations in six estuaries suggests that under certain very anoxic conditions the availability of copper may be exceptionally high.

  10. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  11. The effects of phosphorus additions on the sedimentation of contaminants in a uranium mine pit-lake.

    PubMed

    Dessouki, Tarik C E; Hudson, Jeff J; Neal, Brian R; Bogard, Matthew J

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the usefulness of phytoplankton for the removal of surface water contaminants. Nine large mesocosms (92.2m(3)) were suspended in the flooded DJX uranium pit at Cluff Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada), and filled with highly contaminated mine water. Each mesocosm was fertilized with a different amount of phosphorus throughout the 35 day experiment to stimulate phytoplankton growth, and to create a range in phosphorus load (g) to examine how contaminants may be affected by different nutrient regimes. Algal growth was rapid in fertilized mesocosms (as demonstrated by chlorophyll a profiles). As phosphorus loads increased there were significant declines (p<0.05) in the surface water concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. This decline was near significant for uranium (p=0.065). The surface water concentrations of Ra-226, Mo, and Se showed no relationship to phosphorus load. Contaminant concentrations in sediment traps suspended at the bottom of each mesocosm generally showed the opposite trend to that observed in the surface water, with most contaminants (As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ra-226, U, and Zn) exhibiting a significant positive relationship (p<0.05) with phosphorus load. Selenium and Mo did not respond to nutrient treatments. Our results suggest that phytoremediation has the potential to lower many surface water contaminants through the sedimentation of phytoplankton. Based on our results, we estimate that the Saskatchewan Surface Water Quality Objectives (SSWQO) for DJX pit would be met in approximately 45 weeks for Co, 65 weeks for Ni, 15 weeks for U, and 5 weeks for Zn. PMID:15979684

  12. Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of selected Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming

    Heusler compounds are ternary intermetallics with many promising properties such as spin polarization and magnetic shape memory effect. A better understanding of their thermodynamic properties facilitates future design and development. Therefore, standard enthalpies of formation and heat capacities from room temperature to 1500 K of selected Heusler compounds X2YZ (X = Co, Fe, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ru; Y = Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Zr; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) and half-Heusler compounds XYSn (X = Au, Co, Fe, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh; Y = Hf, Mn, Ti, Zr) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation were compared with those predicted from ab initio calculations and the extended semi-empirical Miedema's model. Trends in standard enthalpy of formation with respect to the periodic classification of elements were discussed. The effect of a fourth element (Co, Cu, Fe, Pd; Ti, V; Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge) on the standard enthalpy of formation of Ni2MnSn was also investigated. Lattice parameters of the compounds with an L21 structure were determined using X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine melting points and phase transformation temperatures. Phase relationships were investigated using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The isothermal section of the Fe-Sn-Ti ternary system at 873 K was established using equilibrated alloys. Three ternary compounds including the Heusler compound Fe2SnTi were observed. A new ternary compound Fe5Sn9Ti 6 was reported and the crystal structure of FeSnTi2 was determined for the first time.

  13. Effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron and magnetite (Fe3O4) on the fate of metals during anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Suanon, Fidèle; Sun, Qian; Mama, Daouda; Li, Jiangwei; Dimon, Biaou; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the most widely used processes to stabilize waste sewage sludge and produce biogas renewable energy. In this study, two different iron nanoparticles [nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and magnetite (Fe3O4)] were used in the mesophilic AD processes (37 ± 1 °C) to improve biogas production. In addition, changes of heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr) speciation during AD of sludge with and without iron nanoparticles have been investigated. Concentrations of metals in the initial sludge were as follows: 63.1, 73.4, 1102.2, 2060.3, 483.9 and 604.1 mg kg(-1) (dry sludge basis) for Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively. Sequential fractionation showed that metals were predominantly bonded to organic matter and carbonates in the initial sludge. Compared with AD without iron nanoparticles, the application of iron nanoparticles (at dose of 0.5% in this study) showed positive impact not only on biogas production, but also on improvement of metals stabilization in the digestate. Metals were found concentrated in Fe-Mn bound and residual fractions and little was accumulated in the liquid digestate and most mobile fractions of solid digestate (water soluble, exchangeable and carbonates bound). Therefore, iron nanoparticles when properly used, could improve not only biogas yield, but also regulate and control the mobilization of metals during AD process. However, our study also observed that iron nanoparticles could promote the immobilization of phosphorus within the sludge during AD, and more research is needed to fully address the mechanism behind this phenomenon and the impact on future phosphorus reuse. PMID:26613183

  14. Distribution and Transport of Chemical Constituents in the Clyde Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, F. L. L.; Tranter, M.; Balls, P. W.

    1994-08-01

    Five transects of the Clyde Estuary were carried out between August 1989 and March 1991, always during the last 2 h of the flood tide. The following water-column properties were examined: dissolved, leachable particulate and detrital particulate trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni), pH, alkalinity, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, suspended particulate matter and dissolved nutrients (PO 4, NH 3 + NH 4, NO 3, NO 2, Si). The distribution patterns for both dissolved metals and nutrients reflected their quasi-conservative behaviour in the lower estuary, but were more difficult to interpret in the upper estuary due to the multiplicity of inputs. The suspended particulate material (SPM) collected in the lower estuary at 3 m was depleted in leachable Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and enriched in leachable Mn and Pb relative to the upper estuary. For Mn, the degree of enrichment increased towards the mouth of the estuary, and also with decreasing 'effective freshwater input', indicating that the oxidation of Mn(II) proceeds outside the estuary (Firth of Clyde) and to an extent dependent on the residence time of water in that coastal sea area. The quasi-conservative behaviour of most dissolved and particulate constituents within the estuary results from a combination of short residence time (3-7 days) and low SPM (2-10 mg l -1). This behaviour makes it possible to estimate their net seaward fluxes before these become modified by the processes of coagulation (Fe), sorption (Zn, Pb, Co) and oxidative precipitation (Mn) operating in the Firth of Clyde. The seaward fluxes of NH 4 + NH 3, NO 2, PO 4, dissolved Mn, particulate Fe, Zn and Cu are approximately constant throughout the year. Other dissolved and particulate metal fluxes are best represented by an increasing function of freshwater discharge, although the large residual variability attests to the greater complexity of input functions for trace metals.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested. PMID:25958086

  16. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  17. In situ evaluation of DGT techniques for measurement of trace metals in estuarine waters: a comparison of four binding layers with open and restricted diffusive layers.

    PubMed

    Shiva, Amir Houshang; Bennett, William W; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Four different DGT binding layers were used to make selective measurements of trace metals in coastal waters within The Broadwater (Gold Coast, Queensland). Chelex and PAMPAA (polyacrylamide-polyacrylic acid) binding layers were used to measure cations (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn), and Metsorb was used to measure anions (Al, As, Mo, Sb, V, W). A mixed binding layer (MBL) containing both Chelex and Metsorb was used to measure each of the trace metals and determine diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thicknesses. DGT measurements that were not corrected for the DBL thickness (0.049-0.087) were underestimated by 70% on average. Good agreement was observed between DGT-MBL and DGT-Chelex for measurement of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and between DGT-MBL and DGT-Metsorb for As, Sb and V. DGT-MBL measured significantly higher concentrations for Mn (compared with DGT-Chelex) and Al (compared with DGT-Metsorb). DGT-Chelex measured only 6-8% of Al species measured by either DGT-MBL or DGT-Metsorb. DGT-PAMPAA measurements of Cu, Pb and Al were lower than those of either DGT-MBL or DGT-Chelex varying from 74-81% for Cu to 54-70% for Pb and 51-55% for anionic Al(OH)4(-), suggesting that this binding layer may make more selective measurements. All measured trace metal concentrations were well below ANZECC water quality guidelines, except for Cu which was 2 to 10 times higher than trigger values. Each of the DGT techniques was deployed using both open and restricted diffusive layers (ODL and RDL). Most trace metal measurements were not significantly different with ODL and RDL for all binding layers. However, concentrations of Cu (CRDL/CODL = 0.68-0.75) and Al (CRDL/CODL = 0.73-0.79) were significantly different with DGT-MBL, DGT-Chelex and DGT-Metsorb. PMID:26678534

  18. Enhancement of output power in spin torque nano-oscillator using heterogeneous layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Sabareesan, P.

    2016-05-01

    The article mainly focuses on the enrichment of the output power obatined from Spin torque nano-oscillator by introducing the heterogeneous structure in multilayer nanopillar device. Here we devised two homogeneous and two heterogeneous devices having NiFe and Co materials. The dynamics of the devices are governed by a famous Landu- Lifshitz -Gilbert-Solencskwei (LLGS) equation which can be solved numerically usin embedded RK-4 procedure. The current density and the external magnetic field for four devices are taken as 5×l011A/m2 and 6×l0-3 A/m respectively. The applied dc current is converted into spin polarized dc current while it passes through pinned layer. The generated spin polarized dc currents produces spin transfer torque with the free layer magnetization via spacer. Thus the magnetization of the free layer gets a sustained oscillaton. The results obtained from the heterogeneous STNOs are really fascinating. The frequency of the NiFe/ Cu/NiFe and Co/Cu/NiFe devices have the same frequency but there is a tremendous change in the output power which is exactly twice that the NiFe/Cu/NiFe device. The similar behaviour is also obtained from Co/Cu/Co and NiFe/Cu/Co devices. The line width and the Q-factor of the output microwave signal are also computed. Among the four devices, the NiFe/Cu/Co heterogeneous device has low linewidth (408 MHz) and high Q-factor (4.77).

  19. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial variation distribution, uncertainties and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Z.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gao, J. J.; Cheng, K.; Hao, J. M.; Wang, K.; Hua, S. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we established the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949-2012 for the first time. Further, we allocated the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn during the period of 1949-2012, have been increased by about 22-128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1-8.0%, amounting to about 79 570 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metals smelting represent the dominant sources for Hg / Cd, As / Se / Pb / Cr / Ni / Mn / Co, Sb / Cu, and Zn, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions were concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metals smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on accounting of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  20. Successive spin polarizations underlying a new magnetic coupling contribution in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Andriotis, Antonis N; Fthenakis, Zacharias G; Menon, Madhu

    2015-02-11

    We propose a new type of magnetic coupling (MC) that is found in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). The origin of this is found to be the result of charge transfer processes followed by successive spin polarizations (SSPs) along successive cation-anion segments which include the impurities. The basic process underlying the SSP-based MC (SSP-MC) is the sharing of a single spin orbital by two neighboring impurities. As such, it can be considered as a localized double exchange as it is not mediated by free carriers. SSP-MC can be either ferromagnetic (SSP-FMC) or antiferromagnetic (SSP-AFMC) and, as demonstrated here, the SSP-FMC can be significantly enhanced via codoping; it can act in competition with superexchange and/or double and/or p-d exchange interactions. While the SSP-MC is not directly related to the magnitude of the magnetic moments of the impurities, it depends strongly on the energy difference of the host and impurity d-band centers, the difference of their electronegativities and rather weakly on the coupling interactions between them as well as between the cations and their mediating anions. The validity of the proposed SSP-MC as a new type of magnetic coupling is demonstrated by ab initio results for DMSs, namely ZnO, GaN, GaP, TiO2 and MoS2 monodoped (with Co, Cu and Mn) and codoped (with Co-Cu-Co and Mn-Cu-Mn). PMID:25614683

  1. Successive spin polarizations underlying a new magnetic coupling contribution in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriotis, Antonis N.; Fthenakis, Zacharias G.; Menon, Madhu

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new type of magnetic coupling (MC) that is found in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). The origin of this is found to be the result of charge transfer processes followed by successive spin polarizations (SSPs) along successive cation-anion segments which include the impurities. The basic process underlying the SSP-based MC (SSP-MC) is the sharing of a single spin orbital by two neighboring impurities. As such, it can be considered as a localized double exchange as it is not mediated by free carriers. SSP-MC can be either ferromagnetic (SSP-FMC) or antiferromagnetic (SSP-AFMC) and, as demonstrated here, the SSP-FMC can be significantly enhanced via codoping; it can act in competition with superexchange and/or double and/or p-d exchange interactions. While the SSP-MC is not directly related to the magnitude of the magnetic moments of the impurities, it depends strongly on the energy difference of the host and impurity d-band centers, the difference of their electronegativities and rather weakly on the coupling interactions between them as well as between the cations and their mediating anions. The validity of the proposed SSP-MC as a new type of magnetic coupling is demonstrated by ab initio results for DMSs, namely ZnO, GaN, GaP, TiO2 and MoS2 monodoped (with Co, Cu and Mn) and codoped (with Co-Cu-Co and Mn-Cu-Mn).

  2. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Z.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gao, J. J.; Cheng, K.; Hao, J. M.; Wang, K.; Hua, S. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have caused worldwide concern due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we establish the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949-2012 for the first time. Further, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn, during the period of 1949-2012, increased by about 22-128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1-8.0 %, reaching about 526.9-22 319.6 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metal smelting represent the dominant sources of heavy metal emissions. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern, and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metal smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  3. Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Point, D.; Monperrus, M.; Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Chauvaud, L.; Thouzeau, G.; Jean, F.; Amice, E.; Grall, J.; Leynaert, A.; Clavier, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2007-04-01

    In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at four stations that presented different macrobenthic and macrophytic species distribution and abundance (see [Thouzeau, G., Grall, J., Clavier, J., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Leynaert, A., Longpuirt, S., Amice, E., Amouroux, D., 2007. Spatial and temporal variability of benthic biogeochemical fluxes associated with macrophytic and macrofaunal distributions in the Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72 (3), 432 446.]). The results indicate that most of the flux intensity as well as the temporal and spatial variability can be explained by the combined influence of microscale and macroscale processes. Microscale changes were identified using Mn flux as a good indicator of the redox conditions at the sediment water interface, and by extension, as an accurate proxy of benthic fluxes for most trace metals and mercury species. We also observed that the redox gradient at the interface is promoted by both microbial and macrobenthic species activity that governs O2 budgets. Macroscale processes have been investigated considering macrobenthic organisms activity (macrofauna and macroalgal cover). The density of such macroorganisms is able to explain most of the spatial and temporal variability of the benthic metal fluxes within a specific site. A tentative estimation of the flux of metals and organometals associated with deposit feeder and suspension feeder activity was found to be in the range of the flux determined within the chambers for most considered elements. Furthermore, a light/dark incubation investigating a dense macroalgal cover present at the sediment surface illustrates the role

  4. Electron stimulated desorption studies of the adsorption and dynamics of molecules on a copper(110) single crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocuta, Dan Mihai

    This thesis describes studies of angular distributions produced by the electron stimulated desorption of ions and neutrals from adsorbates on a Cu(110) surface. A new technique, time-of-flight electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (TOF-ESDIAD), has been developed and several studies using this method are reported. The low frequency frustrated translation mode of a model system, low coverage CO/Cu(110), is analyzed using TOF-ESDIAD. A simplified model is used to extract the energies of this mode along the two crystal azimuthal directions. A first time measurement of an anisotropy of this mode in the two directions is reported. The same frustrated translational energies giving the same anisotropy have been measured in a helium atom scattering experiment in confirmation of the ESDIAD measurements. An analysis of the TOF distributions of species desorbing from CO/Cu(110) shows that these are Maxwellian. It is shown that CO* and CO+ have similar TOF distributions, indicating a common desorption channel for both species. The ability of ESDIAD to measure chemical bond directions has been put to use in the observation of interadsorbate interactions. It is shown that at high CO coverage on the Cu(110) surface, the CO molecules agglomerate in chains and tilt away from the surface normal. The same phenomenon is observed in the case of NH3, where H+ ions produced by rupturing the N-H bonds of this molecule are imaged. The NH3 molecules can be trapped in a tilted position by cooling the copper surface using liquid helium. It is shown that such a configuration is a precursor to the upright chemisorbed configuration, in which the molecules rotate around the C3v axis. Not only can we image using the electrons, but we can produce new species by electron bombardment. The dissociation of NH3 to NH2 and H has been induced by electrons and the formation of these products is witnessed using ESDIAD. The oxygen induced reconstruction of the Cu(110) surface is studied

  5. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  6. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot

  7. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  8. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-01-14

    We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

  9. Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, I.; Águila, E.; Galán, E.

    2007-08-01

    Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite confined zone rich in organic matter and S, the most important trace-element anomalies (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) were found, mainly around industry and old mining activities. In the surrounding of the city of Nador (zone B), the anomalies correspond to Mn, Cu and Zn. The coastal barrier and Kebdana channel (zone C) show moderately concentrations of Cd, Cr and Ni at specific sites. The less polluted area is the SE of the lagoon (zone D), with no outstanding anomaly. In lagoon sediments, metal bioavailability is very low. The metal partitioning patterns show that Cu, Pb and Zn present a low availability because they are bounded to the residual, non-mobile phases of the sediments. Only in some sites, the fraction was associated with organic matter, which could be liberated easily. Arsenic is concentrated in both the residual phases and the organic matter, the latter being more available. Cadmium is mainly concentrated in some samples in the interchangeable fraction, which could be considered as a potentially toxic element because it is easily released. Concerning the origin of these trace elements, those found in zone A correspond mostly to a natural source by weathering of mount Gourougou volcanic rocks (As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn), and to an anthropogenic origin (Cd) owing to the presence of industry and old mines. In zone B, contributions of Cu and Zn enter the lagoon through soil weathering and river-borne, and as anthropogenic pollution from urban wastes. In zone C the most important pollutant is Cd deduced to be of anthropogenic origin from the close industry and intensive agriculture area. In spite

  10. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  11. Examining trace metal contamination in an unanthropogenically impacted lake in Algonquin Park: implications for environmental bacterial communities and antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, A. V.; Plach, J.; Droppo, I.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Identifying the biogeochemical processes influencing the interactions amongst trace metals, microbial communities, pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is key to predicting the emergence, dissemination and maintenance of ABR in the environmental arena. The co-selection of heavy metal resistance and ABR has been documented in metal-contaminated environments. However, as yet, little research has been conducted assessing the metal status of 'pristine' area lakes and associated environmental bacterial communities. As part of a larger project evaluating metal-bacterial-ABR-pathogen interactions, a field survey of 6 variably contaminated aquatic systems was conducted in the summer of 2008, including Brewer Lake -a highly organic, circumneutral, Fe stained lake in Algonquin Park. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess metal concentrations for the suite of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn amongst the water column, suspended floc and bed sediments for this lake. The characterization and sampling protocol included 1) in situ characterization of overlying water column physicochemical parameters and 2) collection of water samples, suspended flocs (by field flow centrifugation) and bed sediment samples (by core; surficial and at depth) for subsequent metal analysis. Floc- and sediment-associated metals were partitioned into 6 operationally defined solid matrix fractions by sequential extraction: the exchangeable (loosely bound); carbonate; reducible amorphous Fe/Mn hydrous oxides; reducible crystalline Fe/Mn oxides; and residual fractions. Results indicate that the partitioning of metals between solid (floc, sediments) and dissolved compartments is largely element- dependent. Mean total metal concentrations in the sediments ranged from nM (Ag,Se, Cd) to μM (As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) with only Cu and Co (nM) and Zn ( μM) being detected in the water column. However in all cases floc-associated metal concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than in

  12. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high

  13. Geochemical composition of permafrost-affected soils around the town Tiksi, Northern Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, Iuliia; Eschenbach, Annette; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Northeastern Siberia represents an area remote from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. However, a risk of airborne pollution by trace metals from anthropogenic sources connected to the settlements exists. The largest of these are the settlements Tiksi (71° 42' 55.6" N, 128° 48' 46.3" E) and Kyusyur (70° 45' 41.7" N, 127° 23' 04.7" E). The area of Tiksi is located between the Lena River and the Kharaulach River mouths. It covers parts of Primorsky Ridge and Kharaulach Mountains which are a part of the Verkhoyansk Range. The objective of this study was to investigate features of the spatial element distribution in representative landscape-geochemical units of the Tiksi area and to identify whether local pollution from the settlement takes place. The physical and chemical properties of soils were accessed at three sites located radially in the immediate vicinity to the town Tiksi and one control site remote 10 km south from the settlement. The elements measured were As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils. Differences in the element content were found for various relief forms (depressions, slopes, and elevations). The coefficient of soil buffer capacity (Bf) for the surface soil horizons in depressions was the highest (Bf > 40 %) for the majority of elements indicating their intensive accumulation there. In the surface soil horizons of elevated landscape forms the coefficient, by contrast showed low to very low soil buffer capacity to accumulate metals (0 % < Bf < 20 %). The hill slopes of the study area were characterized by moderate to high Bf (20 - 40 %) for As, Cd, Co, Cu, and Mn, low to moderate Bf (10 - 30 %) for Zn, and very low Bf (< 10 %) for elements Fe, Pb, and Ni. Based on the results, it was concluded that element properties and soil acidity together with features of topography and water drainage are likely to govern more intensive element migration to adjacent landscapes and their accumulation on acid-base barriers. No significant

  14. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) >80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20±0.13 to (0.30±0.56)×10(3) mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (<25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p≤0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and -log(Ksp(MeS)/Ksp(pyr)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn≈MnCo. Lastly, a strong correlation (r(2)=0.87, p<0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are preferentially accumulated by the polychaete, making it a

  15. Bioavailability assessment of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Bioavailability of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds has been assessed by using an in vitro dialyzability approach. The samples studied included walnuts, Brazil nuts, Macadamia nuts, pecans, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashews, peanuts, pistachios and seeds (almond, pine, pumpkin and sunflower). Metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dialyzates and also in samples after a microwave assisted acid digestion pre-treatment. Low dialyzability percentages were found for Al, Fe and Hg; moderate percentages were found for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl and Zn; and high dialyzability ratios were found for As, Cr and Ni. The highest dialyzability percentages were found in raw chestnuts and raw hazelnuts. Metal dialyzability was found to be negatively affected by fat content. Positive correlation was found between carbohydrate content and metal dialyzability ratios. Protein and dietary fibre content did not influence metal bioavailability. Predicted dialyzability for some metals based on fat and protein content could also be established. PMID:27006225

  16. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2016-06-23

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. Themore » uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.« less

  17. Spin polarization and exchange coupling of Cu and Mn atoms in paramagnetic CuMn diluted alloys induced by a Co layer

    SciTech Connect

    Abes, M.; Arena, D.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Charlton, T.R.; Langridge, S.; Hase, T.P.A.; Ali, M.; Marrows, C.H.; Hickey, B.J.; Neudert, Al; Hicken, R.J.; Wilkins, S.B.; Mirone, A.; Lebegue, S.

    2010-11-09

    Using the surface, interface, and element specificity of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering in combination with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have spatially resolved the magnetic spin polarization, and the associated interface proximity effect, in a Mn-based high-susceptibility material close to a ferromagnetic Co layer. We have measured the magnetic polarization of Mn and Cu3d electrons in paramagnetic CuMn alloy layers in [Co/Cu(x)/CuMn/Cu(x)]{sub 20} multilayer samples with varying copper layer thicknesses from x=0 to 25 {angstrom}. The size of the Mn and CuL{sub 2,3} edge dichroism shows a decrease in the Mn-induced polarization for increasing copper thickness indicating the dominant interfacial nature of the Cu and Mn spin polarization. The Mn polarization is much higher than that of Cu. Evidently, the Mn moment is a useful probe of the local spin density. Mn atoms appear to be coupled antiferromagnetically with the Co layer below x = 10 {angstrom} and ferromagnetically coupled above. In contrast, the interfacial Cu atoms remain ferromagnetically aligned to the Co layer for all thicknesses studied.

  18. Determination of inorganic contaminants in polyamide textiles used for manufacturing sport T-shirts.

    PubMed

    Matoso, Erika; Cadore, Solange

    2012-01-15

    An acid microwave closed vessel digestion method was used for the determination of inorganic contaminants (Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni and Hg) in polyamide raw materials (pellets) and textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The initial tests were carried out with samples of polyamide pellets, which is the main raw material used to manufacture sport textiles. The recovery factors obtained were 94.4-105.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-2.2%. The proposed method was evaluated by addition and recovery tests and also using certified reference materials (ERM-BCR680 and ERM-BCR681) showing good accuracy. The residual acidity was about 4% HNO(3) (w/w) and the quantification limits were from 0.1 to 6.6 mg kg(-1). After the development of these parameters for the raw material, the method was applied to textile samples from different sport fabrics obtained from three different brands. The residual carbon after sample digestion was 0.2% (w/w) and the most significant result was obtained for chromium, 901 mg kg(-1), in black fabric. Lixiviation tests using synthetic sweat and temperature were carried out on two black samples, showing that only 0.3% of the initial concentration migrated to the solution. PMID:22265532

  19. Effects of atmospheric precipitation additions on phytoplankton photosynthesis in Lake Michigan water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.I.; Tisue, G.T.; Kennedy, C.W.; Seils, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of incremental additions (0.1 to 50% v/v) of atmospheric precipitation on phytoplankton photosynthesis (/sup 14/C uptake) were tested in Lake Michigan water samples. Wet deposition was used in experiments I, III, and IV, and a melted snow core was used in experiment II. Additions of precipitation significantly reduced photosynthesis in the first three experiments, starting at about the 5 to 15% treatment level. No significant difference occurred in experiment IV, but photosynthesis was greater than in the control samples and this precipitation sample appeared to stimulate primary productivity. Soluble reactive phosphate, nitrate, and ammonia levels in the precipitation samples exceeded the lake water averages by factors of 10, 2, and 50, respectively. Silicon levels in precipitation reduced pH very little and no consistent relationship was observed with reduced photosynthesis. Alkalinity was greatly reduced in the treated samples and special precautions were required in ce, Ti, Be, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, P,f the Pd crystals of about 30 A. Possible mechanisms are discussed for isotope exchange in CO molecules in these catalysts and for the promoting effect of Pd on the activity of CuO.

  20. Impact of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the contamination of marine biota by heavy elements.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Maria; Arnaudguilhem, Carine; El Samad, Omar; Khozam, Rola Bou; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    Due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation, metals are important marine environment pollutants, especially in low renewal rate water such as the Mediterranean Sea, receiving a lot of untreated industrial waste. The impact of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the marine biota metal contamination was studied. Several types of organisms: crabs, mussels, patella and fish were collected from two areas of the Lebanese coast, one subjected to the impact of the plant and another away from it; samples were analyzed for Zn, U, Cr, V, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Cd and Pb by ICP-MS. Higher accumulation was in crabs, patella, and mussels. Fish accumulated principally Zn, Cu, and Cd; a difference was observed between species and tissues. Cytosol metal fractionation using size-exclusion LC-ICP-MS showed principally Pb, As, Co, and Mn in the low molecular weight fraction (<1.8 Da); Cd, Zn, and Cu in the metallothionein fraction (1.8--18 k Da), and Ni in high molecular weight fraction (>20 kDa). PMID:26002362

  1. Seasonal variability and inter-species comparison of metal bioaccumulation in caged gammarids under urban diffuse contamination gradient: implications for biomonitoring investigations.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Geffard, Olivier; Urien, Nastassia; François, Adeline; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2015-04-01

    Although caging of Gammarus species offers promising lines of inquiry to monitor metal bioavailability in freshwaters, the interspecies responsiveness to metal exposures is still unclear. In addition, abiotic factors inherent to transplantation can hamper the interpretation of field bioaccumulation data. To assess the relevance of using gammarids as biomonitors, we investigated the seasonal influence on metal bioaccumulation in two common species, Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum. During four seasons, caged gammarids were deployed on three sites along the Seine River exhibiting a diffuse gradient of multi-metal contamination: a site upstream and two sites downstream from the Paris megacity. For each seasonal deployment, metal concentrations in animals were determined after 7d-exposure in situ (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Results show that the seasonal patterns of metal contaminations are similar between both Gammarus species, and closely related to the river axis' contamination gradient. Statistical analyses indicate that bioaccumulation of essential metals in both species is influenced by season, especially by water temperature. This highlights the necessity to consider this climatic factor inherent to the deployment period for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation data in the field. The comparison of accumulation factors suggests that these two species coming from different geochemical origins display similar abilities to internalize metals. This generic responsiveness of caged gammarids supports their use as sentinel organisms to quantify low spatiotemporal variations in metal bioavailabilities. PMID:25577736

  2. Formation of Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, and Iron Aluminates from α- and γ-Alumina-Supported Oxides: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, P. H.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.; Geus, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The rates of metal aluminate formation inMeOx/Al2O3systems (Me=Ni, Co, Cu, Fe) at 500-1000°C in O2or N2atmospheres were compared, using bothα-Al2O3andγ-Al2O3substrates. Interfacial reaction toMeAl2O4was assessed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The lateral homogeneity of the samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The spinel formation rate follows the sequence FeAl2O4

  3. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  4. Radionuclide activities and metal concentrations in sediments of the Sebou Estuary, NW Morocco, following a flooding event.

    PubMed

    Laissaoui, A; Mas, J L; Hurtado, S; Ziad, N; Villa, M; Benmansour, M

    2013-06-01

    This study presents metal concentrations (Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sr and V) and radionuclide activities ((40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th and (212)Pb) in surface deposits and a sediment core from the Sebou Estuary, Northwest Morocco. Samples were collected in April 2009, about 2 months after a flooding event, and analysed using a well-type coaxial gamma-ray detector and inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Activities of radionuclides and concentrations of almost all elements in surface samples displayed only moderate spatial variation, suggesting homogenous deposition of eroded local soil in response to intense precipitation. Excess (210)Pb displayed relatively constant activity throughout the sediment core, preventing dating and precluding determination of the historical accumulation rates of pollutants at the core site. Some elements showed non-systematic trends with depth and displayed local maxima and minima. Other elements presented relatively systematic concentration trends or relatively constant levels with discrete maxima and/or minima. Except for Mn, Sr and Cr, all metal concentrations in sediment were below levels typical of polluted systems, suggesting little human impact or losses of metals from sediment particles. PMID:23054286

  5. Trace metals and radionuclides in macroalgae from Moroccan coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Benkdad, Azzouz; Laissaoui, Abdelmourhit; Tornero, Maria Victoria; Benmansour, Moncef; Chakir, ElMahjoub; Garrido, Ignacio Moreno; Moreno, Julian Blasco

    2011-11-01

    Macroalgae species Codium sp, Bangia atropurpurea, Membranoptera alata, Plocamium cartilagineum, Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus spiralis and Stypocaulon scoparia were collected from seven stations along the north coast of Morocco. Samples were analysed to determine activities of naturally occurring radionuclides ((210)Pb, U isotopes and (40)K) and concentrations of metals (Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, As and Cr) using radiometric and ICP-OES techniques, respectively. Metal concentrations were within ranges reported in the scientific literature, and concentrations of bio-essential elements were in the order Mn>Fe> Zn>Cu in all samples. Brown algae had the highest concentrations of almost all metals, and concentrations decreased in the order brown>red>green algae. With respect to radionuclides, the red alga P. cartilagineum had the highest activities of (210)Pb, in most cases an order of magnitude higher than for the green alga Codium sp. (234)U and (238)U activities in all algae samples were in the range 0.96- 7.61 and 1.16-6.14 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Our analyses of radionuclide activities and metal concentrations in marine macroalgae showed large differences among taxa. These results provide insights into which algal species should be used for biomonitoring programmes. PMID:21298402

  6. Giant magnetoresistance of copper/permalloy multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holody, P.; Chiang, W. C.; Loloee, R.; Bass, J.; Pratt, W. P., Jr.; Schroeder, P. A.

    1998-11-01

    Current perpendicular (CPP) and current in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistances (MR) have been measured on sputtered Cu/Py (Py=Permalloy) multilayers at 4.2 K. The CPP-MR is several times larger than the CIP-MR. For fixed Py layer thickness, tPy=1.5 nm, both the CPP and CIP MR's show oscillations with increasing tCu with a period similar to that previously reported for the CIP-MR. The CPP data for Cu thicknesses large enough that exchange interactions between Py layers are small are analyzed using the two spin-current model for both infinite and finite spin-diffusion length in Py. The very low coercive field of Py leads to a larger than usual uncertainty in the derived parameters, because of the uncertainty in the degree of antiparallel alignment required for the analysis. Three alternative analyses give bulk and interface spin-dependent anisotropy parameters, β, and γ, of comparable size, so that both must be considered in determining the CPP-MR. Our preferred values, based upon an assumed IPysf=5.5+/-1 nm, are β=0.65+/-0.1 and γ=0.76+/-0.1. These values produce good fits to the CPP-MR's of Co/Cu/Py/Cu multilayers.

  7. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Use of carboxylic group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the preconcentration of metals in juice samples prior to the determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Azahara; Mercader-Trejo, Flora; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays food industry demands reliable and precise methods to resolve problems related to quality and security control. The pretreatment steps, prior to sample analysis, are necessary to extract the target analytes because of the complexities of the food samples matrices. In this work, we have studied, for the first time, the potential of carboxylic group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles to preconcentrate metals from liquid samples before CE analysis. For the extraction of metals, 10 mL of an aqueous sample containing the metal mixture was added to 2 mg carboxylic group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Metals retained in the nanoparticles were re-extracted with 200 μL solution consisting of 0.8 mM 1,10-phenanthroline and 0.04% hydroxylamine chloride at pH 2. The electrophoretic buffer used in this work to separate different metals (Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd) consisted of 30 mM hydroxylamine chloride, 0.30 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 80 mM urea, 15 mM ammonium chloride, and 0.1% methanol at pH 3.6. Finally, measurements were made at 270 nm. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits for Co, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd were 0.004, 0.003, 0.004, 0.008, and 0.009 mg L(-1) , respectively. PMID:22887167

  9. Trace element accumulation in short-tailed albatrosses (Diomedea albatrus) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) from Torishima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinsuke, T.; Tokutaka, I.; Takashi, K.; Miyako, T.; Fumio, S.; Nariko, O.

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of 19 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were determined in liver, kidney, muscle, feather and stomach content of short-tailed albatross and feather of black-footed albatross from Torishima Island, Japan. For most of the elements, concentrations in liver and kidney were higher than those in muscle and feather, whereas concentrations of Ga, Sr and Ba were highest in feather of short-taled albatross. Metal concentrations in tissues of short-tailed albatross were within the range of those reported for albatrosses from other locations. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Hg and Pb were relatively low in the tissues of short-tailed albatross, indicating less contamination by those metals in this species of Torishima Island. No significant differences were observed in metal concentrations in feather between short-tailed albatross and black-footed albatross. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the trace element accumulation in tissues of short-tailed albatross.

  10. Bioavailability of metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in naturally occurring vegetation: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Nandhini, S

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale study was conducted to find out the different forms of metals if fly ash (FA) and bioaccumulation of these metals in the naturally growing vegetation on FA dumps. The total, acid extractable, bioavailable and water soluble fraction of metals of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb, and their bioaccumulation coefficients (BAC) on naturally growing vegetation were determined. FA samples had a neutral pH, low electrical conductivity, low organic C and trace amounts of N and P. The relative abundance of total metals in FA were found in the order Fe >Mn >Zn >Ni >Co>Cu. The concentration of bioavailable (DTPA) metals depend on the type and nature of coal used in thermal power stations. In the water the extract solution, only Fe and Zn were found above detection limits. After one year only four species of naturally occurring herbaceous vegetation were found growing and Cynodon dactylon (grass) covered almost entire surface of the FA. Iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Co. The sequence of BAC for different metals were Fe (202)>Mn(90)>Zn (63)>Pb(49)>Ni(41)>Cu(24). The experimental study revealed that Cynodon grass could be used for remediation of fly ash without any amendments, as this grass species act as metal excluder type. PMID:16779594

  11. Electron back scattered diffraction characterization of Sm(CoFeCuZr){sub z} magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yonamine, T.; Fukuhara, M.; Archanjo, B. S.; Missell, F. P.

    2011-04-01

    In permanent magnets based on the Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase, the high coercivity depends on the presence of a complex microstructure, consisting of a Sm{sub 2}(Co,Fe){sub 17} cell phase, a cell boundary phase Sm(Co,Cu){sub 5}, and a Zr-rich platelet or lamellae phase. The aim of this work is to use electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to identify the different phases present in the isotropic magnets produced from cast alloys with the composition of Sm(Co{sub bal}Fe{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.1}Zr{sub x}){sub 8}, where x = 0, 0.02, or 0.06, and correlate them with the different phases observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Due to the combination of careful surface preparation and high resolution microscopy, it was possible to observe the cellular structure characteristic of the 2:17 magnets in the SEM images. Until now, only transmission electron microscopy (TEM) had been used. Composition maps, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and EBSD measurements were used for doing the phase identification.

  12. Multielemental inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of nickeliferous minerals.

    PubMed

    Abad-Peña, Elizabet; Larrea-Marín, María Teresa; Villanueva-Tagle, Margarita Edelia; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario Simeón

    2014-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method for the quantitative simultaneous determination of Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P and Zn in Cuban laterite and serpentine minerals has been developed. Additionally, V and Ti can be quantitatively determined in laterite mineral; Li, Sr, and Zr can be detected in both mineral types and Pb can be detected just in laterite mineral. The microwave-assisted total acid digestion of samples was achieved with HCl+HNO3+HF and HNO3+HClO4+HF acid mixtures for laterite and serpentine samples, respectively. In non-robust plasma operating conditions, the matrix effect characteristics of the laterite sample were dictated by the principal component Fe; while the character of the Mg principal component matrix effect was some how modified by the concomitants Fe and Ni in serpentine sample. The selection of robust conditions decreased the matrix effect. Additionally, the simulation of the matrix samples by introducing the principal component Fe or Mg, correspondingly, in calibration dissolutions was needed to overcome completely the matrix effect over the analysis accuracy. Precision of analysis was very near or lower than 10% for most elements, except Sr (15%) in L-1; and K (15%) and Li (15%) in SNi sample. Accuracy of analysis was around or lowers than 10% for most elements, except K (15%), Na (19%), P (19%) and V (19%) in L-1 sample; and Ca (14%) and P (20%) in SNi sample. PMID:24767449

  13. Accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five fish species from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Fatemi, S Mohamad Rez; Baeyens, Willy

    2009-10-01

    In this study, concentrations of 16 elements were quantified in muscles and livers of 141 fishes belonging to five commercially species. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker and silver pomfret fish species were obtained from Abadan, Deylam, Bushehr-Nirogah, Dayyer port, Lengeh port and Abbas port in Hormozgan, Bushehr and Khozesran provinces at the Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf. The contents of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Tl, V and Zn in fish muscles and livers were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS), after digestion in a CEM (Mars 5) microwave oven using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Our results indicated that almost all metals were more accumulated in younger flathead, greasy grouper and tiger-tooth fishes. Contrary to the other fish species, grunt seems to stronger accumulating elements in the older fishes. Strong and positive correlations were observed in three or more of the fish species between V, Al, Fe, Tl, Co and Pb. The results confirmed that fish muscle and liver tissues appeared to be good bio-indicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants. The results also showed that the element levels in the muscles of all fishes in our study were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health, except for arsenic. PMID:18850288

  14. Accumulation of metals in the soil of an overland flow wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Packer, Ana Paula; Filho, Bruno Coraucci; Mattiazzo, Maria Emilia; de Figueiredo, Roberto F

    2002-12-01

    Accumulation of Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated in a soil profile of an overland flow system used for the post-treatment of urban wastewater. A pilot version of the overland flow system received urban wastewater from five up-flow anaerobic filters filled with bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides) rings. The anaerobic effluent was applied as feed over 18 months at rates varying from 7 to 28 L min(-1), to a vegetated slope length covered with Tifton 85 (Cynodon) sp. grass. Soil and plant samples were collected in triplicate from the top to the bottom of the slope. In addition, the soils were sampled at the depths 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The metal concentrations found in the overall system were compared to those obtained in a control area located at the beginning of the slope onto which nothing was applied. A month of monitoring the urban wastewater of Limeira City (São Paulo State, Brazil) showed a drastic change in metals concentration due to the irregular discharge of industrial waste. This irregular discharge introduces Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn into the system used to treat domestic wastewater. The mass balance indicates the accumulation of metals in the soil and the translocation to the plants; also that they could be evapotranspirated, percolated and discharged. PMID:12509052

  15. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients in Ti xCo 1-x and Co xCu 1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, I.; Demir, L.

    2009-11-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ρ), for pure Ti, Co, Cu and Co and Cu ( x = 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.2) alloys were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 109Cd and 241Am radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The X- and γ-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections ( σt and σe), effective atomic numbers ( Z eff) and electron densities ( N el) were determined using the obtained μ/ρ values for investigated 3d alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values.

  17. Origin of Active Oxygen in a Ternary CuOx /Co3O4–CeO 2 Catalyst for CO Oxidation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zili; Peng, Xihong; Binder, Andrew; Chai, Songhai; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, we have studied CO oxidation over a ternary CuOx/Co3O4-CeO2 catalyst and employed the techniques of N2 adsorption/desporption, XRD, TPR, TEM, in situ DRIFTS and QMS (Quadrupole mass spectrometer) to explore the origin of active oxygen. DRIFTS-QMS results with labeled 18O2 indicate that the origin of active oxygens in CuOx/Co3O4-CeO2 obeys a model, called as queue mechanism. Namely gas-phase molecular oxygens are dissociated to atomic oxygens and then incorporate in oxygen vacancies located at the interface of Co3O4-CeO2 to form active crystalline oxygens, and these active oxygens diffuse to the CO-Cu+ sites thanks to the oxygen vacancy concentrationmore » magnitude and react with the activated CO to form CO2. This process, obeying a queue rule, provides active oxygens to form CO2 from gas-phase O2 via oxygen vacancies and crystalline oxygen at the interface of Co3O4-CeO2.« less

  18. Origin of Active Oxygen in a Ternary CuOx /Co3O4–CeO 2 Catalyst for CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zili; Peng, Xihong; Binder, Andrew; Chai, Songhai; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, we have studied CO oxidation over a ternary CuOx/Co3O4-CeO2 catalyst and employed the techniques of N2 adsorption/desporption, XRD, TPR, TEM, in situ DRIFTS and QMS (Quadrupole mass spectrometer) to explore the origin of active oxygen. DRIFTS-QMS results with labeled 18O2 indicate that the origin of active oxygens in CuOx/Co3O4-CeO2 obeys a model, called as queue mechanism. Namely gas-phase molecular oxygens are dissociated to atomic oxygens and then incorporate in oxygen vacancies located at the interface of Co3O4-CeO2 to form active crystalline oxygens, and these active oxygens diffuse to the CO-Cu+ sites thanks to the oxygen vacancy concentration magnitude and react with the activated CO to form CO2. This process, obeying a queue rule, provides active oxygens to form CO2 from gas-phase O2 via oxygen vacancies and crystalline oxygen at the interface of Co3O4-CeO2.

  19. Spectral, thermal and in vitro antimicrobial studies of cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamba, Saul M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Njobeh, Patrik B.; Dutton, Mike F.; Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis

    2010-10-01

    Transition metal complexes of the type [M(L) 2] and those containing monodentate phosphines of the type [M(L) 2(PPh 3)] {M = Ni, Co, Cu and Zn; L = cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate; PPh 3 = triphenylphosphine} have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized using IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (TGA). The 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 31P NMR showed the expected signals for the dithiocarbamate and triphenylphosphine moieties. The spectral studies in all compounds revealed that the coordination of metals occurs via the sulphur atom of the dithiocarbamate ligand in a bidentate fashion. Thermal behavior of the complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parent ligands. The ligand moiety is lost in the first step and the rest of the organic moiety decomposes in the subsequent steps. Furthermore, the ligand and their metal complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. The metal complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the parent ligands. Generally, the zinc complexes were effective against the growth of bacteria with Zn(L) 2 displaying broad spectrum bacteriocidal activity at concentrations of 50 μg/mL; and Ni(L) 2 was more effective against the growth of fungi at concentrations of 100-400 μg/mL under laboratory conditions.

  20. Potentially toxic element contamination in soil and accumulation in maize plants in a smelter area in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Nannoni, Francesco; Rossi, Sara; Protano, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A biogeochemical field study was carried out in the industrial area of Kosovska Mitrovica in northern Kosovo, where agricultural soils were contaminated by potentially toxic elements due to smelting activity. Total and bioavailable contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, U and Zn in soil and their concentrations in maize roots and grains were determined. Soil contamination by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn was variable from slightly to highly contaminated soils and influenced both the bioavailable fraction and accumulation of these potentially toxic elements in maize tissues. The comparison between potentially toxic element concentrations in roots and grains indicated that maize is able to limit the transfer of non-essential elements to edible parts. The plant-to-soil bioconcentration indices suggested that the transfer of potentially toxic elements from soil to plant was predicted better by bioavailable concentrations than by the total contents. These indices further identified some competitions and interactions among these elements in root uptake and root-to-grain translocation. PMID:26961525

  1. Abundance and distribution of boron in the Hauzenberg (Bavaria) granite complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sauerer, A.; Troll, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Hercynian S-type granites from the Hauzenberg igneous complex show a range of boron concentration from 1 to 12 ppm. The whole-rock boron data are not significantly correlated with concentrations of other trace elements (Zr, Rb, Ba, Sr, Ni, V, Co, Cu, Zn, F); neither is boron correlated with the major elements (except with sodium) or with the differentiation index (DI). The boron budget in the rock-forming minerals (plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, muscovite) of the tourmaline-free granites reveals that the highest concentrations of boron occur in muscovite, whereas the greatest amount of boron is incorporated in plagioclase (57-69%) due to its high modal amount. Boron in plagioclase increases with the extent of of sericitization (obtained by X-ray diffractometry). Muscovite in a pegmatite contains more than 50% of the total boron. The areal distribution of boron within the complex is neither uniform nor random; an increase of boron concentrations from granodioritic to granitic rocks is indicated, whereas the late differentiates are depleted in boron.

  2. Enhanced O-2 Selectivity versus N-2 by Partial Metal Substitution in Cu-BTC

    SciTech Connect

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Parkes, Marie V.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-03-24

    Here, we describe the homogeneous substitution of Mn, Fe, and Co at various levels into a prototypical metal organic framework (MOP), namely Cu-BTC (HKUST-1), and the effect of that substitution on preferential gas sorption. Using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, postsynthetic metal substitutions, materials characterization, and gas sorption testing, we demonstrate that the identity of the metal ion has a quantifiable effect on their oxygen and nitrogen sorption properties at cryogenic temperatures. An excellent correlation is found between O-2/N-2 selectivities determined experimentally at 77 K and the difference in O-2 and N-2 binding energies calculated from DFT modeling data: Mn > Fe Co >> Cu. Room temperature gas sorption studies were also performed and correlated with metal substitution. The Fe-exchanged sample shows a significantly higher nitrogen isosteric heat of adsorption at temperatures close to ambient conditions (273-298 K) as compared to all other metals studied, indicative of favorable interactions between N-2 and coordinatively unsaturated Fe metal centers. Interestingly, differences in gas adsorption results at cryogenic and room temperatures are evident; they are explained by comparing experimental results with DFT binding energies (0 K) and room temperature Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Assessment of physico-chemical properties and metal contents of water and sediments of Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Vincent-Akpu, Ijeoma Favour; Tyler, Andrew N.; Wilson, Clare; Mackinnon, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Some physico-chemical properties and the concentrations of the metals Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water and sediments were examined from September 2011 to January 2012 in Bodo Creek, where oil spills have been recurrent. Temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate were determined in surface water. Particle size, total organic matter (TOM), and pH were also determined in the sediments. The parameters were within permissible limits except the mean values of BOD, COD, total hardness, and sulfate that exceeded levels permissible for domestic use. The sediments consisted mainly of sand, with TOM ranging from 0.2% to 5.5%. With the exception of cadmium that was below detection limit, metal levels (mg kg−1) in the sediments were 12 (Mn), 1070 (Fe), 10 (Cu), 10 (Zn), 5.3 (Cr), 1.1 (Pb), 1.0 (Ni), and 0.5 (Co) while in water they were 24, 98, 21, 6.9, 4.0, 0.6, 0.18, and 0.16, respectively. The latter were higher than World Health Organization recommended permissible levels for both surface and drinking water. PMID:26681819

  4. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate. PMID:24145916

  5. Calcium phenylphosphonate as a host for 4-aminobenzoic acid-Synthesis, characterization, and cation adsorption from ethanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarin, Angelica M.; Ganzerli, Thiago A.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-15

    Crystalline lamellar calcium phenylphosphonate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1160-695 cm{sup -1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 1532 and 1751 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves of both layered compounds showed the release of water molecules and the organic moiety in distinct stages, to yield a final Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} residue. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phenylphosphonate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near 12.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 1.68 and 0.50 mmol g{sup -1} for copper and cobalt, respectively, whose average stability constants followed Co > Cu; the number of ligands was determined as four for both cations.

  6. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high. PMID:26490926

  7. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity Are Related to the Ion Profile in Chicken Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Liu, Chun Peng; Teng, Xiao Hua; Fu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Complex antagonistic interactions between Selenium (Se) and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on lead (Pb)-induced toxicity and the ion profile in the muscles of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the concentrations of 26 ions in chicken muscle tissues. We determined that a Se- and Pb-containing diets significantly affected microelements in chicken muscle. Treatment with Se increased the content of Se but resulted in a reduced concentration of Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Ba. Treatment with Pb increased concentrations of Ni while reducing those of B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo. Moreover, Se also reduced the concentration of Pb, Zn, Co, Fe, V, and Cr, which in contrast were induced by Pb. Additionally, we also found that synergistic and antagonistic interactions existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se can exert a negative effect on Pb in chicken muscle tissues and may be related to changes in ion profiles. PMID:26743866

  8. An investigation of polyhedral deformation in two mixed-metal diarsenates: SrZnAs₂O₇ and BaCuAs₂O₇.

    PubMed

    Kovač, Sabina; Karanović, Ljiljana; Đorđević, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Two isostructural diarsenates, SrZnAs2O7 (strontium zinc diarsenate), (I), and BaCuAs2O7 [barium copper(II) diarsenate], (II), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The three-dimensional open-framework crystal structure consists of corner-sharing M2O5 (M2 = Zn or Cu) square pyramids and diarsenate (As2O7) groups. Each As2O7 group shares its five corners with five different M2O5 square pyramids. The resulting framework delimits two types of tunnels aligned parallel to the [010] and [100] directions where the large divalent nine-coordinated M1 (M1 = Sr or Ba) cations are located. The geometrical characteristics of the M1O9, M2O5 and As2O7 groups of known isostructural diarsenates, adopting the general formula M1(II)M2(II)As2O7 (M1(II) = Sr, Ba, Pb; M2(II) = Mg, Co, Cu, Zn) and crystallizing in the space group P2₁/n, are presented and discussed. PMID:25836295

  9. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in certain marine animals along the East Coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, K; Achyuthan, Hema

    2007-07-01

    Heavy metals disposed through anthropogenic activities find their way into the oceans and seas through the rivers or through direct fall out from factory effluents. These heavy metals resuspend back into the water column along with the sediments and are known to affect the marine animals. Marine animals like fish, prawn, crab and mussel were collected along the East Coast (off Pulicat lake to Chennai Harbour) to evaluate trace metal concentrations in various tissues. The above specimens accumulated heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni and Cd. Fish, prawn, crab and mussel revealed higher concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr Co, Cu and Ni and Cd in low levels. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations in the marine animals are below the threshold levels associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. The bioconcentration factors revealed that the animals have accumulated heavy metals along the food chain rather than from the water column and sediment. PMID:18380088

  11. Cyclic M2(RL)2 coordination complexes of 5-(3-[N-tert-Butyl-N-aminoxyl]phenyl)pyrimidine with paramagnetic transition metal dications.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Martha; Lahti, Paul M; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Oliveira, Nei F

    2005-09-19

    5-(3-(N-tert-Butyl-N-aminoxyl)phenyl)pyrimidine (RL = 3NITPhPyrim) forms isostructural cyclic M2(RL)2 cyclic dimers with M(hfac)2 (M = Mn, Co, Cu; hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate). Mn2(hfac)4(RL)2 exhibits strong antiferromagnetic Mn-RL exchange, with weak ferromagnetic exchange (0.7 cm(-1)) between Mn-RL units that is consistent with a spin polarization exchange mechanism. The magnetic moment of Co2(hfac)4(RL)2 at higher temperatures is consistent with strongly antiferromagnetic exchange within the Co-NIT units and tends toward zero below 50 K at lower magnetic fields. Cu2(hfac)4(RL)2 shows more complex behavior, with no high-temperature plateau in chiT(T) up to 300 K but a monotonic decrease down to about 100 K. The Cu(II)-nitroxide bonds decrease by 0.2-0.3 A over the same temperature range, corresponding to a change of nitroxide coordination from axial to equatorial. This thermally reversible Jahn-Teller distortion leads to a thermally induced spin state conversion from a high-spin, paramagnetic state at higher temperature to a low-spin state at lower temperature. This spin state conversion is accompanied by a reversible solid-state thermochromic change between dull yellow-brown at room temperature and green at 77 K. PMID:16156631

  12. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  13. Molecular-dynamics calculations of thermodynamic properties of metastable alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzone, G.; Rosato, V.; Pintore, M.; Delogu, F.; Demontis, P.; Suffritti, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve our current understanding of the microscopic structure of metastable alloys of immiscible elements such as Ag-Cu and Co-Cu, the Helmholtz free energy of several microstructures based on an fcc unit cell has been calculated and compared with that of a reference state. The microstructures considered for the free energy calculations at fixed volume are (1) a structure formed by alternating layers of fixed thickness of metal 1 and metal 2 separated by coherent interfaces; (2) an atomically disordered solid solution; (3) a structure comprising a random distribution of elemental cubic grains separated by coherent interfaces. Numerical results show that the Helmholtz free energy of structure (3) decreases with increasing grain size and that its value calculated for a sufficiently large grain size approaches the free energy of structure (1). Further molecular-dynamics simulations for the Ag-Cu system have allowed the calculation of the enthalpy at the equilibrium volume of several microstructures including some of those listed above. A comparison of the calculated values of the enthalpy with the heat release observed experimentally allows the advancement of an hypothesis concerning the reaction path and the structure of the equiatomic Ag-Cu alloy obtained by ball milling.

  14. Interaction of CO and NO with the spinel CuCr2O4 (100) surface: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang-Lan; Chen, Wen-Kai; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Jun-Qian; Li, Yi

    The characteristics of CO and NO molecules at Cu2+ and Cr3+ ion sites on the CuCr2O4 (100) surface have been studied by first principles calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results show that adsorption energies for X-down(C, N) adsorption vary in the order: Cu2+-CO>Cr3+-NO≈Cr3+-CO>Cu2+-NO. CO molecules are preferentially adsorbed at Cu sites, whereas NO molecules adsorb favorably at Cu2+ and Cr3+ ion sites. The C-O and N-O stretching frequencies are red-shifted upon adsorption. Combining the analysis of frontier molecular orbitals and Mulliken charge, for CO and NO X-down adsorption systems, the 5sigma orbitals donate electrons and the 2pi* orbitals obtain back-donated electrons. Although for NO with O-down adsorption systems, the NO-2pi* orbitals obtain back-donated electrons from substrates without 5sigma-donation. Coadsorption calculations show the CO/NO mixture adsorb selectively at the Cu2+ion site but simultaneously at the Cr3+ ion site, respectively.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals in kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus microdon fish from the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Waqar

    2005-02-01

    Levels of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd in the kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus Microdon collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet digestion-based atomic absorption method. The results indicated that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney tissues followed the order; Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Mn > Cd, with Zn at 47.73 +/- 13.26 ppm and Cd at 0.41 +/- 0.16 ppm. Cu, Mn, Co and Ni levels in the kidney tissues were significantly lower or within the ranges reported previously. In the heart tissue the analyzed metals followed almost the same pattern of metal accumulation; Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > Ni > Mn > Cd. The average lead (3.19 +/- 2.03 ppm), nickel (1.69 +/- 0.52 ppm), cobalt (1.75 +/- 0.44 ppm), copper (3.96 +/- 0.98 ppm) and cadmium (0.34 +/- 0.23 ppm) concentrations were found high in the heart tissues whereas zinc and manganese levels were found high in kidney tissues. In general, the data indicated that marine fish from the sampling site of Arabian Gulf are comparatively clean and unpolluted. PMID:15736888

  16. Application of the sanderson polar covalence model to energetics of CO adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frese, Karl W.

    1988-08-01

    The model of polar covalence developed by R.T. Sanderson was used to calculate energies of chemisorption of CO g on metal surfaces. Internal energies of adsorption were calculated for four stereochemical possibilities including linear, two site bridge bonded, and dissociated CO on fourteen first, second, and third row transition metals. The influence of surface steps, other defects, and CO-CO interactions were not calculated, although the influence of steps on certain metals is discussed. The effect of metal site coordination number was also calculated. Higher coordination numbers, are generally associated with longer bond lengths and smaller heats of adsorption. Very good agreement, less than 3 kcal mol -1 difference between experiment and calculation, was observed for molecularly adsorbed CO. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of dissociative adsorption at 298 K were calculated for seventeen transition metals and Si. CO dissociation is thermodynamically allowed on Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Re, W and Si at both 10 -10 Torr and 1 atm CO. Dissociation is forbidden on Ru, Rh, Ir, Ag, Pd, Au, and Pt at both pressures. Dissociation is forbidden at 10 -10 Torr, but allowed at 1 atm CO on Co, Cu, Mo, and Os.

  17. A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part I. Model development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pengfu; Neuschütz, Dieter

    2001-04-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process. In this model, as many as 16 elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H) are considered, and two nickel sulfide species are used to allow for modeling of sulfur-deficient mattes. The compositions of the matte, slag, and gaseous phases in equilibrium are calculated using Gibbs free energies of formation and the activity coefficients of the components derived from the experimental data. The model predictions are compared with the known industrial data from the Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (Kalgoorlie, Australia), the Outokumpu Harjavalta Nickel Smelter (Harjavalta, Finland), the INCO Metals Company (Sudbury, Canada), and from a number of experimental data. An excellent agreement is obtained. It was found that the distribution behaviors of Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the nickel smelting furnace depend on process parameters such as the smelting temperature, matte grade, and partial pressure of oxygen in the process.

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterisation of heavy metal-induced metabolic changes in the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Tugarova, A. V.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Gardiner, P. H. E.

    2002-06-01

    Structural and compositional features of whole cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 under standard and heavy metal-stressed conditions are analysed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and compared with the FT-Raman spectroscopic data obtained previously [J. Mol. Struct. 563-564 (2001) 199]. The structural spectroscopic information is considered together with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) analytical data on the content of the heavy metal cations (Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Zn 2+) in the bacterial cells. As a bacterial response to heavy metal stress, all the three metals, being taken up by bacterial cells from the culture medium (0.2 mM) in significant amounts (ca. 0.12, 0.48 and 4.2 mg per gram of dry biomass for Co, Cu and Zn, respectively), are shown to induce essential metabolic changes in the bacterium revealed in the spectra, including the accumulation of polyester compounds in bacterial cells and their enhanced hydration affecting certain IR vibrational modes of functional groups involved.

  19. History of metal pollution in the Southern California Bight: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.P.; Huh, C.

    1989-03-01

    Box cores collected in 1985 and 1986 along an offshore transect in the Santa Monica Basin, CA, were analyzed for organic carbon, calcium carbonate, U-series radionuclides, and a suite of major and minor elements. Downcore profiles of metals and organic carbon reflect anthropogenic influence and diagenetic processes. The deep basin cores show pronounced subsurface maxima in Pb, Zn, Cr, and organic carbon during the time interval 1960-1970. Increases from the base of the core to this time horizon are consistent with increasing anthropogenic inputs to the Santa Monica Basin. The near-surface decreases in heavy-metal accumulation reflect recent improvements in waste water treatment. Sediment compositions cannot be fully explained by simple mixtures of sewage particles and natural sediment because of factors such as diagenesis of sewage during transport and sedimentation, additional metal sources, and variations in surface water productivity. The yellow-brown surface layer in deep basin cores is relatively enriched in Fe, Co, Cu, and P. This layer forms by reduction of Fe followed by upward diffusion and precipitation as amorphous oxyhydroxides; P, Cu, and Co, released during early diagenesis, are associated with this phase.

  20. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A first quantitative estimate of trace metal fluxes from Amazon river and its main tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, P. T.; Pinelli, M.; Boaventura, G. R.

    2003-05-01

    The trace metal (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, U) concentrations and temporal variabilities of the Amazon river and its main tributaries are studied on time series basis in the major tributaries of Amazon river (Negro, Madeira and Solimões Rivers) and at Obidos station on the Amazon mainsteem which represents 90% of the total discharge of Amazon river to the Ocean. Variations of river chemistry may reflect variations of the sources. The “Shield” rivers (as the Rio Negro) have typically depleted concentrations in As, Sr, Ba, Cu, and V as compared with Andean rivers. Elements such Mn and As are mainly transported by the flood flows. These elements are known to be concentrated in lateric (ferricrete) soils which represent 80% in the Amazon basin, suggesting that these elements are washed away in solution during the high discharge. Moreover, these elements can be stored in the surrounding floodplain areas (varzea) where deposition/resuspension cycles as well as the exchange rate between floodplain and mainstream channel may control at least partially the temporal variation of redox element concentrations such Mn and As. Implication on these results on the trace element flux from Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean is discussed.

  2. Distribution and partition of trace metals in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Patrick T.; Boaventura, Geraldo R.

    2003-05-01

    The distribution of trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, U) was investigated in surface waters and associated particulates in the Amazon mainstream (Solimões and Amazon rivers). Dissolved V, Cu, As, Sr, Ba, U correlate with major ions and appear to be predominantly derived from soluble rocks occurring in the Amazon upper basin. These elements appear conservative in waters and are progressively diluted by less-concentrated waters coming from the lowland and shield areas. A monthly time series obtained at the Óbidos gauging station shows that temporal variability of trace element concentrations reflects the source, remobilization and/or biological processes occurring in the channel or in the surrounding floodplain lakes. The trace element concentrations in the particulate matter show a clear relationship with the location of the samples. V, Co, Cr, Mn, Sr, Cs and Ba concentrations are higher in the Solimões and the Rio Negro is enriched in Fe, Al and Zn. In the Rio Solimões, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cs and Pb are almost entirely carried by the river particulate matter; Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba and U are transported mainly by the suspended particles, but a dissolved phase contributes to the transport. In the Rio Negro, the proportion of elements transported by the dissolved phase is higher for the whole set of elements. The implications of these results allow us to compute the fluxes from the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. First-principles investigation of transient spin transfer torque in magnetic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhizhou; Wang, Jian

    By employing the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method, the transient current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) of the magnetic layered system is investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The computational cost of the transient STT is huge due to the dense mesh of k-sampling for the layered system. In order to speed up the calculation, the Hamiltonian of leads is replaced by the complex absorbing potential (CAP) so that the Green's function can be cast into the wide-band form. After employing the Padé spectrum decomposition, the energy integrals in the formalism of transient electric current and STT, including that of the Fermi distribution function, can be analytically calculated by the theorem of residue, which dramatically reduces the computational complexity of the transient STT. As an application, the NEGF-DFT-CAP formalism with the Padé approximation is implemented to study the transient electric current and current-induced STT of Co/Cu/Co trilayers under an upward pulse of bias with different rotating angles of magnetization direction between two leads. The oscillation behavior is obtained for the transient STT when it approaches the steady state.

  4. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  5. Ambient trace element background concentrations in soils and their use in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Díez, M; Simón, M; Martín, F; Dorronsoro, C; García, I; Van Gestel, C A M

    2009-08-01

    The definition of ambient background concentrations (ABCs) is used in this study to assess the potential environmental risk of trace elements in soils and parent materials from Granada, Spain. Two different layers of soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm) and parent material samples were collected at 93 sites. From cumulative frequency distribution curves, ABCs for As, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were estimated at 3.5-20, 7-23, 13-25.6, 29-66, 7-20, 15-36, and 5.5-76 mg kg(-1), respectively. Tukey box-plots were used to discriminate different concentration classes and identify potentially contaminated sites. Weakly-weathered soils (Entisols) over carbonate materials showed the lowest background contents, the most developed soils (Alfisols) over metamorphic rocks the highest ones. Outliers were mainly found near a former iron mine where arsenic concentrations were by far exceeding the corresponding regional ABC. These soils were however, not toxic to Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri. The prediction of site-specific ABCs together with bioavailability and toxicity assessment is a valuable tool for giving further insight into the risk of trace elements in soils. PMID:19473692

  6. Feather corticosterone content in predatory birds in relation to body condition and hepatic metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Pereira, M Glória; Shore, Richard F; Henrys, Peter A; Pottinger, Tom G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring corticosterone in feathers from cryo-archived raptor specimens, in order to provide a retrospective assessment of the activity of the stress axis in relation to contaminant burden. Feather samples were taken from sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, buzzard Buteo buteo, barn owl Tyto alba, and tawny owl Strix aluco and the variation in feather CORT concentrations with respect to species, age, sex, feather position, and body condition was assessed. In sparrowhawks only, variation in feather CORT content was compared with hepatic metal concentrations. For individuals, CORT concentration (pgmm(-1)) in adjacent primary flight feathers (P5 and P6), and left and right wing primaries (P5), was statistically indistinguishable. The lowest concentrations of CORT were found in sparrowhawk feathers and CORT concentrations did not vary systematically with age or sex for any species. Significant relationships between feather CORT content and condition were observed in only tawny owl and kestrel. In sparrowhawks, feather CORT concentration was found to be positively related to the hepatic concentrations of five metals (Cd, Mn, Co, Cu, Mo) and the metalloid As. There was also a negative relationship between measures of condition and total hepatic metal concentration in males. The results suggest that some factors affecting CORT uptake by feathers remain to be resolved but feather CORT content from archived specimens has the potential to provide a simple effects biomarker for exposure to environmental contaminants. PMID:25776461

  7. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals. PMID:26911014

  8. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ali, Bibi Noorarlijannah; Lin, Chin Yik; Cleophas, Fera; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Musta, Baba

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the Mamut river sediments and evaluate the degree of contamination of the river polluted by a disused copper mine. Based on the analytical results, copper showed the highest concentration in most of the river samples. A comparison with Interim Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (ICSQG) and Germany Sediment Quality Guidelines (GSQG) indicated that the sediment samples in all the sampling stations, except Mamut river control site (M1), exceeded the limit established for Cu, Ni, and Pb. On the contrary, Zn concentrations were reported well below the guidelines limit (ICSQG and GSQG). Mineralogical analysis indicated that the Mamut river sediments were primarily composed of quartz and accessory minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrite, edenite, kaolinite, mica, and muscovite, reflected by the geological character of the study area. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Igeo values indicated that all the sites were strongly polluted with the studied metals in most sampling stations, specifically those located along the Mamut main stream. The enrichment factor with value greater than 1.5 suggested that the source of heavy metals was mainly derived from anthropogenic activity such as mining. The degree of metal changes (δfold) revealed that Cu concentration in the river sediments has increased as much as 20 to 38 folds since the preliminary investigation conducted in year 2004. PMID:25471626

  9. Hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of ethanol over Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts: Effect of second metal addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Min Hye; Seo, Jeong Gil; Kim, Pil; Kim, Jae Jeong; Lee, Ho-In; Song, In Kyu

    Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts containing a second metal (Ce, Co, Cu, Mg and Zn) are prepared by a co-impregnation method to investigate the effect of second metal addition on the catalytic performance in the auto-thermal reforming of ethanol. Among the second metals tested, Cu is found to be the most efficient promoter for the production of hydrogen. It is revealed that Cu species are active in the water-gas shift reaction to produce hydrogen from CO and H 2O, and furthermore, Cu species serve as a barrier for preventing the growth of Ni particles. In particular, the addition of Cu decreases the interaction between Ni-species and γ-Al 2O 3, leading to the facile reduction of Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst. Among Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts with different Cu content, a 5 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst, which retains an intermediate state of Cu species between copper aluminate and copper oxide, shows the best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen production and CO composition in the outlet stream. By contrast, a 7 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst exhibits rather a low catalytic performance in the production of hydrogen because of the suppressed gasification activity over large Cu particles in the catalyst.

  10. Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Passive Treatment of Mine Drainage from a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S. W.; Mattson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory column tests for a passive treatment system for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area was conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, flow rate, and residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone, either in layered or mixed, were set up and operated for a total of 74 days to simulate the treatment system. The key variables determined from the tests include pH and redox adjustment of the treatment system, treatment efficiency for acidity and metals, sulfate removal rates, and precipitation of secondary minerals as sinks for metals. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e., Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn) with residence time of 15 hours and greater. The organic materials used in the test provided sufficient sulfate reduction that is available for metal removal in the mine drainage. The sulfate removal rates ranged between 200 and 600 mg/L/day. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic materials and secondary precipitates. The results from the columns tests provide a basis for design of a pilot-scale field passive treatment system, such as permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS).

  11. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities. PMID:27080855

  12. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    PubMed Central

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  13. Enhanced O2 selectivity versus N2 by partial metal substitution in Cu-BTC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Parkes, Marie V.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-03-05

    Here we describe the homogeneous substitution of Mn, Fe and Co at various levels into a prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), namely Cu-BTC (HKUST-1), and the effect of that substitution on preferential gas sorption. Using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, postsynthetic metal substitutions, materials characterization, and gas sorption testing, we demonstrate that the identity of the metal ion has a quantifiable effect on their oxygen and nitrogen sorption properties at cryogenic temperatures. An excellent correlation is found between O2/N2 selectivities determined experimentally at 77 K and the difference in O2 and N2 binding energies calculated from DFT modelingmore » data: Mn > Fe > Co > Cu. Room temperature gas sorption studies were also performed and correlated with metal substitution. The Fe-exchanged sample shows a significantly higher nitrogen isosteric heat of adsorption at temperatures close to ambient conditions (273 K - 298 K) as compared to all other metals studied, indicative of favorable interactions between N2 and coordinatively unsaturated Fe metal centers. Furthermore, differences in gas adsorption results at cryogenic and room temperatures are evident; they are explained by comparing experimental results with DFT binding energies (0 K) and room temperature Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  14. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeink, V.; Schmalhorst, J.; Reiss, G.; Weis, T.; Lengemann, D.; Engel, D.; Ehresmann, A.

    2008-06-15

    Artificial ferrimagnets have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment (IB) induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling of a single layer reference electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions with He ions is possible. For applications as, e.g., special types of magnetic logic, a combination of the IB induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling and the implementation of an artificial ferrimagnet as reference electrode is desirable. Here, investigations for a pinned artificial ferrimagnet with a Ru interlayer, which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions, are presented. It is shown that in this kind of samples the exchange bias can be increased or rotated by IB induced magnetic patterning with 10 keV He ions without a destruction of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. An IrMn/Py/Co/Cu/Co stack turned out to be more sensitive to the influence of IB than the Ru based artificial ferrimagnet.

  15. Trace elements in a Pliocene-Pleistocene lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field, eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.; Gayer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors present the results of proximate and ultimate analyses, mineralogical determination, and trace element analysis of a lignite profile from the Afsin-Elbistan field (eastern Turkey). The lignite, which developed during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition under freshwater lacustrine conditions, contains white gastropod (Planorbidae) shells composed of calcite and a little aragonite. Other identifiable mineral constituents, analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, include quartz, pyrite, clay minerals, and rare feldspares. Petrographical studies demonstrate the immature nature of these lignites and very low degree of compaction during diagenesis. The mean concentrations of trace elements in the lignite, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), show relative enrichment in Mo (avg. 20 ppm), W (avg. 15 ppm) and U (avg. 25 ppm) when compared to the global range for most coals, while the others (Ti, p, Sc, Be, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Y, Ta, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu) fall within their global ranges. Many of the trace elements show a good correlation with the ash yield, implying an inorganic affinity. However, Mo and Sr show a negative correlation with the ash yield and are thought to be organically associated. A lack of correlation of U with either the ash yield or the coal sulfur content, together with its relative enrichment, suggests secondary mobility of this element.

  16. Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hoehun; Olson, James R; Bian, Ling; Rogerson, Peter A

    2014-05-01

    Anniston, Alabama has a long history of operation of foundries and other heavy industry. We assessed the extent of heavy metal contamination in soils by determining the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, V, and Zn) based on 2046 soil samples collected from 595 industrial and residential sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was adopted to characterize the distribution of heavy metals in soil in this region. In addition, a geostatistical technique (kriging) was used to create regional distribution maps for the interpolation of nonpoint sources of heavy metal contamination using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. There were significant differences found between sampling zones in the concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the levels of Ni. Three main components explaining the heavy metal variability in soils were identified. The results suggest that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were associated with anthropogenic activities, such as the operations of some foundries and major railroads, which released these heavy metals, whereas the presence of Co, Mn, and V were controlled by natural sources, such as soil texture, pedogenesis, and soil hydrology. In general terms, the soil levels of heavy metals analyzed in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies in other industrial and residential communities. PMID:24693925

  17. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies. PMID:25190539

  18. Compacted Co(Fe)-Coated Sm-Co Nanocomposite Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Yong; Hadjipananyis, George C.

    2003-03-01

    One of the big challenges in nanocomposite magnets is to develop a synthesis route that produces a structure in which all the nanograins are crystallographically aligned. In this study, we use the novel consolidation technique of Plasma Pressure Compaction (PPC) to prepare bulk SmCo/Co(Fe) nanocomposite magnets. SmCo/Co and SmCo/FeCo nanocomposites have been fabricated by electroless plating magnetically soft nano-size Co and Co-Fe particles on the surface of micron-size hard Sm-Co powders. The influence of electroless plating conditions on the magnetic properties and structure of the coating were studied. The magnetic saturation and morphology of the deposited material were found to be dependent on the concentration of reducing agent, temperature of the solution and plating time. For 50 µm Sm(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr)7.5 particles, coating with Co has had a little effect on the coercivity maintaining a level of 7 kOe while there is a increase in the value of MS depending on Co plating time. In SmCo5 particles with a size of several microns, coating with Co alloy, Hc decreases and saturation magnetization increases with increasing plating time, but the loops remain smooth. The effect of PPC on the microstructure, the magnetic properties of exchange coupled magnets will be discussed. Work supported by DARPA-Meta-Materials Program (No. F33615-01-2-2166).

  19. Exploring the Link between Micronutrients and Phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during the 2007 Austral Summer

    PubMed Central

    Hassler, Christel S.; Sinoir, Marie; Clementson, Lesley A.; Butler, Edward C. V.

    2012-01-01

    Bottle assays and large-scale fertilization experiments have demonstrated that, in the Southern Ocean, iron often controls the biomass and the biodiversity of primary producers. To grow, phytoplankton need numerous other trace metals (micronutrients) required for the activity of key enzymes and other intracellular functions. However, little is known of the potential these other trace elements have to limit the growth of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. This study, investigates whether micronutrients other than iron (Zn, Co, Cu, Cd, Ni) need to be considered as parameters for controlling the phytoplankton growth from the Australian Subantarctic to the Polar Frontal Zones during the austral summer 2007. Analysis of nutrient disappearance ratios, suggested differential zones in phytoplankton growth control in the study region with a most intense phytoplankton growth limitation between 49 and 50°S. Comparison of micronutrient disappearance ratios, metal distribution, and biomarker pigments used to identify dominating phytoplankton groups, demonstrated that a complex interaction between Fe, Zn, and Co might exist in the study region. Although iron remains the pivotal micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and community structure, Zn and Co are also important for the nutrition and the growth of most of the dominating phytoplankton groups in the Subantarctic Zone region. Understanding of the parameters controlling phytoplankton is paramount, as it affects the functioning of the Southern Ocean, its marine resources and ultimately the global carbon cycle. PMID:22787456

  20. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of preparing a battery electrode comprising providing an electrode-active material selected from chalogen-containing compounds of Ni, Fe, Pb, Co, Cu and mixtures thereof for a positive electrode and selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Si, Al, Pb and alloys thereof for the negative electrode, mixing a ligand in the form of an electrically conductive polymer with the electrode-active material wherein the polymer is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, to provide metal ion or negative ion vacancies in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.1 atom percent, the ligands for a positive electrode being selected from the class consisting of polyacetylene polymers having molecular weights in excess of 10,000 and cyclic polyamide with 3-5 functional groups. The ligands for a negative electrode are selected from the class consisting of tertiary butyl cyclohexyl-15-crown-5, TTF-TCNQ, and polymers of polyethylene oxide and one or more of LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/, LiBr, Na/sub 2/S, and NaCN, mixing a binder with the electrode-active material and polymer, and forming the mixed electrode-active material and polymer and binder into a battery electrode.

  1. Ion-beam-assisted deposition of MoS2 and other low-friction films. Interim report, Jun 88-Jun 92

    SciTech Connect

    Bolster, R.N.

    1992-09-11

    Vacuum-deposited films of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are effective as solid lubricants. Ion-beam-assisted deposition, which employs ion beam sputtering with an assist beam impinging on the growing film, has been investigated as a means of preparing low-friction high endurance coatings. The apparatus used and some of the techniques involved are described. Ion source operating parameters were optimized and the assist beam ion flux was quantified and found to follow a power-law relationship with beam power. The best way to produce MoS2 films was found to be cosputtering from separate Mo and S targets with deposition rates adjusted to obtain the desired stoichiometry. Deposition rates were found to also follow a power-law relationship with beam power, and formulae are given for predicting them, the ratio of assist ions to film atoms, and the effect of assist beam sputtering on film thickness. Inverse formulae are given for determining process parameters needed to achieve a selected film thickness and composition. A composite target for simultaneous Mo and S sputtering was developed. Deposition rates were determined for other metals: W, N1, Co, Cu, and Pb. Formulae relating target-to-substrate distance to deposition rate are given.

  2. Petrology, geochemistry and mineralization of the Las Águilas and Virorco mafic-ultramafic bodies, San Luis Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracutti, Gabriela; Bjerg, Ernesto; Mogessie, Aberra

    2013-04-01

    The layered mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Sierras de San Luis, Argentina (Las Águilas, Las Higueras and Virorco), constitute a 3-5-km-wide belt that extends over 100 km from NE to SW. They carry a sulphide mineralization consisting of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite, in veins and as disseminated to massive ore. Disseminated spinels are frequently associated with the sulphide minerals as well as platinum group minerals. A strong correlation between S, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, Pt and Pd indicates the presence of one to three levels of mineralization within the ultramafic units. The maximum concentration of these elements coincides with the units containing platinum group minerals (PGM) and spinel group minerals. This clear relationship constitutes a good prospecting guide in the search for layers with high-grade ore, probably associated with deeper stratigraphic levels where ultramafic rocks are dominant. The bulk rock chemistry and concentrations of metals and platinum group elements as well as textural evidence suggest that the parental magma was mafic with tholeiitic affinities and MgO rich. The Las Águilas layered mafic-ultramafic body and the remaining bodies in the area bear similar characteristics to well-known stratified complexes developed in extensional tectonic regimes, as it is the case of Jinchuan (China), Kabanga (Tanzania) and Fiambala (Argentina).

  3. Using elemental profiles and stable isotopes to trace the origin of green coffee beans on the global market.

    PubMed

    Santato, Alessandro; Bertoldi, Daniela; Perini, Matteo; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    A broad elemental profile incorporating 54 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi and U) in combination with δ(2) H, δ(13) C, δ(15) N and δ(18) O was used to characterise the composition of 62 green arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee beans grown in South and Central America, Africa and Asia, the four most internationally renowned areas of production. The δ(2) H, Mg, Fe, Co and Ni content made it possible to correctly assign 95% of green coffee beans to the appropriate variety. Canonical discriminant analysis, performed using δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, Li, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Cu, Se, Y, Mo, Cd, La and Ce correctly traced the origin of 98% of coffee beans. PMID:22972781

  4. Integrated study of metal behavior in Mediterranean stream ecosystems: a case-study.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Ortiz, Jesús D; Merseburger, Gora; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the present work was to assess the ecosystem status of Francolí river (Catalonia, Spain), a Mediterranean stream basin with contrasting human influences. An integrated approach was designed by combining physicochemical, biological and ecotoxicological analyses. The content of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was analyzed in samples of water, benthic sediments and aquatic macroinvertebrates. In addition, the potentially bioavailable fraction of metals in water and sediments was determined by using diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGTs) and sequential extraction of sediments (BCR), respectively. The biological quality was evaluated through aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, while the ecotoxicological status was assessed by Microtox(®) with Vibrio fischeri. Finally, an analysis of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) was performed to evaluate the sediment toxicity associated to metal content. According to the results, DGTs and BCR are suitable methodologies to predict the potential bioavailable fraction of metals in freshwater systems. Moreover, ecotoxicity evaluation by means of V. fischeri, in combination with the chemical characterization and the biological quality assessment, should be complementarily used to get a better diagnose of freshwater systems. PMID:23962800

  5. Determination of 11 major and minor elements in chondritic meteorites by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephen F; Compton, Joseph R; Gagnon, Christopher J L

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new method for the quantification of 11 major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) in chondritic meteorites by ICPMS using external calibration with a matrix-matched standard prepared from the Allende Standard Reference Meteorite. We have demonstrated the method's accuracy and assessed three different measures of precision by performing replicate dissolutions and analyses of 0.10-g samples of a homogenized samples of the CM2 meteorite Murchison and compared our results to literature values. We subsequently applied this method to the analysis of a set of four chondritic meteorites possessing a relatively wide range of chondritic compositions with results in accord with previously published values. Because our method is designed to use the same instrumentation and can use samples and standards prepared according to methods previously validated for the determination of a comprehensive suite of minor, trace, moderately and highly volatile trace elements (i.e., Li, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, all 14 naturally occurring lanthanoids, Hf, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Tl, Bi, Th, and U) it complements these methods and allows a single laboratory to determine the concentrations of 60 elements in semimicroscopic amounts of chondritic material. PMID:23141337

  6. Exploring lower limits of plant elemental defense by cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Dorothy J; Boyd, Robert S; Moar, William J

    2013-05-01

    Elemental defense is a relatively newly recognized phenomenon in which plants use elements present in their tissue to reduce damage by herbivores or pathogens. In the present study, neonates of the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were fed artificial diets amended with varying concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn that are hyperaccumulated by plants to determine minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) and minimum sublethal concentrations (MSC) for each metal. MLC values (dry mass) for Co (45 μg/g), Ni (230 μg/g), and Zn (280 μg/g) were below published minimum hyperaccumulator levels. MSC levels (dry mass) for Co (15 μg/g), Ni (140 μg/g), and Zn (200 μg/g) were at concentrations lower than published minimum accumulator levels. Furthermore, both MLC and MSC values for Zn were within normal tissue concentrations. These results indicate that elemental defense for Co, Ni, and Zn may be effective at concentrations lower than hyperaccumulator levels and so may be more widespread than previously believed. PMID:23584612

  7. Extraction of manganese(II) with dithizone and potassium thiocyanate on foam sorbents for spectrophotometric determination in silicates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, N; Roy, S K

    1993-10-01

    A method for selective extraction of Mn(II) with dithizone and potassium thiocyanate has been described. The method involves formation of a Mn(II)-thiocyanate-dithizone complex in a hexamine medium containing potassium thiocyanate (2.8M), dithizone (5.5-6.5 x 10(-5)M) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.25%) at pH approximately 6 followed by extraction of the complex on polyurethane foam using batch squeezing mode within 1 hr. The sorbed Mn-thiocyanate-dithizone complex is eluted with acetone and made alkaline with 0.5 ml of a stabilizer solution (19 ml 2M NH(3) solution + 1 ml 5% hydroxylamine hydrochloride). The absorbance of the solution is measured at 506 nm. The adverse effect due to Pb may be obviated by separating the Pb as the sulphate during decomposition of sample and that due to iron may be removed before extraction of Mn by any suitable method. The other interfering elements (Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, etc.) are masked with KCN (6 x 10(-3)M optimum) solution. The method obeys Beer's Law from 0.1 to 2.0 mug Mn/ml. The method has been applied to various silicates, carbonates and glasses. PMID:18965811

  8. Effect of metal accumulation on metallothionein level and condition of the periwinkle Littorina littorea along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Heidi; De Wolf, Hans; Backeljau, Thierry; Blust, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Metal (i.e. Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in the soft tissue of Littorina littorea were measured along the heavily polluted Western Scheldt (WS) and relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (ES) estuary. Along the WS metal and MT levels in periwinkles reflected the known downstream decreasing pollution gradient. Surprisingly in ES animals As, Mn and Zn concentrations decreased from east to west reflecting past pollution. Compared to the WS metal concentrations of ES periwinkles were significantly lower and both estuaries were maximally discriminated from each other based on their Cd soft tissue concentration using a canonical discriminant analysis. Furthermore, no overall difference was found in MT levels among animals from both estuaries. Using previously obtained condition data (i.e. dry/wet weight ratio and lipid content) the relation between soft tissue metal concentration (i.e. Cd, Cu and Zn) and fitness indicators (i.e. MT and condition data) was examined using a canonical correlation analysis. Periwinkles with a high metal load (i.e. Cd and Zn) also had high MT levels but were in a relatively poor condition. PMID:19948373

  9. Spectral studies of niobium complexes with 2-(5-chloro-2-pyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminophenol (5.C1DMPAP). Analytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, R.I.; Marini, H.J.; Olsina, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Optimal conditions for the development of complexation reactions between Nb(VV) and 5.C1DMPAP were studied. When a sulfuric solution of 5.C1DMPAP is added to a Nb(V) solution (dissolved in sulfuric acid), two complex species are formed depending on the concentration of such an acid in the reaction medium. These complexes are formed in 0.085 M and 0.18 M concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a stoichiometry at 610 nm being 8 x 10{sup 4} and 7 x 10{sup 4} L.mol{sup -1}.cm{sup -1}; 9.62 x 10{sup 4} and 8.23 x 10{sup 4} L.mol{sup -1}.cm{sup -1} (when the solvent is ethanol). Formation constants of the respective complexes were also calculated, which fulfill Beer`s Law up to 1.2 ppm of Nb(V). An absorptiometric method for Nb(V) determination was developed to which Ta, Mn, U, La, Pr, Ga, Nd, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Zn, Mo, Pb and Bi do not interfere. Fe, V and Ti are tolerated at ratio 1:1 (Int:Me) and Zr and Yb at 50:1 (Int:Me). The method was applied to Niobium determination in synthetic samples with highly satisfactory results.

  10. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  11. Correlation of Arsenic and Other Metals in Natural and Anthropogenic Environments in Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, R.; Brandon, W. C.; Davidson, T. A.; Mayo, M.

    2008-12-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in soils and sediments can be influenced by both natural processes and by anthropogenic factors making it often difficult to identify its source or sources. In this talk we report on elevated arsenic in pond bottom sediments where arsenic in the sediments has at least three distinct and identified sources of origin: (1) discharge of natural reducing groundwater containing arsenic - arsenic is adsorbed on ferric (hydr)oxide surfaces, (2) discharge of landfill contaminant plume through a redox interface - arsenic is adsorbed on ferric (hydr)oxide surfaces, and (3) dispersed waste from past tannery operations. Each arsenic source has a unique correlation with other metals that provide a guide for mapping regions influenced by one or a mixture of the above sources. Natural reducing ground water correlates with Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb but not with Cr or Hg. Arsenic concentrations range between 50 and 120 ppm. Tannery influenced area by contrast contains arsenic up to 370 ppm, is characterized by substantially elevated Cr (20,000 to 50,000 ppm in some locations), and by elevated Hg (5 to 340 ppb). Zone of landfill leachate discharging plume has arsenic levels as high as 6,800 ppm, although more typical values are in the 90 to 500 ppm range. Except for Fe and Mn, arsenic does not correlate with any other metals in this zone.

  12. Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals using acidothermophilic autotrophes.

    PubMed

    Umrania, Valentina V

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to isolate microbial strains from soil, mud and water samples from metallurgically polluted environment for bioremediation of toxic heavy metals. As a result of primary and secondary screening various 72 acidothermophilic autotrophic microbes were isolated and adapted for metal tolerance and biosorption potentiality. The multi-metal tolerance was developed with higher gradient of concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Pb, Sn and Zn. The isolates were checked for their biosolubilization ability with copper containing metal sulfide ores. In case of chalcopyrite 85.82% and in covellite as high as 97.5% copper solubilization occurred in presence of 10(-3) M multi-heavy metals on fifth day at 55 degrees C and pH 2.5. Chemical analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) for metal absorption. The selected highly potential isolate (ATh-14) showed maximum adsorption of Ag 73%, followed by Pb 35%, Zn 34%, As 19%, Ni 15% and Cr 9% in chalcopyrite. PMID:16324838

  13. Large reduction of the depinning field for a transverse domain wall under application of rf and dc currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Grollier, J.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.

    2010-03-01

    A new generation of proposed spintronic devices are based on domain wall (DW) motion (DW-MRAM, DW logic, racetrack memory...). However, reliable depinning of domain walls remains elusive, especially in zero field. Here, we have studied the combined effect of rf and dc currents on the depinning of transverse walls in the soft NiFe layer of a 100 nm wide Co/Cu/NiFe spin valve wire. Using the GMR effect, we ensure that the domain wall is always prepared at the same intrinsic defect and then measure the depinning field for different applied dc and rf currents. Notably, for a narrow range of rf frequencies at around 3GHz, we evidence a strong reduction in the depinning field (from ˜80 Oe to ˜30 Oe). Our results are suggestive of a very efficient resonant depinning effect in our spin valve wire which depends not only on the rf power but also on the polarity and amplitude of the accompanying dc current.

  14. Leaching of Major and Minor Elements during the Transport and Storage of Coal Ash Obtained in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Krgović, Rada; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Manojlović, Dragan; Mutić, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    In power plant, coal ash obtained by combustion is mixed with river water and transported to the dump. Sequential extraction was used in order to assess pollution caused by leaching of elements during ash transport through the pipeline and in the storage (cassettes). A total of 80 samples of filter ash as well as the ash from active (currently filled) and passive (previously filled) cassettes were studied. Samples were extracted with distilled water, ammonium acetate, ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid, acidic solution of hydrogen-peroxide, and a hydrochloric acid. Concentrations of the several elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, Ca, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Pattern recognition method was carried out in order to provide better understanding of the nature of distribution of elements according to their origins. Results indicate possible leaching of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Among these elements As, Cd, and Pb are toxicologically the most important but they were not present in the first two phases with the exception of As. The leaching could be destructive and cause negative effects on plants, water pollution, and damage to some life forms. PMID:25101314

  15. The zonal distribution of selected elements above the Kalamazoo porphyry copper deposit, San Manuel district, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    There may be many as-yet-undiscovered porphyry copper deposits that exist as blind deposits deep within exposed rock bodies. The Kalamazoo porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit is a blind deposit present at depths up to at least 1,000 m (about 3,200 ft) that contains zoning features common to many of the known porphyry copper deposits found in western North and South America. As the preliminary phase in a geochemical study of the Kalamazoo deposit, whole-rock samples of core and cuttings from two drill holes have been analyzed for 60 different elements. Each hole represents a different major rock unit and each has penetrated completely through all the existing alteration zones and the ore zone. Plots of concentration vs. depth for 17 selected elements show distinct high- or low-concentration zones that are spatially related to the ore zone. For most of the ore-related elements no significant correlation with the two lithologies is apparent. The spatial distribution and abundance of elements such as Co, Cu, S, Se, Mn, Tl, Rb, Zn, B, and Li may be useful in determining the direction for exploration to proceed to locate a blind deposit. Trace element studies should be valuable in evaluating areas containing extensive outcrops of rocks with disseminated pyrite. Elemental zoning should be at least as useful as alteration-mineralization zoning for evaluating rock bodies thought to contain blind deposits similar to the Kalamazoo deposit. ?? 1976.

  16. Heavy metals in benthic foraminifera from the highly polluted sediments of the Naples harbour (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Rumolo, Paola; Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Ferraro, Luciana; Marsella, Ennio

    2009-10-15

    A systematic investigation evaluated the concentrations of a selected number of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in carbonates of the benthic foraminifera Ammonia tepida collected from surface sediments of the highly polluted harbour of Naples. Application of cleaning procedures, combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy investigation (SEM) of the analysed shells allowed reliable quantification of the elements in the carbonate lattice. Adoption of biogenic carbonate/seawater distribution coefficients reported in the literature provided the ranges of variability of total dissolved trace elements in the studied marine environment. Very high concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu calculated in seawater (from 100 to 10,000 times higher than those reported for uncontaminated Mediterranean seawaters) testify to intense effects of anthropogenic impact on the harbour mainly related to the industrial and commercial activities carried out in the neighbouring area. The ensemble of the obtained results emphasizes the high potential of measurements of trace elements in the biogenic carbonates of benthic foraminifera as tracers of anthopogenic pollution of seawater and reliable proxies of potentially bioavailable forms (as free ions and/or more labile organic complexes) of seawater dissolved metals. PMID:19647291

  17. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  18. Analysis of mineral and heavy metal content of some commercial fruit juices by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  19. Heavy metals affect regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in nematocytes isolated from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Morabito, R; Marino, A; La Spada, G

    2013-06-01

    The environmental contamination caused by heavy metals raises the question of their effect on biological systems. Among bio-indicators useful to monitor the toxicological effects of these chemicals, Cnidarians offer a unique model. Cnidarians possess highly specialized stinging cells, termed nematocytes, which respond to hyposmotic solution with well established homeostatic parameters as an acute osmotic phase (OP), leading to cell swelling, and then a slower regulatory volume decrease (RVD) phase, causing cell shrinkage. Here we report the effect of 65% artificial sea water (ASW) containing heavy metals, such as Cd, La, Co, Cu and Zn (concentrations comprised between 100 and 0.1 μM) on both OP and RVD in nematocytes isolated from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca by 605 mM NaSCN plus 0.01 mM Ca(2+). The exposure of the cells to Co and La inhibited RVD but not OP. However, Cu, Cd and Zn prevented the OP in a dose-dependent manner and, hence, also the detection of RVD. These results suggest that, in isolated nematocytes, heavy metal pollutants impair RVD either directly or indirectly through interference with the OP, thus negating RVD. Although further studies need to clarify the exact mechanisms whereby heavy metals exert their toxicity, it is evident that nematocytes of Cnidarians could serve as a model for ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:23499922

  20. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  1. Capturing Guest Dynamics in Metal-Organic Framework CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) by (2)H Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Sinelnikov, Regina; Huang, Yining

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising porous materials for gas separation and storage as well as sensing. In particular, a series of isostructural MOFs with coordinately unsaturated metal centers, namely, CPO-27-M or M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), have shown exceptional adsorption capacity and selectivity compared to those of classical MOFs that contain only fully coordinated metal sites. Although it is widely accepted that the interaction between guest molecules and exposed metal centers is responsible for good selectivity and large maximum uptake, the investigation of such guest-metal interaction is very challenging because adsorbed molecules are usually disordered in the pores and undergo rapid thermal motions. (2)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is one of the most extensively used techniques for capturing guest dynamics in porous materials. In this work, variable-temperature (2)H wide-line SSNMR experiments were performed on CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) loaded with four prototypical guest molecules: D2O, CD3CN, acetone-d6, and C6D6. The results indicate that different guest molecules possess distinct dynamic behaviors inside the channel of CPO-27-M. For a given guest molecule, its dynamic behavior also depends on the nature of the metal centers. The binding strength of guest molecules is discussed on the basis of the (2)H SSNMR data. PMID:27183247

  2. Minor and trace element concentrations in adjacent kamacite and taenite in the Krymka chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, N.; Mostefaoui, S.; Jambon, A.; Guedda, E. H.; Pont, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report in situ NanoSIMS siderophile minor and trace element abundances in individual Fe-Ni metal grains in the unequilibrated chondrite Krymka (LL3.2). Associated kamacite and taenite of 10 metal grains in four chondrules and one matrix metal were analyzed for elemental concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Rh, Ir, and Pt. The results show large elemental variations among the metal grains. However, complementary and correlative variations exist between adjacent kamacite-taenite. This is consistent with the unequilibrated character of the chondrite and corroborates an attainment of chemical equilibrium between the metal phases. The calculated equilibrium temperature is 446 ± 9 °C. This is concordant with the range given by Kimura et al. (2008) for the Krymka postaccretion thermal metamorphism. Based on Ni diffusivity in taenite, a slow cooling rate is estimated of the Krymka parent body that does not exceed ~1K Myr-1, which is consistent with cooling rates inferred by other workers for unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Elemental ionic radii might have played a role in controlling elemental partitioning between kamacite and taenite. The bulk compositions of the Krymka metal grains have nonsolar (mostly subsolar) element/Ni ratios suggesting the Fe-Ni grains could have formed from distinct precursors of nonsolar compositions or had their compositions modified subsequent to chondrule formation events.

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED GRANULAR SUPPORT PARTICLES AND CATALYTIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenchen Zhong

    2002-01-15

    We have set up successfully two experimental systems during the past time of the project. The first system is sol-gel chemical method for preparing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles. The second system is the laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) technique for nanoparticle catalysts containing Fe/Cu, and Co/Cu on the granular support. We have successfully deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles by sol-gel method and Co and CoO nanoparticles by LISD novel fabrication technique. The characterization methods we have used include scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The research toward to the proposed direction is in good progress. We have given three presentations in national and local materials meetings and have submitted another two papers in another two key national meetings in nanotechnology and American Physical Annual March Meeting 2002. A couple of papers are in preparation.

  4. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated. PMID:23138054

  5. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Joshua A; Natali, Susan M; Levinton, Jeffrey S; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. PMID:17382440

  6. Environmental status of Daya Bay surface sediments inferred from a sequential extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung; Wang, Gang; Xue, Qinzhao; Tang, Cheng; Chen, Shaoyong

    2010-02-01

    The chemical partitioning of 12 trace metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sc, Sr, U, Zn) in 9 surface sediments from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea, was studied by a four-step sequential extraction technique to assess their environmental/pollution status. The studied metals take on different fraction composition patterns, and some of them show significant spatial variation especially for Cd. A majority of the studied metals can be considered immobile because of their high percentages in the residual fraction. It seems that the Daya Bay surface sediments have not yet been polluted by the studied heavy metals which are used as parameters to classify marine sediment quality, i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. For all metals except for Pb, the extent of anthropogenic influences on their total concentrations in the Daya Bay surface sediments is generally imperceptible. The metals' potential risks to the environment were assessed, and the results showed that they have generally no risk or low risk except for Cd, Mn and Sr.

  7. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of M(N3)2(bpy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilović, Dušan; Hamida, Youcef; Lin, C. L.; Yuen, Tan; Li, Kunhao; Li, Jing

    2012-04-01

    Powder crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOF), M(N3)2(bpy) (where M = Ni, Co, Cu, and bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine), were successfully synthesized by mixing M(II) salts with solutions of 4,4'-bipyridine and NaN3. All three MOFs crystallize in an orthorhombic crystal system with the space group Cmmm (No. 65), which is isostructural to that of 2D-Fe(N3)2(bpy). The M(II) ions are coordinated with four azide ligands (N3) in equatorial plane forming linear magnetic chains. Isothermal magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements were performed. No clear phase transitions were observed. The intra-chain magnetic interaction was found to be ferromagnetic for the Co and Ni compounds, and antiferromagnetic for the Cu compound. The data were fit to theoretical models, and the variation in the exchange interactions was interpreted in terms of the geometric distortions on the octahedral M(II) sites.

  8. Migration of trace elements from basalt substrate to co-located vegetation (lichens and mosses) at the Wudalianchi volcanos, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuan; Ju, Yiwen; Li, Boping; Sun, Yimin

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation (e.g., lichens and mosses) living on the basalt substrate have potential to accumulate trace elements in their tissues. Here, we analyze the trace elements in basalt (collected from major volcanic center to jet plate places, representing four different eruption phases) and adjacent lichens and mosses to assess their elemental source-receptor relation. The results indicate that As, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Ba are enriched in basalt, and depleted in lichens and mosses. However, Zn, Hg, and Pb are enriched in lichens and mosses and depleted in basalt. Moreover, with the increase of basalt age, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are gradually enriched in lichen and moss, but gradually depleted in basalt. Compared with transition metals, large ion lithophiles, the platinum group, and rare earth elements, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, and Os are more easily absorbed by No. 1 lichen. Specifically, S is highly assimilated in vegetation, with a highest value of 166, followed by I, C, Pb, Zn, and Hg. In addition, the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of water samples suggest that the surface water in the Wenbo area came from meteoric waters in summer with a high humidity, while the underground water in the Beiyaoquan area came from meteoric waters in winter with a low humidity.

  9. Spin wave beam mediated synchronization of nano-contact spin torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshang, Afshin; Iacocca, Ezio; Durrenfeld, Philipp; Sani, Sohrab; Akerman, Johan; Dumas, Randy

    2015-03-01

    The synchronization of multiple nano-contact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) is mediated by propagating spin waves (SWs). While it has been shown that the Oersted field generated in the vicinity of the NC can dramatically alter the emission pattern of SWs, its role in the synchronization behavior of multiple NCs has not been considered. We investigate the synchronization behavior in double NC-STOs oriented either vertically or horizontally, with respect to the in-plane component of the external field. Two NCs with nominal diameters of 100 nm and a center-to-center spacing of 300 nm are defined on top of an all metallic Co/Cu/NiFe pseudo spin valve. Synchronization is promoted (impeded) by the Oersted field landscape when the NCs are oriented vertically (horizontally) due to the highly anisotropic SW propagation. The vertical positioning of the NCs gives rise to a unique magnetic field landscape that acts to localize SWs in a region just outside one of the NCs, as confirmed by micromagnetic simulations. This work was supported by the European Commission FP7-ICT-2001-Contract No 317950 ``MOSAIC,'' VR, SSF, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

  10. Heterometallic Cu/Co and Cu/Co/Zn complexes bearing rare asymmetric tetranuclear cores: synthesis, structures, and magnetic and catalytic properties toward the peroxidative oxidation of cycloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Dmytro S; Kokozay, Volodymyr N; Jezierska, Julia; Pavlyuk, Oleksiy V; Boča, Roman; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2011-05-16

    The three novel heterometallic complexes [CuCo(III)Co(II)(2)(MeDea)(3)Cl(3)(CH(3)OH)(0.55)(H(2)O)(0.45)](H(2)O)(0.45) (1), [CuCo(III)Zn(2)(MeDea)(3)Cl(3)(CH(3)OH)(0.74)(H(2)O)(0.26)](H(2)O)(0.26) (2), and [CuCo(III)Zn(2)(MeDea)(3)Cl(3)(DMF)] (3) have been prepared using a one-pot reaction of copper powder with cobalt chloride (1) and zinc nitrate (2, 3) in a methanol (1, 2) or dimethylformamide (3) solution of N-methyldiethanolamine. A search of the Cambridge Structural Database shows that the tetranuclear asymmetric cores M(4)(μ(3)-X)(μ-X)(5) of 1-3 represent an extremely rare case of M(4)X(6) arrays. The magnetic investigations of 1 disclose antiferromagnetic coupling in a Co(II)-Cu(II)-Co(II) exchange fragment with J(Co-Cu)/hc = -4.76 cm(-1), J(Co-Co)/hc = -2.76 cm(-1), and D(Co)/hc = +34.3 cm(-1). Compounds 1-3 act as precursors for the mild peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with overall yields up to 23%. The synthetic and structural features as well as the thermogravimetric behavior and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data are discussed. PMID:21506552

  11. Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Brady, Keith; Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2005-01-01

    Recent construction for Interstate Highway 99 (I?99) exposed pyrite and associated Zn-Pb sulfide minerals beneath a >10-m thick gossan to oxidative weathering along a 40-60-m deep roadcut through a 270-m long section of the Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation at Skytop, near State College, Centre County, Pennsylvania. Nearby Zn-Pb deposits hosted in associated sandstone and limestone in Blair and Centre Counties were prospected in the past; however, these deposits generally were not viable as commercial mines. The pyritic sandstone from the roadcut was crushed and used locally as road base and fill for adjoining segments of I?99. Within months, acidic (pH1,000 mg/L), seep waters at the base of the cut contain >100 mg/L dissolved Zn and >1 mg/L As, Co, Cu, and Ni. Lead is relatively immobile (<10 ?g/L in seep waters). The salts sequester metals and acidity between rainfall events. Episodic salt dissolution then contributes pulses of contamination including acid to surface runoff and ground water. The Skytop experience highlights the need to understand dynamic interactions of mineralogy and hydrology in order to avoid potentially negative environmental impacts associated with excavation in sulfidic rocks.

  12. Antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo-Yao; Lin, Po-Han; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Shih, Chun-Wei; Lee, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jih, Nae-Yeou; Wei, Der-Hsin

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates the effect of antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/AFM/FM) trilayers and reveals its interplay with a long-range interlayer coupling between separated FM layers. In epitaxially grown 12 monolayer (ML) Ni/Co/Mn/5 ML Co/Cu(001) films, magnetic hysteresis loops and element-resolved magnetic domain imaging showed that the magnetization direction of the top layers of 12 ML Ni/Co films could be changed from the in-plane direction to the perpendicular direction, when the thickness of the Mn films (tMn) was greater than a critical value close to the thickness threshold associated with the onset of AFM ordering (tMn=3.5 ML). The top FM layers exhibited a significantly enhanced PMA when tMn increased further, and this enhancement can be attributed to a strengthened AFM ordering of the volume moments of the Mn films, as evidenced by the presence of induced domain frustration. By contrast, the long-range interlayer coupling presented clear effects only when tMn was at a lower coverage.

  13. Movement of magnetic domain walls induced by single femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandig, O.; Shokr, Y. A.; Vogel, J.; Valencia, S.; Kronast, F.; Kuch, W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a microscopic investigation of how the magnetic domain structure in ultrathin films changes after direct excitation by single ultrashort laser pulses. Using photoelectron emission microscopy in combination with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in the resonant absorption of soft x rays, we find that individual laser pulses of ≈60 fs duration and a central wavelength of 800 nm lead to clear changes in the domain structure of a Co layer of three atomic monolayers thickness in an epitaxial Co/Cu/Ni trilayer on a Cu(001) single-crystal substrate. A relatively small enhancement of the sample base temperature by 40 K is sufficient to lower the threshold of laser fluence for domain wall motion by about a factor of two. Pump-probe measurements with a laser fluence just below this threshold indicate that the laser-induced demagnetization of the sample is far from complete in these experiments. Although the domain wall motion appears similar to thermal domain wall fluctuations, quantitatively it cannot be explained by pure thermal activation of domain wall motion by the transient rise of sample temperature after the laser pulse, but it is likely to be triggered by a laser-induced depinning of domain walls.

  14. Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China.

    PubMed

    Briki, Meryem; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Ding, Huaijian; Gao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Mining and smelting have been releasing huge amount of toxic substances into the environment. In the present study, agricultural soil and different agricultural products (potato, Chinese cabbage, garlic bolt, corn) were analyzed to examine the source, spatial distribution, and risk of 12 elements (As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in agricultural soil near mine fields, smelting fields, and mountain field around Hezhang County, west of Guizhou Province, China. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that in mining area, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn were generated from anthropogenic sources; in smelting area, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic sources through zinc smelting ceased in 2004. The enrichment factors (EFs) and ecological risk index (RI) of soil in mining area are the most harmful, showing extremely high enrichment and very high ecological risk of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Zinc is the most significant enriched in the smelting area; however, mountain area has a moderate enrichment and ecological risk and do not present any ecological risk. According to spatial distribution, the concentrations depend on the nearby mining and smelting activities. Transfer factors (TFs) in the smelting area and mountain are high, implying a threat for human consumption. Therefore, further studies should be carried out taking into account the harm of those heavy metals and potential negative health effects from the consumption of agricultural products in these circumstances. PMID:26590987

  15. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of metals in honeybee venom.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Zenon J; Matysiak, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to analyze the contamination of selected 20 metals in 32 samples of honeybee venom and to demonstrate differences in the content of these elements. Among the analyzed metal microelements (Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B, V, Sr and Ni), macro-elements (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and toxic metals (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Sb and Cr) were identified. The presented results showed that the metal levels in honeybee venom are much lower than the tolerable upper intake levels for the elements. Also the toxic metal contamination is much lower than the permissible levels for drugs established by the United States Pharmacopeia and the European Pharmacopeia. As opposed to the pharmacopeial tests for metals, a multi-element ICP-MS method has been developed. In order to confirm data obtained, the following steps and parameters were taken into account for the validation of the method: calibration verification, recovery, accuracy, precision, detection limit (LOD), quantitation limit (LOQ), spectral and matrix interference and comparison between ICP-MS and GFAAS (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) for Mn. All steps of validation proved the accuracy of the results. This is most likely the first study in which the metal content in honeybee venom was evaluated by ICP-MS. PMID:18617350

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in Nerium oleander for pollution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, E. F. O.; Simabuco, S. M.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2000-07-01

    This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees in December and April. The measurement was made with a white beam of synchrotron radiation calibrated with thin samples from MicroMatter. The results indicate that some metals such as Ti, V, Fe and Zn have major content in samples that were collected in places with a high traffic flow, even in the leaves that have been washed. The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Ni did not show significant differences between the samples. The Pb level also did not vary significantly. This was expected because in Brazil gasoline without Pb has been used for many years. The results seem to indicate that the leaves from Nerium oleander absorb metals from the atmosphere and may be used as an environmental indicator.

  17. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Umbozero in Murmansk Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Jernström, J; Lehto, J; Dauvalter, V A; Hatakka, A; Leskinen, A; Paatero, J

    2010-02-01

    Sediment cores collected from different locations of Lake Umbozero were studied with respect to concentration and mobility of trace and heavy metals Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. Lake Umbozero is the second largest lake in the Murmansk Region and subjected to contamination by air-borne emissions and river transportation from the nearby metallurgical and mining industries. Unlike its neighboring, more industry-prone Lake Imandra, Lake Umbozero is relatively unexplored with respect to its state of pollution. In our study, metal distribution in sediments was found to vary with respect to the cores, although in general the concentrations were at the same level throughout the lake indicating uniform horizontal distribution of metals. When compared to Lake Imandra, the concentrations of most of the metals studied were significantly lower and represented the levels in sediments measured in lakes of Kola Peninsula located further off from industrial pollutant sources. An exception was Pb the concentration of which was at the same level as in Lake Imandra, probably due to long-distance transport. Sediment layers were subjected to four-step sequential extraction procedure to reveal the metal distribution in soluble, exchangeable, acid-soluble, and residual fractions. Indicative of their potential higher lability, Mn, U, and Zn were generally found in exchangeable fraction; as also Mn and U extensively in the acid-soluble fraction. PMID:19184485

  18. Hot electron spin transport in C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Luis Eduardo; Gobbi, Marco; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Golmar, Federico; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Carbon-based molecular materials are interesting for spin transport application mainly due to their small sources of spin relaxation [1]. However, spin coherence lengths reported in many molecular films do not exceed a few tens of nanometers [2]. In this work we will present results showing how hot spin-polarized electrons injected well above the Fermi level in C60 fullerene films travel coherently for hundreds of nanometers. We fabricated hot-electron vertical transistors, in which the current created across an Al/Al2O3 junction is polarized by a metallic Co/Cu/Py spin valve trilayer and subsequently injected in the molecular thin film. This geometry allows us to determine the energy level alignment at each interface between different materials. Moreover, the collector magnetocurrent excess 85%, even for C60 films thicknesses of 300 nm. We believe these results show the importance of hot spin-polarized electron injection and propagation in molecular materials. [1] V. Dediu, L.E. Hueso, I. Bergenti, C. Taliani, Nature Mater. 8, 707 (2009) [2] M. Gobbi, F. Golmar, R. Llopis, F. Casanova, L.E. Hueso, Adv. Mater. 23, 1609 (2011)

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers on Transition Metal Catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yura; Park, Eun-Sil; Mees, Karina; Park, Ho-Seon; Willert-Porada, Monika; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers were synthesized on transition metal (Fe, Co, Cu) catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The variations of thickness and surface of the fibers were investigated according to the concentration of the transition metal. In order to prepare the metal catalysts for synthesis, transition metal nitrate and copper nitrate at a weight ratio were dissolved in distilled water. The obtained catalyst precipitates were filtered and then dried for more than 24 hours at 110 degrees C. Carbon nanofibers were synthesized by using ethylene gas of carbon source by CVD after pulverization of the fully-dried catalyst precipitates. They were characterized by SEM, EDS, Raman, XRD, XPS and TG/DTA, and their specific surface area was measured by BET. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were greatly influenced by the concentration ratio of the metal catalysts. Especially, uniform carbon nanofibers grew when the concentration ratio of Fe and Cu was 7:3, and that of Co and Cu was 6:4. Carbon nanofibers synthesized under such concentration conditions had the best crystallizability, compared to carbon nanofibers synthesized with metal catalysts of different concentration ratios, and revealed high amorphicity as well as high specific surface area. PMID:26716326

  20. Cu-Precipitation Strengthening in Ultrahigh-Strength Carburizing Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemens, Benjamin L.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Olson, Gregory B.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrahigh hardness levels greater than 700 VHN can be obtained in secondary hardening carburizing steels but depend on costly Co alloying additions to maximize hardness achieved through M2C-type carbide precipitation strengthening. This study aims to incorporate nanometer-scale bcc Cu precipitates to both provide strength as well as catalyze M2C nucleation in the absence of or with reduced Co. Cu additions of 1.0 and 3.7 wt pct were investigated, using a series of mechanistic models coupled with thermodynamic computational tools to derive final compositions. Thirty-pound experimental heats were cast of each designed alloy, samples of which were carburized and tempered to determine their hardness response. Characterization revealed the successful incorporation of Cu alloying additions into this family of steels, demonstrating a secondary hardening response even in the absence of Co. Matrix strength levels were close to those predicted by design models; however, all four alloys demonstrated a hardness deficit of approximately 200 VHN at the carburized surface, suggesting recalibration of the M2C precipitation strengthening model may be required in these alloys.

  1. Comparison of elemental content on modern and ancient papers by EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Costa, M.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of elemental composition, determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to identify different types of paper. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were determined in papers from 1555, 1575, 1724, 1748, 1779, 1782, 1787, 1806, 1861, 1919, 1941 and 2005. A preliminary analysis was made with the use of a dendrogram. The Euclidian distances evidenced a big fluctuation in the elemental composition on most recent papers. The dendrogram also allowed us to catalogue the analysed samples into ten types of paper. Calcium, Cu, Fe, Zn and Sr were the only elements found in all paper samples. However the content of each element was different in every paper type. Calcium is the predominant element in all paper types. Applying Spearman coefficients correlations to these papers for Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn and Sr, we found moderate negative correlations between Ca-Cu. Positive correlations were also found between Fe-Cu, though not very strong. High levels of the toxic elements, Co, Ni, As and Pb were present in papers from 1779 and 1787. From this work it becomes clear that the number of elements in modern papers is lower than in older ones.

  2. Homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance of in-plane magnetized nanocontacts: Composite spin-wave resonances and their excitation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlali, Masoumeh; Dvornik, Mykola; Iacocca, Ezio; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Haidar, Mohammad; Åkerman, Johan; Dumas, Randy K.

    2016-04-01

    This work provides a detailed investigation of the measured in-plane field-swept homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of an extended Co/Cu/NiFe pseudo-spin-valve stack using a nanocontact (NC) geometry. The magnetodynamics are generated by a pulse-modulated microwave current, and the resulting rectified dc mixing voltage, which appears across the NC at resonance, is detected using a lock-in amplifier. Most notably, we find that the measured spectra of the NiFe layer are composite in nature and highly asymmetric, consistent with the broadband excitation of multiple modes. Additionally, the data must be fit with two Lorentzian functions in order to extract a reasonable value for the Gilbert damping of the NiFe. Aided by micromagnetic simulations, we conclude that (i) for in-plane fields the rf Oersted field in the vicinity of the NC plays the dominant role in generating the observed spectra, (ii) in addition to the FMR mode, exchange-dominated spin waves are also generated, and (iii) the NC diameter sets the mean wave vector of the exchange-dominated spin wave, in good agreement with the dispersion relation.

  3. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

  4. Effect of Zr, V, Nb, Mo, and Ta substitutions on magnetic properties and microstructure of melt-spun SmCo5 magnets

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Tomokazu; Iwane, Hiroaki; Abe, Kazutomo; Doi, Toshihiro; Tamura, Ryuji; Oikawa, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated effects of metal substitutions on the magnetic properties and microstructure of melt-spun Sm-Co-Cu-Fe-M (M = Zr, V, Nb, Mo, Ta) magnets. We prepared melt-spun ribbons with compositions of Sm(Co1−xCux)5Fe0.54−yMy (x = 0.1–0.5, y = 0–0.43, M = Zr, V, Nb, Mo, Ta). For compositions of Sm(Co1−xCux)5Fe0.54 (x = 0.1–0.5), coercivity increased with increasing of annealing temperature, and a high coercivity of 17.6 kOe was obtained at a Cu content of x = 0.3. The coercivity was found to increase with increasing melting point of the substitution element. A high coercivity of 24.5 kOe was obtained for a composition of Sm(Co0.7Cu0.3)5Fe0.34Ta0.2. PMID:24753631

  5. Contact magnetoresistance of multilayered cobalt/copper nanostructures measured by scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Paul-Shane

    Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is the change in resistance of a series of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic (F/N) layers in an applied magnetic field. Due to its potential in magnetic sensing and data storage applications, GMR has been a topic of intense research since its discovery 20 years ago. When the source current is passed perpendicular to the planes (CPP geometry) of the F/N layers, wire- or column-shaped nanostructures are preferred over conventional planar films because their reduced lateral dimension results in a larger resistance, allowing measurements at room temperature. F/N nanostructures previously implemented to exhibit CPP-GMR require extensive postdeposition modifications, specialized substrates, or use microfabrication techniques that are not vacuum-based. For the first time oblique angle deposition (OAD) is used to create a new F/N system that exhibits CPP-GMR at room temperature. OAD is a long-known physical vapor deposition technique in which nanostructure growth is achieved through a shadowing effect that occurs when the substrate is tilted to highly glancing angles relative to the incident flux. The samples grown for this study are slanted or vertical multilayered Co/Cu nanocolumns deposited by dual source thermal evaporation. For the vertical columns, the Co and Cu layer thicknesses tl were equal with t l = 4 nm and the bilayer number M = 34, while for the slanted nanocolumns tl = 4, 7, and 16 nm, with bilayer number M = 50, 42, and 21, respectively. The physical structure of these nanocolumns was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The vertical columns had larger diameter (˜100 nm) and showed more branching on their outer surface due to the substrate rotation. The slanted columns had a smaller diameter (˜50 nm), possessed a smoother exterior surface, and showed a clear multilayered Co/Cu structure from EELS imaging. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pole

  6. A dual-colored bio-marker made of doped ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. L.; Fu, S.; Tok, A. I. Y.; Zeng, X. T.; Lim, C. S.; Kwek, L. C.; Boey, F. C. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Bio-compatible ZnO nanocrystals doped with Co, Cu and Ni cations, surface capped with two types of aminosilanes and titania are synthesized by a soft chemical process. Due to the small particle size (2-5 nm), surface functional groups and the high photoluminescence emissions at the UV and blue-violet wavelength ranges, bio-imaging on human osteosarcoma (Mg-63) cells and histiocytic lymphoma U-937 monocyte cells showed blue emission at the nucleus and bright turquoise emission at the cytoplasm simultaneously. This is the first report on dual-color bio-images labeled by one semiconductor nanocrystal colloidal solution. Bright green emission was detected on mung bean seedlings labeled by all the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the aminosilanes capped nanoparticles are non-toxic. Quantum yields of the nanocrystals varied from 79% to 95%. The results showed the potential of the pure ZnO and Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals for live imaging of both human cells and plant systems.

  7. [Comparative analysis of trace elements in five marine-derived shell TCM using multivariate statistical analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Zhen; Fu, Yu-qiang; Gong, Hui-li; Guan, Hua-shi; Liu, Hong-bing

    2015-11-01

    A comparable study were carried out by determination of trace elements on five marine-derived shell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (Ostreae Concha, Haliotidis Concha, Margaritifera Concha, Meretricis Concha, and Arcae Concha), which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version). Seven trace elements in 51 batches of this type of shell TCM were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) methods. The content of element Se, which exhibited significant differences among different drugs, could be used as a key element to distinguish this type of drugs. Meanwhile, the contents of elements Co, Cu, Mo, and Ba in Haliotidis Concha, Co and As in Margaritifera Concha, Mo and As in Meretricis Concha, Mo, As, and Ba in Arcae Concha, and Zn in Meretricis Concha were relatively stable. In the PCA plot, Arcae Concha and Meretricis Concha could be efficiently distinguished from Ostreae Concha together with Haliotidis Concha, and Margaritifera Concha. The results also showed a correlation with their medicinal function. In conclusion, trace elements in marine-derived shell TCM could not be neglected for their quality control. PMID:27071261

  8. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in mine affected soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:26079739

  9. Effect of Zn2+ Substitution on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Co0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhou, Yuan; Wu, Wenwei; Xu, Jiawei; Liu, Shangqian; Liu, Dongsheng; Wu, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A series of Zn2+ doped Co-Cu ferrites with the formula Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been successfully synthesized using the solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate that a high-crystallized cubic Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 with rod-like structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 800°C in air for 3 h. The lattice parameters increase with the increase of Zn2+ additional amount, attributed to the larger ionic radius of the substituted ion Zn2+ than Cu2+ ionic radius. Zn2+ substitution can improve the magnetic properties of Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4. Co0.5Cu0.4Zn0.1Fe2O4 obtained at 800°C has the highest specific saturation magnetization (73.7 ± 0.9 emu/g) and magnetic moment (3.13 ± 0.04 B.M.).

  10. Source identification and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils of Changsha, a mine-impacted city in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Li, Lei; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The urban soils suffered seriously from heavy metal pollutions with rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. In this study, 54 urban soil samples were collected from Changsha, a mine-impacted city located in Southern China. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The pollution sources of heavy metals were discriminated and identified by the combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. Four main sources were identified according to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and spatial distribution patterns. Co and Mn were primarily derived from soil parent material. Cu, Pb, and Zn with significant positive relationships were associated with mining activities and traffic emissions. Cd and Ni might be affected by commercial activities and industrial discharges. As isolated into a single group was considered to have correlation with coal combustion and waste incineration. Risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils indicated an overall moderate potential ecological risk in the urban region of Changsha. PMID:27206756

  11. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications. PMID:27336795

  12. Soil amendments for heavy metals removal from stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of dissolved metals in stormwater runoff from urbanized watersheds are much higher than established guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Five potential soil amendment materials derived from affordable, abundant sources have been tested as filter media using shaker tests and were found to remove dissolved metals in stormwater runoff. Blast furnace (BF) slag and basic oxygenated furnace (BOF) slag from a steel mill, a drinking water treatment residual (DWTR) from a surface water treatment plant, goethite-rich overburden (IRON) from a coal mine, and woodchips (WC) were tested. The IRON and BOF amendments were shown to remove 46-98% of dissolved metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in repacked soil columns. Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants for six metals across five materials were calculated. Breakthrough curves of dissolved metals and total metal accumulation within the filter media were measured in column tests using synthetic runoff. A reduction in system performance over time occurred due to progressive saturation of the treatment media. Despite this, the top 7 cm of each filter media removed up to 72% of the dissolved metals. A calibrated HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate long-term metal accumulation in the filter media, and model results suggest that for these metals a BOF filter media thickness as low as 15 cm can be used to improve stormwater quality to meet standards for up to twenty years. The treatment media evaluated in this research can be used to improve urban stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs).

  13. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  14. Effect of seasonal variations on the surface sediment heavy metal enrichment of a lake in South India.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, K; Letha, J; Ayoob, S

    2014-07-01

    Environmental effects due to continuous accumulation of hazardous materials like heavy metals in the surface sediments of lake systems can stress fragile ecosystems. Elucidating the mechanisms influencing the concentration and distribution of heavy metals becomes vital in formulating lake management strategies to preserve the quality of the water environment. Studying of the effect of seasonal variations on surface sediments will help in understanding the different factors and sources contributing and diluting these persistent pollutants. In this study, heavy metal pollution in a tropical shallow lake (Akkulam-Veli) in South India was investigated by monitoring the seasonal variations of heavy metals and major elements in surface sediments. The metallic pollutants (Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn) and major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P (measured as oxides) in the surface sediments of this lake were monitored during four consecutive seasons. The results were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis to study the interrelationships of different parameters as well to determine the possible origin of pollutants. Although metal concentrations were found to be unaffected by seasonal variations, the factors contributing to occurrence of these heavy metals were found to be affected by seasonal fluctuations. PMID:24590230

  15. The partitioning behavior of trace element and its distribution in the surrounding soil of a cement plant integrated utilization of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yongqi; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zuotai; Ge, Xinlei

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the trace elements partitioning behavior during cement manufacture process were systemically investigated as well as their distribution behaviors in the soil surrounding a cement plant using hazardous waste as raw materials. In addition to the experimental analysis, the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were simultaneously conducted. The results demonstrate that in the industrial-scale cement manufacture process, the trace elements can be classified into three groups according to their releasing behaviors. Hg is recognized as a highly volatile element, which almost totally partitions into the vapor phase. Co, Cu, Mn, V, and Cr are considered to be non-volatile elements, which are largely incorporated into the clinker. Meanwhile, Cd, Ba, As, Ni, Pb, and Zn can be classified into semi-volatile elements, as they are trapped into clinker to various degrees. Furthermore, the trace elements emitted into the flue gas can be adsorbed onto the fine particles, transport and deposit in the soil, and it is clarified here that the soil around the cement plant is moderately polluted by Cd, slightly polluted by As, Cr, Ba, Zn, yet rarely influenced by Co, Mn, Ni, Cu, Hg, and V elements. It was also estimated that the addition of wastes can efficiently reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy. The deciphered results can thus provide important insights for estimating the environmental impacts of the cement plant on its surroundings by utilizing wastes as raw materials. PMID:27040541

  16. Chemometric Study of Trace Elements in Hard Coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rompalski, Przemysław; Cybulski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the analysis of trace elements contents in coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), which may pose a potential threat to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. Productive carbon overburden in central and southern zones of the USCB is composed mostly of insulating tertiary formations of a thickness from a few m to 1,100 m, and is represented by Miocene and Pliocene formations. In the data study the geological conditions of the coal seams of particular zones of the USCB were taken into account and the hierarchical clustering analysis was applied, which enabled the exploration of the dissimilarities between coal samples of various zones of the USCB in terms of basic physical and chemical parameters and trace elements contents. Coals of the northern and eastern zones of the USCB are characterized by high average Hg and low average Ba, Cr, and Ni contents, whereas coals of southern and western zones are unique due to high average concentrations of Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, and V. Coals of the central part of the USCB are characterized by the highest average concentration of Mn and the lowest average concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, V, and Zn. PMID:24967424

  17. Studies in atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy-V The fluorescence characteristics and determination of antimony.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, R M; Thompson, K C; West, T S

    1967-10-01

    Atomic-fluorescence of antimony may be generated in an air-propane flame by nebulizing aqueous solutions of antimony salts whilst irradiating the flame by means of a microwave-excited electrode-less discharge tube operating at 30 W. The strongest fluorescence is exhibited by the (4)S(11 2 ) --> (4)P(1 3 ) 2311 A resonance line and weaker signals are observed at the 2068 and 2176 A resonance lines and at four intercombination lines, at 2598, 2671, 2770 and 2878 A. A process of thermally assisted direct-line fluorescence is postulated to account for the otherwise inexplicable intensity of the 2598 A line emission. Atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy at 2176 A permits the determination of antimony in the range 0.1-120 ppm with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. With the same equipment and source, the range of measurement for atomic-absorption was 6-120 ppm and the detection limit was 1 ppm. No interferences were observed from 100-fold molar amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, NH(4), Pb and Zn or from arsenate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. PMID:18960212

  18. High-Performance, Superparamagnetic, Nanoparticle-Based Heavy Metal Sorbents for Removal of Contaminants from Natural Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Shane; Cinson, Anthony D.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Marvin G.

    2010-06-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle based heavy metal sorbents with various surface chemistries that demonstrate an excellent affinity for the separation of heavy metals in contaminated water systems (i.e. spiked Columbia river water). The magnetic nanoparticle sorbents are prepared from an easy to synthesize iron oxide precursor, followed by a simple, one-step ligand exchange technique to introduce the organic surface functionality of interest chosen to target either specific or broader classes of heavy metals. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles are excellent sorbent materials for the extraction of heavy metal contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. These engineered magnetic nanoparticle sorbents have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g), allowing for increased binding capacity. To demonstrate the potential sorbent performance of each of the surface modified magnetic nanoparticles, river water was spiked with Hg, Pb, Cd, Ag, Co, Cu, and Tl and exposed to low concentrations of the functionalized nanoparticles. The samples were analyzed to determine the metal content before and after exposure to the magnetic nanoparticle sorbents. In almost all cases reported here the nanoparticles were found to be superior to commercially available sorbents binding a wide range of different heavy metals with extremely high affinity. Detailed characterization of the functionalized magnetic nanoparticle sorbents including FT-IR, BET surface analysis, TGA, XPS and VSM as well as the heavy metal removal experiments are presented.

  19. Bulk diffusion induced structural modifications of carbon-transition metal nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.; Abrasonis, G.; Kovacs, Gy. J.; Krause, M.; Munnik, F.; Heller, R.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2011-03-15

    The influence of transition metal (TM = V,Co,Cu) type on the bulk diffusion induced structural changes in carbon:TM nanocomposite films is investigated. The TMs have been incorporated into the carbon matrix via ion beam co-sputtering, and subsequently the films have been vacuum annealed in the temperature range of 300 - 700 deg. C. The structure of both the dispersed metal rich and the carbon matrix phases has been determined by a combination of elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-grown films consist of carbidic (V and Co) and metallic (Cu) nanoparticles dispersed in the carbon matrix. Thermal annealing induces surface segregation of Co and Cu starting at {>=} 500 deg. C, preceded by the carbide-metal transformation of Co-carbide nanoparticles at {approx} 300 deg. C. No considerable morphological changes occur in C:V films. In contrast to the surface diffusion dominated regime where all the metals enhance the six-fold ring clustering of C, in the bulk diffusion controlled regime only Co acts as a catalyst for the carbon graphitization. These results are consistent with the metal-induced crystallization mechanism in the C:Co films. The results are discussed on the basis of the metal-carbide phase stability, carbon solubility in metals or their carbides, and interface species.

  20. Physiological adaptations in the lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula var. mitis, and the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum to copper-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Klejdus, Borivoj; Vantová, Ivana; Kovácik, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Two lichen species (Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis) and one moss species (Racomitrium lanuginosum) growing on a copper mine heaps (probably 200-300yr old) in the village of Spania dolina (Slovak Republic) were assessed for selected physiological parameters, including composition of assimilation pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence, soluble proteins and free amino acid content. The lichen C. arbuscula subsp. mitis was collected also at a control locality where total copper concentration in the soil was approximately 3% that of the waste heaps. Concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb and Zn were highest in thalli of Peltigera, while the moss Racomitrium contained the highest content of Fe and Pb. Thalli of Cladina contained less metals than the cyanolichen Peltigera, and except for Zn metal concentrations in Cladina from the control locality were lower than in thalli of the same species from copper mine heaps. Regardless of the species or locality, the composition of assimilation pigments and chlorophyll a fluorescence showed that the tested lichens and moss were in good physiological condition and adapted to increased copper levels in the soil. There were significantly different amounts of total free amino acids in Peltigera, Cladina and Racomitrium from the Cu-polluted field. However, differences in amount of free amino acids in control, as well as Cu-polluted thalli of Cladina were less pronounced. PMID:19595434

  1. Thermodynamic measurement of aluminum-nickel-X ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rongxiang

    Al, Ni based alloys are of interest for applications such as high temperature structural materials for gas turbines. A thorough knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria in the ternary and higher order alloy systems is required for developing this kind of alloys. Thermodynamic modeling of phase diagrams provides a more efficient manner to evaluate alloy phase equilibria aspects for alloy development than extensive experimentally studies. This modeling needs precise determination of thermodynamic properties, especially enthalpy of formation. In this work, high temperature calorimeters were used to obtain the enthalpy of formation and heat capacity of compounds in the Al-Ni-X (X: Co, Cu, Cr, Ti, Ir, Pd and Pt) ternary systems with the third element generally either a transition metal or rare earth. Lattice parameters of Al-Ni-X compounds were also studied with x-ray diffractometry. The phase diagram of the Al-Pt binary system was calculated using Thermo-Calc. The work is aimed at populating databases for computational thermodynamics, developing an understanding of alloying and clarifying phase equilibria.

  2. Potential precious and strategic metals as by-products of uranium mineralized breccia pipes in northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Silberman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    The development of caves within the Mississippian Redwall Limestone, accompanied by later upward stoping of overlying Paleozoic and Triassic rock, resulted in the formation of breccia pipes. Despite the depressed uranium market, some of these pipes are presently being mined for uranium. No brecciated rock within pipes has been observed above its normal stratigraphic position, nor is any volcanic rock associated in space or time with these pipes. Mineralized rock transects any strata from the Redwall Limestone to the Triassic Chinle Formation. Over 400 collapse structures, believed to represent breccia pipes (many with exposed breccia), have been mapped. Those with gamma radiation exceeding 2.5 times background (57 pipes) have been sampled (155 samples). Of these oxidized surface samples collected solely on the basis of radioactivity, 30% have Ag exceeding 10 ppm, some with up to 1150 ppm. Two samples of brecciated, oxidized sandstone with radioactivity exceeding 20 and 40 times background from this adit, and another sample of hematite-, malachite-, and chalcocite-impregnated sandstone from a higher level adit contained high concentrations of Au, Hg, Cd, and W, along with many elements commonly anomalous in mineralized breccia pipes from northern Arizona: Ag, As, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Pb. The potential for economic recovery from breccia pipes of elements other than U, such as Ag, Au, Co, and Ni, should not be ignored as their concentrations are even more enhanced in unoxidized samples.

  3. Mobility behavior and environmental implications of trace elements associated with coal gangue: a case study at the Huainan Coalfield in China.

    PubMed

    Chuncai, Zhou; Guijian, Liu; Dun, Wu; Ting, Fang; Ruwei, Wang; Xiang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The potential environmental hazards posed by trace elements have assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity, bioavailability and geochemical behavior. The toxicity and mobility of trace elements in coal gangue is dependent on the elements' chemical properties, therefore, the quantification of the different forms of trace elements is more significant than the estimation of their total concentrations. In this study, the mobility behavior of trace elements in coal gangue from the Huainan Coalfield was studied to evaluate the potential eco-toxicity of the trace elements. Sequential extraction was employed to analyze the fractionation behavior of trace elements in coal gangue. The selected trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, V and Zn) are predominantly found in silicate-bound, sulfide-bound and carbonate-bound fractions. The correlation of the element concentration with ash yield, aluminum, calcium and iron-sulfur indicates that As, Co, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn in coal gangue are mainly associated with sulfide minerals, which could release from coal gangue easily and can disperse into the environment as a result of long-term natural weathering. The Risk Assessment Code reveals that the trace elements (Mn, Cr, Se, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) can pose serious environmental risks to the ecosystem. The fractionation profiles of other elements (Co, Sn and V) indicate no risk or low risk to the environment. PMID:24050719

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-08-01

    We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

  5. Evaluation of the availability of heavy metals in lake sediments using SR-TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Moreira, Silvana; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues; Barroso, Regina Cely; do Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco

    2007-08-01

    The analytical technique Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used to evaluate the contamination and bioavailability of heavy metals in samples of sediment collected at different depths. The samples were collected in one of the lakes located next to ceramic industries in Santa Gertrudes, São Paulo state in the southwest region of Brazil during the rainy season. In order to determine the concentration of bioavailable metals (mobile fraction) and metals that are representative of the geological matrix (residual fraction) in sediment samples, procedures of acid extraction were implemented. All measurements were carried out in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (LNLS), located in Campinas, São Paulo state. For sample excitation, a polychromatic beam of approximately 2 mm (width) and 0.3 mm (height) was used, and for the detection of the characteristic X-rays produced, a Si(Li) detector was employed. The net areas of the X-ray peaks were obtained from the program (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System; QXAS). The elements V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb, which are considered to cause higher environmental damage, showed high availability. The concentrations of these elements are above the reference values which correspond to soil protection and underground water quality of São Paulo state. The concentrations obtained indicate that the area in study is contaminated.

  6. Thickness and ordering temperature of surface NiO/Ni systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Ying-Ta; Su, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chung-Wei; Pan, Wei

    2014-02-15

    We estimate the thickness and ordering temperature of an antiferromagnetic and passivation surface oxide through exchange bias coupling. The surface NiO, which is generated through the exposure of a Ni/Cu(001) surface to oxygen, is taken as a model system on which to perform the estimation. Since no exchange bias is found in the surface NiO/Ni/Cu(001), we have built a sandwich structure of NiO/n ML Ni/10 ML Co/Cu(001) to measure the n dependence of exchange bias. With n ⩽ 2, a large exchange bias field is found above 300 K, which could be due to the direct contact between the oxides and the Co layer. With 3 ⩽ n ⩽ 6, a smaller exchange bias field is found with a blocking temperature of 190 K. This implies that the thickness of NiO is, at most, 3 ML. Discovering the thickness and ordering temperature of the surface NiO provides us to explore the potential applications by using surface NiO.

  7. Single-step solubilization of milk samples with N,N-dimethylformamide for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis and classification based on their elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; Savio, Marianela; Smichowski, Patricia; Martinez, Luis D; Camiña, José M; Gil, Raúl A

    2015-10-01

    A single-step procedure for trace elements analysis of milk samples is presented. Solubilization with small amounts of dymethylformamide (DMF) was assayed prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection with a high efficiency sample introduction system. All main instrumental conditions were optimized in order to readily introduce the samples without matrix elimination. In order to assess and mitigate matrix effects in the determination of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ge, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sm, S, Sr, Ta, Tb, V, Zn, and Zr, matrix matching calibration with (103)Rh as internal standard (IS) was performed. The obtained limits of detection were between 0.68 (Tb) and 30 (Zn) μg L(-1). For accuracy verification, certified Skim milk powder reference material (BCR 063R) was employed. The developed method was applied to trace elements analysis of commercially available milks. Principal components analysis was used to correlate the content of trace metals with the kind of milk, obtaining a classification according to adults, baby or baby fortified milks. The outcomes highlight a simple and fast approach that could be trustworthy for routine analysis, quality control and traceability of milks. PMID:26078129

  8. Synthesis, spectral, computational and thermal analysis studies of metalloceftriaxone antibiotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Elasala, Gehan S.

    2015-03-01

    Binary ceftriaxone metal complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and six mixed metals complexes of (Fe, Cu), (Fe, Co), (Co, Ni), (Co, Cu), (Ni, Cu) and (Fe, Ni) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility and ESR spectra. The studies proved that the ligand has different combination modes and all complexes were of octahedral geometry. Molecular modeling techniques and quantum chemical methods have been performed for ceftriaxone to calculate charges, bond lengths, bond angles, dihedral angles, electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (μ), global hardness (η), softness (σ) and the electrophilicity index (ω). The thermal decomposition of the prepared metals complexes was studied by TGA, DTA and DSC techniques. The kinetic parameters and the reaction orders were estimated. The thermal decomposition of all the complexes ended with the formation of metal oxides and carbon residue as a final product except in case of Hg complex, sublimation occurs at the temperature range 297.7-413.7 °C so, only carbon residue was produced during thermal decomposition. The geometries of complexes may be altered from Oh to Td during the thermal decomposition steps. Decomposition mechanisms were suggested.

  9. Toxic and essential elements in Nigerian rice and estimation of dietary intake through rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Adedire, Chris O; Adeyemi, Joseph A; Paulelli, Ana Carolina; da Cunha Martins-Junior, Airton; Ileke, Kayode D; Segura, Fabiana Roberta; de Oliveira-Souza, Vanessa C; Batista, Bruno L; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this study, levels and estimated daily intake (EDI) of two toxic elements, Cd and Pb, and eight essential elements: Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Co, Cu, Se and Mo, were determined in Nigerian rice samples. The mean levels of Cd, Pb and Co were 5.43±0.88, 38.66±5.42, 25.8±3.18 ng/g. The mean levels of Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Mo were 71.5±7.31, 951±52.0, 10.2±0.63, 8.5±0.47, 3.07±0.18, 40.1±9.2 and 0.39±0.05 µg/g, respectively. The percentage contribution to the reference values for each element was 0.54, 7.71, 0.38, 9.51, 8.97, 31.3, 30.7, 5.1 and 60.7% for Cd, Pb, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Mo, respectively. The elemental nutrient levels in Nigerian rice samples are comparable to those obtained from other regions and their consumption does not pose any serious health risk to consumers. PMID:26368023

  10. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of particulate matter: a case study in the Po Valley. Part II: concentration and solubility of micro- and trace-elements.

    PubMed

    Canepari, S; Astolfi, M L; Farao, C; Maretto, M; Frasca, D; Marcoccia, M; Perrino, C

    2014-03-01

    Size distribution (fine and coarse fraction) and solubility distribution (extracted and residual fraction) of 20 elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Pb, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined during a 5-year field study carried out in the Po Valley (peri-urban area of Ferrara, in Northern Italy). By studying the contribution of the two size fractions and the two solubility fractions to the atmospheric concentration of each element, it was possible to obtain interesting information about the variability of PM sources, to assess the role played by atmospheric stability in determining pollution episodes, and to obtain an estimate of the bio-accessible fraction. Atmospheric stability is confirmed to be one of the main causes of atmospheric pollution in this area and is to be responsible for the pronounced winter increase in both PM and elemental concentration. Long-range transport of natural and polluted air masses caused temporary increases in PM and elemental concentration, while local industrial emission seemed to play a secondary role. Regulated elements were well below their concentration limit, but many toxic elements were in the form of fine particles and soluble chemical species, more accessible to the environment, and the human body. PMID:24234760

  11. Modeling precipitation and sorption of elements during mixing of river water and porewater in the Coeur d'Alene River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Box, S.E.; Tonkin, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reddish brown flocs form along the edge of the Coeur d'Alene River when porewater drains into river water during the annual lowering of water level in the basin. The precipitates are efficient scavengers of dissolved elements and have characteristics that may make metals associated with them bioavailable. This work characterizes the geochemistry of the porewater and models the formation and composition of the flocs. Porewater is slightly acidic, has suboxic to anoxic characteristics, tends to have higher alkalinity, and contains elevated concentrations of many constituents relative to river water. Laboratory mixing experiments involving porewater and river water were done to produce the precipitates. Thermodynamic predictions using PHREEQC indicate that predicted amounts of ferrihydrite and gibbsite agree with removal of Fe and Al. Predictions of element removal by adsorption onto ferrihydrite are consistent with observed removal using a combination of surface complexation constants for the generalized two-layer model (As and Se), alternative surface constants derived from experiments at high sorbate-to-sorbent ratios (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and adjusted surface constants to fit experimental data (Cr, Mo, and Sb). This new set of surface complexation constants needs further testing in other contaminated systems.

  12. Modeling precipitation and sorption of elements during mixing of river water and porewater in the Coeur d'Alene River basin.

    PubMed

    Balistrieri, Laurie S; Box, Stephen E; Tonkin, Jennifer W

    2003-10-15

    Reddish brown flocs form along the edge of the Coeur d'Alene River when porewater drains into river water during the annual lowering of water level in the basin. The precipitates are efficient scavengers of dissolved elements and have characteristics that may make metals associated with them bioavailable. This work characterizes the geochemistry of the porewater and models the formation and composition of the flocs. Porewater is slightly acidic, has suboxic to anoxic characteristics, tends to have higher alkalinity, and contains elevated concentrations of many constituents relative to river water. Laboratory mixing experiments involving porewater and river water were done to produce the precipitates. Thermodynamic predictions using PHREEQC indicate that predicted amounts of ferrihydrite and gibbsite agree with removal of Fe and Al. Predictions of element removal by adsorption onto ferrihydrite are consistent with observed removal using a combination of surface complexation constants for the generalized two-layer model (As and Se), alternative surface constants derived from experiments at high sorbate-to-sorbent ratios (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and adjusted surface constants to fit experimental data (Cr, Mo, and Sb). This new set of surface complexation constants needs further testing in other contaminated systems. PMID:14594380

  13. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium in chromite- rich rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Pallister, J.S.; Brown, M.A.; Smewing, J.D.; Haffty, J.

    1982-01-01

    30 samples of chromitite and chromite-rich rocks from two stratigraphic sections, 250 km apart, through the basal ultramafic member of the Samail ophiolite were spectrographically analysed for platinum-group elements (PGE) and for Co, Cu, Ni and V. These data are reported as are Cr/(Cr + Al), Mg/(Mg + Fe) and wt.% TiO2 for most samples. The chromitite occurs as pods or lenses in rocks of mantle origin or as discontinuous layers at the base of the overlying cumulus sequence. PGE abundances in both sections are similar, with average contents in chromite-rich rocks: Pd 8 ppb, Pt 14 ppb, Rh 6 ppb, Ir 48 ppb and Ru 135 ppb. The PGE data, combined with major-element and petrographic data on the chromitite, suggest: 1) relatively larger Ir and Ru contents and highest total PGE in the middle part of each section; 2) PGE concentrations and ratios do not correlate with coexisting silicate and chromite abundances or chromite compositions; 3) Pd/PGE, on average, increases upward in each section; 4) Samail PGE concentrations, particularly Rh, Pt and Pd, are lower than the average values for chromite-rich rocks in stratiform intrusions. 2) suggests that PGEs occur in discrete alloy or sulphide phases rather than in the major oxides or silicates, and 4) suggests that chromite-rich rocks from the oceanic upper mantle are depleted in PGE with respect to chondrites. L.C.C.

  14. Seasonal biogeochemical profiling of an unlined landfill in rural Victoria (Australia): implications for stream and groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Unlined landfills and waste transfer stations lack collection systems to prevent groundwater pollution. Unmonitored leakage into shallow groundwater can lead to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. Such sites are fairly common in rural Australia, and seven years of groundwater and leachate biogeochemical data taken near a rural landfill in Beaufort (Victoria) Australia, showed that interacting biogeochemical cycles (i.e. C, N, S, Fe) influenced contaminant transport into groundwaters seasonally. Reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides coupled with alkalinity spikes was coupled to higher carbon turnover rates within a methanogenic landfill cell. This process appeared to occur mainly during summers and less during winters. Dissolved trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) alternated with increases in dissolved iron, but with less frequency during the winter months. Nitrate and sulphate however seasonally alternated with high nitrate/low sulphate during the winter, and low nitrate/high sulphate during the summer, within the landfill cell. The seasonal variability of nitrate and sulphate in landfill leachate was also reflected in the down-flow groundwater chemistry.

  15. Multiple effects of trace elements on methanogenesis in a two-phase anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Li, Chao; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-08-01

    For enhancing anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating food processing wastewater due to speed-limited methanogenesis step, multiple effects of trace element (TE) supplementation on methanogenesis of a two-phase AnMBR were firstly investigated in batch tests. TE supplementation included individual element, combination and recovery of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn supplementation. Multiple effects of TE supplementation were highest stimulated by 22.4 ± 5.6 % (TE313) for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, 43.1 ± 12.5 % (TE303) for specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and 13.9 ± 3.7 % (TE405) for biomass growth, respectively, although only 7.5 ± 0.6 % (TE106) for methane production. Dosage of TEs played a critical role in methane production, COD removal and biomass growth of the AnMBR's methanogenesis. Low dosages of TE supplementation improved the COD removal and slightly stimulated the COD bioconverting to methane and biomass, but their specific methanation activities were inhibited in the initial rapid methanogenesis stage. Several methanation functional species were increased in abundance like Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus. PMID:26879957

  16. Environmental monitoring of the area surrounding oil wells in Val d'Agri (Italy): element accumulation in bovine and ovine organs.

    PubMed

    Miedico, Oto; Iammarino, Marco; Paglia, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Marina; Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, A Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, environmental heavy metal contamination in the Val d'Agri area of Southern Italy was monitored, measuring the accumulation of 18 heavy metals (U, Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Sr, Sn, V, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al) in the organs of animals raised in the surrounding area (kidney, lung, and liver of bovine and ovine species). Val d'Agri features various oil processing centers which are potentially a significant source of environmental pollution, making it essential to perform studies that will outline the state of the art on which any recovery plans and interventions may be developed. The analysis was carried out using official and accredited analytical methods based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the measurements were statistically processed in order to give a contribution to risk assessment. Even though five samples showed Pb and Cd concentrations above the limits defined in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006, the mean concentrations of most elements suggest that contamination in this area is low. Consequently, these results also suggest that there is no particular risk for human exposure to toxic trace elements. Nevertheless, the findings of this work confirm that element accumulation in ovine species is correlated with geographical livestock area. Therefore, ovine-specific organs might be used as bioindicators for monitoring contamination by specific toxic elements in exposed areas. PMID:27165602

  17. Effect of Zr, V, Nb, Mo, and Ta substitutions on magnetic properties and microstructure of melt-spun SmCo5 magnets.

    PubMed

    Fukuzaki, Tomokazu; Iwane, Hiroaki; Abe, Kazutomo; Doi, Toshihiro; Tamura, Ryuji; Oikawa, Tadaaki

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated effects of metal substitutions on the magnetic properties and microstructure of melt-spun Sm-Co-Cu-Fe-M (M = Zr, V, Nb, Mo, Ta) magnets. We prepared melt-spun ribbons with compositions of Sm(Co1- x Cu x )5Fe0.54- y M y (x = 0.1-0.5, y = 0-0.43, M = Zr, V, Nb, Mo, Ta). For compositions of Sm(Co1- x Cu x )5Fe0.54 (x = 0.1-0.5), coercivity increased with increasing of annealing temperature, and a high coercivity of 17.6 kOe was obtained at a Cu content of x = 0.3. The coercivity was found to increase with increasing melting point of the substitution element. A high coercivity of 24.5 kOe was obtained for a composition of Sm(Co0.7Cu0.3)5Fe0.34Ta0.2. PMID:24753631

  18. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  19. Enhanced O2 selectivity versus N2 by partial metal substitution in Cu-BTC

    SciTech Connect

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Parkes, Marie V.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-03-05

    Here we describe the homogeneous substitution of Mn, Fe and Co at various levels into a prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), namely Cu-BTC (HKUST-1), and the effect of that substitution on preferential gas sorption. Using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, postsynthetic metal substitutions, materials characterization, and gas sorption testing, we demonstrate that the identity of the metal ion has a quantifiable effect on their oxygen and nitrogen sorption properties at cryogenic temperatures. An excellent correlation is found between O2/N2 selectivities determined experimentally at 77 K and the difference in O2 and N2 binding energies calculated from DFT modeling data: Mn > Fe > Co > Cu. Room temperature gas sorption studies were also performed and correlated with metal substitution. The Fe-exchanged sample shows a significantly higher nitrogen isosteric heat of adsorption at temperatures close to ambient conditions (273 K - 298 K) as compared to all other metals studied, indicative of favorable interactions between N2 and coordinatively unsaturated Fe metal centers. Furthermore, differences in gas adsorption results at cryogenic and room temperatures are evident; they are explained by comparing experimental results with DFT binding energies (0 K) and room temperature Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Immobilized copper(II) macrocyclic complex on MWCNTs with antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlani, Aliakbar; Narimani, Khashayar; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Javad; Tahermansouri, Hasan; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2015-06-01

    In a new approach, a copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex (CuTAM) was covalently bonded on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To achieve this purpose, MWCNTs were converted to MWCNT-COCl and then reacted to NH groups of TAM ligand. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). FT-IR and TGA demonstrated the presence of the organic moieties, and XRD proved that the structure of MWCNTs remained intact during the three modification steps. An increase in the ID/IG ratio in Raman spectra confirmed the surface modifications. Finally, the samples were subjected to an antibacterial assessment to compare their biological activity. The antibacterial test showed that the grafted complex on the surface of the nanotube (MWCNT-CO-CuTAM) has higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 than the MWCNT-COOH and CuTAM with 1000 and 2000 μg/mL.

  1. Spectroscopic, thermogravimetric and antibacterial studies for some bivalent metal complexes of oxalyl-, malonyl- and succinyl-bis(4- p-chlorophenylthiosemicarbazide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ragab R.; Yamany, Yamany B.

    2012-01-01

    Anodic oxidation of Co, Cu, Zn, and Sn metals in an anhydrous acetone solution of 1,1-oxalyl-, malonyl- or succinyl-bis(4- p-chlorophenylthiosemicarbazide) yields a new polynuclear complexes. The isolated complexes have the general composition [M 2(L)(H 2O) 6], L = pClSuTS and M = Co(II), Cu(II) or Sn(II), [M 2(L)(H 2O) n]· nH 2O where M = Cu(II), Co(II) or Sn(II), L = pClOxTS and n = 2 or 6, and [M 2(L)(ac) 2]· nH 2O where M = Co(II) or Zn(II), L = pClOxTS or pClSuTS and n = 2. The thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) have been used to study the thermal decomposition of the investigated bisthiosemicarbazide ligands and their metal complexes. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, Δ H∗, Δ S∗and Δ G∗ are calculated using Horowitz-Metzger (HM) and Coats-Redfern (CR) equations. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, Δ H∗, Δ S∗and Δ G∗ are calculated from the DTG curves. The tested compounds show a reasonable activity against four strains of Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa species and Gram-positive bacteria ; Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Synthesis of Multimetal-Graphene Composite by Mechanical Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiphaneendra, Bachu; Srivastava, Avi Krishna; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    Multimetal-graphene composites were synthesized using the ball milling technique. To prepare the composite, graphite powder was mixed with Fe, Cr, Co, Cu and Mg powders. This mixture was then mechanically milled for 35 h in toluene medium. After milling, the multimetal-graphite mixture was mixed with sodium lauryl sulfate and sonicated for 2 h. Sonication led to the exfoliation of graphene sheets. Formation of graphene was confirmed from x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy-based analysis revealed the formation of multimetal deposits over the graphene surface. Compositional analysis of the multimetal deposits revealed fairly uniform distribution of all the five component metal atoms over the graphene sheet. The average composition of the multimetal deposit was determined to be 11.4 ± 4 at.% Mg, 33.8 ± 19 at.% Cr, 21.8 ± 16 at.% Fe, 9.4 ± 5.7 at.% Co and 23.6 ± 12 at.% Cu.

  3. An assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils of fresh water aquifer system and evaluation of eco-toxicity by lithogenic implications.

    PubMed

    Harichandan, R; Routroy, S; Mohanty, J K; Panda, C R

    2013-04-01

    The chemistry of heavy metals in sediments with respect to bio-availability and chemical reactivity is regulated by pH, texture, and organic matter contents of the sediments and specific binding form and coupled reactivity of the metals within. To focus on the metal distribution (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Cu, and Cr) and behavior in a fresh water aquifer system along with the ecological toxicity parameters, a four-step sequential extraction method was applied on 18 Eastern Ghats' type sediments from fluorosis-hit Nayagarh district, India. Geo-accumulation index of metals in the sediments indicates that they are practically uncontaminated and/or less contaminated with and Fe, Mn, and Cu; contaminated to moderately contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cr; and strongly contaminated with Cd. Rather, more than 80 % recovered Cd metal concentration in sediments constitute the labile fractions. Temporal clustering of metal fractions indicates transition metal fraction distribution claiming the sediment pH regulation. Similarly, base metal distribution accounts for organic carbon and soil conductivity due to their greater availability in exchangeable and sulfide fractions. Correlation analysis and factor analysis scores demonstrate lack of inter-relationship between transition group and base metal fractions. High fluoride concentration in ground water is associated with high sodium-bicarbonate-iron affinity with elevated pH values (i.e., >7.0) and high positive factor score with the total iron concentration in ground water. PMID:22933103

  4. Effect of Copper and Other Trace Metal Addition to Pulp and Paper Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jason; Richardson, Desmond; Stack, Karen; Lewis, Trevor

    2015-12-01

    Porous pots were used to mimic, on a laboratory scale, an industrial activated sludge plant from a thermomechanical pulp and news print paper mill. Trace metal additions of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe(III), and Mg were found to improve chemical oxygen demand removal from 82% to 86 to 87%. Copper (0.1 to 1.0 mg/L) was also found to be beneficial in significantly inhibiting the growth of filamentous bacteria, contributing to a reduction of 20 to 45% in sludge volume index (SVI) with improved settle ability and decreased bulking. However, at levels of 1.0 mg/L and higher, the concentration of Cu in the porous pot effluent would potentially exceed guidelines for receiving waters. The fate and impact of Cu was affected by the presence of other trace metals, in particular Mg and Ca. The addition of Mg or Ca along with 0.5 mg/L Cu increased the amount of Cu in the aqueous phase to levels that would potentially exceed government environmental guidelines. Calcium addition was also found to inhibit the effect of Cu in reducing filamentous bacteria and SVI. PMID:26652119

  5. Some Nuclear Techniques in Experimental Magnetism: Mössbauer Effect, Neutron Scattering and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piecuch, Michel

    The goal of this chapter is to present three traditional methods for the study of magnetic properties : Mössbauer effect, neutron diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. It begins by recalling the basic properties of atomic nuclei and describing the hyperfine interactions between the nucleus and its surrounding. Then, the recoilless absorption of γ-rays by crystal, the Mössbauer effect is presented, we discuss the main parameters measured and show one example of application. Next we present neutron interactions with matter, the interaction of neutrons with the atomic nucleus and the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic moment of electrons. The use of polarized neutron and the inelastic scattering of neutrons are also discussed. The comparison between neutron experiments and synchrotron radiation techniques is briefly reviewed. One example of the use of neutron scattering in the domain of thin film magnetism is shown. Finally, we present the basic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and one application of this technique to the study of Co/Cu multilayers.

  6. Theoretical study of CO chemisorption on nickel and copper surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of the chemisorption of CO on Ni(001) and Cu(001) surfaces has been performed. The study is based on an analysis of the electronic structure of (M)5CO clusters obtained from self-consistent field X alpha scattered-wave calculations. The electron orbital formed principally by the 5 sigma orbital on CO was found to be mainly responsible for the bonding of the CO molecule to the metal surface for both the CO/Ni and CO/Cu systems. The different occupation of the antibonding 7 a sub 1 orbital in the two clusters is believed to be the major reason for the large difference observed in the measured heats of adsorption of CO on Ni and Cu surfaces. It was found also that metal atoms transfer electronic charge to the antibonding pi(asterisk)-like orbital of CO. A possible correlation between the amount of the charge transfered and the relative ease of dissociation of CO molecules on metal surfaces is discussed.

  7. Removal of ethylene from air stream by adsorption and plasma-catalytic oxidation using silver-based bimetallic catalysts supported on zeolite.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Quang Hung; Lee, Sang Baek; Mok, Young Sun

    2015-03-21

    Dynamic adsorption of ethylene on 13X zeolite-supported Ag and Ag-M(x)O(y) (M: Co, Cu, Mn, and Fe), and plasma-catalytic oxidation of the adsorbed ethylene were investigated. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of Ag into zeolite afforded a marked enhancement in the adsorptivity for ethylene. The addition of transition metal oxides was found to have a positive influence on the ethylene adsorption, except Fe(x)O(y). The presence of the additional metal oxides, however, appeared to somewhat interrupt the diffusion of ozone into the zeolite micro-pores, leading to a decrease in the plasma-catalytic oxidation efficiency of the ethylene adsorbed there. Among the second additional metal oxides, Fe(x)O(y) was able to reduce the emission of ozone during the plasma-catalytic oxidation stage while keeping a high effectiveness for the oxidative removal of the adsorbed ethylene. The periodical treatment consisting of adsorption followed by plasma-catalytic oxidation may be a promising energy-efficient ethylene abatement method. PMID:25576654

  8. Gel for Simultaneous Chemical Imaging of Anionic and Cationic Solutes Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  9. Gel for simultaneous chemical imaging of anionic and cationic solutes using diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Prohaska, Thomas; Wenzel, Walter W

    2013-12-17

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  10. Unified picture of spin-dependent transport in GMR multilayered structures and bulk ferromagnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, P. A.; Holody, P.; Loloee, R.; Vouille, C.; Barthelemy, A.; Fert, A.; Hsu, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed a positive (inverse) CPP-MR in magnetic multilayers of the forms: (a) ( XY/Cu/Co/Cu) n with XY being the alloys FeCr, FeV, NiCr, CoCr, and (b) (Z/Cr/NiFe/Cr) n with Z = Fe and Co. For (a) the inverted results arise primarily from spin-dependent scattering in the bulk of the alloy, and are linked consistently to: (1) their magnetization; (2) band-structure calculations and (3) resistivity of bulk alloys. For (b) samples, the inverse MRs arise primarily from the scattering at the Fe/Cr and Co/Cr interfaces. Inverse MR for X/Y interfaces and XY alloys (eg. Fe/Cr and FeCr) arises from the similarity of the matching problem of X and Y d levels at interfaces and in alloys. For all XY the CIP-MR was negative, confirming that CIP-MR is strongly influenced by channeling effect and current inhomogenieties.

  11. Evaluation of layered and mixed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Mattson, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory column tests for passive treatment systems for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area were conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, effects of influent water chemistry, and required residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone (LS), in either layered or mixed configurations, were set up to simulate the treatment system. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) with a residence time of 15 h and greater. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic substrates and secondary precipitates. The results suggest that the mixed systems containing organic materials and LS perform better than the layered systems, sequentially treated by organic and LS layers, due to the enhanced pH adjustment, which is beneficial to bacterial activity and precipitation of secondary minerals. The column tests provide a basis for the design of a field-scale passive treatment system, such as a reducing and alkalinity producing system or a permeable reactive barrier. PMID:26998668

  12. Angular Dependence of Superconductivity in Superconductor / Spin Valve Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, Alejandro; Safranski, Christopher; Krivorotov, Ilya; Wu, Chien-Te; Valls, Oriol

    2014-03-01

    The superconducting condensate in superconductor / ferromagnet (S/F) multilayers consists of singlet and triplet components. For a non-collinear state of magnetization of the multilayer, all three spin components Sz =(0 , +/- 1) of the triplet condensate are generally non-zero, which can result in a long range proximity effect in S/F multilayers. Indeed, the Sz = +/- 1 triplet components of the condensate are immune to pair breaking by the exchange field and, unlike the singlet and the Sz = 0 triplet components, they can penetrate deep into the ferromagnetic layers. Here we report measurements demonstrating magnetic control of the triplet component amplitude in Nb/Co/Cu/Co/CoOx superconducting spin valves. We find that for all values of the layer thicknesses employed in the experiment, Tc shows non-monotonic angular dependence with a minimum near perpendicular orientation of the Co layers. This drop in Tc is evidence of the enhanced long-range triplet amplitude in the maximally non-collinear configuration of the spin valve. We will present detailed measurements of the magnitude of this effect as a function of thicknesses of both Co and Cu layers of the spin valve. We will also compare our data to theoretical predictions of the angular dependence of Tc for this system.

  13. Influent concentrations and removal performances of metals through municipal wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Choubert, J M; Pomiès, M; Ruel, S Martin; Coquery, M

    2011-01-01

    This extensive study aimed at quantifying the concentrations and removal efficiency of 23 metals and metalloids in domestic wastewater passing through full-scale plants. Nine facilities were equipped with secondary biological treatment and three facilities were equipped with a tertiary treatment stage. The metals investigated were Li, B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, TI, Pb and U. Particulate and dissolved metals were measured using 24 h composite samples at each treatment stage. In influents, total concentrations of Cd, Sb, Co, Se, U, Ag, V were below a few microg/L, whereas at the other extremity Zn, B, Fe, Ti, Al were in the range of 0.1 to > 1 mg/L. It was demonstrated that secondary treatment stage (activated sludge, biodisc and membrane bioreactor) were efficient to remove most metals (removal rate > 70%), with the exception of B, Li, Rb, Mo, Co, As, Sb and V due to their low adsorption capacities. With the tested tertiary stages (polishing pond, rapid chemical settler, ozonation), a removal efficiency was obtained for Ti, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, Fe, Ag and Al, whereas a little removal (< 30%) was obtained for other metals. PMID:21902037

  14. Mobilization of trace metals and inorganic compounds during resuspension of anoxic sediments from Trepangier Bayou, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Gao, Yan; Kan, Amy T; Tomson, Mason B

    2011-01-01

    The release of trace metals (Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) and inorganic compounds (As) from initially anoxic Trepangier Bayou sediments, Louisiana and the sources of the released metals were investigated. After 1 to 2 d aeration, significant amounts of trace metals (Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Co) were released to the aqueous phase with increased acidity, primarily due to the oxidation of acid-volatile sulfide and ferrous iron and iron sulfide minerals. The addition of a bacterial inhibitor, NaN,, to the Trepangier sediment during resuspension inhibited metal release, suggesting that microbial catalysis can regulate metal mobilization during sediment resuspension. In a well buffered system, oxidation of iron sulfides alone did not appear to induce trace metal release. Moreover, when Trepangier sediment was resuspended in anoxic conditions at neutral pH, <1% of the trace metal content was released, whereas a significant release of metal was observed under acidic anoxic conditions. Although oxidation of iron sulfide minerals is an essential prerequisite for the release of Zn, Co, Cd, and Ni, carbonates and oxides also play a role. The trace metals and inorganic compounds investigated could be classified into three groups according to their release characteristics: (i) Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Co; (ii) Fe, Pb, and As; and (iii) Cu. The groupings appeared to depend on the sources of compounds and their relative affinity, after oxidation, to iron oxyhydroxides or organic matter. PMID:21520756

  15. Cadmium exposure and phosphorus limitation increases metal content in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rachel E; Dean, Andrew P; Pittman, Jon K

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of metal accumulation in freshwater microalgae are important to elucidate for a full understanding of metal cycling and toxicity in a freshwater system. This study has utilized an elemental profiling approach to investigate the impacts of Cd exposure and phosphorus (P) availability on metal accumulation after 7 days in batch culture-grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Multivariate statistical analysis of the elemental data demonstrated distinct responses between both stresses. Sublethal concentrations of Cd (up to 15 μM) caused increased accumulation of Co. Cu, Fe, and Zn content also increased in response to enhanced Cd concentrations but only when P availability was low. While Cd exposure effected the accumulation of a few specific metals, P limitation increased the accumulation of all essential trace metals and macronutrients analyzed including Co, Fe, K, Na, and Zn but not Mn. The accumulation of Cd also markedly increased in response to P limitation. The impact of P availability on essential metal accumulation was the same when either inorganic P or an organic P source (glycerophosphate) was used. These results highlight the potential risks of metal toxicity for freshwater microalgae and aquatic food chains when P availability is limiting and which can be exacerbated by Cd pollution. PMID:21809879

  16. Sedimentary input of trace metals from the Chukchi Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Seguré, M.; Rember, R.; Nishino, S.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of trace metals in the Arctic Ocean has implications for their global cycles, yet until recently few trace metal observations were available from this rapidly changing ocean. Profiles of dissolved Fe from recent Japanese field efforts in the Western Canada Basin (2008, 2010) indicate the broad Chukchi Shelf as a source of Fe to the halocline of the Western Canada Basin. Here we present dissolved and particulate data for crustal (Al, Mn, Fe) and non-crustal elements (Co, Cu, Zn) from the productive Chukchi Sea to characterize the sedimentary input of these metals to shelf waters contributing to the halocline layer of the Canada Basin. Water column profiles were collected in late summer 2013 onboard the R/V Mirai at 10 stations from the Bering Strait to the slope, and at a time-series (10 days) station located over the outer shelf. A narrow and variable (5-10 m) benthic boundary layer was sampled at the time-series station with highly elevated dissolved and suspended particulate metal concentrations. High metal concentrations were also observed in the subsurface at a station over Barrow Canyon where mixing is enhanced. Reactivity of suspended particulate metals was determined by the leachable vs. refractory fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Trace metal transport from the shelf to the interior will be discussed in context with shelf mechanisms contributing to this export, and to expected future changes in the Arctic Ocean.

  17. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-21

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. PMID:26690843

  18. Determination of Trace Elements in Edible Nuts in the Beijing Market by ICP-M.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liang Liang; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xian Zhang; Kong, Xiang Yin; Ji, Yan Qin

    2015-06-01

    Nuts have received increased attention from the public in recent years as important sources of some essential elements, and information on the levels of elements in edible nuts is useful to consumers. Determination of the elemental distributions in nuts is not only necessary in evaluating the total dietary intake of the essential elements, but also useful in detecting heavy metal contamination in food. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents in edible nuts, and to assess the food safety of nuts in the Beijing market. Levels of Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, and U in 11 types of edible nuts and seeds (macadamia nuts, lotus nuts, pistachios, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, and ginkgo nuts) as well as raisins were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy of the method was validated using standard reference materials GBW10014 (cabbage) and GBW10016 (tea). Our results provide useful information for evaluating the levels of trace elements in edible nuts in the Beijing market, will be helpful for improving food safety, and will aid in better protecting consumer interests. PMID:26177906

  19. The effect of weathering in the Buyukmelen River basin on the geochemistry of suspended and bed sediments and the hyrogeochemical characteristics of river water, Duzce, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan, Rustem

    2010-07-01

    , and to quality class 2 based on Mn concentration in summer period. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) indices observed in the suspended and bed sediments (average of 55) suggest that their source area underwent moderate degrees of chemical weathering processes. According to Upper Continental Crust (UCC) values, the suspended sediment was rich in elements such as Fe 2O 3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO 2, P 2O 5, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Pb. The element concentrations of the suspended sediments were related to size fractionation, mainly of clay content. The mentioned enrichment was contributed by agglomerate, basalt, volcanic sandstone and graywacke from rocks in the study area. Source of ions such as Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Ti and Hg and major in the Buyukmelen River is interaction with rocks such as the agglomerate, basalt, andesite, volcanic sandstone and graywacke. As suggested by Singh et al. (2005), before weathering of some rocks in the Buyukmelen River basin, it was determined that they were graywacke and literanite based on the geochemistry of the suspended and bed sediments.

  20. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors determine the composition of a river that is impacted by acid-mine drainage, evaluate dominant physical and geochemical processes controlling the composition, and assess dissolved metal speciation and toxicity using a combination of laboratory, field and modeling studies. Values of pH increase from 3.3 to 7.6 and the sum of dissolved base metal (Cd + Co + Cu + Ni + Pb + Zn) concentrations decreases from 6270 to 100 ??g/L in the dynamic mixing and reaction zone that is downstream of the river's confluence with acid-mine drainage. Mixing diagrams and PHREEQC calculations indicate that mixing and dilution affect the concentrations of all dissolved elements in the reach, and are the dominant processes controlling dissolved Ca, K, Li, Mn and SO4 concentrations. Additionally, dissolved Al and Fe concentrations decrease due to mineral precipitation (gibbsite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite), whereas dissolved concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn decrease due to adsorption onto newly formed Fe precipitates. The uptake of dissolved metals by aquatic organisms is dependent on the aqueous speciation of the metals and kinetics of complexation reactions between metals, ligands and solid surfaces. Dissolved speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone is assessed using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and results of speciation calculations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Data from open and restricted pore DGT units indicate that almost all dissolved metal species are inorganic and that aqueous labile or DGT available metal concentrations are generally equal to total dissolved concentrations in the mixing zone. Exceptions occur when labile metal concentrations are underestimated due to competition between H+ and metal ions for Chelex-100 binding sites in the DGT units at low pH values. Calculations using the BLM indicate that dissolved Cd and Zn species in the mixing and reaction zone are predominantly inorganic

  1. Crystal structure, thermal expansion and high-temperature electrical conductivity of A-site deficient La{sub 2−z}Co{sub 1+y}(Mg{sub x}Nb{sub 1−x}){sub 1−y}O{sub 6} double perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Shafeie, S.; Dreyer, B.; Awater, R.H.P; Golod, T.; Grins, J.; Biendicho, J.J.; Istomin, S.Ya.; Svensson, G.

    2015-09-15

    New La-deficient double perovskites with P2{sub 1}/n symmetry, La{sub ∼1.90}(Co{sup 2+}{sub 1−x}Mg{sup 2+}{sub x})(Co{sup 3+}{sub 1/3}Nb{sup 5+}{sub 2/3})O{sub 6} with x=0, 0.13 and 0.33, and La{sub 2}(Co{sup 2+}{sub 1/2}Mg{sup 2+}{sub 1/2}) (Co{sup 3+}{sub 1/2}Nb{sup 5+}{sub 1/2})O{sub 6} were prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C. Their crystal structures were refined using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. Our results show that certain cations such as Nb{sup 5+}, with very strong B–O bonds in the perovskite structure, can induce A-site vacancies in double perovskites. Upon heating in N{sub 2} gas atmosphere at 1200 °C ∼1% O atom vacancies are formed together with a partial reduction of the Co{sup 3+} content. The average thermal expansion coefficient between 25 and 900 °C of La{sub 1.90}(Co{sup 2+}{sub 2/3}Mg{sup 2+}{sub 1/3})(Co{sup 3+}{sub 1/3}Nb{sup 5+}{sub 2/3})O{sub 6} was determined to be 17.4 ppm K{sup −1}. Four-point electronic conductivity measurements showed that the compounds are semiconductors, with conductivities varying between 3.7·10{sup −2} and 7.7·10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 600 °C and activation energies between 0.77 and 0.81 eV. Partial replacement of La{sup 3+} with Sr{sup 2+} does not lead to any increase of conductivity, while replacement of Mg{sup 2+} with Cu{sup 2+} in La{sub 1.9}CoCu{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 6} and La{sub 1.8}CoCu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2}O{sub 6} leads to ∼100 times larger conductivities at 600 °C, 0.35 and 1.0 S cm{sup −1}, respectively, and lower activation energies, 0.57 and 0.73 eV, respectively. - Highlights: • Double perovskites, P2{sub 1}/n, La{sub 2−z}(Co{sup 2+}{sub 1−x}Mg{sup 2+}{sub x})(Co{sup 3+}{sub 1/3}Nb{sup 5+}{sub 2/3})O{sub 6} have been synthesized. • Crystal structures have been refined using neutron powder diffraction data. • Strong Nb–O bond and size ordering of Mg{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} and Nb{sup 5+}/Co{sup ~3+} leads to La-deficiency. • The

  2. Geochemistry of rare and minor elements in sediments from Brazil Basin of Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedenskaya, Irina; Dubinin, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews the features of the rare and minor elements in the sediment samples recovered from the Brazil Basin at the location of the Station No. 1537 in the Atlantic Ocean during the 18th cruise of the Research Vessel "Akademik Sergey Vavilov". The depth of the sediment column is 470 cm. The sediments are represented by the oxidized miopelagic clay (0-305 cm) which are underlain by the thin bedded Ethmodiscus diatom oozes (305-470 cm). The brown miopelagic clay (0.09-1.25% СаСО3, 0.05-0.28% Сorganic) predominately consist of the clay minerals (91-97%). The top section sediments also include some terrigenous clastic sandy-silt minerals (1-5%), diatoms (up to 2%), manganese micronodules (approx. 1%), occasional spicules, radiolarian, coccoliths and marine fossil fragments. The transition to the lower diatom oozes is associated with the lens-shape structures and increase in the content of diatoms in clay. The age of sediments at the station No. 1537 is Late Pleistocene. Presence of thin bedded Ethmodiscus oozes is an indirect evidence of re-deposition of the sediments in the central part of the Brazil Basin The chemical composition has been analyzed on 37 core samples recovered from the column. These core samples have been used to define the content of the chemical composition as well as the rare and minor elements. The manganese content in the top section of the miopelagic clay varies insignificantly and value is close 0.46%. The rare and minor elements content in the miopelagic clay is quite stable. The sharp increase in manganese content (to 1.16%) as well as in that of the minor elements such as Co, Cu, Ni, Mo and Tl are observed at the 305-308 cm horizon which corresponds to the bottom of the miopelagic clay. Than, the manganese content decreases to reach its minimum value (0.20%) immediately below this horizon. With further depth increase, the content of manganese starts rising again reaces its maximum value of 2.31% at the 405-407 cm horizon. The

  3. Effects of magmatic intrusion on mineralogy and geochemistry of coals from the Fengfeng-Handan Coalfield, Hebei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren

    2007-06-15

    This paper describes the effects of magmatic intrusions on petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the late Palaeozoic coals from the Fengfeng-Handan coalfield, Hebei, China. The narrowly zoned coals of variable ranks, from high-volatile A bituminous (hvAb), through medium-volatile bituminous (mvb), low-volatile bituminous (lvb), semianthracite (sa), and anthracite (an), to meta-anthracite (ma) in the coalfield, were found to be best explained by magmatic inputs. The minerals derived from magmatic thermal alteration consist of pyrite, calcite, and ankerite, which mainly occur as fracture or vesicle fillings in the thermally altered high-rank coals. The variation in element concentrations with coal ranks (enrichment, depletion, and no variation) and mineralogical affinity were used to classify elements in coals into six groups, groups A-F. Elements in group A (B, F, Cl, Br, and Hg), group B (As, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb), group C (Sr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Zn), and Group D (U) were enriched in the altered coals, indicating that the magmatic inputs are the source of these elements. Group A elements are volatile elements that probably came from the hydrothermal solutions, then deposited or were driven off from an organic component in coal by magmatic heat, and then redeposited in the coal. Group B elements mainly distribute in the fracture or vesicle fillings of pyrites. The dominant carriers of group C elements are thermally altered calcite and ankerite. Uranium in group D occurs in organic-bonded and silicate associations. Group E elements, including Sb, Sc, and V, have a depletion trend in the altered coals, and the remaining elements in group F do not clearly vary in the unaltered, slightly altered, or altered coals. The element concentrations independent of coal ranks in groups E and F may suggest that these elements are inherent to the coal. 44 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Molybdenum carbides, active and in situ regenerable catalysts in hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choi, Jae -Soon; Zacher, Alan; Wang, Huamin; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Schwartz, Viviane; Soykal, I. Ilgaz

    2016-05-19

    This paper describes properties of molybdenum carbides as a potential catalyst for fast pyrolysis bio-oil hydroprocessing. Currently, high catalyst cost, short catalyst lifetime, and lack of effective regeneration methods are hampering the development of this otherwise attractive renewable hydrocarbon technology. A series of metal-doped bulk Mo carbides were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in sequential low-temperature stabilization and high-temperature deoxygenation of a pine-derived bio-oil. During a typical 60 h run, Mo carbides were capable of upgrading raw bio-oil to a level suitable for direct insertion into the current hydrocarbon infrastructure with residual oxygen content and total acid number of upgraded oilsmore » below 2 wt % and 0.01 mg KOH g–1, respectively. The performance was shown to be sensitive to the type of metal dopant, Ni-doped Mo carbides outperforming Co-, Cu-, or Ca-doped counterparts; a higher Ni loading led to a superior catalytic performance. No bulk oxidation or other significant structural changes were observed. Besides the structural robustness, another attractive property of Mo carbides was in situ regenerability. The effectiveness of regeneration was demonstrated by successfully carrying out four consecutive 60 h runs with a reductive decoking between two adjacent runs. These results strongly suggest that Mo carbides are a good catalyst candidate which could lead to a significant cost reduction in hydroprocessing bio-oils. Furthermore, we highlight areas for future research which will be needed to further understand carbide structure–function relationships and help design practical bio-oil upgrading catalysts based on Mo carbides.« less

  5. Cobalt-Based Hard Magnets, Thin Films and Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chuan

    1991-02-01

    Co-based magnetic materials including bulk, thin film and magnetic multilayers have been studied. The purpose of the first part of this work is to study a Co -based transition metal alloy to be processed to result in significant enhancement of its magnetic properties (coercivity, magnetization, and energy product) in the absence rare earths. CoZr(Hf)BSi alloys have been studied. Rapidly quenched Co_ {78}Zr_{16}B_3Si_3 and Co_{76}Hf_ {76}B_3Si_3 showed the highest coercivity (6.7 kOe and 6.5 kOe respectively). This is the highest room temperature coercivity reported in a non -rare-earth containing magnet up to now. This system has excellent thermal stability. Co-based thin film alloys were also studied and we obtain coercivities as high as 700 Oe for sputtered thin films. This lies in between the maximum value obtained for as-cast bulk alloys (50 Oe) and rapidly quenched alloys (6.7 kOe). Multilayers were studied with the objective of determining the effect of interfaces on the magnetic properties of Co alloys. Multilayers of the form Co/Cu, Co_{95}B _5/Cu and Co/Al were studied and the interface anisotropy was found to favor a magnetization perpendicular to the film. Very thin magnetic layers led to very small coercivities since the size of magnetic domains was restricted. We also noted some interesting layer-layer magnetic interactions. Finally some unusual magnetization reversal behavior was noted in which the magnetic moment goes to zero and reverses before the applied field goes to zero.

  6. The geochemical cycling of trace elements in a biogenic meromictic lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Murray, J.W.; Paul, B.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical processes affecting the behavior and speciation of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in Hall Lake, Washington, USA, are assessed by examining dissolved and acid soluble particulate profiles of the elements and utilizing results from thermodynamic calculations. The water column of this meromictic lake is highly stratified and contains distinctive oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers. Changes in the redox state of the water column with depth affect the distribution of all the elements studied. Most noticeable are increases in dissolved Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations across the oxic-suboxic boundary, increases in dissolved As, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and V concentrations with depth in the anoxic layer, significant decreases in dissolved Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the anoxic region below the sulfide maximum, and large increases in acid soluble particulate concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the anoxic zone below the sulfide maximum. Thermodynamic calculations for the anoxic region indicate that all redox sensitive elements exist in their reduced forms, the primary dissolved forms of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are metal sulfide solution complexes, and solid sulfide phases of Cu, Fe, Mo, and Pb are supersaturated. Calculations using a vertical diffusion and reaction model indicate that the oxidation rate constant for Mn(II) in Hall Lake is estimated to be 0.006 d-1 and is at the lower end of the range of microbial oxidation rates observed in other natural systems. The main geochemical processes influencing the distribution and speciation of trace elements in Hall Lake appear to be transformations of dissolved elements between their oxidation states (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, V), cocycling of trace elements with Mn and Fe (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn), formation of soluble metal sulfide complexes (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), sorption (As, Co, Cr, Ni, V), and precipitation (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Zn). ?? 1994.

  7. Multielement analysis of micro-volume biological samples by ICP-MS with highly efficient sample introduction system.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuka; Inagaki, Kazumi; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Iwahata, Daigo; Takatsu, Akiko; Chiba, Koichi; Umemura, Tomonari

    2011-12-15

    A method for multielement analysis of micro-volume biological sample by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a highly efficient sample introduction system was presented. The sample introduction system was the combination of (1) an inert loop injection unit and (2) a high performance concentric nebulizer (HPCN) coupled with a temperature controllable cyclone chamber. The loop injection unit could introduce 20 μL samples into the carrier liquid flow of 10 μL min(-1) producing a stable signal for 100s without any dilution. The injection loop is continuously washed with 0.1M HNO(3) carrier solution during the measurement, thereby much improving sample throughput. The HPCN is a triple tube concentric nebulizer, which can generate fine aerosols and provide a stable and highly measurement sensitivity in ICP-MS at a liquid flow rate less than 10 μL min(-1). With the combination of the chamber heating at 60°C, the sensitivity obtained with the proposed sample introduction system at the liquid flow rate of 10 μL min(-1) was almost the same as that with a common concentric nebulizer and cyclone chamber system at the liquid flow rate of 1 mL min(-1), though the sample consumption rate of the HPCN was two orders of the magnitude lower than that of the common nebulizer. The validation of the proposed system was performed by analyzing the NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The observed values for 12 elements such as Na, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd were in good agreement with their certified values and information value. Satisfactory analytical results for 14 elements such as Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba in Escherichia coli sample were also obtained. The proposed sample introduction system was quite effective in the cases when only micro-volume of biological sample is available. PMID:22099643

  8. [Ecological and hygienic condition urbanized area in the geographical center of New Moscow].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water. PMID:26031042

  9. Determination of elemental impurities in poly(vinyl chloride) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leticia S F; Pedrotti, Matheus F; Miceli, Tatiane M; Pereira, Juliana S F; Flores, Erico M M

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a method for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. Samples were digested by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) and thirteen elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) were determined by ICP-OES. Operational conditions of MIC were investigated allowing quantitative determination of all the analytes and suitable results were achieved using a 3 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) using closed quartz vessels and a single reaction chamber microwave digestion system (MAWD-SRC), were also evaluated for PVC digestion for results comparison. All the evaluated sample preparation methods were considered suitable for PVC digestion but MIC was preferable due to the possibility of using diluted HNO3 instead of concentrated reagents and due to the better digestion efficiency. The residual carbon content (RCC) in digests obtained by MIC was significantly lower in comparison with the values obtained after MAWD and by MAWD-SRC. Accuracy for the proposed method was better than 94% for all analytes by comparison of results with those obtained by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Using MIC, it was possible to digest a relatively high sample mass (500 mg) and up to 8 samples in less time (25 min) in comparison with MAWD and MAWD-SRC (about 60 min for both methods). The efficiency of digestion by MIC was higher 99% and lower limits of detection (as low as 0.1 µg g(-1)) were obtained avoiding the use of concentrated acids that is of great concern according to the current green chemistry recommendations. PMID:26992533

  10. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-12-31

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1}. Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes.

  11. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm[sup [minus]1]. Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes.

  12. Acute toxicity modeling of rainbow trout and silver sea bream exposed to waterborne metals.

    PubMed

    Liao, C M; Lin, M C

    2001-01-01

    Of three proposed acute toxicity models, the uptake-depuration (UD) model, the time-integrated concentration (TIC) model, and the concentration-time (CT) model are derived and verified with acute toxicity data to estimate the internal residues of waterborne metals in fish as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the depuration rate constant (k2). The UD model is based on the concept of residue levels at the cell membrane well correlating with the whole-body concentrations, whereas the TIC and the CT models are based on the idea of irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) governing the metal acute toxicity in that metals in the entire fish or in the aqueous phase can be described by the critical area under the time-concentration curve that is associated with a critical TIC of toxicant in the target tissue. A highly significant correlation (r2 > 0.9) was found between predictions and LC50(t) data for both the TIC and the CT models, indicating successfully describe 4- to 18-d LC50(t) data of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and Co/Cu mixture in rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus mykiss) and of Cu in fingerlings and subadults of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba). The time-dependent lethal internal concentration at the site of action that causes 50% mortality is also predicted for a given compound and species. It concludes that the TIC and the CT models can be applied to regulate the acute toxicity and to estimate incipient LC50 values and internal residues of waterborne metals in fish. PMID:11501285

  13. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  14. Pyrochemical extraction of transition metals from Pacific Ocean deep sea nodules

    SciTech Connect

    von Winbush, S.; Maroni, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable success has been achieved in lixiviation transition metals from Pacific Ocean deep sea nodules. These nodules typically contain approx.30 wt% Mn, approx.7 wt% Fe, approx.1 wt% Ni, approx.1 wt% Cu, and approx.0.3 wt% Co. Samples of the nodules have been subjected to extraction tests at 450C using LiCl-KCl eutectic and MgCl2-NaCl-KCl eutectic. The most impressive results came from studies using the Mg, Na, K/Cl eutectic. With this salt, nearly 100% of the Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni are brought into solution. The dissolution reaction is quite vigorous, with nearly complete extraction occurring in a very short time (minutes) following melting of the eutectic. Quantitative recovery of cobalt is achieved with nodule-to-salt weight ratios as high as 1:3. Electronic absorption spectroscopy (carried out on the molten extract solution at the test temperature) showed that the oxidation state of the dissolved transition metals are CoS , CuS , FeT , MnS , and NiS . At temperatures greater than or equal to450C, the FeT and CuS distill out of the extract solution at a rapid rate and condense as binary halides or halide complexes. Using a combination of distillation followed by electrochemical reduction of the CoS and NiS in the extract salt, it appears possible to recover a fairly high grade of cobalt metal and nickel metal as well as high grade CuS , FeT , and MnS in the form of a halide salt (CuCl2, FeCl3) or an oxide precipitate (Mn2O3).

  15. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  16. Environmental monitoring of the kafue river, located in the Copperbelt, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Norrgren, L; Pettersson, U; Orn, S; Bergqvist, P

    2000-04-01

    Zambia is a country with an extensive mining industry with the majority of mines located in the Copperbelt province. Through this region of the country, the Kafue River drains and receives effluent water from mining activities as well as from other industrial point sources. In addition, production of agricultural products and pest control requires use of different pesticides in the area. Information on industrial and agricultural pollution has not been clearly identified in Zambia, and little attention has been paid to pollution control and possible impact of metals, pesticides, and other persistent compounds in the environment. The objective of this study was to introduce and to evaluate a few methodologies based on in situ bioassays for environmental assessment to promote sustainable and environmentally sound water resource management of the Kafue River. The results show that caged threespot tilapia exposed downstream of industrial points sources rapidly bioaccumulate several trace elements, i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni. These elements also occurred in much higher concentrations in water samples downstream of the industrial area compared with a locality upstream. Furthermore, the use of a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) for passive absorption of lipophilic pollutants in the water showed relatively high concentration of several pesticides, i.e., DDT with major metabolites, PCB, and dieldrin. The present study shows that only 2 weeks of in situ studies in waters contaminated by pollutants affects in situ exposed fish and that the correlation between water and tissue concentrations was relatively good. Both trace elements and persistent organic pollutants occurred in such high concentrations that they must be considered from ecotoxicological aspects and may affect aquatic animal health. PMID:10667931

  17. Year-round record of dissolved and particulate metals in surface snow at Dome Concordia (East Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Grotti, Marco; Soggia, Francesco; Ardini, Francisco; Magi, Emanuele; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    From January to December 2010, surface snow samples were collected with monthly resolution at the Concordia station (75°06'S, 123°20'E), on the Antarctic plateau, and analysed for major and trace elements in both dissolved and particulate (i.e. insoluble particles, >0.45 μm) phase. Additional surface snow samples were collected with daily resolution, for the determination of sea-salt sodium and not-sea-salt calcium, in order to support the discussion on the seasonal variations of trace elements. Concentrations of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements were higher in winter (April-October) than in summer (November-March) by a factor of 1.2-3.3, in agreement with the higher concentration of sea-salt atmospheric particles reaching the Antarctic plateau during the winter. Similarly, trace elements were generally higher in winter by a factor of 1.2-1.5, whereas Al and Fe did not show any significant seasonal trend. Partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases did not change with the sampling period, but it depended only on the element: alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, as well as Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were for the most part (>80%) in the dissolved phase, whereas Al and Fe were mainly associated with the particulate phase (>80%) and Cd, Cr, V were nearly equally distributed between the phases. Finally, the estimated marine and crustal enrichment factors indicated that Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn have a dominant anthropogenic origin, with a possible contribution from the Concordia station activities. PMID:25550109

  18. The mineralogy and geochemistry of quartz-tourmaline schlieren in the granites of the Primorsky Complex, Western Baikal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel'eva, V. B.; Bazarova, E. P.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz-tourmaline schlieren have been found within rapakivi-like granites of the Early Proterozoic Primorsky Complex in the Western Baikal Region. These rocks are biotite leucogranites with normal alkalinity (A/CNK = 1.00-1.04); a high iron mole fraction (92-95%); a K2O/Na2O value of about 2.0; relatively high F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Pb, Th, and U contents; and low Ba, Sr, Eu, Zn, Sc, and V contents. The schlieren composed of quartz and tourmaline with relics of feldspar also contain fluorite, rare muscovite, chlorite, and accessory rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite, xenotime, and bastnäsite. B2O3 and F contents in the schlieren are 2.29-2.63 and 0.30-0.47 wt %, respectively. Fe2O3 (4.8-5.4 wt %), F, and H2O contents are higher in these schlieren than in the host granite, while SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 contents are lower than in host rocks. K2O/Na2O values decrease in the schlieren down to 0.4. Enrichment of the schlieren in Fe and other ore elements (Zn, Co, Cu, Sn, etc.), together with B, F, H2O, and Na, suggests that they crystallized from fluid-saturated melt segregated from aluminosilicate melt in the apical part of a shallow-seated intrusion. The formation of tourmaline may be related to the interaction of the fluid with feldspars in the crystallizing granites; it was accompanied by a separation of fluid F-CO2. Quartz precipitated at the next stage, due to the acidic character of the aqueous fluid. In general, the relationships of minerals in the schlieren indicate distinct fractionation of LREE, HREE, and Y in the fluid-saturated melt.

  19. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Remon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European, grazing and agricultural soils. Materials and methods: Robust factor analysis was applied to data series for Al,B,Ca, Cd,Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg,Mn, Na,Ni, P, S, Se, Sr, U, Zn (ICP-MS) and SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 (XRF) based on the European GEMAS dataset. In addition, the following general soil properties were included: clay content, pH, chemical index of alteration (CIA), loss on ignition (LOI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon and total sulfur. Furthermore, this dataset was coupled to a dataset containing information of historic P2O5 fertilization across Europe. Also, a mass balance was carried out for Cd, Cu and Zn to determine if concentrations of these elements found in the soils have their origin in historic P2O5 fertilization. Results and discussion: Seven geogenic factors and one agricultural factor were found of which four prominent ones (all geogenic): chemical weathering, reactive iron-aluminum oxide minerals, clay minerals and carbonate minerals. Results for grazing and agricultural soils were near identical, which further proofs the prominence of geogenic controls on the total elemental composition. When the cumulative amount of P2O5 fertilization was considered, no extra agriculture-related factors became visible. The mass balance confirms these observations. Conclusion: Overall, the geological controls are more important for the total soil chemistry in agricultural and grazing land soils than the anthropogenic controls.

  20. K-shell photoabsorption and photoionisation of trace elements. I. Isoelectronic sequences with electron number 3 ≤N ≤ 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. With the recent launching of the Hitomi X-ray space observatory, K lines and edges of chemical elements with low cosmic abundances, namely F, Na, P, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn, can be resolved and used to determine important properties of supernova remnants, galaxy clusters and accreting black holes and neutron stars. Aims: The second stage of the present ongoing project involves the computation of the accurate photoabsorption and photoionisation cross sections required to interpret the X-ray spectra of such trace elements. Methods: Depending on target complexity and computer tractability, ground-state cross sections are computed either with the close-coupling Breit-Pauli R-matrix method or with the autostructure atomic structure code in the isolated-resonance approximation. The intermediate-coupling scheme is used whenever possible. In order to determine a realistic K-edge behaviour for each species, both radiative and Auger dampings are taken into account, the latter being included in the R-matrix formalism by means of an optical potential. Results: Photoabsorption and total and partial photoionisation cross sections are reported for isoelectronic sequences with electron numbers 3 ≤ N ≤ 11. The Na sequence (N = 11) is used to estimate the contributions from configurations with a 2s hole (i.e. [2s]μ) and those containing 3d orbitals, which will be crucial when considering sequences with N > 11. Conclusions: It is found that the [2s]μ configurations must be included in the target representations of species with N ≥ 11 as they contribute significantly to the monotonic background of the cross section between the L and K edges. Configurations with 3d orbitals are important in rendering an accurate L edge, but they can be practically neglected in the K-edge region.

  1. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32 % (for Mn) up to 14.8 % (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02 % (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8 % (for Mg and Na). PMID:26286964

  2. Effects of Microalloying on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33(at.%)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloys Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloys' attractive combination of oxidation and thermophysical properties, their development as replacements for superalloy airfoils in gas turbine engines has been largely limited by difficulties in developing alloys with an optimum combination of elevated-temperature creep resistance and room-temperature fracture toughness. Alternatively, research has focused on developing directionally solidified NiAl-based in situ eutectic composites composed of NiAl and (Cr,Mo) phases in order to obtain a desirable combination of properties a systematic investigation was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of small additions of 11 alloying elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Nb, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, and Zr) in amounts varying from 0.25 to 1.0 at.% on the elevated-temperature strength and room-temperature fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic alloy. The alloys were grown at 12.7 mm/hr, where the unalloyed eutectic base alloy exhibited a planar eutectic microstructure. The different microstructures that formed because of these fifth-element additions are included in the table. The additions of these elements even in small amounts resulted in the formation of cellular microstructures, and in some cases, dendrites and third phases were observed. Most of these elemental additions did not improve either the elevated-temperature strength or the room-temperature fracture toughness over that of the base alloy. However, small improvements in the compression strength were observed between 1200 and 1400 K when 0.5 at.% Hf and 0.25 at.% Ti were added to the base alloy. The results of this study suggest that the microalloying of Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo will not significantly improve either its elevatedtemperature strength or its room-temperature fracture toughness. Thus, any improvements in these properties must be acquired by changing the processing conditions.

  3. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10−6 and 1.84 × 10−7, respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments. PMID:24278631

  4. Evaluation of metal enrichment and trophic status on the basis of biogeochemical analysis of shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S. K.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the distribution of environmentally relevant metals and organic matter in the shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea using biogeochemical proxies for the assessment of environmental quality and trophic status. The distribution of metals in the study site followed the order: Fe>Mg>Pb>Ni>Mn>Co>Cu>Zn>Cd. High biological productivity associated with upwelling leads to significant accumulation of Cd higher than crustal abundance in the shelf region. The enrichment factor (EF) of metals demonstrate enrichment of Pb and Co which suggests the anthropogenic influence and not redox conditions. The sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in comparison with metal concentration revealed adverse effects, possibly occurring in marine benthic species. The spatial trend of metal enrichment along transects is appreciably controlled by the adsorption to fine grained sediments. The multivariate statistical analyses, such as correlations and principal component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated the control of texture, association of clay minerals in the degree of trace metal (Cd, Pb, Ni and Co) contamination from anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Low levels of Zn, preferably display scavenging by Fe/Mn metal oxides. Biochemical descriptors in sediments indicated meso-oligotrophic conditions prevailing in the summer monsoon. The ratios among various biogeochemical parameters such as total organic carbon/total nitrogen (TOC/TN<10), protein/carbohydrate (PRT/CHO<1) displayed that the organic matter deposited of marine origin which is relatively old with potentially low nutritional value. The close relationship between biochemical components and phytopigments suggest a major contribution of autochthonous phytodetritus derived organic matter. The study provides important information about sediment biogeochemistry and metal contamination from a potential fishery zone of Indian exclusive economic zone.

  5. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, A; Pourcelot, L; Probst, A; Prunier, J; Le Roux, G

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000Bq∙kg(-1)) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF≫40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2

  6. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet. PMID:26177083

  7. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable. PMID:26674700

  8. Chemical equilibration of the Earth's core and upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the Earth's upper mantle appears to lie somewhat above that of the iron-wu??stite buffer, its fO2 is assumed to have been similar to the present value at the time of core formation. In the upper mantle, the Fe-rich liquid protocore that would form under such conditions of fO2 at elevated temperatures would lie predominantly in the system Fe-S-O. Distribution coefficients for Co, Cu, Ni, Ir, Au, Ir, W, Re, Mo, Ag and Ga between such liquids and basalt are known and minimum values are known for Ge. From these coefficients, upper mantle abundances for the above elements can be calculated by assuming cosmic abundances for the whole Earth and equilibrium between the Fe-S-O protocore and upper mantle. These calculated abundances are surprisingly close to presently known upper mantle abundances; agreements are within a factor of 5, except for Cu, W, and Mo. Therefore, siderophile element abundances in the upper mantle based on known distribution coefficients do not demand a late-stage meteoritic bombardment, and a protocore formed from the upper mantle containing S and O seems likely. As upper mantle abundances fit a local equilibrium model, then either the upper mantle has not been mixed with the rest of the mantle since core formation, or else partition coefficients between protocore and mantle were similar for the whole mantle regardless of P, T, and fO2. The latter possibility seems unlikely over such a P-T range. ?? 1984.

  9. Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

    2013-11-01

    Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and δ13C and δ15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

  10. Cell metal interactions: A comparison of natural uranium to other common metals in renal cells and bone osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgram, S.; Carrière, M.; Thiebault, C.; Berger, P.; Khodja, H.; Gouget, B.

    2007-07-01

    Uranium acute intoxication has been documented to induce nephrotoxicity. Kidneys are the main target organs after short term exposures to high concentrations of the toxic, while chronic exposures lead to its accumulation in the skeleton. In this paper, chemical toxicity of uranium is investigated for rat osteoblastic bone cells and compared to results previously obtained on renal cells. We show that bone cells are less sensitive to uranium than renal cells. The influence of the chemical form on U cytotoxicity is demonstrated. For both cell types, a comparison of uranium toxicity with other metals or metalloids toxicities (Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd) permits classification of Cd, Zn, Se IV and Cu as the most toxic and Ni, Se VI, Mn and U as the least toxic. Chemical toxicity of natural uranium proves to be far less than that of cadmium. To try to explain the differences in sensitivities observed between metals and different cell types, cellular accumulations in cell monolayers are quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), function of time or function of dose: lethal doses which simulate acute intoxications and sub-lethal doses which are more realistic with regard to environmentally metals concentrations. In addition to being more resistant, bone cells accumulated much more uranium than did renal cells. Moreover, for both cell models, Mn, U-citrate and U-bicarbonate are strongly accumulated whereas Cu, Zn and Ni are weakly accumulated. On the other hand, a strong difference in Cd behaviour between the two cell types is shown: whereas Cd is very weakly accumulated in bone cells, it is very strongly accumulated in renal cells. Finally, elemental distribution of the toxics is determined on a cellular scale using nuclear microprobe analysis. For both renal and osteoblastic cells, uranium was accumulated in as intracellular precipitates similar to those observed previously by SEM/EDS.

  11. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection. PMID:26511853

  12. Effect of target composition on the emission enhancement observed in Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristo Foretti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of the matrix composition on the emission enhancement observed in Double-Pulse (DP) Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was studied for several pure metal targets (Al, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Si and W). The measurements were performed in air by using a dual-pulse Nd:YAG ns laser emitting 60mJ pulses at 1064nm wavelength. The measurement of the emission enhancement for neutral and ionic lines of all the samples showed a wide range of results. Very low enhancement was observed in Pb, Ni and Mn while the highest values of enhancement were obtained in Cu, Al and Au. The space-averaged thermodynamic parameters of the induced plasmas in DP and in SP LIBS were calculated and the enhancement of ablated atomized mass in DP case was spectroscopically estimated in all the targets. A correlation seems to exist between the ablated atomized mass enhancement and the plasma temperature increase in the DP configuration. An attempt was made to correlate the increase of these two quantities with the melting point and heat, boiling point and heat, reflectivity and ionization energy of the metal. No evident correlation was found. At the opposite, a correlation was observed between the ablated atomized mass enhancement and the thermal diffusivity of the metal. A simple picture is proposed to explain the experimental findings. It is hypothesized that different mass ablation mechanisms prevail depending on the experimental configuration. It may be expected that in the SP case mass ablation is dominated by vaporization, while in the DP case it is dominated by phase explosion and/or melt expulsion.

  13. Biomonitoring for exposure to multiple trace elements via analysis of urine from participants in the study of metals and assisted reproductive technologies (SMART).

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewan; Steuerwald, Amy J; Parsons, Patrick J; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Browne, Richard W; Bloom, Michael S

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exposed to concentrations of multiple trace elements through a variety of background sources; many are suspected reproductive toxicants. Prior to investigating associations between trace elements and human reproductive health, potential biomarkers of exposure should be characterized by sources of variability in the population at risk. Factors influencing elemental exposure should also be identified to ensure their consideration as potential confounding variables. The principal aim of this study is to characterize sources of variability for 19 trace elements measured in urine specimens collected from 55 women and 36 male partners completing a 1st cycle of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Urine specimens were analyzed using a biomonitoring method based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Randomly selected urine specimens (∼6%) were analyzed in duplicate, and these data were used to characterize sources of variability. Nine trace elements including As, Ba, Cd, Cs, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn, were quantified in most specimens, indicating their utility in future epidemiologic studies of trace elements exposure and IVF outcomes. With few exceptions, normalizing urine using the traditional creatinine-correction procedure, or an alternative approach based on a linear regression model, increased residual variability only slightly. Sex and race appear to be important factors to consider in epidemiologic studies conducted in this population. Urine concentrations for most elements are similar to those reported in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); however, differences in others may indicate regional trends or a unique exposure history for this infertile study population. PMID:21773592

  14. Cost Reduction of Lanthanum Chromite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steve P. ); Stevenson, Jeffry W. ); Hardy, John S. ); Chick, Lawrence A. )

    2000-01-01

    Acceptor doped lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3) has long been the interconnect material of choice for high temperature SOFCs, typically operating at 1000?C. However, lanthanum chromite is relatively expensive, and many developers are currently pursuing SOFCs operating at lower temperatures. As the operating temperature is lowered, metal interconnects (e.g., ferritic steels or chromium alloys) become increasingly viable, but they have their own unique problems (including Cr-oxide formation and Cr volatilization), and it is therefore likely that uncoated metals cannot be used at temperatures greater than 700?C. For intermediate operating temperatures (700-800?C), the application of protective oxide coatings may allow the use of metal interconnects (if such coatings can be applied cost-effectively), but lanthanum chromite may offer better long-term performance. While the electrical conductivity of lanthanum chromite does decrease as temperature decreases, the conductivity at 800?C is only about 10% less than the conductivity at 1000?C. In this study, the authors have investigated the viability of replacing pure La in the acceptor doped LaCrO3 with a less expensive mixed lanthanide (Ln) precursor containing La3+ as the principle cation, but also Ce4+, Nd3+ and Pr3+ in significant proportions. Typical compositions investigated were of the formula Ln0.85Sr0.15Cr1-yMyO3, where 0.02?y?0.1 and M= Co, Cu, Ni, and V. Samples were studied with respect to sinterability in air, thermal expansion, conductivity in air and at low pO2, phase stability, and dilation under reducing atmospheres.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal enrichment in Cochin estuary and its adjacent coast: multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Bindu, K R; Deepulal, P M; Gireeshkumar, T R; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2015-08-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of heavy metals in the Cochin estuary and its adjacent coastline during three seasons were studied to investigate the impact of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution. Total organic carbon, sand, silt, clay and 10 metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe) in the surface sediments were analysed. Multivariate statistical analyses like canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for source identification, integration of geochemical data and clustering of stations based on similarities. Enrichment factor, contamination factor and geoaccumulation index were used to assess the contamination level. From the study, it can be understood that estuary and coast are highly polluted especially with Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni. Anthropogenic influence of heavy metals was evidenced from both the principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Finer fractions (mud) of the sediment and the associated Fe oxy hydroxides might be playing major role in the transport of heavy metals in the system. Very high enrichment factor value observed suggested high anthropogenic pressure in the study area. All the stations in the northern part of the estuary showed very high enrichment factors indicating heavy load of Zn and Cd in this area which might have reached from the industrial area lying to the north side of the Cochin estuary. Pollution indices suggested that both the estuary and its adjacent coast were showing low contamination with respect to Cr, Mg, Mn and Fe; all other metals were causing low to extremely high levels of pollution in the study area. PMID:26205283

  16. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals in the surface sediments of South Brittany coastal waters: An assessment using pollution indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, M. C.; Menier, D.; Noor Azhar, M. S.; Dupont, V.; Révillon, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in South Brittany water, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of heavy metals of the area. One of the aims of this work was to assess heavy metals contamination in Gulf of Morbihan and Quiberon Bay. Another aim was to use interpolation surfaces per metals to assess the contamination separately per metal. A total of 196 bottom sediment samples were collected from the coastal waters in order to determine the spatial concentration of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. The average heavy metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cu>Cd. In the gulf, metal enrichments observed compared to the bay environment may due river run-off from three major river (Auray, Le Marle and Novalo rivers) which carried municipal waste and maritime activities along the coastal area within the gulf. Beside those factors, the natural factors such as the sheltered basin morphology itself, fine sediment and low hydrodynamic regime which favour the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The level of pollution levels attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CF) based on reference element and background value to compensate for the influence of the natural variability in sediment mineralogy and to assess whether the concentration observed in surface sediment represent background and contaminated levels and visualize using ArcGIS software. These analyses validated that the bottom sediment only enriched in Pb and the other metals in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Overall, geochemistry of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic

  17. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gormley-Gallagher, Aine Marie; Douglas, Richard William; Rippey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic) lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05) for Mn (r2 = 0.0063), Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021), Ni (r2 = 0.0023), Cd (r2 = 0.00001), Co (r2 = 0.096), Hg (r2 = 0.116) or Pb (r2 = 0.164). The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing) fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water. PMID:26200885

  18. The potential for improving physiological, behavioural and immunological responses in the neonatal lamb by trace element and vitamin supplementation of the ewe.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Dwyer, C M; Ashworth, C J

    2008-04-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality represents both a welfare issue (due to the considerable suffering and distress) and an important production inefficiency. In lambs, approximately 80% of mortality can be attributed to the starvation-mismothering-exposure complex and occurs in the first 3 days after birth. It was the object of this review to determine the micronutrient(s) most likely to have a positive effect on neonatal lamb survival when included above the requirement for that micronutrient. Micronutrients discussed were Co, Cu, I, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, vitamins A and E and n-3 fatty acids. For Co, Fe, Mn and Zn, there was no evidence of positive responses to supplementation. Cu and I had toxicity thresholds that were sufficiently close to requirement that supplementing above requirement presented a risk of inducing toxicity. In the case of vitamin A, while serum concentrations indicated that sub-optimal status did exist, long-term buffering from liver stores (from grazing) makes experimentation difficult and practical benefits to supplementation unlikely. Therefore, the most likely candidates for supplementation were Se, vitamin E and fatty acids. Fatty acid supplementation with fish oils or docosahexaenoic acid-containing algal biomass consistently improved lamb vigour but it is unlikely that supplementation will be economic. Positive responses to Se supplementation throughout gestation were recorded. However, in many studies the Se status of control ewes was marginal and there is a need for more studies where control ewes are clearly adequate in Se. Positive responses to vitamin E supplementation above requirement in the last-third of gestation were observed but the optimum dietary inclusion of vitamin E and period of feeding during pregnancy still require clarification. PMID:22443565

  19. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). PMID:23870436

  20. Bioaccumulation of elements in three selected mushroom species from southwest Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Goliński, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Dawidowicz, Luiza; Szymańczyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    The contents of 16 minerals and trace elements (Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pt, Ti and Zn) were analyzed in edible mushrooms (Leccinum scabrum, Boletus edulis and Boletus badius) collected in southwest Poland. Content of Co, Ni and Pb was similar in all tested mushroom species, while content of Ag, Ca, Cd, Hg and Ti was significantly higher in B. edulis than in L. scabrum and B. badius. The largest differences between these species were observed for Fe and Zn accumulation. The highest contents of these elements were noted in B. badius bodies (202 ± 88 and 137 ± 24 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively), lower in B. edulis (131 ± 99 and 89 ± 26 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively) and lowest in L. scabrum. Differences in As, Cu and Cr content between tested species were observed mainly between L. scabrum and B. badius fruiting bodies. Content of Pt was below 0.01 mg kg(-1) dry matter). In the case of Mg and Mn accumulation, differences between B. edulis and B. badius were not observed (478 and 440 mg kg(-1) dry matter for Mg and 23 and 19 mg kg(-1) dry matter for Mn), and the results showed significantly higher content of these elements than in L. scabrum bodies (312 and 10 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively). It is worth underlining that clear accumulation shown by the bioconcentration factor (BCF>1) observed for all three mushroom species was noted in the case of elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn only. PMID:25602154