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Sample records for 7-9 anos para

  1. Home Economics: Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 74 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics instruction in grades 7-9. It is organized into the following categories: child development--including toys, babysitting, and home discipline; clothing and textiles; consumer practices; foods and nutrition; and home management and family economics. Each…

  2. Industrial Arts 7-9. Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of construction. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the proqram is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program goals and…

  3. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information...

  4. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information...

  5. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information...

  6. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information...

  7. 11 CFR 7.9 - Outside employment or activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outside employment or activities. 7.9 Section 7.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees or Commissioners § 7.9 Outside employment or activities. (a) A member of the Commission shall...

  8. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9... EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information pass...-manufacturer, non-proprietary, industry-standard codes, translation protocols, formats or other...

  9. 49 CFR 7.9 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of records. 7.9 Section 7.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.9 Protection of records. (a) Records made available for inspection...

  10. Estudios Sociales Para ninos de cinco anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Sara S.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that kindergarten teachers should once a week bring to class a news photograph which they can discuss with the children. Such an exercise can be used to create among the children a wider awareness of the world and to counter their tendency to focus exclusively on the self. (Author/RH)

  11. Teachers Guide to Economic Concepts: Grade 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Milo F.

    This grades 7-9 teachers guide is one of five resource guides to aid teachers in helping students in South Dakota to achieve a high degree of economic literacy. It is felt that schools must prepare students at all grade levels to develop an understanding of the economy in which they live. This guide was specifically prepared to assist elementary…

  12. The Years Alone: A Reading Comprehension Unit (7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Broeker, Lynn

    Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of thought, this thematic reading comprehension unit on "loneliness" is intended for teachers of grades 7-9. The thinking process is broken into six categories: (1) recall; (2) inference; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6) evaluation. A short description is given for each of these processes. Students…

  13. In Brief: China shaken by magnitude 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-05-01

    A magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck the eastern Sichuan region of China on 12 May 2008 at 0628 UTC has caused more than 22,000 fatalities as of press time, and Chinese government officials have indiciated that this figure could increase to 50,000. The quake also caused severe damage including landslides and cracks to 391 mostly small dams, according to an Associated Press report that cited the Xinhua News Agency and CCTV news. China's Ministry of Water Resources has dispatched several work teams to quake-hit localities ``to prevent dams that were damaged by the earthquake from bursting and endangering the lives of residents,'' the ministry stated.

  14. Photoelastic stress analysis on a Phoenix 7. 9-meter blade

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Jenks, M D; Osgood, R M; Johnson, J A

    1991-10-01

    Photoelastic tests were conducted on the Phoenix 7.9-meter blade to develop the basic methodology for locating critical strain areas on full-scale composite structures. Under relatively low elastic loading the strain fields over various regions on the blade planform were documented with 35mm photographs under different loading conditions at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Structural Test Facility (STF). Strain concentrations were easily located and quantified. Principal strain magnitudes and directions were determined at the highest strain areas using separator gages. Results were compared to measured operating loads. This experiment demonstrated the value of experimental stress analysis using the photoelastic technique for the evaluation of composite blade designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. LLW Forum meeting report, May 7--9, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in Chicago, Illinois, on may 7--9, 1997. Twenty-three Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 20 compacts and states participated. A report on the meeting is given under the following subtitles: New developments in states and compacts; Upgrading an existing disposal facility; Revisions to DOE Order 5820 re DOE waste management; Conference of radiation control program directors: Recent and upcoming activities; National Conference of State Legislatures` (NCSL) low-level radioactive waste working group: Recent and upcoming activities; Executive session; LLW forum business session; Public involvement and risk communication: Success at West Valley, New York; DOE low-level waste management program; impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s convention on waste; Panel discussion: The environmental justice concept--Past, present and future; New technologies for processing and disposal of LLRW; High-level and low-level radioactive waste: A dialogue on parallels and intersections; Draft agreement re uniform application of manifesting procedures; Regulatory issues focus; LLW forum October 1997 agenda planning; Resolutions; LLW forum regulatory issues discussion group meets; and Attendance.

  16. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  17. Landscape response to the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andermann, Christoff; Turowski, Jens; Behling, Robert; Cook, Kristen; Hovius, Niels; Marc, Odin; Roessner, Sigrid; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Emberson, Robert; Burtin, Arnaud; Dietze, Michael; Adhikari, Basanta; Parajuli, Binod

    2016-04-01

    Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread landsliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, these perturbations can represent a major part of the overall disaster with an impact that can last for years before restoring to background conditions. Thus, the relaxation phase is part of the seismically induced change by an earthquake and need to be monitored in order to understand the full impact of earthquakes on the Earth system. Here, we present first results from the rapid respond earth surface processes monitoring program put in place by several European groups after the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake. To monitor the transient effects of the earthquake on the Earth surface system, we have installed a comprehensive network of 13 river sampling locations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas immediately after the event. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and geophones and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment, covering an area of ~50 km2. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities and volumes over subsequent seasons using high resolution optical (RapidEye) and radar imagery (TanDEM TerraSAR-X). The combination of all of these data will help when interpreting our field observation in the regional context of catastrophic failure of hillslopes and their link with sediment transport in the rivers. First river gauging observation show a pronounced increase in river discharge in the order of >20% for the respective pre-monsoon season. We interpreted this as a direct impact of the shaking on the valley-ridge scale sub

  18. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D.; Alanen, Erkki; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program in two samples of students, one from Grades 1-3 (7-9 years old, N = 6,927) and the other from Grades 7-9 (13-15 years old, N = 16, 503). The Grades 1-3 students were located in 74 schools and Grades 7-9 students in 73 schools that were randomly assigned to intervention and…

  19. Identification of Cyproheptadine as an Inhibitor of SET Domain Containing Lysine Methyltransferase 7/9 (Set7/9) That Regulates Estrogen-Dependent Transcription.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yasushi; Ito, Akihiro; Niwa, Hideaki; Okamura, Mutsumi; Fujiwara, Takashi; Hirano, Tomoya; Handa, Noriko; Umehara, Takashi; Sonoda, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kenji; Tariq, Mohammad; Nishino, Norikazu; Dan, Shingo; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Yamori, Takao; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yoshida, Minoru

    2016-04-28

    SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7/9 (Set7/9), a histone lysine methyltransferase (HMT), also methylates non-histone proteins including estrogen receptor (ER) α. ERα methylation by Set7/9 stabilizes ERα and activates its transcriptional activities, which are involved in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. We identified cyproheptadine, a clinically approved antiallergy drug, as a Set7/9 inhibitor in a high-throughput screen using a fluorogenic substrate-based HMT assay. Kinetic and X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that cyproheptadine binds in the substrate-binding pocket of Set7/9 and inhibits its enzymatic activity by competing with the methyl group acceptor. Treatment of human breast cancer cells (MCF7 cells) with cyproheptadine decreased the expression and transcriptional activity of ERα, thereby inhibiting estrogen-dependent cell growth. Our findings suggest that cyproheptadine can be repurposed for breast cancer treatment or used as a starting point for the discovery of an anti-hormone breast cancer drug through lead optimization. PMID:27088648

  20. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  1. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  2. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  3. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  4. Inhibition of SET Domain-Containing Lysine Methyltransferase 7/9 Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kensuke; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Irifuku, Taisuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Kokoroishi, Keiko; Ueno, Toshinori; Doi, Toshiki; Hida, Eisuke; Arihiro, Koji; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 activity results in methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) through SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase 7/9 (SET7/9) induction, which is important for the transcriptional activation of fibrotic genes in vitro. However, in vivo studies utilizing an experimental model of renal fibrosis are required to develop therapeutic interventions that target SET7/9. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of TGF-β1-induced SET7/9 expression and whether inhibition of SET7/9 suppresses renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice and kidney cell lines. Among the SET family, SET7/9 was upregulated on days 3 and 7 in UUO mice, and the upregulation was suppressed by TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. TGF-β1 induced SET7/9 expression via Smad3 in normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E cells. In human kidney biopsy specimens from patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy, SET7/9 expression was positively correlated with the degree of interstitial fibrosis (r=0.59, P=0.001 in patients with IgA nephropathy; and r=0.58, P<0.05 in patients with membranous nephropathy). In addition, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SET7/9 expression significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in UUO mice. Sinefungin, an inhibitor of SET7/9, also suppressed the expression of mesenchymal markers and extracellular matrix proteins and inhibited H3K4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1) in kidneys of UUO mice. Moreover, sinefungin had an inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin expression and H3K4me1 in both NRK-52E and NRK-49F cells. In conclusion, sinefungin, a SET7/9 inhibitor, ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting H3K4me1 and may be a candidate therapeutic agent. PMID:26045091

  5. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated. PMID:26530828

  6. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  7. Steps Toward Healthy Growth. Health Education Curriculum Guide; Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dippo, Jeanette, Ed.

    Grades or Ages: Grades 7-9. Subject Matter: Health Education (includes chapters covering the following: (a) nutrition, (b) sensory perception, (c) dental health, (d) disease prevention and control, (e) smoking and health, (f) alcohol education, (g) use and misuse of chemical substances, (h) identity and human sexuality, (i) environmental health,…

  8. Secondary School Curriculum Guide. Music, Grades 7-9. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This draft curriculum guide is for use in grades 7-9 and covers six levels of musical competence. The levels included for study in this 3 year program are: 1) general music, in which the student learns about rythm, tempo, and beat patterns, note and rest values, time signatures, and some musical terms; 2) musical forms, elements of music, score…

  9. Preschool Speech, Language Skills, and Reading at 7, 9, and 10 Years: Etiology of the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the etiology of the relationship between preschool speech and language, and later reading skills. Method: One thousand six hundred seventy-two children from the Twins Early Development Study (B. R. Oliver & R. Plomin, 2007) were given a comprehensive speech and language assessment at 4 1/2 years. Reading was assessed at 7, 9,…

  10. The Free Enterprise System: A Middle School Seminar for Students in Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, E. M.

    A voluntary extracurricular research seminar on free enterprise for grades 7-9 is described. To acquaint students with the free enterprise system and its relation to society, lectures and discussions examine components of an equation. The components are: man's material welfare = natural resources + human effort x tools of production (MMW = NR + HE…

  11. KMT Set7/9 affects genotoxic stress response via the Mdm2 axis

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Olga; Malikova, Daria; Shuvalov, Oleg; Antonov, Alexey V.; Tentler, Dmitri; Garabadgiu, Alexander V.; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic stress inflicted by anti-cancer drugs causes DNA breaks and genome instability. DNA double strand breaks induced by irradiation or pharmacological inhibition of Topoisomerase II activate ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) kinase signalling pathway that in turn triggers cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. ATM-dependent gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2Ax and other histone modifications, including ubiquitnylation, promote exchange of histones and recruitment of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair proteins. Signal transduction pathways, besides DDR itself, also control expression of genes whose products cause cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis thus ultimately affecting the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress. In this study, using a number of experimental approaches we provide evidence that lysine-specific methyltransferase (KMT) Set7/9 affects DDR and DNA repair, at least in part, by regulating the expression of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2. Furthermore, we show that Set7/9 physically interacts with Mdm2. Several cancer cell lines with inverse expression of Set7/9 and Mdm2 displayed diminished survival in response to genotoxic stress. These findings are signified by our bioinformatics studies suggesting that the unleashed expression of Mdm2 in cancer patients with diminished expression of Set7/9 is associated with poor survival outcome. PMID:26317544

  12. Small Molecule-facilitated Degradation of ANO1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Hall, Michelle Lynn; Borawski, Jason; Hodgson, Catherine; Jenkins, Jeremy; Piechon, Philippe; Popa, Oana; Rothwell, Christopher; Tranter, Pamela; Tria, Scott; Wagner, Trixie; Whitehead, Lewis; Gaither, L. Alex

    2014-01-01

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, is highly expressed and amplified in human cancers and is a critical survival factor in these cancers. The ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 decreases proliferation of ANO1-amplified cell lines; however, the mechanism of action remains elusive. We explored the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of CaCCinh-A01 on cell proliferation using a combined experimental and in silico approach. We show that inhibition of ANO1 function is not sufficient to diminish proliferation of ANO1-dependent cancer cells. We report that CaCCinh-A01 reduces ANO1 protein levels by facilitating endoplasmic reticulum-associated, proteasomal turnover of ANO1. Washout of CaCCinh-A01 rescued ANO1 protein levels and resumed cell proliferation. Proliferation of newly derived CaCCinh-A01-resistant cell pools was not affected by CaCCinh-A01 as compared with the parental cells. Consistently, CaCCinh-A01 failed to reduce ANO1 protein levels in these cells, whereas ANO1 currents were still inhibited by CaCCinh-A01, indicating that CaCCinh-A01 inhibits cell proliferation by reducing ANO1 protein levels. Furthermore, we employed in silico methods to elucidate novel biological functions of ANO1 inhibitors. Specifically, we derived a pharmacophore model to describe inhibitors capable of promoting ANO1 degradation and report new inhibitors of ANO1-dependent cell proliferation. In summary, our data demonstrate that inhibition of the channel activity of ANO1 is not sufficient to inhibit ANO1-dependent cell proliferation, indicating that the role of ANO1 in cancer only partially depends on its function as a channel. Our results provide an impetus for gaining a deeper understanding of ANO1 modulation in cells and introduce a new targeting approach for antitumor therapy in ANO1-amplified cancers. PMID:24599954

  13. Reduced expression of SET7/9, a histone mono-methyltransferase, is associated with gastric cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Koda, Yuki; Byeon, Sun-ju; Shimada, Shu; Nishikawaji, Taketo; Sakamoto, Ayuna; Chen, Yingxuan; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Deng, Dajun; Kim, Woo Ho; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Yuasa, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    SET7/9, a histone methyltransferase, has two distinct functions for lysine methylation. SET7/9 methylates non-histone proteins, such as p53, and participates in their posttranslational modifications. Although SET7/9 transcriptionally activate the genes via H3K4 mono-methylation, its target genes are poorly understood. To clarify whether or not SET7/9 is related to carcinogenesis, we studied alterations of SET7/9 in gastric cancers (GCs). Among the 376 primary GCs, 129 cases (34.3%) showed loss or weak expression of SET7/9 protein compared to matched non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. Reduced SET7/9 expression was significantly correlated with clinical aggressiveness and worse prognosis. Knockdown of SET7/9 in GC cells markedly increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression of SREK1IP1, PGC and CCDC28B were inhibited in GC cells with SET7/9 knockdown, while matrix metalloproteinase genes (MMP1, MMP7 and MMP9) were activated. SET7/9 bound and mono-methylated H3K4 at the region of the approximately 4-6 kb upstream from the SREK1IP1 transcriptional start site and the promoters of PGC and CDC28B. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and expression of three MMPs were increased in GC cells with SREK1IP knockdown, which were similar to those of SET7/9 knockdown. These data suggest that SET7/9 has tumor suppressor functions, and loss of SET7/9 may contribute to gastric cancer progression. PMID:26701885

  14. Regulation of Transcription Factor Yin Yang 1 by SET7/9-mediated Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; Xu, Huan-teng; Yi, Jia; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shu, Xing-yi; Wang, Fei-fei; Peng, Bing-ling; Xiao, Rong-quan; Gao, Wei-wei; Ding, Jian-cheng; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes. Although it is regulated by multiple types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), whether YY1 is methylated, which enzyme methylates YY1, and hence the functional significance of YY1 methylation remains completely unknown. Here we reported the first methyltransferase, SET7/9 (KMT7), capable of methylating YY1 at two highly conserved lysine (K) residues, K173 and K411, located in two distinct domains, one in the central glycine-rich region and the other in the very carboxyl-terminus. Functional studies revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation regulated YY1 DNA-binding activity both in vitro and at specific genomic loci in cultured cells. Consistently, SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation was shown to involve in YY1-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. Our findings revealed a novel regulatory strategy, methylation by lysine methyltransferase, imposed on YY1 protein, and linked YY1 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:26902152

  15. Outpatient treatment of fissure-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-12-01

    A review of 86 cases of fissure-in-ano as seen in Ife is presented. The method of management is described and compared with other conservative methods of treatment. The results show a complete healing of the condition within two weeks as compared with four to six weeks recorded in other series. Healing was confirmed by a complete resolution of symptoms together with re-epithelisation of the fissure on inspection at proctoscopy. It is suggested that the described surgical management is simple, fast, cost reducing and time saving in the treatment of fissure-in-ano. It is further envisaged that this procedure may also serve as a means of relief to our already congested hospitals. PMID:6528355

  16. 7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. 7.9 Section 7.9... local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. (a) Where there are... committee shall be the delegates to the local administrative area and county conventions and the first...

  17. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K.; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  18. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  19. SET7/9 regulates cancer cell proliferation by influencing β-catenin stability.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changchun; Wang, Donglai; Liu, Xiangyu; Gu, Bo; Du, Yipeng; Wei, Fu-Zheng; Cao, Lin-Lin; Song, Boyan; Lu, Xiaopeng; Yang, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Qian; Hou, Tianyun; Li, Meiting; Wang, Lina; Wang, Haiying; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2015-10-01

    β-Catenin, which is a key mediator of the wingless-integration site (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling pathway, plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell fate determination, and tumorigenesis, by regulating the expression of a wide range of target genes. Although a variety of posttranslational modifications are involved in β-catenin activity, the role of lysine methylation in β-catenin activity is largely unknown. In this study, su(var)3-9, enhancer-of-zeste, trithorax (SET) domain-containing protein 7 (SET7/9), a lysine methyltransferase, interacted with and methylated β-catenin, as demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The interaction and methylation were significantly enhanced in response to H2O2 stimulation. A mutagenesis assay and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that β-catenin was monomethylated by SET7/9 at lysine residue 180. Methylated β-catenin was easily recognized by phosphokinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β for degradation. Consistent with this finding, the mutated β-catenin (K180R) that cannot be methylated exhibited a longer half-life than did the methylated β-catenin. The consequent depletion of SET7/9 by shRNA or the mutation of the β-catenin (K180R) significantly enhanced the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1 and promoted the growth of cancer cells. Together, these results provide a novel mechanism by which Wnt/β-catenin signaling is regulated in response to oxidative stress. PMID:26116705

  20. NMR Fragment Screening Hit Induces Plasticity of BRD7/9 Bromodomains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Li, Fudong; Bao, Hongyu; Li, Jie; Wu, Jihui; Ruan, Ke

    2016-08-01

    The complex biology associated with inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) domains by chemical probes has attracted increasing attention, and there is a need to identify non-BET bromodomain (BD) inhibitors. Several potent inhibitors of the BRD9 BD have recently been discovered, with anticancer and anti-inflammation activity. However, its paralogue, BRD7 BD, remains unexploited. Here, we identified new chemotypes targeting BRD7 BD by using NMR fragment-based screening. BRD7/9 BDs exhibit similar patterns of chemical-shift perturbation upon the titration of hit compound 1. The crystal structure revealed that 1 repels the Y222 group of BRD9 BD in a similar way to that for butyryllysine, but not acetyllysine and known inhibitors. Hit 1 induced less rearrangement of residue F161 of BRD9 BD than acetyllysine, butyryllysine, and crotonyllysine. Our study provides structural insight into a new generation of butyryllysine mimics for probing the function of BRD7/9 BD. PMID:27194508

  1. LP99: Discovery and Synthesis of the First Selective BRD7/9 Bromodomain Inhibitor†

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter G. K.; Vieira, Lucas C. C.; Tallant, Cynthia; Fedorov, Oleg; Singleton, Dean C.; Rogers, Catherine M.; Monteiro, Octovia P.; Bennett, James M.; Baronio, Roberta; Müller, Susanne; Daniels, Danette L.; Méndez, Jacqui; Knapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The bromodomain‐containing proteins BRD9 and BRD7 are part of the human SWI/SNF chromatin‐remodeling complexes BAF and PBAF. To date, no selective inhibitor for BRD7/9 has been reported despite its potential value as a biological tool or as a lead for future therapeutics. The quinolone‐fused lactam LP99 is now reported as the first potent and selective inhibitor of the BRD7 and BRD9 bromodomains. Development of LP99 from a fragment hit was expedited through balancing structure‐based inhibitor design and biophysical characterization against tractable chemical synthesis: Complexity‐building nitro‐Mannich/lactamization cascade processes allowed for early structure–activity relationship studies whereas an enantioselective organocatalytic nitro‐Mannich reaction enabled the synthesis of the lead scaffold in enantioenriched form and on scale. This epigenetic probe was shown to inhibit the association of BRD7 and BRD9 to acetylated histones in vitro and in cells. Moreover, LP99 was used to demonstrate that BRD7/9 plays a role in regulating pro‐inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:27346896

  2. LP99: Discovery and Synthesis of the First Selective BRD7/9 Bromodomain Inhibitor**

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter G K; Vieira, Lucas C C; Tallant, Cynthia; Fedorov, Oleg; Singleton, Dean C; Rogers, Catherine M; Monteiro, Octovia P; Bennett, James M; Baronio, Roberta; Müller, Susanne; Daniels, Danette L; Méndez, Jacqui; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    The bromodomain-containing proteins BRD9 and BRD7 are part of the human SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes BAF and PBAF. To date, no selective inhibitor for BRD7/9 has been reported despite its potential value as a biological tool or as a lead for future therapeutics. The quinolone-fused lactam LP99 is now reported as the first potent and selective inhibitor of the BRD7 and BRD9 bromodomains. Development of LP99 from a fragment hit was expedited through balancing structure-based inhibitor design and biophysical characterization against tractable chemical synthesis: Complexity-building nitro-Mannich/lactamization cascade processes allowed for early structure–activity relationship studies whereas an enantioselective organocatalytic nitro-Mannich reaction enabled the synthesis of the lead scaffold in enantioenriched form and on scale. This epigenetic probe was shown to inhibit the association of BRD7 and BRD9 to acetylated histones in vitro and in cells. Moreover, LP99 was used to demonstrate that BRD7/9 plays a role in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:25864491

  3. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  4. Mapping of aldose reductase gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, and 13

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, J.B.; Kojis, T. UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA ); Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S.; Klisak, I.; Diep, A. ); Carper, D. ); Nishimura, Chihiro ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.21) (AR) catalyzes the reduction of several aldehydes, including that of glucose, to the corresponding sugar alcohol. Using a complementary DNA clone encoding human AR, the authors mapped the gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 18 by somatic cell hybridization. By in situ hybridization analysis, sequences were localized to human chromosomes 1q32-q43, 3p12, 7q31-q35, 9q22, 11p14-p15, and 13q14-q21. As a putative functional AR gene has been mapped to chromosome 7 and a putative pseudogene to chromosome 3, the sequences on the other seven chromosomes may represent other active genes, non-aldose reductase homologous sequences, or pseudogenes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake - Result of Local and Abnormal Mass Imbalances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan margin of the eastern Tibetan plateau in the Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China. A complex and NNW dipping reverse fault system including the Beichuan fault ruptured 250-300 km parallel to the Longmen Shan thrust belt. This region has been tectonically loaded for >10kyr. It has low deformation rates of less than 1.0±1.0 mm yr-1 resulting in no major seismic activity during the Quaternary period. Several geophysical observations suggest that this M7.9 earthquake was triggered by local and abnormal mass imbalances on the surface of the Earth's crust. These observations include (1) elastostatic response of the crust to the mass changes (2) slip distribution of the main rupture, and (3) aftershock distribution. Initially, approximately 2 years prior the nucleation of the mainshock, at least 320 million tonnes of water accumulated within the upper Min river valley. It enters the Chengdu plain of the Sichuan basin, a stable continental region (SCR). The water volume amplified the strain energy on the Earth's crust. Shear stresses increased by >1kPa on the Beichuan fault at the nucleation point in about 20km depth. Normal stresses decreased by <-4kPa and weakened the fault strength. Pore pressure increases might have additionally destabilized the fault locally due to pore pressure diffusion. This effect, however, might be minor in 20km depth, because of low lateral fracture connectivity and permeability between the area of water accumulation and the Beichuan fault. Overall, the stress alterations within a 120±70km2 large area resulted in the Beichuan fault coming closer to failure. Such an area ruptured would account for a M7.2±0.1 earthquake assuming only 10 MPa stress drop. Secondly, a reverse fault focal mechanism dominated, in particular, during the first 50 seconds of the main M7.9 rupture. The Beichuan fault slipped up to 7m upward peaking at shallow depth (<7km) (Nishimura

  6. Rupture process of the 2015 Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake from the joint inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 25 April 2015 earthquake (Mw7.9) struck Nepal near the middle segment of Himalaya. Large earthquakes occurred around this region frequently in history. The rupture process could help us to investigate the characters of the disaster earthquakes. For this event many kinds of observation data could be used to constrain the rupture process. Data of some 1Hz GPS stations of the China Crustal Movement Observation Network were processed by the software GAMIT and we obtained the waveforms of this earthquake. The waveforms of several 5Hz GPS stations near the epicenter were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (http://aria-share.jpl.nasa.gov/events/20150425-Nepal_EQ/GPS/). The ALOS-2 satellite, operated by the Japanese Space Agency, collected a useful of L-band InSAR data and Lindsey et al. determined the coseismic displacement of the line-of-sight (http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal/). We resampled the coseismic displacement of Lindsey et al. to constrain the rupture process. In addition teleseismic broadband body waves, long period surface waves, waveforms of one regional broadband station and one local strong motion station were combined in the joint inversion. The epicenter of United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the mechanism of Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) were applied. The Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured a thrust fault orienting 293o and dipping 7o to the NE, locating near the middle segment of Himalaya. This earthquake was a unilateral event and the rupture of asperity mainly propagates to the southeast, spanning a depth range from 8 km to 18 km. The inverted slip distribution is dominated by a rectangle shape slip patch with the length of ~120km. The weighted rupture velocity is about 2.1 km/s and the total seismic moment is about 8.6x1020 Nm. The imaged fault slip correlates well with the aftershock distribution.

  7. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, J; Bodin, P; Larson, K; Dragert, H

    2004-02-12

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered widespread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable. PMID:14961117

  8. Obstacle crossing in 7-9-year-old children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yu, Wan-Hui; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate obstacle crossing in 7-9-year-old children with Down syndrome (DS). Fifteen children with DS, age- and gender-matched with 15 typically developing (TD) children, were recruited to walk and cross obstacles with heights of 10%, 20% and 30% of their leg lengths. End-point and kinematic variables of obstacle crossing were obtained using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results showed that children with DS tend to adopt a lower speed and larger step width when they perceive instability. Moreover, unlike TD children, children with DS adopt a pelvic strategy (i.e., greater pelvic leading-side listing and forward rotation) to achieve a higher leading toe clearance with a longer step length, presumably for safety reasons. This pelvic strategy increased the frontal plane motion of the whole leg and trunk, and thus possibly stability, during obstacle crossing. However, this strategy may be inefficient. Trailing toe clearance did not differ significantly between two groups. The results of this study suggest that children with DS tend to use inefficient and conservative strategies for obstacle crossing. Knowledge of both end-point and kinematic control of obstacle crossing in children with DS is useful for understanding the mechanisms of obstacle-related falls. Moreover, obstacle crossing can be used as a task-oriented rehabilitation program for children with DS. PMID:26619373

  9. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Larson, K.; Dragert, H.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered wide-spread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable.

  10. The 23 June 2014 Mw 7.9 Rat Islands archipelago, Alaska, intermediate depth earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2014-09-01

    On 23 June 2014, the largest intermediate depth earthquake (Mw 7.9) of the last 100 years ruptured within the subducting Pacific plate about 100 km below the Rat Islands archipelago of the Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The unusual faulting orientation, strike = 206°, dip = 24°, and rake = -14°, is possibly related to curvature of the underthrust slab and high obliquity of the relative plate motions. The first ~15 s of the rupture generated relatively weak seismic waves, followed by strong energy release for the next 25 s. The seismic moment is 1.0 × 1021 Nm, and slip of up to ~10 m is concentrated within a 50 km × 50 km region. The radiated energy is 1.1 to 2.7 × 1016 J, assuming attenuation t* of 0.4 to 0.7 s. This type of intraplate faulting can be very damaging for populated regions above subduction zones such as Japan, Taiwan, Chile, and Indonesia.

  11. Altered expression of Ano1 variants in human diabetic gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Strege, Peter R; Beyder, Arthur; Galietta, Luis J V; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Rae, James L; Parkman, Henry P; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Ördög, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2011-04-15

    Diabetes affects many organs including the stomach. Altered number and function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, underlie a number of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including diabetic gastroparesis. In the muscle layers, ICC selectively express Ano1, thought to underlie classical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Mice homozygous for Ano1 knock-out exhibit abnormal ICC function and motility. Several transcripts for Ano1 are generated by alternative splicing of four exons. Here, we report expression levels of transcripts encoded by alternative splicing of Ano1 gene in gastric muscles of patients with diabetic gastroparesis and nondiabetic control tissues. Expression of mRNA from two alternatively transcribed exons are significantly different between patients and controls. Furthermore, patients with diabetic gastroparesis express mRNA for a previously unknown variant of Ano1. The 5' end of this novel variant lacks exons 1 and 2 and part of exon 3. Expression of this variant in HEK cells produces a decreased density of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents that exhibit slower kinetics compared with the full-length Ano1. These results identify important changes in expression and splicing of Ano1 in patients with diabetic gastroparesis that alter the electrophysiological properties of the channel. Changes in Ano1 expression in ICC may directly contribute to diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:21349842

  12. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  13. Spectral-element simulations of the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Morency, C.; Peter, D. B.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Mw~7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May, 2008, is one of the largest and most devastating earthquakes in China in recent years. This earthquake occurred on the Longmenshan fault, ruptured nearly 300~km in a northeasterly direction, and caused serious damage in Sichuan province. In this area, there are strong topographic variations between the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and the Sichuan basin. In order to investigate strong ground motions associated with this event, we have to take realistic topography into account. Combining the flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy of a spectral method, the spectral- element method (SEM) lends itself very well to such problems by naturally accounting for an undulating free surface. A new SEM solver (SESAME, geodynamics.org) that accommodates unstructured meshes, such as those generated by CUBIT (Sandia National Laboratory), is used to study (an-)elastic wave propagation and peak ground acceleration (PGA) for this event. We compare the simulation results by using two classes of topography data: A 90~m digital elevation model (DEM) from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and a 30~m global digital elevation model (GDEM) from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Several kinematic finite-fault models based on teleseismic data are investigated in this study. The simulation based upon the higher resolution topography gives a clearer image of wave scattering and PGA distributions. The largest ground acceleration is concentrated on mountain ridges, while relatively smaller motion is observed in valleys and slopes. Comparing our simulated PGA patterns with ASTER images taken before and after the earthquake from NASA's Terra satellite, ground shaking may help explain the locations of landslides.

  14. Stress evolution and fault interactions before and after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Liu, M.

    2008-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) ruptured more than 300 km of the Longmen Shan fault, killing ~90,000 people and devastating many cities in the Sichuan province, China. Here we explore stress evolution and fault interactions before and after the Wenchuan earthquake in eastern Tibetan Plateau and western Sichuan, where the Indo-Asian collision is accommodated by a number of major fault systems including the Longman Shan fault. Using a 3-D viscoelasto-plastic finite element model loaded by the observed crustal motion on the boundaries and by the topographic changes, we derived a steady state regional stress field, and then calculated coseismic and postseismic Coulomb stress changes associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. Model results show ~0.1-0.4 bar increase of the Coulomb stress on the eastern Xianshuihe fault and eastern Kunlun Fault, and ~1-10 bar increase on the southern segment of the Longmen Shan fault. We also calculated the Coulomb stress change from numerous large historic earthquakes in the region since 1893. The collective effects of these events differ significantly from that due to the Wenchuan earthquake alone - they show more stress increase on the eastern Kunlun Fault, the southern Longmen Shan fault, and the Anninghe fault, but considerable stress decrease on the eastern Xianshuihe fault. Finally, we explored the dynamic interactions among the faults and found that interseismic locking on the Xianshuihe fault can increase Coulomb stress on the Longmen Shan fault at a rate up to ~50 Pa/yr. The Xianshuihe fault has been locked since 1981, which may have added ~0.01 bar on the Longmen Shan fault by 2008.

  15. Ground Motion in Lima: Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007 (Mw7.9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, I.; Tavera, H.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 of August of 2007 at 06h 40min, local time, the central region of Peru was shooked by an earthquake magnitude Mw=7.9 with epicenter at 13.49°S and -76.85°W; this is, 74 km west of the city of Pisco. The earthquake was recorded by a total of fourteen accelerometers that operate in the city of Lima which show clearly the development of a complex process of rupture formed by two sources (R1 and R2) separated by 60-70 seconds. Maximum acceleration registered in the city of Lima was of 115.2 cm/seg² (0.12g) in the Urb. The Rinconada of the district the Molina located 155 km northwest from the epicenter. The periods associated to the maximum spectral acceleration appear to be between 0.1 to 0.4s in RIN and MOL, both located in the La Molina District; for ANC, CSM, MAY located in the Ancon, Rímac and Ate Vitarte district, are within the range of 0.1-0.6s; for CER, ANR, PUCP, CLD-CIP located in the San Borja, Santiago de Surco, San Miguel and San Isidro district the range is of 0.1-1.2s, and for CAL in Callao it is of 0.1-1.6s. The predominant periods have values close to 0.1s in the Molina and San Miguel distric, of 0.2s in Ate Vitarte and Rimac, of 0.3s in the Molina, Rimac, Ate Vitarte and Ancon, and of 0.5s in Santiago de Surco disctrict. In the Molina district, two acelerometric stations are located at less than 2 km away from each other, and present predominant periods next to 0.1s and 0.3s, which implies a strong variation of the physical properties of the ground at short distances. Shear wave velocity estimates, using the unidimensional method at stations MOL, MAY and ANC, give values of 80 m/s (with thicknesses less than 2 m), 200 m/s (with thicknesses less than 9 m) and of 690 m/s for the halfspace, values that suggest a compacted ground with respect to the rest of stations. Stations CAL and RIN show velocities of 60 of m/s (with thicknesses of 11 and 3 m respectively), a second layer of 140 m/s (with thicknesses of 12 and 7 m) over a halfspace of 450 m

  16. The Application of InSAR to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Kuo, Y.; Suppe, J. E.; Chen, Y.; Hu, J.

    2008-12-01

    On 12 May 2008 a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred near Wenchuan in Sichuan Province, China. More than 69,000 people were killed and over 4.8 million became homeless. Based on initial seismological reports, the earthquake was generated by slip one or more thrust faults within the Longmen Shan mountain belt, where oblique crustal shortening is taking place the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. In initial results, we are studying the displacements using in SAR techniques on several data types. One descending ASAR image before the earthquake and two after acquired by the satellite ENVISAT, European Space Agency, we are able to obtain two coseismic and one postseismic interferograms. Because of temporal decorrelation, large baseline for each coseismic pair, denser vegetation, and steep relief, it is lacking of reliable phase information on the Longmen Shan mountain belt, which is regarded as the hanging wall of this thrust event. To its east in the Sichuan basin, more than 50 cm subsidence in the direction of line of sight can be observed coseismically. This observed coseismic deformation in the footwall clearly appears as half-circular fringes. Its western boundary enable us to identify the surface rupture that is roughly located along the previously reported Beichuan fault. The postseismic interferogram shows phase differences between two acquisitions, one month after the main shock (16 June - 21 July). Phase signals could be investigated in both of the Longmen Shan mountain belt and the Sichuan Basin with rather small phase differences. However, this task is significantly perturbed by orbit errors and atmospheric effects; therefore, not much information of the surface displacement can be reliably retrieved. In the future we will add one more orbit located in further northeastern Longmen Shan to completely trace the NE-SW surface ruptures of the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the combined result from InSAR and sub-pixel comparison technique can further allow us

  17. Viscoelastic Postseismic Deformation Following the 2002 Mw7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Burgmann, R.; Freymueller, J.; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2002 Mw7.9 Denali earthquake ruptured over 350 km with coseismic slip of up to ~10 m. Stress-driven relaxation of the upper mantle and afterslip of the fault cause postseismic crustal deformation that has been recorded at GPS stations. We analyze the time series of seven continuous and more than 150 campaign-mode GPS stations. We calculate the cumulative postseismic displacements in every three-year time window since 2003. The obtained postseismic displacements in a similar direction as the coseismic motions are up to ~15 cm in 2003 - 2006 and decrease with time to less than 5 cm in 2012 - 2015. The significant postseismic deformation provides a unique opportunity to better constrain the viscosity structure in the continental upper mantle in central Alaska and to test the contribution of afterslip following the earthquake. We have developed three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element models of the Denali earthquake to study these problems. The model includes an elastic lithosphere and a viscoelastic upper mantle. We assume that the upper mantle is characterized by a bi-viscous Burgers rheology. For simplicity, we assume that the transient Kelvin viscosity is one order of magnitude lower than that of the steady-state Maxwell viscosity. The stress-driven, time-dependent afterslip of the fault is modeled by a 2-km thick weak shear zone. Locked portions of the fault, that is, where no afterslip is allowed, are assumed to be outlined by the 5-m coseismic contours. Our preliminary model indicates that areas within ~100 km to the fault are controlled mainly by the afterslip, and the far-field is controlled mainly by the viscoelastic relaxation of the upper mantle. The modeled afterslip is up to more than 1 m in the first three years after the earthquake. The stead-state viscosity of the upper mantle between the Denali fault and the trench is determined to be on the order of 8 × 1018 Pa s. The viscosity of the upper mantle north of the fault has to be at least one

  18. Microsphere Bead Arrays and Sequence Validation of 5/7/9T Genotypes for Multiplex Screening of Cystic Fibrosis Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hadd, Andrew G.; Laosinchai-Wolf, Walairat; Novak, Chris R.; Badgett, Marty R.; Isgur, Lesley A.; Goldrick, Marianna; WalkerPeach, Cindy R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of simple and rapid methods for the detection of the common genetic mutations associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) requires access to positive-control samples including the 5/7/9T variants of intron 8. We used PCR and a simple multiplex bead-array assay to identify 5/7/9T control samples from 29 commercially available DNA samples. Unpurified PCR products were directly hybridized to color-coded beads containing allele-specific capture probes for 5/7/9T detection. The performance of the assay was investigated using reverse-complement oligonucleotides, individual PCR products, and multiplex PCR products for 5/7/9T detection within a complex CFTR screening assay. Samples were genotyped by grouping the relative signal intensities from each capture probe. Of 29 commercially available DNA samples analyzed, 2 5T/7T, 2 5T/9T, 9 7T/9T, 11 7T/7T, and 5 9T/9T genotypes were identified. The genotype within each sample group was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The assay was compatible with the analysis of 10 to 1000 ng of genomic DNA isolated from whole blood and allowed for the separate identification of primary CFTR mutations from reflex variants. The correct identification of positive controls demonstrated the utility of a simple bead-array assay and provided accessible samples for assay optimization and for routine quality control in the clinical laboratory. PMID:15507674

  19. Math Trivial Pursuit, Junior High Level. A Good Apple Math Activity Book for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Pat

    The purpose of this game, intended for grades 7-9, is to enable students to have fun and enjoy mathematics while learning and reinforcing: (1) mathematical concepts and applications; (2) mathematical computations; (3) geometry; and (4) mathematics for daily living. A gameboard and 232 question/answer cards are provided. Rules for play are…

  20. Santa Clara County Survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Norm; And Others

    This report presents findings from the Santa Clara County (California) survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 administered during the spring of 1991 to 5,180 students in 51 randomly selected county schools. An executive summary discusses sampling error, sample demographics, and findings on drug use…

  1. ISL-1 promotes pancreatic islet cell proliferation by forming an ISL-1/Set7/9/PDX-1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Qiao; Lu, Qin; Jia, Zhuqing; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Wang, Weiping; Zhou, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Islet-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been recently found to be essential for promoting postnatal pancreatic islet proliferation. However, the detailed mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which ISL-1 promotes β-cell proliferation through regulation of CyclinD1 in HIT-T15 and NIT-1 cells, as well in rat islet mass. Our results provide the evidence that ISL-1 promotes adult pancreatic islet β-cell proliferation by activating CyclinD1 transcription through cooperation with Set7/9 and PDX-1 to form an ISL-1/Set7/9/PDX-1 complex. This complex functions in an ISL-1-dependent manner, with Set7/9 functioning not only as a histone methyltransferase, which increases the histone H3K4 tri-methylation of the CyclinD1 promoter region, but also an adaptor to bridge ISL-1 and PDX-1, while PDX-1 functions as a RNA pol II binding modulator. Furthermore, the formation of the ISL-1/Set7/9/PDX-1 complex is positively associated with insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment in NIT and HIT-T15 cells in vitro, while may be negatively correlated with age in vivo. PMID:26176407

  2. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-9. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into five sections: bandaging skills, control of bleeding, conditions caused by extremes in temperatures, foreign substances in body openings, and other common emergencies. The publication format of four columns…

  3. Suggestions for Curriculum Development [And] Handbook, Part C, 7-9. Environmental Education Interdependence: A Concept Approach. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Stillman, Peter R.

    Two booklets, a guide and a handbook, comprise the grades 7-9 component of a series of guides for incorporating environmental education into the existing curriculum. The materials emphasize a multidisciplinary approach, use the concept of interdependence as an organizing theme, and offer suggestions for using the local community as a resource.…

  4. Lower School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 7-9 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This guide is a collection of ideas for mathematics activities which were assembled and tested by primary teachers. Activities are correlated to a mathematics curriculum for ages 7-9 years. The activities supplement the teaching of basic numeracy and include topics such as the language of mathematics, matching numbers, tracing the numbers, number…

  5. Predictive Role of Physical Education Motivation: The Developmental Trajectories of Physical Activity during Grades 7-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Leskinen, Esko; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined adolescents' physical activity (PA) stability as well as individual differences in PA across grades 7-9. In addition, we tested the predictive role of adolescents' self-determination and goal orientations in physical education at grade 6 in relation to their PA development. Adolescents' (N = 812) self-reported PA was…

  6. Steric structure-activity relationship of cyproheptadine derivatives as inhibitors of histone methyltransferase Set7/9.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Ohira, Kasumi; Urushibara, Ko; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Kanai, Misae; Tanatani, Aya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Tomoya

    2016-09-15

    Set7/9 is a histone lysine methyltransferase, but it is also thought to be involved in a wide variety of pathophysiological functions. We previously identified cyproheptadine, which has a characteristic butterfly-like molecular conformation with bent tricyclic dibenzosuberene and chair-form N-methylpiperidine moieties, as a Set7/9 inhibitor. In this work, we synthesized several derivatives in order to examine the steric structure-inhibitory activity relationship. We found that even a small change of molecular shape due to reduction or replacement of the 10,11-olefinic bond of the tricyclic ring generally resulted in a drastic decrease of the inhibitory activity. Our results should be useful not only for development of more potent and selective inhibitors, but also for the construction of novel inhibitor scaffolds. PMID:27448773

  7. Chemistry of enol ethers. LXXII. 1,10-bisindolenine-substituted 1,3,5,7,9-decapentaenes

    SciTech Connect

    Makin, S.M.; Dymshakova, G.M.; Granenkina, L.S.

    1986-07-10

    5,8-Dimethoxy-2E,6E,10E-dodecatriendial was obtained by the reaction of 1,1,4,4-tetramethoxy-2-butene with 1-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-diene. The condensation of a series of C/sub 8/ and C/sub 12/ polyene dialdehydes and their derivatives with the quaternary salts of 1,2,3,3-tetramethylindoleninium and 1,2,3,3-tetramethyl-4,5-benzindoleninium was investigated. 2,2'-(1,3,5,7,9-Decapentaene-1,10-diyl)bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoleninium) and 2,2'-(1,3,5,7,9-decapentaene-1,10-diyl)bis(1,3,3-trimethyl-4,5-benzindoleninium) salts were synthesized.

  8. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Two Volcanoes in Alaska Following the Mw7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Moran, S. C.; Power, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Mw7.9 Denali Fault earthquake provided an opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors 24 volcanoes with seismic networks. We examined one station for each volcano, generally the closest (typically 5 km from the vent) unless noise, site response, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally bandpass filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to reduce noise from microseisms and wind. Data for the period three days before to three days after the Mw7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Shishaldin volcano, which has a background rate of several hundred seismic events per day on station SSLS, showed no change from before to after the earthquake. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of several dozen seismic events per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity at the time of the earthquake by a factor of 2.5; this lasted for 15 days. We tested this result using a different station, VNSS, and a different method of counting (non-filtered data on helicorder records) and found the same result. We infer that Veniaminof's activity was modified by the Mw7.9 earthquake. Wrangell, the closest volcano, had a background rate of about 10 events per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 8 days after the Mw7.9 earthquake because the large number of aftershocks precluded identification of local seismicity. For the following eight days, however, its seismicity rate was 30 percent lower than before. While subtle, we infer that this may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms7.1 St. Elias earthquake of 1979. The other 21 volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity from 3 days before to 3 days after the Mw7.9 event. We conclude that intermediate

  9. Role of LuxIR Homologue AnoIR in Acinetobacter nosocomialis and the Effect of Virstatin on the Expression of anoR Gene.

    PubMed

    Oh, Man Hwan; Choi, Chul Hee

    2015-08-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication in which bacteria produce autoinducers as signaling molecules to sense cell density and coordinate gene expression. In the present study, a LuxI-type synthase, AnoI, and a LuxR-type regulator, AnoR, were identified in Acinetobacter nosocomialis, an important nosocomial pathogen, by sequence analysis of the bacterial genome. We found that N-(3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OH-dDHL) is a quorum-sensing signal in A. nosocomialis. The anoI gene deletion was responsible for the impairment in the production of OH-dDHL. The expression of anoI was almost abolished in the anoR mutant. These results indicate that AnoI is essential for the production of OH-dDHL in A. nosocomialis, and its expression is positively regulated by AnoR. Moreover, the anoR mutant exhibited deficiency in biofilm formation. In particular, motility of the anoR mutant was consistently and significantly abolished compared with that of the wild type. The deficiency in the biofilm formation and motility of the anoR mutant was significantly restored by a functional anoR , indicating that AnoR plays important roles in the biofilm formation and motility. Furthermore, the present study showed that virstatin exerts its effects on the reduction of biofilm formation and motility by inhibiting the expression of anoR . Consequently, the combined results suggest that AnoIR is a quorum-sensing system that plays important roles in the biofilm formation and motility of A. nosocomialis, and virstatin is an inhibitor of the expression of anoR. PMID:25975610

  10. Functions of Discourse Markers "Ano and Sono" in Written Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    Through examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese, this paper explores how these linguistic devices function differently in conversation. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions through which a speaker attempts to achieve an interpersonal rapport with a listener. In particular, the question addresses…

  11. Is modern management of fistula-in-ano acceptable?

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Frances; Gilbert, Timothy; Skaife, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Fistula-in-ano has been managed by a number of techniques and there remains no consensus on the most appropriate management for all patients. The mainstay of any treatment balances the need to control sepsis vs the risk of potential incontinence post-intervention. Management should focus on the primary source of sepsis. PMID:27388377

  12. Nozzle design study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet-powered vehicle at Mach 7.9 flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, Katsuyoshi; Mee, David J.; Stalker, Raymond J.; Jacobs, Peter A.

    2013-09-01

    A nozzle shape optimization study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet has been performed for a Mach 7.9 operating condition with hydrogen fuel, aiming at the application of a hypersonic airbreathing vehicle. In this study, the nozzle geometry which is parameterized by a set of design variables, is optimized for the single objective of maximum net thrust using an in-house CFD solver for inviscid flowfields with a simple force prediction methodology. The combustion is modelled using a simple chemical reaction code. The effects of the nozzle design on the overall vehicle performance are discussed. For the present geometry, net thrust is achieved for the optimized vehicle design. The results of the nozzle-optimization study show that performance is limited by the nozzle area ratio that can be incorporated into the vehicle without leading to too large a base diameter of the vehicle and increasing the external drag of the vehicle. This study indicates that it is very difficult to achieve positive thrust at Mach 7.9 using the basic geometry investigated.

  13. Charge-exchange EUV spectroscopy in collisions of Xe{sup q+} (q=7-9) with rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.

    2011-10-15

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission spectra have been measured in charge exchange collisions between Xe{sup q+} (q=7--9) and rare gases at an energy of 20 q keV. We have observed 4, 22, and 39 lines in collisions of Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, and Xe{sup 9+}. Of these emission lines, four lines of Xe vii, eight lines of Xe viii, and nine lines of Xe ix correspond to newly observed transitions. The identification procedure is described in detail. The aim of this work is to obtain spectroscopic data for multiply charged Xe ions. In addition, the electron capture mechanism is also discussed using the crude classical over-the-barrier model to understand the target dependence of the emission spectra.

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.9 - What are some reasons that would justify the additional storage beyond the initial 90-day limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.9 What are some reasons that would justify... under construction; (d) Serious illness of employee or illness or death of a dependent; (e)...

  15. Transcriptional activity of the islet β cell factor Pdx1 is augmented by lysine methylation catalyzed by the methyltransferase Set7/9.

    PubMed

    Maganti, Aarthi V; Maier, Bernhard; Tersey, Sarah A; Sampley, Megan L; Mosley, Amber L; Özcan, Sabire; Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Woster, Patrick M; Hunter, Chad S; Stein, Roland; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

    2015-04-10

    The transcription factor Pdx1 is crucial to islet β cell function and regulates target genes in part through interaction with coregulatory factors. Set7/9 is a Lys methyltransferase that interacts with Pdx1. Here we tested the hypothesis that Lys methylation of Pdx1 by Set7/9 augments Pdx1 transcriptional activity. Using mass spectrometry and mutational analysis of purified proteins, we found that Set7/9 methylates the N-terminal residues Lys-123 and Lys-131 of Pdx1. Methylation of these residues occurred only in the context of intact, full-length Pdx1, suggesting a specific requirement of secondary and/or tertiary structural elements for catalysis by Set7/9. Immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometric analysis using β cells verified Lys methylation of endogenous Pdx1. Cell-based luciferase reporter assays using wild-type and mutant transgenes revealed a requirement of Pdx1 residue Lys-131, but not Lys-123, for transcriptional augmentation by Set7/9. Lys-131 was not required for high-affinity interactions with DNA in vitro, suggesting that its methylation likely enhances post-DNA binding events. To define the role of Set7/9 in β cell function, we generated mutant mice in which the gene encoding Set7/9 was conditionally deleted in β cells (Set(Δ)β). Set(Δ)β mice exhibited glucose intolerance similar to Pdx1-deficient mice, and their isolated islets showed impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with reductions in expression of Pdx1 target genes. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for Set7/9-mediated methylation in the maintenance of Pdx1 activity and β cell function. PMID:25713082

  16. Transcriptional Activity of the Islet β Cell Factor Pdx1 Is Augmented by Lysine Methylation Catalyzed by the Methyltransferase Set7/9*

    PubMed Central

    Maganti, Aarthi V.; Maier, Bernhard; Tersey, Sarah A.; Sampley, Megan L.; Mosley, Amber L.; Özcan, Sabire; Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Woster, Patrick M.; Hunter, Chad S.; Stein, Roland; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Pdx1 is crucial to islet β cell function and regulates target genes in part through interaction with coregulatory factors. Set7/9 is a Lys methyltransferase that interacts with Pdx1. Here we tested the hypothesis that Lys methylation of Pdx1 by Set7/9 augments Pdx1 transcriptional activity. Using mass spectrometry and mutational analysis of purified proteins, we found that Set7/9 methylates the N-terminal residues Lys-123 and Lys-131 of Pdx1. Methylation of these residues occurred only in the context of intact, full-length Pdx1, suggesting a specific requirement of secondary and/or tertiary structural elements for catalysis by Set7/9. Immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometric analysis using β cells verified Lys methylation of endogenous Pdx1. Cell-based luciferase reporter assays using wild-type and mutant transgenes revealed a requirement of Pdx1 residue Lys-131, but not Lys-123, for transcriptional augmentation by Set7/9. Lys-131 was not required for high-affinity interactions with DNA in vitro, suggesting that its methylation likely enhances post-DNA binding events. To define the role of Set7/9 in β cell function, we generated mutant mice in which the gene encoding Set7/9 was conditionally deleted in β cells (SetΔβ). SetΔβ mice exhibited glucose intolerance similar to Pdx1-deficient mice, and their isolated islets showed impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with reductions in expression of Pdx1 target genes. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for Set7/9-mediated methylation in the maintenance of Pdx1 activity and β cell function. PMID:25713082

  17. Identification and characterization of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunxiang; Cai, Sanjun; Wang, Xishan; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The precise role and potential underlying mechanisms of anoctamin 9 (ANO9) remain largely unknown. This study aims to characterize the role and oncogenic mechanisms of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We examined the expression of ANO9 in colorectal cancerous tissues and cells using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and invasion assay were also performed to explore its oncogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, the clinical significance of ANO9 in clinical CRC specimens was assessed by clinical correlation and survival analyses. Results: Lower expression of ANO9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. Compared with matched nontumorous tissues, lower expression of ANO9 protein was observed in tumors, which was significantly correlated with tumorigenesis (p < 0.05). In vitro functional studies showed that ANO9 contributed to tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Moreover, investigation of clinical CRC specimens showed that ANO9 were markedly overexpressed in metastatic tissue compared with primary tissue. Decreased expression of ANO9 was correlated with poor prognostic outcomes. Conclusions: This study highlighted the role of ANO9 in progression and metastasis of stage II and III CRC. These findings suggested that up-regulation of ANO9, as a metastasis-related gene, could be a novel approach for inhibiting CRC progression. PMID:26317553

  18. Set7/9, a methyltransferase, regulates the thermogenic program during brown adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of p53 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Park, Anna; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Baek Soo; Kim, Il Chul; Chi, Seung-Wook; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-08-15

    Brown adipose tissue, which is mainly composed of brown adipocytes, plays a key role in the regulation of energy balance via dissipation of extra energy as heat, and consequently counteracts obesity and its associated-disorders. Therefore, brown adipocyte differentiation should be tightly controlled at the multiple regulation steps. Among these, the regulation at the level of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in the expression level of the enzymes involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation by using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) array analysis. Several enzymes showing differential expression patterns were identified. In particular, the expression level of methyltransferase Set7/9 was dramatically repressed during brown adipocyte differentiation. Although there was no significant change in lipid accumulation, ectopic expression of Set7/9 led to enhanced expression of several key thermogenic genes, such as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), Cidea, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16). In contrast, knockdown of endogenous Set7/9 led to significantly reduced expression of these thermogenic genes. Furthermore, suppressed mitochondrial DNA content and decreased oxygen consumption rate were also detected upon Set7/9 knockdown. We found that p53 acetylation was regulated by Set7/9-dependent interaction with Sirt1. Based on these results, we suggest that Set7/9 acts as a fine regulator of the thermogenic program during brown adipocyte differentiation by regulation of p53 acetylation. Thus, Set7/9 could be used as a valuable target for regulating thermogenic capacity and consequently to overcome obesity and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:27132805

  19. SET7/9 Catalytic Mutants Reveal the Role of Active Site Water Molecules in Lysine Multiple Methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Del Rizzo, Paul A.; Couture, Jean-François; Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Strunk, Bethany S.; Roiko, Marijo S.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Houtz, Robert L.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-11-15

    SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) methylate specific lysine residues in histone and non-histone substrates. These enzymes also display product specificity by catalyzing distinct degrees of methylation of the lysine {epsilon}-amino group. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this specificity, we have characterized the Y245A and Y305F mutants of the human KMT SET7/9 (also known as KMT7) that alter its product specificity from a monomethyltransferase to a di- and a trimethyltransferase, respectively. Crystal structures of these mutants in complex with peptides bearing unmodified, mono-, di-, and trimethylated lysines illustrate the roles of active site water molecules in aligning the lysine {epsilon}-amino group for methyl transfer with S-adenosylmethionine. Displacement or dissociation of these solvent molecules enlarges the diameter of the active site, accommodating the increasing size of the methylated {epsilon}-amino group during successive methyl transfer reactions. Together, these results furnish new insights into the roles of active site water molecules in modulating lysine multiple methylation by SET domain KMTs and provide the first molecular snapshots of the mono-, di-, and trimethyl transfer reactions catalyzed by these enzymes.

  20. Lysine Methyltransferase SETD7 (SET7/9) Regulates ROS Signaling through mitochondria and NFE2L2/ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuying; Owen, Dafydd R.; Jelinsky, Scott A.; Lin, Lih-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis requires stringent regulation. ROS imbalance, especially ROS accumulation, has profound implications in various disease pathogenesis. Lysine methylation of histone and non-histone proteins has been implicated in various cellular responses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase SETD7 (SET7/9) in the regulation of ROS-mediated signaling. Here we report that inhibition of SETD7 with siRNA or a SETD7 small molecule inhibitor in both macrophages and a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) were able to counter NF-ĸB-induced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Meanwhile, inhibition of SETD7 elevates mitochondria antioxidant functions via negative regulation of PPARGC1A and NFE2L2. Using a co-expression system and purified proteins, we detected direct interaction between SETD7 and NFE2L2. These results indicate that lysine methylation by SETD7 is important for the fine-tuning of ROS signaling through its regulation on pro-inflammatory responses, mitochondrial function and the NFE2L2/ARE pathway. Up-regulation of multiple antioxidant genes and improved ROS clearance by inhibition of SETD7 suggests the potential benefit of targeting SETD7 in treating ROS-associated diseases. PMID:26435321

  1. Sub-ionospheric very low frequency perturbations associated with the 12 May 2008 M = 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, A. K.; Singh, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports the VLF (very low frequency) sub-ionospheric perturbations observed on transmitter JJI (22.1 kHz), Japan, received at the Indian low-latitude station, Allahabad ( geographic lat. 25.41° N, long 81.93° E), due to Wenchuan earthquake (EQ) that occurred on 12 May 2008 with the magnitude 7.9 and at the depth of 19 km in Sichuan province of Southwest China, located at 31.0° N, 103.4° E. The nighttime amplitude fluctuation analysis gives a significant increase in fluctuation and dispersion two days before EQ, when it crosses 2σ criterion. However, there was no significant change observed in the amplitude trend. The diurnal amplitude variation shows a significant increase in the amplitude of JJI signal on 11 and 12 May 2008. The gravity wave channel and changes in the electric field associated with this EQ seem to be the potential factors of the observed nighttime amplitude fluctuation, dispersion, and significant increase in the signal strength.

  2. Interaction among controlling factors for landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lingling; Xu, Chong; Liu, Lianyou

    2016-06-01

    The 12 May 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake triggered about 200,000 landslides, which were controlled by a number of factors. This study examines five factors: slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, peak ground acceleration (PGA), and fault side (relative position on the seismogenic fault, i.e., hanging wall or footwall), to determine how these factors control the co-seismic landslide occurrence and whether one or more factors, acting alone or in concert, are involved in promoting or suppressing landslides. We performed a multi-factor statistical analysis using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The results show that in the areas characterized by steep topography or where strong ground shaking occurred during the earthquake, there is a closer relationship between slope aspect and landslide number density (LND) than other areas. The relationship between lithology and LND values depends on PGA. In turn, the relationship between LND values and PGA is also influenced by lithology. In addition, the controlling effect of lithology on co-seismic landslides on the hanging wall of the seismogenic fault is greater than that on the footwall. Examining interactions among these factors can improve understanding of the mechanisms of co-seismic landslide occurrence.

  3. Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chaoyong; Yang, Jiansi; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    More and more earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are developed or currently being tested in many active seismic regions of the world. A well-known problem with real-time procedures is the parameter saturation, which may lead to magnitude underestimation for large earthquakes. In this paper, the method used to the MW9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is explored with strong-motion records of the MW7.9, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We measure two early warning parameters by progressively expanding the P-wave time window (PTW) and distance range, to provide early magnitude estimates and a rapid prediction of the potential damage area. This information would have been available 40 s after the earthquake origin time and could have been refined in the successive 20 s using data from more distant stations. We show the suitability of the existing regression relationships between early warning parameters and magnitude, provided that an appropriate PTW is used for parameter estimation. The reason for the magnitude underestimation is in part a combined effect of high-pass filtering and frequency dependence of the main radiating source during the rupture process. Finally we suggest only using Pd alone for magnitude estimation because of its slight magnitude saturation compared to the τc magnitude. PMID:25346344

  4. Large rock avalanches triggered by the M 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Harp, E.L.; Schulz, W.; Keefer, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The moment magnitude (M) 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 triggered thousands of landslides, primarily rock falls and rock slides, that ranged in volume from rock falls of a few cubic meters to rock avalanches having volumes as great as 20 ?? 106 m3. The pattern of landsliding was unusual: the number and concentration of triggered slides was much less than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude, and the landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone about 30-km wide that straddled the fault-rupture zone over its entire 300-km length. Despite the overall sparse landslide concentration, the earthquake triggered several large rock avalanches that clustered along the western third of the rupture zone where acceleration levels and ground-shaking frequencies are thought to have been the highest. Inferences about near-field strong-shaking characteristics drawn from interpretation of the landslide distribution are strikingly consistent with results of recent inversion modeling that indicate that high-frequency energy generation was greatest in the western part of the fault-rupture zone and decreased markedly to the east. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chaoyong; Yang, Jiansi; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    More and more earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are developed or currently being tested in many active seismic regions of the world. A well-known problem with real-time procedures is the parameter saturation, which may lead to magnitude underestimation for large earthquakes. In this paper, the method used to the MW9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is explored with strong-motion records of the MW7.9, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We measure two early warning parameters by progressively expanding the P-wave time window (PTW) and distance range, to provide early magnitude estimates and a rapid prediction of the potential damage area. This information would have been available 40 s after the earthquake origin time and could have been refined in the successive 20 s using data from more distant stations. We show the suitability of the existing regression relationships between early warning parameters and magnitude, provided that an appropriate PTW is used for parameter estimation. The reason for the magnitude underestimation is in part a combined effect of high-pass filtering and frequency dependence of the main radiating source during the rupture process. Finally we suggest only using Pd alone for magnitude estimation because of its slight magnitude saturation compared to the τc magnitude. PMID:25346344

  6. Rupture process of the Mw = 7.9 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Nepal): Insights into Himalayan megathrust segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Raphaël.; Vallée, Martin; Satriano, Claudio; Lacassin, Robin; Klinger, Yann; Simoes, Martine; Bollinger, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw = 7.9) using a kinematic joint inversion of teleseismic waves, strong motion data, high-rate GPS, static GPS, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The rupture is found to be simple in terms of coseismic slip and even more in terms of rupture velocity, as both inversion results and a complementing back projection analysis show that the main slip patch broke unilaterally at a steady velocity of 3.1-3.3 km/s. This feature likely contributes to the moderate peak ground acceleration (0.2 g) observed in Kathmandu. The ~15 km deep rupture occurs along the base of the coupled portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust and does not break the area ranging from Kathmandu to the front. The limitation in length and width of the rupture cannot be identified in the preearthquake interseismic coupling distribution and is therefore discussed in light of the structural architecture of the megathrust.

  7. Rupture process of the Mw7.9 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Nepal): insights into Himalayan megathrust segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Raphaël; Vallée, Martin; Satriano, Claudio; Lacassin, Robin; Klinger, Yann; Simoes, Martine; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw7.9) using a kinematic joint inversion of teleseismic waves, strong-motion data, high-rate GPS, static GPS and SAR data. The rupture is found to be simple in terms of coseismic slip and even more in terms of rupture velocity, as both inversion results and a complementing back projection analysis show that the main slip patch broke unilaterally at a steady velocity of 3.1-3.3km/s. This feature likely contributes to the moderate peak ground acceleration (0.2g) observed in Kathmandu. The ~15km deep rupture occurs along the base of the coupled portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust, and does not break the area ranging from Kathmandu to the front. The limitation in length and width of the rupture cannot be identified in the pre-earthquake interseismic coupling distribution, and is therefore discussed in light of the structural architecture of the megathrust.

  8. Coseismic and Postseismic motion of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake from InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yangmao; Xu, Caijun; Li, Zhenhong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Wanpeng; Shan, Xinjian

    2014-05-01

    On 12 May 2008, a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred on the Longmen Shan fault system at the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau near Wenchuan City. In this paper, we generated a precise coseismic displacement map covering the epicenter of this large event from L-band ALOS PALSAR imagery by identifying and excluding ALOS interferograms with obvious ionospheric perturbations. Combined with GPS-derived coseismic displacements, a joint model taking into account both coseismic and postseismc motion was constructed to investigate the cosesimic slip distribution of the Wenchuan earthquake and the viscous structure in the Longmenshan region. Our best model suggests this large earthquake was associated with a very complex fault rupture. The slips of Hongkou, Yuejiashan, Beichuan and Hanwang segments were dominated by thrust movements and the Qingchuan segment experienced a dominant right-lateral strike slip. Major slip occurred mainly at the depth of less than 10 km, with a maximum slip of 10.6 m on the northeastern part of the Hongkou segment. Our estimated geodetic moment was approximately 9.30×10 ^ 20 N m (Mw 7.92), which is consistent with previous seismological results. The midcrust to lower crustal viscosity derived from the joint model in a Maxwell half-space was 3×10 ^ 17 Pa s, which places a strong low bound on the viscosity in the Longmenshan region. It is believed that postseismic motion time series results covering a longer time span might have the potential to improve this constraint.

  9. Landslides and liquefaction triggered by the M 7.9 denali fault earthquake of 3 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Jibson, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Sherrod, B.L.; Carver, G.A.; Collins, B.D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Sitar, N.

    2003-01-01

    The moment magnitude (M) 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake in Alaska of 3 November 2002 triggered an unusual pattern of landslides and liquefaction effects. The landslides were primarily rock falls and rock slides that ranged in volume from a few cubic meters to the 40 million-cubic-meter rock avalanche that covered much of the McGinnis Glacier. Landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone ???30 km wide that straddled the fault rupture zone over its entire 300 km length. Large rock avalanches all clustered at the western end of the rupture zone where acceleration levels are reported to have been the highest. Liquefaction effects, consisting of sand blows, lateral spreads, and settlement, were widespread within susceptible alluvial deposits extending from Fairbanks eastward several hundred kilometers. The liquefaction effects displayed a pattern of increasing concentration and severity from west to east and extended well beyond the zone of landslides, which is unusual. The contrasting patterns formed by the distributions of landslides and liquefaction effects initially seemed to be inconsistent; however, preliminary analyses of strong-motion records from the earthquake offer a possible explanation for the unusual ground-failure patterns that are related to three subevents that have been discerned from the earthquake records.

  10. Lyα and CIII] Emission in z = 7 - 9 Galaxies: Accelerated Reionization Around Luminous Star Forming Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Charlot, Stéphane; Chevallard, Jacopo; Tang, Mengtao; Belli, Sirio; Zitrin, Adi; Mainali, Ramesh; Gutkin, Julia; Vidal-García, Alba; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    We discuss new Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of four luminous galaxies at z ≃ 7 - 9 selected to have intense optical line emission by Roberts-Borsani et al. (2016). Previous follow-up has revealed Lyα in two of the four galaxies. Our new MOSFIRE observations confirm that Lyα is present in the entire sample. We detect Lyα emission in the galaxy COS-zs7-1, confirming its redshift as zLyα = 7.154, and we detect Lyα in EGS-zs8-2 at zLyα = 7.477, verifying an earlier tentative detection. The ubiquity of Lyα in this sample is puzzling given that the IGM is expected to be significantly neutral over 7 < z < 9. To investigate this result in more detail, we have initiated a campaign to target UV metal lines in the four Lyα emitters as a probe of both the ionizing field and the Lyα velocity offset at early times. Here we present the detection of CIII] emission in the z = 7.73 galaxy EGS-zs8-1, requiring an intense radiation field and moderately low metallicity. We argue that the radiation field is likely to affect the local environment, increasing the transmission of Lyα through the galaxy. Moreover, the centroid of CIII] indicates that Lyα is redshifted by 340 km sec-1. This velocity offset is larger than that seen in less luminous systems, providing an explanation for the transmission of Lyα emission through the IGM. Since the transmission is further enhanced by the likelihood that such systems are also situated in large ionized bubbles, the visibility of Lyα at z > 7 is expected to be strongly luminosity-dependent, with transmission accelerated in systems with intense star formation.

  11. Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir and triggering of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Masterlark, Timothy; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Ronchin, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir (ZR), China, began in September 2005 and was followed 2.7 years later by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (WE) rupturing the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), with its epicenter ~12 km away from the ZR. Based on the poroelastic theory, we employ three-dimensional finite element models to simulate the evolution of stress and pore pressure due to reservoir impoundment, and its effect on the Coulomb failure stress on the LSF. The results indicate that the reservoir impoundment formed a pore pressure front that slowly propagated through the crust with fluid diffusion. The reservoir loading induced either moderate or no increase of the Coulomb failure stress at the hypocenter prior to the WE. The Coulomb failure stress, however, grew ~9.3-69.1 kPa in the depth range of 1-8 km on the LSF, which may have advanced tectonic loading of the fault system by ~60-450 years. Due to uncertainties of fault geometry and hypocenter location of the WE, it is inconclusive whether impoundment of the ZR directly triggered the WE. However, a small event at the hypocenter could have triggered large rupture elsewhere on fault, where the asperities were weakened by the ZR. The microseismicity around the ZR also showed an expanding pattern from the ZR since its impoundment, likely associated with diffusion of a positive pore pressure pulse. These results suggest a poroelastic triggering effect (even if indirectly) of the WE due to the impoundment of the ZR.

  12. Locking degree and slip rate deficit distribution on MHT fault before 2015 Nepal Mw 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanchuan; Song, Xiaogang; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    The spatial pattern and rate of strain accumulation on a fault during the pre- and inter-seismic phases are very important for interpreting the mechanism of earthquakes and evaluating seismic potentials. Here we use global positioning system (GPS) data and the block-dislocation model to invert for the locking degree and slip rate deficit of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault in the southern margin of Tibet before the 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal earthquake. Results show that the locking depth and slip rate deficit increase from the west to the east. Along the western segment of the MHT fault (80°E-84°E), the locking depth is estimated to be 12-17 km with a slip rate deficit of 0-5 mm/a; along the central Nepal segment (84°E-87°E), the locking depth is 16-21 km with a slip rate deficit of 6-10 mm/a, whilst along the eastern segment (87°E-90°E), the locking depth increases to 23-26 km with a slip rate deficit of 8-13 mm/a. The 2015 Nepal earthquake initiated at the boundary between the western and central segments, an area with as where the slip rate deficit varies dramatically from 0 to 9 mm/a within 50 km resulting in high energy gradients. High strain concentration along the central and eastern segments leads to unilateral propagation of the rupture to the east. Given the paucity of large seismic events over the previous decades and the current high slip rate deficit, seismic hazard on the eastern Nepal segment remains high.

  13. The Mw7.9 2014 intraplate intermediate-depth Rat Islands earthquake and its relation to regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardzik, C.; Ji, C.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 Mw7.9 Rat Islands intermediate-depth (∼107 km) earthquake is studied using seismic observations at teleseismic distances. The nodal plane with a steep-dip angle (87°) and a strike of 308° inferred from the Global CMT solution is selected as the causative fault plane because of the consistency with the distribution of the aftershocks relocated using the Joint Hypocenter Determination method. Its slip history is constrained using broadband P and SH waveforms and long-period (3-6 mHz) seismic waves in vertical and transverse components. The rupture process associated with this plane shows a rupture propagating at ∼2 km/s. The rupture essentially breaks one large slip patch (peak slip amplitude of 3.5 m) located 30 km west of the hypocenter. The size of this slip patch extends from 80 to 140 km depth, which would be the largest depth extent of earthquake slip ever documented. We show that this earthquake breaks the entire cold core of the subducting slab defined by the depth of the 600-650 °C isotherm. In addition, the lateral extent of the rupture appears to be bounded by the heterogeneities of subducting slab. Our results further indicate that, along this segment of Aleutian Arc, the intermediate-depth earthquakes might contribute to the westward transporting motion of Rat block. Lastly, the slip distribution of this earthquake as well as that of two other well studied Mw > 7.5 intermediate-depth earthquakes suggests that the coldest portion of the subducting slab, outlined by the double Wadati-Benioff zone, is seismic during large intermediate-depth earthquakes. Such a result is important for estimating the seismic hazard of future large intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  14. Unstable nuclei in coherent dissociation of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Sarkisyan, V. R.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    Contribution of the unstable nuclei 7Be, 8Be and ®B into coherent dissociation events (“white” stars) of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C is under study on the basis of a nuclear track emulsion exposed to beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Distributions over the opening angle of α-pairs indicate to a simultaneous presence of virtual 8Beg.s. and 8Be2+ states in the ground states of the 9Be and 10C nuclei. The core 9B is manifested in the 10C nucleus with a probability of (30 ± 4)%, Selection of the 10C “white” stars accompanied by 8Beg.s. (9B) leads to the appearance in the excitation energy distribution of 2α2p “quartets” of the distinct peak with a maximum at 4.1 ± 0.3 MeV. 8Beg.s. decays are presented in 21% 2He + 2H and 19% in the 3He of the all 11C “white” stars. 9Bg.s. decays are identified in “white” stars 11C → 2He + 2H constituting 14% of the 11C “white” stars. The 9B nucleus. is manifested in the “white” stars 10B → 2He + 2H with a probability of (9 ± 1)%. For the 10B case yield of 8Beg.s. nuclei with the respect to 9B is about a factor of 3 higher than 9B.

  15. An Allegory of Addiction Recovery: Exploring the Performance of "Eumenides" by Aeschylus, as Adapted by 18 ANO Theatre Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zontou, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the "Eumenides," as adapted and performed by 18 ANO theatre group. 18 ANO is the theatre group of the Drug dependence treatment unit 18 ANO of Attica's Psychiatric Hospital, which is based in Athens, Greece. Each year 18 ANO organises performances in the wider community with the aim of promoting…

  16. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.; Sufri, Oner; Zhu, Lupei; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95° from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30° and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  17. The M=7.9 Alaska Earthquake of 3 November 2002: Felt Reports and Unusual Effects Across Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Rogers, G. C.; Bird, A. L.; Mulder, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    The 3 November 2002 M=7.9 Alaska earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes recorded in North America during the past 100 years. This earthquake occurred at 2:12 p.m. PST (on a Sunday) and was located 330 km to the west of the Yukon-Alaska border. Surface rupture and aftershocks extended to within about 100 km of the Canadian border. More than 250 "felt" reports were submitted to the Geological Survey of Canada website (http://www.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca/seismo/table.htm) within a few days of the earthquake. Here, we summarize those reports which include typical high-frequency shaking effects to distances of about 1500 km, as well as numerous long-period effects, such as human effects (nausea), swaying highrises, telephone poles and chandeliers, seiches in lakes and inlets, water sloshing from swimming pools, and instances of dirty well-water to distances of nearly 3500 km across Western Canada. Felt intensities (MMI)of about IV were observed across the Yukon Territory at distances of 350 km to 750 km. There were a few reports of minor damage in this region, as well as numerous reports of items knocked from shelves and parked vehicles rocking noticeably. The most distant felt reports in western Canada were from southern Alberta (2400 km distance) where people in highrises felt the swaying. More than 30 reports of human effects were received. These ranged from people feeling dizzy, seasick or nauseated (to distances of 2400 km), to difficulty standing and maintaining balance (to distances of 1000 km). Long-period effects of houses "swaying", large signs flexing, and telephone poles and tall trees swaying were reported to distances of more than 1000 km. Swinging of chandeliers, hanging plants and lights were reported to distances of 2400 km. There were more than 30 reports of seiches. Most reports came from southern British Columbia (2200-2400 km) where, although no ground shaking was noticed, water surges up to 1 m were observed. In one case a cabin held by cables near

  18. Topographic status of the central Longmen Shan region''the role of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhikun; Zhang, Zhuqi; Dai, Fuchu; Yin, Jinhui; Zhang, Huiping

    2015-04-01

    Landscape evolution in active orogenic regions is inevitably affected by the repeated strong earthquakes triggered by the corresponding active faults. However, the lack of adequate methods for the documentation and monitoring of mountain-building processes has resulted in a shortage of quantitative estimates of orogenic and eroded volumes. A strong earthquake and its associated co-seismic landslides represent a sudden pulse in landscape evolution in tectonically active areas. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake dramatically modified the topography of the Longmen Shan region. Based on topographic data before the earthquake and stereo pairs of post-earthquake remote sensing imagery, we derived pre- and post-earthquake DEMs (digital elevation models) of the three regions along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. By comparing the geomorphic features before and after the earthquake, we find that the Wenchuan earthquake smoothed the steep relief and caused a co-seismic uplift of the Longmen Shan region. The medium-relief regions increased; however, the high-relief regions decreased, indicating that the local relief is controlled by repeated strong earthquakes. The changed slope aspect indicates that the formation and modification of the east- and west-facing slopes are controlled by tectonic events in the Longmen Shan region, which might be associated with the regional stress field. However, the unchanged aspects of other slopes might be controlled by long-term erosion rather than tectonic events. The topographic changes, landslide volume and co-seismic uplift indicate that the greatest seismically induced denudation occurred in association with a thrust faulting mechanismand low-angle fault geometry. Our findings reveal that the local relief has been shaped by the localized, seismically induced high rate of denudation within the plateau margins, and that the formation of local relief is also related to tectonic events, especially the events that have occurred on low

  19. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ˜40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (˜ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ˜3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ˜ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ˜38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase transition

  20. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected

  1. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K.D.; Sufri, O.; Zhu, L.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95?? from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30?? and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  2. Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Lasserre, Cecile; Pathier, Erwan; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface displacement distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. For the first time on this earthquake we present near field 3D co-seismic surface displacement, which is an important datum for constraining modelled fault geometry at depth. Our results complement other Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and field analyses in indicating that crustal shortening is one of the main drivers for topography building in the Longmen Shan (Liu-Zeng, 2009; Shen et al., 2009; Hubbard and Shaw, 2009). Moreover, our results put into evidence a small but significant amount of displacement in the range front that we interpret as due to slip at depth on a blind structure. We verify this hypothesis by inverting the data against a simple elastic dislocation model

  3. Biennial Statewide Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use among California Students in Grades 7, 9, and 11. Winter 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skager, Rodney; And Others

    The third Attorney General's California Student Substance Use Survey was conducted between December 1989 and March 1990. A total of 6,282 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 participated. The primary focus was the extent to which declines in the use of drugs other than alcohol observed in the 1987-88 survey persisted, and whether the decline included…

  4. EUNIS '99: Information Technology Shaping European Universities. Proceedings of the International European University Information Systems (5th, Espoo, Finland, June 7-9, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents the proceedings from the 5th International European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference on Information Technology that took place in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 1999. Topics of the conference proceedings were divided into five tracks (A through E): Use of Information Technology in Learning and Teaching;…

  5. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Junior High School Level (Grades 7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.; Clawson, Elmer U.

    This guide contains concept-based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 7-9. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the junior high school level make more…

  6. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  7. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  8. The 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska Earthquake of November 3, 2002: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kore, K. R.

    2003-04-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located ~20 km to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. The geologists mapped a ~300-km-long rupture and measured maximum offsets of 8.8 meters. The 7.9 event ruptured three different faults. The rupture began on the northeast trending Susitna Glacier Thrust fault, a splay fault south of the Denali fault. Then the rupture transferred to the Denali fault and propagated eastward for 220 km. At about 143W the rupture moved onto the adjacent southeast-trending Totschunda fault and propagated for another 55 km. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock zones along the Denali and Totschunda faults is about 380 km. The earthquakes were recorded and processed by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). The AEIC acquires and processes data from the Alaska Seismic Network, consisting of over 350 seismograph stations. Nearly 40 of these sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which also have strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary seismic network of 6 instruments following the 6.7 earthquake and an additional 20 stations following the 7.9 earthquake. Prior to the 7.9 Denali Fault event, the AEIC was locating 35 to 50 events per day. After the event, the processing load increased to over 300 events per day during the first week following the event. In this presentation, we will present and interpret the aftershock location patterns, first motion focal mechanism solutions, and regional seismic

  9. ANOs 3–7 in the anoctamin/Tmem16 Cl− channel family are intracellular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Charity; Qu, Zhiqiang; Osunkoya, Adeboye O.; Cui, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) participate in numerous physiological functions such as neuronal excitability, sensory transduction, and transepithelial fluid transport. Recently, it was shown that heterologously expressed anoctamins ANO1 and ANO2 generate currents that resemble native CaCCs. The anoctamin family (also called Tmem16) consists of 10 members, but it is not known whether all members of the family are CaCCs. Expression of ANOs 3–7 in HEK293 cells did not generate Cl− currents activated by intracellular Ca2+, as determined by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. With the use of confocal imaging, only ANO1 and ANO2 traffic to the plasma membrane when expressed heterologously. Furthermore, endogenously expressed ANO7 in the human prostate is predominantly intracellular. We took a chimeric approach to identify regions critical for channel trafficking and function. However, none of the chimeras of ANO1 and ANO5/7 that we made trafficked to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that intracellular anoctamins may be endoplasmic reticulum proteins, although it remains unknown whether these family members are CaCCs. Determining the role of anoctamin family members in ion transport will be critical to understanding their functions in physiology and disease. PMID:22075693

  10. The Tumor Targeted Superantigen ABR-217620 Selectively Engages TRBV7-9 and Exploits TCR-pMHC Affinity Mimicry in Mediating T Cell Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Gunnar; Eriksson, Helena; Sundstedt, Anette; Forsberg, Göran; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Pumphrey, Nicholas; Rödström, Karin; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Björk, Per

    2013-01-01

    The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells. PMID:24194959

  11. The tumor targeted superantigen ABR-217620 selectively engages TRBV7-9 and exploits TCR-pMHC affinity mimicry in mediating T cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Gunnar; Eriksson, Helena; Sundstedt, Anette; Forsberg, Göran; Jakobsen, Bent K; Pumphrey, Nicholas; Rödström, Karin; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Björk, Per

    2013-01-01

    The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells. PMID:24194959

  12. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  13. A New Case of a Complex Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome: A Der(9)t(7;9)(p22;q22) due to a Maternal Balanced Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Manvelyan, Marine; Simonyan, Izabella; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Hamid, Ahmed B; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Complex small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) constitute one of the smallest subsets within the patients with an sSMC. Complex sSMCs consist of chromosomal material derived from more than one chromosome, for example, the derivative der(22)t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) in Emanuel syndrome. Here, a yet unreported case of a complex sSMC formed due to a t(7;9)(p22;q22)mat is presented. PMID:27617132

  14. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of meningococcal immunotype L2 and L3,7,9 phosphoethanolamine group-containing oligosaccharide-protein conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, A F; Braat, A K; Leenhouts, J M; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T; Snippe, H; Verhoef, J

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for the well-defined coupling of phosphoethanolamine group (PEA)- and carboxylic acid group-containing polysaccharides and oligosaccharides to proteins without the need for extensive modification of the carbohydrate antigens. The carboxylic acid group of the terminal 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid moiety was utilized to introduce a thiol function in meningococcal immunotype L2 and L3,7,9 lipopolysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides. The thiol group-containing oligosaccharides were subsequently coupled to bromoacetylated proteins. Immunotype L2 and L3,7,9 PEA group-containing oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates were prepared, and their immunogenicities were studied in rabbits. Both the immunotype L2 and immunotype L3,7,9 conjugates evoked high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers after the first booster injection. These conjugates also displayed an ability to induce long-lasting IgG antibody levels which could be detected until 9 months after one booster injection at week 3. The adjuvant Quil A enhanced the immune response to all the conjugates to a minor extent, which is in contrast with reported adjuvant effects of Quil A on these types of antigens in mice. A conjugate prepared from the dephosphorylated L3,7,9 oligosaccharides evoked a significantly lower IgG response than a similar PEA-containing conjugate, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition studies indicated a different epitope specificity. Furthermore, antisera elicited with the complete bacteria contained antibodies directed against PEA-containing epitopes, which stresses the importance of the presence of unmodified PEA groups in meningococcal lipopolysaccharide-derived oligosaccharide-protein conjugates. The procedure developed offers an elegant solution for the specific coupling of meningococcal PEA-containing oligosaccharides to proteins and may therefore be a very useful tool in the development of a vaccine against group B meningococci. PMID:1900063

  15. CD103+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Are Critical for TLR7/9-Dependent Host Defense against Histoplasma capsulatum, an Endemic Fungal Pathogen of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Van Prooyen, Nancy; Henderson, C. Allen; Hocking Murray, Davina; Sil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Innate immune cells shape the host response to microbial pathogens. Here we elucidate critical differences in the molecular response of macrophages vs. dendritic cells (DCs) to Histoplasma capsulatum, an intracellular fungal pathogen of humans. It has long been known that macrophages are permissive for Histoplasma growth and succumb to infection, whereas DCs restrict fungal growth and survive infection. We used murine macrophages and DCs to identify host pathways that influence fungal proliferation and host-cell viability. Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that DCs produced a strong Type I interferon (IFN-I) response to infection with Histoplasma yeasts. Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 (TLR7/9), which recognize nucleic acids, were required for IFN-I production and restriction of fungal growth in DCs, but mutation of TLR7/9 had no effect on the outcome of macrophage infection. Moreover, TLR7/9 were essential for the ability of infected DCs to elicit production of the critical cytokine IFNγ from primed CD4+ T cells in vitro, indicating the role of this pathway in T cell activation. In a mouse model of infection, TLR7/9 were required for optimal production of IFN-I and IFNγ, host survival, and restriction of cerebral fungal burden. These data demonstrate the critical role of this pathway in eliciting an appropriate adaptive immune response in the host. Finally, although other fungal pathogens have been shown to elicit IFN-I in mouse models, the specific host cell responsible for producing IFN-I has not been elucidated. We found that CD103+ conventional DCs were the major producer of IFN-I in the lungs of wild-type mice infected with Histoplasma. Mice deficient in this DC subtype displayed reduced IFN-I production in vivo. These data reveal a previously unknown role for CD103+ conventional DCs and uncover the pivotal function of these cells in modulating the host immune response to endemic fungi. PMID:27459510

  16. A human microsatellite DNA-mimicking oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats negatively regulates TLR7/9-mediated innate immune responses via selected TLR pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Sun, Luguo; Bao, Musheng; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuli; Hu, Dali; Liu, Yongjun; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2010-03-01

    A human microsatellite DNA-mimicking ODN (MS ODN) composed of CCT repeats, designated as SAT05f, has been studied for its capacity of negatively regulating innate immunity induced by TLR7/TLR9 agonists in vitro and in mice. The result showed that SAT05f could down-regulate TLR7/9-dependent IFN-alpha production in cultured human PBMC stimulated by inactivated Flu virus PR8 or HSV-1 or CpG ODN or imiquimod, protect d-GalN-treated mice from lethal shock induced by TLR9 agonist, not by TLR3/4 agonist. In addition, SAT05f significantly inhibit IFN-alpha production from purified human plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) stimulated by CpG ODN. Interestingly, SAT05f could up-regulate CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR on the pDCs in vitro, implying that SAT05f-mediated inhibition on IFN-alpha production could be related to the activation of pDCs. The data suggest that SAT05f could be developed as a candidate medicament for the treatment of TLR7/9 activation-associated diseases by inhibiting TLR7/9 signaling pathways. PMID:20034855

  17. Ultraviolet-accelerated formation of bone-like apatite on oxidized Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min-Fang; Zhang, Jing; You, Chen

    2013-12-01

    A novel method has been developed to rapidly deposit bone-like apatite with the assistance of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on the nanostructured titania in the simulated body fluid (SBF). The process has three main steps: Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn alloy was heated at 650°C for 3 h, UV-light illumination in air for 4 h and soaking in the SBF for 3 d. A titania coating consisted of main rutile formed on the thermal oxidized Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn alloy. The UV not only converted the rutile surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic but also stimulated high surface activity. After 4 h UV illumination, the contents of Ti3+ and hydroxyl groups on the oxidized sample were increased, while that of lattice O decreased. After 3 d of soaking in the SBF, a compact and uniform layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) particles was formed on the UV-illuminated rutile surface whereas there was a few of HA to be viewed on the surface of as-oxidized Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn alloy. Our study demonstrates a simple, fast and cost-effective technique for growing bone-like apatite on titanium alloys.

  18. Surface expression of the Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) channel is suppressed by protein-protein interactions with β-COP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Bae, Yeonju; Park, Nammi; Yoo, Jae Cheal; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-06-24

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that plays important physiological roles in normal and cancerous tissues. However, the plasma membrane trafficking mechanisms of ANO1 remain poorly characterized. In yeast two-hybrid screening experiments, we observed direct interactions of ANO1 with β-COP, which is a subunit of Coat Protein Complex I (COPI). This interaction was then confirmed using several in vitro and in vivo binding assays. Moreover, the cotransfection of β-COP with ANO1 into HEK293T cells led to decreased the surface expression and the channel activity of ANO1. Accordingly, endogenous ANO1 was associated with β-COP in U251 glioblastoma cells, and silencing of β-COP enhanced surface expression and whole-cell currents of ANO1 in these cells. Taken together, these data suggest that β-COP negatively regulates ANO1 surface expression. PMID:27207835

  19. Evidence for a Tang-Song Dynasty great earthquake along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt prior to the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aiming; Ren, Zhikun; Jia, Dong; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    The magnitude ( M w) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, resulting in widespread damage throughout central and western China. The steep, high-relief eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau has undergone rapid Cenozoic uplift and denudation accompanied by folding and thrusting, yet no large thrust earthquakes are known prior to the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Field and excavation investigations reveal that a great historical earthquake occurred in the Sichuan region that ruptured a >200-km-long thrust fault within the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, China, which also triggered the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The average co-seismic slip amount produced by this historical earthquake is estimated to be 2-3 m, comparable with that caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Paleoseismic and archaeological evidence and radiocarbon dating results show that the penultimate great earthquake occurred in the Sichuan region during the late Tang-Song Dynasty, between AD 800 and 1000, suggesting a recurrence interval of ~1,000-1,200 years for Wenchuan-magnitude ( M = ~8) earthquakes in the late Holocene within the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. This finding is in contrast with previous estimates of 2,000-10,000 years for the recurrence interval of large earthquakes within the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, as obtained from long-term slip rates based on the Global Positioning System and geological data, thereby necessitating substantial modifications to existing seismic-hazard models for the densely populated region at the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Ab initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis: The Case of Histone Lysine Methyltransferase SET7/9

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shenglong; Hu, Po; Zhang, Yingkai

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate enzyme catalysis through computer simulation, a prerequisite is to reliably compute free energy barriers for both enzyme and solution reactions. By employing on-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with the ab initio QM/MM approach and the umbrella sampling method, we have determined free energy profiles for the methyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by the histone lysine methyl- transferase SET7/9 and its corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in aqueous solution, respectively. Our calculated activation free energy barrier for the enzyme catalyzed reaction is 22.5 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experimental value of 20.9 kcal/mol. The difference in potential of mean force between a corresponding pre-reaction state and the transition state for the solution reaction is computed to be 30.9 kcal/mol. Thus our simulations indicate that the enzyme SET7/9 plays an essential catalytic role in significantly lowering the barrier for the methyl-transfer reaction step. For the reaction in solution, it is found that the hydrogen bond network near the reac- tion center undergoes a significant change and there is a strong shift in electrostatic field from the pre-reaction state to the transition state. While for the enzyme reaction, such an effect is much smaller and the enzyme SET7/9 is found to provide a pre-organized electrostatic environment to facilitate the methyl-transfer reaction. Meanwhile, we find that the transition state in the enzyme reaction is a little more dissociative than that in solution. PMID:17388541

  1. Improvement of reliability and speed of phase change memory devices with N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J. H.; Ko, D.-H.; Wu, Z.; Cho, S. L.; Ahn, D.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, J. M.; Nam, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we propose a nitrogen-incorporated GeBiTe ternary phase of N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) as a phase change material for reliable PCM (Phase Change Memory) with high speed operation. We found that the N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) film shows the resistance value of 40 kΩ after annealing at 440oC for 10 minutes, which is much higher than the value of 3.4 kΩ in the case of conventional N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) films. A set operation time of 14 nsec was achieved in the devices due to the increased probability of the nucleation by the addition of the elemental Bi. The long data retention time of 10 years at 85oC on the base of 1% failure was obtained as the result of higher activation energy of 2.52 eV for the crystallization compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) film, in which the activation energy is 2.1 eV. In addition, a reset current reduction of 27% and longer cycles of endurance as much as 2 order of magnitude compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) were observed at a set operation time of 14 nsec. Our results show that N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) is highly promising for use as a phase change material in reliable PCMs with high performance and also in forthcoming storage class memory applications, too.

  2. Fusion and direct reactions around the barrier for the systems {sup 7,9}Be,{sup 7}Li+{sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, R.; Angulo, C.; Charvet, J. L.; Jouanne, C.; Nalpas, L.; Figuera, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Sida, J. L.

    2006-10-15

    We present new cross section data for the complete fusion of the weakly bound systems {sup 7,9}Be and {sup 7}Li on {sup 238}U at energies around the Coulomb barrier. In the same measurement, yields for direct processes and incomplete fusion are detected. For all systems, a suppression of the complete fusion cross section around and above the barrier is observed. At energies below the barrier, the fusion of the {sup 7}Be+{sup 238}U system shows no enhancement with respect to simple model predictions.

  3. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  4. Structure variation and luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes with 1,9-bis [2-(2'-picolylaminoformyl)-1,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xueqin; Zang Zhipeng; Liu Weisheng; Zhang Yujie

    2009-04-15

    Using 1,9-salicylamide bissubstituted oxadecane ligand, 1,9-bis [2-(2'-picolylaminoformyl)-1,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane (L), two novel lanthanide complexes have been prepared and well characterized by means of elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. {l_brace}[PrL(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].CH{sub 3}OH{r_brace}{sub n} is a 1D zigzag polymer with three-dimensional supramolecular structure formed by hydrogen bonds, while [EuL(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} is a linear coordination polymer and present an interesting supramolecular double chain, which are very different from the structure of terbium complex reported before. The result reported herein demonstrated that steric crowding associated with the decreasing lanthanide ion radius causes changes of the conformation of the ligand as well as structures. Luminescence studies for the Eu(III) complexes demonstrated that the salicylamide ligand also exhibits a good antennae effect for the Eu(III) ion due to efficient intersystem crossing and ligand-to-metal energy transfer and the Eu(III) ion is well shielded from the surrounding environment. - Graphical abstract: Structure variation and luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes with 1,9-bis [2-(2'-picolylaminoformyl)-1,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane.

  5. Rupture process of the M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake: Subevents, directivity, and scaling of high-frequency ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Displacement waveforms and high-frequency acceleration envelopes from stations at distances of 3-300 km were inverted to determine the source process of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. Fitting the initial portion of the displacement waveforms indicates that the earthquake started with an oblique thrust subevent (subevent # 1) with an east-west-striking, north-dipping nodal plane consistent with the observed surface rupture on the Susitna Glacier fault. Inversion of the remainder of the waveforms (0.02-0.5 Hz) for moment release along the Denali and Totschunda faults shows that rupture proceeded eastward on the Denali fault, with two strike-slip subevents (numbers 2 and 3) centered about 90 and 210 km east of the hypocenter. Subevent 2 was located across from the station at PS 10 (Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station #10) and was very localized in space and time. Subevent 3 extended from 160 to 230 km east of the hypocenter and had the largest moment of the subevents. Based on the timing between subevent 2 and the east end of subevent 3, an average rupture velocity of 3.5 km/sec, close to the shear wave velocity at the average rupture depth, was found. However, the portion of the rupture 130-220 km east of the epicenter appears to have an effective rupture velocity of about 5.0 km/ sec, which is supershear. These two subevents correspond approximately to areas of large surface offsets observed after the earthquake. Using waveforms of the M 6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake as empirical Green's functions, the high-frequency (1-10 Hz) envelopes of the M 7.9 earthquake were inverted to determine the location of high-frequency energy release along the faults. The initial thrust subevent produced the largest high-frequency energy release per unit fault length. The high-frequency envelopes and acceleration spectra (>0.5 Hz) of the M 7.9 earthquake can be simulated by chaining together rupture zones of the M 6.7 earthquake over distances from 30 to 180 km east of the

  6. UV-visible absorption of small gold clusters in neon: Au(n) (n = 1-5 and 7-9).

    PubMed

    Lecoultre, S; Rydlo, A; Félix, C; Buttet, J; Gilb, S; Harbich, W

    2011-02-21

    We present optical absorption spectra in the UV-visible range (1.5 eV < E < 6 eV) for mass selected neutral gold clusters Au(n) (n = 1-5 and 7-9) embedded in solid Ne at 7 K. The experimental spectra are compared with time-dependent density functional calculations. Electronic transitions are distributed over the whole energy range without any concentration of the oscillator strength in a small energy window, characteristic for the more s-like metals such as the alkalis or silver. Contrary to the case of silver and partly copper clusters, transitions issued from mainly d-type states are significantly involved in low energy transitions. The measured integrated cross section is smaller (<20%) than expected from a free-electron system, manifesting the strong screening of the s electrons due to the proximity of the s and d levels in gold. PMID:21341839

  7. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Scheidler, Christopher; Sobotta, Jessica; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydrogenation with CO as reductant. In the resulting unsaturated monocarboxylic acids the double bonds are mainly centrally located with mainly trans-configuration. The reaction conditions are compatible with an origin of life in volcanic-hydrothermal sub-seafloor flow ducts. PMID:27283227

  8. Report from the World Health Organization's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) meeting, Geneva, 7-9th Sep 2015.

    PubMed

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Kaslow, David C; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2016-06-01

    There are more vaccines in development, against a greater number of pathogens, than ever before. A challenge with this exceptional level of activity and investment is how to select and resource the most promising approaches to have the most significant impact on public health. The WHO Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was established in 2014 to provide strategic advice and recommendations to WHO for vaccines in clinical development that could have a significant impact on public health in low and middle income countries. On 7-9th September 2015, PDVAC was convened for the second time, when the committee reviewed vaccine developments in 24 disease areas. This report summarises the key recommendations from that consultation. PMID:26993336

  9. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life.

    PubMed

    Scheidler, Christopher; Sobotta, Jessica; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydrogenation with CO as reductant. In the resulting unsaturated monocarboxylic acids the double bonds are mainly centrally located with mainly trans-configuration. The reaction conditions are compatible with an origin of life in volcanic-hydrothermal sub-seafloor flow ducts. PMID:27283227

  10. A substance P antagonist, (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)SP, inhibits inflammatory responses in the rabbit eye

    SciTech Connect

    Holmdahl, G.; Hakanson, R.; Leander, S.; Rosell, S.; Folkers, K.; Sundler, F.

    1981-11-27

    Neurogenic factors released by antidromic nerve stimulation are thought to be in part responsible for the vasodilation and breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier that follows trauma to the eye. Substance P is one candidate for the mediation of the inflammatory response since it is thought to be a neurotransmitter in sensory afferents and since exogenous substance P is capable of eliciting a response characteristic of inflammation. In rabbits, intravitreal or topical application onto the eye of a specific substance P antagonist, (d-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)SP, inhibited not only the irritant effects of exogenous substance P but also the inflammatory response to a standardized trauma (infrared irradiation of the iris). These observations suggest that substance P, or a related peptide, is a neurogenic mediator of the inflammatory response in the eye.

  11. AB095. Increased expression of TMEM16A/Ano1 chloride channel associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yajun; Chen, Yingwei; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weimin; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence, location and functional role of TMEM16A/anotamin-1 (Ano1) calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) in the penile of rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction. Methods Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administrated streptozotocin (diabetic) or citrate buffer (control) randomly. Erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 12th week after diabetes was induced. The effect of Ano1 specific inhibitor—T16Ainh-A01 on intracavernous pressure (ICP) was evaluated. Then the penile tissues were harvested for molecular exploration. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting were used to assess the expression of Ano1 in penile tissues. Immunofluorescent labelling of penile tissue allowed localization of Ano1. Cavernous smooth muscle cell (CSMC) was cultured in high glucose medium. The change of Ano1 was measured using Western Blotting. The proliferation of CSMC was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Results Erectile function was impaired in diabetic rats. The expression of Ano1 was increased in rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction at mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescent labelling revealed the presence of Ano1 mainly in cavernous smooth muscle cells. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. High glucose in vitro enhanced the proliferation of CSMC and the expression level of Ano1. Conclusions Ano1 is expressed in rat penile tissue and is increased with diabetes mellitus. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. The alerted Ano1 may be associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction. It is a potential therapy target for ED in the future.

  12. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K.; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  13. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 controls microvilli length and membrane surface area in the oocyte.

    PubMed

    Courjaret, Raphael; Hodeify, Rawad; Hubrack, Satanay; Ibrahim, Awab; Dib, Maya; Daas, Sahar; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) play important physiological functions in epithelia and other tissues. In frog oocytes the CaCC Ano1 regulates resting membrane potential and the block to polyspermy. Here, we show that Ano1 expression increases the oocyte surface, revealing a novel function for Ano1 in regulating cell morphology. Confocal imaging shows that Ano1 increases microvilli length, which requires ERM-protein-dependent linkage to the cytoskeleton. A dominant-negative form of the ERM protein moesin precludes the Ano1-dependent increase in membrane area. Furthermore, both full-length and the truncated dominant-negative forms of moesin co-localize with Ano1 to the microvilli, and the two proteins co-immunoprecipitate. The Ano1-moesin interaction limits Ano1 lateral membrane mobility and contributes to microvilli scaffolding, therefore stabilizing larger membrane structures. Collectively, these results reveal a newly identified role for Ano1 in shaping the plasma membrane during oogenesis, with broad implications for the regulation of microvilli in epithelia. PMID:27173493

  14. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl− channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl− currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  16. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  17. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  18. Comparing clinical data and muscle imaging of DYSF and ANO5 related muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Ten Dam, Leroy; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Rövekamp, Fleur; Linssen, Wim H J P; de Visser, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study clinical and muscle imaging data of patients with Miyoshi distal myopathy phenotype (MMD1 and MMD3) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2L (LGMD2L) were described. MMD1 and MMD3 are genetically heterogenous diseases based on DYSF and ANO5 gene defects. MMD3 and LGMD2L are clinically different diseases caused by an ANO5 gene defect. All groups showed predominant fatty degeneration of the gluteus minimus muscle and of the posterior segments of the thigh and calf muscles with sparing of the gracilis muscle. Muscle atrophy, hypertrophy and asymmetric muscle involvement on muscle imaging did not differ between groups. The pattern of fatty degeneration of muscles and of muscle weakness shows only minor differences between MMD1 (n=6) and MMD3 (n=8) patients with more frequently fatty degeneration of the rectus femoris, anterior tibial, and extensor digitorum muscles and more frequently muscle weakness in the anterior tibial, peroneal and calf muscle in MMD1. In the ANO5 related phenotypes the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle was less frequently involved in LGMD2L (n=13) and no differences in the incidence of muscle weakness was found. Therefore, MMD3 and LGMD2L should be considered as part of one spectrum of ANO5 related muscle disease. PMID:25176504

  19. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to…

  20. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between…

  1. The Phenotypic Spectrum of DYT24 Due to ANO3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Charlesworth, Gavin; Cordivari, Carla; Schneider, Susanne A; Kägi, Georg; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Batla, Amit; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-01-01

    Genes causing primary dystonia are rare. Recently, pathogenic mutations in the anoctamin 3 gene (ANO3) have been identified to cause autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia and have been assigned to the dystonia locus dystonia-24 (DYT24). Here, we expand on the phenotypic spectrum of DYT24 and provide demonstrative videos. Moreover, tremor recordings were performed, and back-averaged electroencephalography, sensory evoked potentials, and C-reflex studies were carried out in two individuals who carried two different mutations in ANO3. Ten patients from three families are described. The age at onset ranged from early childhood to the forties. Cervical dystonia was the most common site of onset followed by laryngeal dystonia. The characteristic feature in all affected individuals was the presence of tremor, which contrasts DYT24 from the typical DYT6 phenotype. Tremor was the sole initial manifestation in some individuals with ANO3 mutations, leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor. Electrophysiology in two patients with two different mutations showed co-contraction of antagonist muscles, confirming dystonia, and a 6-Hz arm tremor at rest, which increased in amplitude during action. In one of the studied patients, clinically superimposed myoclonus was observed. The duration of the myoclonus was in the range of 250 msec at about 3 Hz, which is more consistent with subcortical myoclonus. In summary, ANO3 causes a varied phenotype of young-onset or adult-onset craniocervical dystonia with tremor and/or myoclonic jerks. Patients with familial cervical dystonia who also have myoclonus-dystonia as well as patients with prominent tremor and mild dystonia should be tested for ANO3 mutations. © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:24442708

  2. Large gallanes and the PSEPT theory: a theoretical study of Ga(n)H(n+2) clusters (n = 7-9).

    PubMed

    Maatallah, Mohamed; Cherqaoui, Driss; Jarid, Abdellah; Liebman, Joel F

    2012-07-01

    Do alanes Al(n)H(n+2) and gallanes Ga(n)H(n+2) satisfy the polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory (PSEPT)? Taking into account previous work on this question, this paper provides a convincing answer and proposes the reformulation of the (n + 1) electron pairs rule of Wade and Mingos (W-M) for such systems. Following recent studies of tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, and nonaalanes as well as valence-isoelectronic/related gallanes, in this paper we present an analysis of the hydrides of aluminum and gallium A(n)H(n+2) (A = Al, Ga and n = 7-9). The aim is still to examine the applicability of PSEPT, especially the W-M rule, to these clusters. Exploration of the total potential energy surfaces (PESs) of hepta-, octa-, and nonagallanes shows that the absolute minima have a nido-like polyhedron arrangement. Unlike the smaller Ga(n)H(n+2) (n = 4, 5, 6), it seems that the size of the cluster largely dictates its preferred geometry. Although none of them have closed (totally triangular) cages, these clusters exhibit significant compactness, comparable to borane double anions, B(n)H(n) (2-), which are the archetypes for the PSEPT theory. PMID:22258308

  3. Electronic spectroscopy of transient species in solid neon: the indene-motif polycyclic hydrocarbon cation family C9Hy(+) (y = 7-9) and their neutrals.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Adam; Garkusha, Iryna; Fulara, Jan; Maier, John P

    2013-11-28

    In this Perspective the development and application of a mass-selective matrix isolation approach, employed with success over the last two decades in the spectroscopic characterization of numerous ions and neutral reactive species, is illustrated with original data for hydrocarbon cations and neutrals with a six- and a five-membered carbon ring fused. The setup allows for the electronic and vibrational assessment of these isolated molecules and ions in the inert neon environment. The transient species of interest are chosen due to their astrophysical relevance, and the role they play in flames, plasmas, combustion, organic reactions and atmospheric chemistry. Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of indene-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, C9Hy(+) (y = 7-9) cations, are presented. The ions were produced in a discharge source and investigated by means of absorption and emission spectroscopies after selectively trapping them in 6 K neon matrices. Photoconversion between the two C9H8(+) indenylium isomers and, upon irradiation, H2 loss from C9H9(+) were observed. Corresponding neutral species C9Hy are identified by photobleaching the matrices containing the cations. PMID:24108101

  4. Drug- and lead-likeness, target class, and molecular diversity analysis of 7.9 million commercially available organic compounds provided by 29 suppliers.

    PubMed

    Chuprina, Alexander; Lukin, Oleg; Demoiseaux, Robert; Buzko, Alexander; Shivanyuk, Alexander

    2010-04-26

    A database of 7.9 million compounds commercially available from 29 suppliers in 2008-2009 was assembled and analyzed. 5.2 million structures of this database were identified to be unique and were subjected to an assessment of physical and biological properties and estimation of molecular diversity. The rules of Lipinski and Veber were applied to the molecular weight, the calculated water/n-octanol partition coefficients (Clog P), the calculated aqueous solubility (log S), the numbers of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, and the calculated Caco-2 membrane permeability to identify the drug-like compounds, whereas the toxicity/reactivity filters were used to remove the structures with biologically undesired functional groups. This filtering resulted in 2.0 million (39%) structures perfectly suitable for high-throughput screening of biological activity. Modified filters applied to identify lead-like structures revealed that 16% of the unique compounds could be potential leads. Assessment of the biological activities, the analysis of diversity, and the sizes of exclusive sets of compounds are presented. PMID:20297844

  5. Geophysical investigation of the Denali fault and Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the October-November 2002, M = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Booker, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002, M = 7.9 earthquake that ruptured along the right-slip Denali fault in south-central Alaska has been investigated by using gravity and magnetic, magnetotelluric, and deep-crustal, seismic reflection data as well as outcrop geology and earthquake seismology. Strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25°N and extend to depths as great as 20 km. These reflections outline a relict crustal architecture that in the past 20 yr has produced little seismicity. The Denali fault is nonreflective, probably because this fault dips steeply to vertical. The most intriguing finding from geophysical data is that earthquake aftershocks occurred above a rock body, with low electrical resistivity (>10 Ω·m), that is at depths below ∼10 km. Aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake have mainly occurred shallower than 10 km. A high geothermal gradient may cause the shallow seismicity. Another possibility is that the low resistivity results from fluids, which could have played a role in locating the aftershock zone by reducing rock friction within the middle and lower crust.

  6. Synthesis, pharmacological characterization, and quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of 3,7,9,9-tetraalkylbispidines: derivatives with specific bradycardic activity.

    PubMed

    Schön, U; Antel, J; Brückner, R; Messinger, J; Franke, R; Gruska, A

    1998-01-29

    A series of 3,7,9,9-tetraalkyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives (bispidines) was synthesized and identified as potential antiischemic agents. Pharmacological experiments in vitro as well as in vivo are described, and the results are listed. For selection of those compounds fitting best to the desired profile of a specific bradycardic antianginal agent--decrease in heart rate without affecting contractility and blood pressure--these results were scored and ranked. Quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed and discussed a posteriori by means of Hansch, nonelementary discriminant and factor analysis to get insight into the molecular features determining the biological profile. Highly significant equations were obtained, indicating hydrophobic and steric effects. Both pharmacological ranking and QSAR considerations showed compound 6 as the optimum within the structural class under investigation. Compound 6 (tedisamil, KC8857) has been selected as the most promising compound and was chosen for further pharmacological and clinical investigations as an antiischemic drug. PMID:9464363

  7. Improved biological performance of low modulus Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn implants due to surface modification by anodic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Gao, B.; Wang, R.; Wu, J.; Zhang, L. J.; Hao, Y. L.; Tao, X. J.

    2009-02-01

    Dental implants are usually made from commercially pure titanium or titanium alloys. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of surface treatment to low modulus Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn (TNZS) on cell and bone responses. The TNZS alloy samples were modified using anodic oxidation (AD). Surface oxide properties were characterized by using various surface analytic techniques, involving scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and surface profilometer. During the AD treatment, porous titanium oxide layer was formed and Ca ions were incorporated into the oxide layer. The viability and morphology of osteoblasts on Ca-incorporated TNZS were studied. The bone responses of Ca-incorporated TNZS were evaluated by pull-out tests and morphological analysis after implantation in rabbit tibiae. The non-treated Ti and TNZS samples were used as the control. Significant increases in cell viability and pull-out forces ( p < 0.05) were observed for Ca-incorporated TNZS implants compared with those for the control groups. Porous structures supplied positive guidance cues for osteoblasts to attach. The enhanced cell and bone responses to Ca-incorporated TNZS implants could be explained by the surface chemistry and microtopography.

  8. Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 march 13

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Brian J.; Pevtsov, Alexei A. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu

    2013-12-01

    NOAA 11429 was the source of an M7.9 X-ray flare at the western solar limb (N18° W63°) on 2012 March 13 at 17:12 UT. Observations of the line-of-sight magnetic flux and the Stokes I and V profiles from which it is derived were carried out by the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) with a 45 s cadence over the full disk, at a spatial sampling of 0.''5. During flare onset, a transient patch of negative flux can be observed in SDO/HMI magnetograms to rapidly appear within the positive polarity penumbra of NOAA 11429. We present here a detailed study of this magnetic transient and offer interpretations as to whether this highly debated phenomenon represents a 'real' change in the structure of the magnetic field at the site of the flare, or is instead a product of instrumental/algorithmic artifacts related to particular SDO/HMI data reduction techniques.

  9. Evaluation of the bond strength of a low-fusing porcelain to cast Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bonding characteristics of titanium porcelain Duceratin bonded to Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn (TNZS) alloy and commercial pure titanium (cp Ti). The bond strengths between porcelain and TNZS were tested by a three-point flexural device. The same tests for the cp Ti were used as for the control. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of TNZS was evaluated with a push-rod dilatometer. Interfacial characterization was carried out by X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis operating in line scan mode. Additionally, microstructure characterizations of TNZS and cp Ti after debonding fracture were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The porcelain bond strength of TNZS alloy was 31.51MPa, showing a significant increase relatively to that of cp Ti (23.89 MPa) (P<0.05). Mean CTE values of TNZS alloy was 9.51×10(-6)/°C exceeding the porcelain by 0.81×10(-6)/°C, attesting to a better mechanical performance. Interfacial characterization showed the mutual diffusion of Ti, Si, O and Sn along the TNZS-ceramic interface. Both SEM and EDS results revealed that fracture modes of TNZS specimens exhibited a mixed mode of cohesive and adhesive failures. The results demonstrated that TNZS could be a good alternative for the metal-ceramic restoration in the future. PMID:25428055

  10. Rupture processes of the 2015 Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock and their implications on the seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Rongjiang; Shan, Bin; Xie, Zujun; Xiong, Xiong; Ge, Can

    2016-07-01

    The rupture processes of the 2015 April 25 Gorkha earthquake and its strongest aftershock occurred on May 12 in Nepal are investigated by joint inversion of seismological and geodetic data. Synthetic test shows that the sedimentary layers in the source region play an important role in the rupture process inversion. Our optimized model of the mainshock shows that the rupture has a unilateral propagation pattern. The dominant mechanism is pure thrust with maximum slip of 5.8 m, the rupture scale extends ~ 60 km along dip and ~ 150 km along strike, and the largest static stress change is ~ 7.6 MPa. The total seismic moment is 7.87 × 1020 N m, equivalent to Mw 7.9. Most seismic moment was released within 80 s and the majority seismic moment was released at the first 40 s. The rupture propagated in main slip asperity with a velocity of ~ 3.0 km/s. The strong aftershock magnitude is about Mw 7.3, and the peak slip is about 5.0 m, close to the peak slip of the mainshock. Moreover, the slips of the mainshock and the aftershocks are in good complementary, suggesting a triggering relationship between them. Considering the strain accumulation, the Gorkha earthquake ruptured only part of the seismic gap alone, thus still poses high earthquake risk, especially in the west side of the mainshock rupture zone.

  11. Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xianming; Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, Lina; Liu, Yandong; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang

    2014-12-09

    A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at 630 °C for seven passes and subsequently air cooled to room temperature. The sample was subsequently intercritically annealed at various temperatures for 30 min to promote the reverse transformation of martensite into austenite. The obtained results show that the highest volume fraction of austenite is 39% for the sample annealed at 600 °C. This specimen exhibits a yield stress of 910 MPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 1600 MPa, with an elongation-to-failure of 0.29 at a strain rate of 1 × 10⁻³/s. The enhanced work-hardening ability of the investigated steel is closely related to martensitic transformation and the interaction of dislocations. Especially, the alternate arrangement of acicular ferrite (soft phase) and ultrafine austenite lamellae (50–200 nm, strong and ductile phase) is the key factor contributing to the excellent combination of strength and ductility. On the other hand, the as-warm-rolled sample also exhibits the excellent combination of strength and ductility, with elongation-to-failure much higher than those annealed at temperatures above 630 °C.

  12. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C. Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  13. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  14. 300-km-long co-seismic surface rupture produced by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake along the active Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, A.; Rao, G.; Yan, B.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 (Ms 8.1) Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 and ruptured active faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which marks the boundary between the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. Although many studies of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake have described the ground deformation features, rupture mechanism, and structural features of the seismogenic fault zone associated with this event, debate remains concerning the total length of the co-seismic surface rupture zone and whether the earthquake ruptured the Qingchuan Fault in the northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), China. Based on our initial fieldwork carried out 2 days after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, we reported that the earthquake produced a ~285-km-long surface rupture zone along the LSTB, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, dominated by thrust slip and right-lateral displacement along the central and northeastern segments of the zone, and by left-lateral displacement along the southeastern segment (Lin et al., 2009, 2010). However, other field-based studies have reported that the total length of the co-seismic surface rupture zone is 200-240 km and that the Qingchuan Fault was not ruptured by the Wenchuan earthquake (e.g., Liu-Zeng et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2009; Yin, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). The length of surface rupture produced by large, individual earthquakes is a key parameter in assessing the seismic moment, the rupture mechanism, the degree of seismic hazard, and the activity of a seismogenic fault, including the recurrence interval of large earthquakes and the long-term slip rate. Therefore, additional work is needed to constrain the length of the co-seismic surface rupture and the location of rupture termination at the northeastern segment of the LSTB, in order to accurately assess the nature of the seismic hazard in the densely populated Sichuan region of China. In this study, we present new field

  15. Cytocompatibility and early osseointegration of nanoTiO2-modified Ti-24 Nb-4 Zr-7.9 Sn surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Wu, L; Ai, H J; Han, Y; Hu, Y

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration of Ti-24 Nb-4 Zr-7.9 Sn (Ti-2448) surfaces that were modified with a nanoscale TiO2 coating. The coating was fabricated using a hydrothermal synthesis method to generate nanoTiO2/Ti-2448. The surface characteristics of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxicity of the fabricated nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined using MTT assays. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts cultured on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 were compared with those cultured on Ti-2448. Disk-shaped implants were placed in Wistar rats. The histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), and the histocompatibility was analysed at 4 and 12weeks post-implantation. Cylindrical implants were embedded in Japanese white rabbits, and the histological sections were stained with HE and anti-TGF-β1 to evaluate the histocompatibility and early osseointegration at 4, 12 and 26weeks post-implantation. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 exhibited a rougher surface than did Ti-2448. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined to be non-cytotoxic. More osteoblasts and higher ALP activity were observed for nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 than Ti-2448 (p<0.05). Few inflammatory cells were detected around nanoTiO2/Ti-2448, and the expression of TGF-β1 on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 peaked at earlier time than that on Ti-2448. The results indicate that the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration were enhanced by the nanoTiO2 coating. PMID:25579921

  16. Genetic linkage mapping for a susceptibility locus to bipolar illness: Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and Xpter

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Hseih, W.T.; Goldin, L.R.

    1994-09-15

    We are conducting a genome search for a predisposing locus to bipolar (manic-depressive) illness by genotyping 21 moderate-sized pedigrees. We report linkage data derived from screening marker loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and the pseudoautosomal region at Xpter. To analyze for linkage, two-point marker to illness lod scores were calculated under a dominant model with either 85% or 50% maximum penetrance and a recessive model with 85% maximum penetrance, and two affection status models. Under the dominant high penetrance model the cumulative lod scores in the pedigree series were less than -2 at {theta} = 0.01 in 134 of 142 loci examined, indicating that if the disease is genetically homogeneous, linkage could be excluded in these marker regions. Similar results were obtained using the other genetic models. Heterogeneity analysis was conducted when indicated, but no evidence for linkage was found. In the course of mapping we found a positive total lod score greater than +3 at the D7S78 locus at {theta} = 0.01 under a dominant, 50% penetrance model. The lod scores for additional markers within the D7S78 region failed to support the initial finding, implying that this was a spurious positive. Analysis with affected pedigree member method for COL1A2 and D7S78 showed no significance for linkage, but for PLANH1, at the weighting functions f(p)=1 and f(p)=1/sqrt(p), borderline P values of 0.036 and 0.047 were obtained. We also detected new polymorphisms at the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MLR) and calmodulin II (CALMII) genes. These genes were genetically mapped and under affection status model 2 and a dominant, high penetrance mode of transmission the lod scores of {le}2 at {theta} = 0.01 were found. 39 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C Steel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Xianming; Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, Lina; Liu, Yandong; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang

    2014-12-09

    A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at 630 °C for seven passes and subsequently air cooled to room temperature. The sample was subsequently intercritically annealed at various temperatures for 30 min to promote the reverse transformation of martensite into austenite. The obtained results show that the highest volume fraction of austenite is 39% for the sample annealed at 600 °C. This specimen exhibits amore » yield stress of 910 MPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 1600 MPa, with an elongation-to-failure of 0.29 at a strain rate of 1 × 10⁻³/s. The enhanced work-hardening ability of the investigated steel is closely related to martensitic transformation and the interaction of dislocations. Especially, the alternate arrangement of acicular ferrite (soft phase) and ultrafine austenite lamellae (50–200 nm, strong and ductile phase) is the key factor contributing to the excellent combination of strength and ductility. On the other hand, the as-warm-rolled sample also exhibits the excellent combination of strength and ductility, with elongation-to-failure much higher than those annealed at temperatures above 630 °C.« less

  18. Geophysical data reveal the crustal structure of the Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical information, including deep-crustal seismic reflection, magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data, cross the aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. These data and aftershock seismicity, jointly interpreted, reveal the crustal structure of the right-lateral-slip Denali fault and the eastern Alaska Range orogen, as well as the relationship between this structure and seismicity. North of the Denali fault, strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen show features that dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal crustal structures, probably ductile shear zones, that most likely formed during the Late Cretaceous, but these structures appear to be inactive, having produced little seismicity during the past 20 years. Furthermore, seismic reflections mainly dip north, whereas alignments in aftershock hypocenters dip south. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but modeling of MT, gravity, and magnetic data suggests that the Denali fault dips steeply to vertically. However, in an alternative structural model, the Denali fault is defined by one of the reflection bands that dips to the north and flattens into the middle crust of the Alaska Range orogen. Modeling of MT data indicates a rock body, having low electrical resistivity (>10 ??-m), that lies mainly at depths greater than 10 km, directly beneath aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake. The maximum depth of aftershocks along the Denali fault is 10 km. This shallow depth may arise from a higher-than-normal geothermal gradient. Alternatively, the low electrical resistivity of deep rocks along the Denali fault may be associated with fluids that have weakened the lower crust and helped determine the depth extent of the after-shock zone.

  19. Rapid exposure and loss estimates for the May 12, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, P.S.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Porter, K.A.; Hearne, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    One half-hour after the May 12th Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system distributed an automatically generated alert stating that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater). It was immediately clear that a large-scale disaster had occurred. These alerts were widely distributed and referenced by the major media outlets and used by governments, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses. The PAGER alerts and Web pages included predictive ShakeMaps showing estimates of ground shaking, maps of population density, and a list of estimated intensities at impacted cities. Manual, revised alerts were issued in the following hours that included the dimensions of the fault rupture. Within a half-day, PAGER’s estimates of the population exposed to strong shaking levels stabilized at 5.2 million people. A coordinated research effort is underway to extend PAGER’s capability to include estimates of the number of casualties. We are pursuing loss models that will allow PAGER the flexibility to use detailed inventory and engineering results in regions where these data are available while also calculating loss estimates in regions where little is known about the type and strength of the built infrastructure. Prototype PAGER fatality estimates are currently implemented and can be manually triggered. In the hours following the Wenchuan earthquake, these models predicted fatalities in the tens of thousands.

  20. (Eco)toxicological effects of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and permanent fish cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Krisztina; Gehring, Martin; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a high-production volume chemical used in paper, ink, pesticide, and adhesive industries as a wetting and anti-foaming agent. The physicochemical properties and slow biodegradation rate of TMDD indicate a low bioaccumulation potential but a high prevalence in the environment. As a consequence, TMDD has been detected in several European rivers in the nanogram per liter and lower microgram per liter range; however, its environmental risk to aquatic organisms is considered low. Recent studies almost exclusively focused on acute effects by TMDD, little is known about cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, reproduction and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, and any kind of long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity so far. The present study aims to provide more specific baseline information on the ecotoxicological effects of TMDD in fish. For this end, cyto- and genotoxicity assays were carried out in vitro with the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1; in addition, in vivo studies were conducted with the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to fill the data gaps in developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption. TMDD showed a cytotoxic and slight genotoxic potential in fish cell lines; moreover, various sublethal and lethal effects could be detected in developing zebrafish embryos. There was no evidence of endocrine-disrupting effects by TMDD; however, mortality following prolonged exposure to TMDD during fish sexual development test was clearly higher than mortality in the fish embryo test after 96-h exposure. Our results thus confirmed previous findings of laboratory screening tests, suggesting short-term toxic effects of TMDD in the intermediate, and long-term effects in the lower milligram per liter range. PMID:24687796

  1. Modified surface morphology of a novel Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn titanium alloy via anodic oxidation for enhanced interfacial biocompatibility and osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Tao; Hu, Jing; Li, Shujun; Zou, Qin; Li, Yunfeng; Jiang, Nan; Li, Hui; Li, Jihua

    2016-08-01

    The Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn titanium alloy (Ti2448) has shown potential for use in biomedical implants, because this alloy possesses several important mechanical properties, such as a high fracture strength, low elastic modulus, and good corrosion resistance. In this study, we aimed to produce a hierarchical nanostructure on the surface of Ti2448 to endow this alloy with favorable biological properties. The chemical composition of Ti2448 (64.0wt% Ti, 23.9wt% Nb, 3.9wt% Zr, and 8.1wt% Sn) gives this material electrochemical properties that lead to the generation of topographical features under standard anodic oxidation. We characterized the surface properties of pure Ti (Ti), nanotube-Ti (NT), Ti2448, and nanotube-Ti2448 (NTi2448) based on surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy), chemical and phase compositions (X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and wettability (water contact angle). We evaluated the biocompatibility and osteointegration of implant surfaces by observing the behavior of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on the surfaces in vitro and conducting histological analysis after in vivo implantation of the modified materials. Our results showed that a hierarchical structure with a nanoscale bone-like layer was achieved along with nanotube formation on the Ti2448 surface. The surface characterization data suggested the superior biocompatibility of the NTi2448 surface in comparison with the Ti, NT, and Ti2448 surfaces. Moreover, the NTi2448 surface showed better biocompatibility for BMSCs in vitro and better osteointegration in vivo. Based on these results, we conclude that anodic oxidation facilitated the formation of a nanoscale bone-like structure and nanotubes on Ti2448. Unlike the modified titanium surfaces developed to date, the NTi2448 surface, which presents both mechanical compatibility and bioactivity, offers excellent biocompatibility and osteointegration, suggesting its potential for

  2. Minimal oligosaccharide structures required for induction of immune responses against meningococcal immunotype L1, L2, and L3,7,9 lipopolysaccharides determined by using synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, A F; Boons, G J; Van der Marel, G A; Van Boom, J H; Jennings, H J; Snippe, H; Verhoef, J; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1991-01-01

    The 12 types of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (immunotypes) contain immunotype-specific and cross-reactive epitopes situated on the oligosaccharide part of the LPS molecules. To identify useful cross-reactive epitopes and to determine minimal oligosaccharide structures required for the induction of an immune response against the most prevalent immunotypes, L1, L2, and L3,7,9, synthetic as well as native LPS-derived oligosaccharides were conjugated with tetanus toxoid. L3,7,9 phosphoethanolamine (PEA) group-containing oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates evoked high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in rabbits which were detected by an L2-, L3,7,9-, and, depending on the antiserum, L1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Inhibition studies revealed that an identical antibody population was detected by L1 and L3,7,9 ELISA, indicating a similar tertiary structure of the inner core oligosaccharide of these two immunotypes. These antibodies recognize PEA group-containing epitopes present on the L1 and L3,7,9 LPS. An L2 PEA group-containing oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate elicited L2- and L3,7,9-specific IgG antibodies, but in contrast with the L3,7,9 conjugates, no L1-specific IgG antibodies were evoked. These results indicate that L1 and L2 LPS do not contain cross-reactive epitopes, whereas both L2 and L3,7,9 LPS and L1 and L3,7,9 LPS possess common determinants. Three linear oligosaccharides and one branched oligosaccharide, representing partial structures of the inner core oligosacchardes of meningococcal LPS, were synthesized. Only the branched synthetic oligosaccharide-containing conjugate was able to induce and L1- and L3,7,9-specific immune response, whereas the linear oligosaccharide-protein conjugates evoked L2-specific immune responses. The branched oligosaccharide (beta-D-Glcp(1----4)-[L-alpha-D-Hepp(1----3)]-L-alpha-D-Hepp ) is therefore considered a minimal structure required for the induction of an immune

  3. ANO5 mutations in the Dutch limb girdle muscular dystrophy population.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Anneke J; Ten Dam, Leroy; Frankhuizen, Wendy S; Straathof, Chiara S M; van Doorn, Pieter A; de Visser, Marianne; Ginjaar, Ieke B

    2013-06-01

    A Dutch cohort of 105 limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) patients were subject to subsequent genetic investigations. In half the families a causative mutation was found. Recently mutations were identified in ANO5 causing LGMD2L and Miyoshi-like myopathy (MMD3), but could also be found in patients with hyperCKemia only. Therefore, we analysed the index cases of the remaining 31 as yet undiagnosed families from our previously described cohort of LGMD patients for the presence of ANO5 mutations. Detailed history and neurological examination were available for all patients. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, skeletal muscle computed tomography (CT) and cardiological investigations were performed. Mutations in ANO5 were found in 16% of the families: 11 index patients and two sibs, eight males and five females. The founder mutation c.191dupA was present in 8 out of 13 patients. Ten different pathogenic mutations were identified of which seven were novel: five missense and two splice site mutations. The age of these patients ranged from 26 to 69 years and the age of onset varied from 21 to 57 years. Symptoms at onset were related to proximal leg weakness. The weakness was slowly progressive. Calf hypertrophy was present in three patients. Males were more severely affected than females. Serum CK activity was highly elevated in the early stage of disease and moderately increased in later stages. Muscle biopsy showed predominantly dystrophic changes. One patient had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, two others had intraventricular septum thickening. PMID:23607914

  4. ANO10 mutations cause ataxia and coenzyme Q₁₀ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Balreira, Andrea; Boczonadi, Veronika; Barca, Emanuele; Pyle, Angela; Bansagi, Boglarka; Appleton, Marie; Graham, Claire; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Taylor, Robert W; Naini, Ali; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hirano, Michio; Quinzii, Catarina M; Horvath, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Inherited ataxias are heterogeneous disorders affecting both children and adults, with over 40 different causative genes, making molecular genetic diagnosis challenging. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly improved mutation detection, few treatments exist for patients with inherited ataxia. In two patients with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency in muscle, whole exome sequencing revealed mutations in ANO10, which encodes anoctamin 10, a member of a family of putative calcium-activated chloride channels, and the causative gene for autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 (SCAR10). Both patients presented with slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria leading to severe disability in the sixth decade. Epilepsy and learning difficulties were also present in one patient, while retinal degeneration and cataract were present in the other. The detection of mutations in ANO10 in our patients indicate that ANO10 defects cause secondary low CoQ10 and SCAR10 patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation. PMID:25182700

  5. Reforming science education in Saudi Arabia: A conceptual framework for the design of Coordinated and Thematic science (CATS) module for grades 7--9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghanem, Ghanem S. D.

    This study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for the design of science curricula in Saudi middle schools. The methodological procedures of this study also included the assessment of the proposed conceptual framework with science education experts in Saudi Arabia. The development phase consisted of three steps. The first step included the review of related literature. The scope of the literature review included a theoretical background about the various cultural forces which shaped the patterns of education in Saudi Arabia. It also provided an overview of the major emphases in recent reform efforts in science education in the United States as documented by AAAS and NSTA. In the second step, a conceptual framework for the design of science curricula in Saudi middle schools was presented. The development of this conceptual framework took into account the inadequacies of science education in Saudi Arabia and the major emphases of recent reforms in science education (Project 2061, SS&C) and was guided by a set of constructivist assumptions. In the final step, the researcher applied the proposed conceptual framework for the design of coordinated thematic science (CATS) modules using the theme of energy for grades 7--9. The assessment phase was accomplished by investigating the opinions of science education experts in Saudi Arabia (n = 304) for the determination of suitability and actual use of the conceptual framework for the future design of science curricula in Saudi middle schools. The subjects were asked to respond to 92 theoretical principles which could be used for science curriculum design and 43 obstacles which might oppose applying these principles. The data were analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics to investigate the opinions of subjects as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to measure the degree of agreement and disagreement among them. Overall, the findings were strongly supportive of the proposed conceptual framework. It was

  6. Microstructural and mineral analysis on the fault gouge in the coseismic shear zone of the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ren-mao; Zhang, Bing-liang; Xu, Xi-wei; Lin, Chuan-yong; Han, Zhu-jun

    2015-07-01

    The 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake formed two coseismic surface rupture zones with the trend of N35°E, known as the Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture and the Pengguan rupture. The Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture is the principle one with abundant fault gouge development along its length. In the exploratory trench at the Saba village along the Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture, the new fault gouge zone is only ~3 mm wide, which suggests that fault slip was constrained in a very narrow zone. In this study, we thus carried out detailed microstructural and mineral component analysis on the oriented fault gouge samples from the Saba exploratory trench to understand their features and geological implication. The results show that different microstructures of localized brittle deformation can be observed in the fault gouges, including Y-shear, R1-shear, R2-shear, P-shear as well as tension fracture, bookshelf glided structure and so on. These microstructures are commonly recognized as the product of seismic fault slipping. Furthermore, within the area between two parallel Y-shears of the fault gouge, a few of microstructures of distributed ductile deformations were developed, such as P-foliation, elongation and asymmetrical trailing structure of detrital particles. The microstructure features of fault gouges implicate the thrust movement of the fault during the Wenchuan earthquake. In addition, the fault gouge has less quartz and feldspar and more clay than the surrounding rocks, which indicates that some quartz and feldspar in the surrounding rocks were transformed into clay, whereas the fault gouge has more illite and less illite/montmorillonite mixed layers than the surrounding rocks, which shows that the illite/montmorillonite mixed layer was partly converted into illite due to temperature increasing induced by coseismic fault slipping friction (also being affected partly by the chemical action of solutions). Such microstructures features and mineral component changes recorded the

  7. Association of polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase 6 gene with salivary buffer capacity, dental plaque pH, and caries index in children aged 7-9 years.

    PubMed

    Peres, R C R; Camargo, G; Mofatto, L S; Cortellazzi, K L; Santos, M C L G; Nobre-dos-Santos, M; Santos, M N; Bergamaschi, C C; Line, S R P

    2010-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI is a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of carbon hydroxide in saliva and other body fluids. This enzyme has been implicated in taste and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tooth erosion, and caries. The purpose of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype distribution of three polymorphisms in the coding sequences of (CA6) gene and check for possible associations with salivary buffer capacity, number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in deciduous and permanent teeth (dmft/DMFT, Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth), plaque index (PI), and the plaque pH variation (DeltapH) in children aged 7-9 years. Two hundred and forty-five children from both genders, residents in area with fluoridated water (Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil) were divided into two groups: caries free and with caries. The clinical examinations were conducted by a single previously calibrated examiner (kappa=0.91) in an outdoor setting using a mirror and a probe, according to WHO criteria index (dmft/DMFT). Approximately 2 h after the first daily meal, the buffer capacity (BC) and the plaque pH were analyzed by means of a pH meter and an ion selective electrode. Plaque pH was measured immediately and 5 min after a mouth rinse with a 10% sucrose solution. The data were submitted to chi(2), Student's, and Mann-Whitney tests (alpha=0.05). The PI and DeltapH of the upper and lower teeth were significantly higher in the carious group than control (P<0.05). There was no difference between the groups in relation to BC. There was no association between the alleles and genotypes distributions for polymorphisms in the CA6 gene exons 2 and 3 and caries experience (P>0.05). There was a positive association between buffer capacity and the rs2274327 (C/T) polymorphism. The allele T and genotype TT were significantly less frequent in individuals with the highest buffer capacity (P=0.023 and 0.045, respectively). This finding encourages future studies relating CA6 gene polymorphisms

  8. Storm Surge of Supertyphoon Haiyan (7-9 Nov 2013) on Samar (Philippines) Moved the Largest Boulder Ever Documented for a Recent Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M.; May, S. M.; Brill, D.; Reyes, M.; Brückner, H.

    2014-12-01

    Supertyphoon Haiyan (local name: Yolanda) struck the Philippines on 7-9 Nov 2013. It constantly reached category 5 (SSH scale) during its crossing of the archipelago. Storm surge heights of more than 7 m, wave heights of up to 5 m, and extensive flooding along the coast are reported. The death toll surpassed 6,000 individuals, and more than 16 M people were affected in total. The massive storm surge, which surprised many residents in particular on Samar and Leyte, also initiated the dislocation of large boulders at the coastline of SE Samar. Since such deposits may indicate maximum flooding distances and flow velocities of extreme wave events over timescales exceeding the era of historical documentation, they have increasingly been explored as a source for coastal hazard assessment. However, there is no clear consensus on differences in transport capacities and boulder field patterns created by storms and tsunamis. Thus, records from recent events provide a pivotal reference for process-related interpretation of other coastal boulder fields. We conducted a geomorphological and sedimentological survey after Haiyan on Leyte, Samar, Negros, and Bantayan. In SE Samar, the largest boulder (~75 m³; 9.0 x 4.5 x 3.5 m³; ~180 t) was shifted for 45 m on an inclined upper intertidal platform behind a Holocene reef by longshore sliding. A clast of ~70 t was moved by saltation and/or rolling for the same distance. A boulder of ~23.5 t was quarried at 2 m a.s.l. (above mean sea level) from the cliff edge of the Pleistocene carbonate platform and transported to a position of 6 m a.s.l. Boulders of up to ~17 t were moved from 6.5 to 10 m a.s.l., 2 m below the highest flood marks. Volumes of the limestone boulders were calculated using DGPS-derived point clouds transferred to ArcGIS. Densities were estimated to be around 2.3 g cm-3 using rock samples and the Archimedean principle. Downward-facing rock pools, grass patches, living barnacles, roots and soil staining on exposed

  9. Structure, Frictional Melting and Fault Weakening during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake Slip: Observation from the WFSD Drilling Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Li, C.; Zhang, J.; Sun, Z.; Si, J.; Liu, D.; Chevalier, M. L.; Han, L.; Yun, K.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake produced two co-seismic surface ruptures along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (~270 km) and the Guanxian-Anxian fault (~80 km) simultaneously in the Longmen Shan thrust belt. Besides, two surface rupture zones were tracked in the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, one along the Yingxiu fault, the other along the Shenxigou-Longchi fault, which both converged into one rupture zone at the Bajiaomiao village, Hongkou town, where one distinct fault plane with two striation orientations was exposed. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was carried out right after the earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanisms and rupture process. Six boreholes were drilled along the rupture zones with depths ranging from 600 to 2400 m. WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 are located at the Bajiaomiao area, the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, while WFSD-4 and WFSD-4S are in the Nanba town area, in the northern part of the rupture zone. Detailed research showed that ~1 mm thick Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) of the Wenchuan earthquake is located at ~589 m-depth in the WFSD-1 cores. Graphite present in the PSZ indicates a low fault strength. Long-term temperature monitoring shows an extremely low fault friction coefficient during the earthquake. Recently, another possible PSZ was found in WFSD-1 cores at ~732 m-depth, with a ~2 mm thick melt layer in the fault gouge, where feldspar was melted but quartz was not, indicating that the frictional melting temperature was 1230°C < T < 1720°C. These two PSZs at depth may correspond to the two co-seismic surface rupture zones. Besides, the Wenchuan earthquake PSZ was also recognized in the WFSD-4S cores, at ~1084 m-depth. About 200-400 μm thick melt layer (fault vein, mainly feldspar), as well as melt injection veins, were observed in the slip zone, where oblique distinct striations were visible on the slip surface. Therefore, there are two PSZs in the shallow

  10. Fault-scarp related features and cascade-rupturing model for the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9), eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Xu, X.; Klinger, Y.; Diao, G.; Chen, G.; Feng, X.; Li, C.; Zhu, A.; Yuan, R.; Guo, T.; Sun, X.; Tan, X.; An, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The post-earthqauke field investigations reveal that the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12th May 2008 ruptured three reverse faults, two NE-trending imbricated reverse faults and another NW-trending reverse fault, along the middle Longmenshan fold-and-thrust belt at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The fault-scarp related features can be categorized into eight characterized groups: simple thrust scarp, hanging-wall collapse scarp, simple pressure ridge, dextral pressure ridge, fault-related fold scarp, back-thrust pressure ridge, local normal fault scarp and crocodile-mouth-like scarp. The local normal scarp is first discovered in the reverse-faulting earthquake events as ever reported in the world. The combination of different fault-scarp features, along-strike variation of the co-seismic offsets and fault-trace discontinuity sizes demonstrates that the surface ruptures associated with Wenchuan earthquake are dominated by reverse sense with right-lateral components, but the relative ratio varies from site to site. Also, the surface ruptures can be divided, for the first order, into two segments, the Yingxiu and Beichuan segments, corresponding to Mw 7.8 and Mw 7.57 events, respectively. These two segments further can be divided, for the second order, into four sub-segments in total, which are equivalent to four sub-events of Mw 7.46, Mw 7.69, Mw 6.99 and Mw 7.52, respectively. The rupture segmentation, for different orders, shows a cascade-rupturing pattern and may help explain why the quake time of the Wenchuan earthquake was so long as up to 100 second. Aftershock focal mechanisms are also used to constrain the fault geometry for the sub-segments, indicating that the seismogenic faults are listric at depth and in general, the fault plane becomes steeper northward, which enables the fault to accommodate larger strike-slip motion. This earthquake also confirms that the crustal shortening across the Longmenshan fold-and-thrust belt should be responsible

  11. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  12. A novel missense mutation in ANO5/TMEM16E is causative for gnathodiaphyseal dyplasia in a large Italian pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Caterina; Brunamonti Binello, Paolo; Badiali, Giovanni; Caci, Emanuela; Cusano, Roberto; Garibaldi, Joseph; Pippucci, Tommaso; Merlini, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rhoden, Kerry J; Galietta, Luis J V; Lalatta, Faustina; Balbi, Paolo; Seri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by frequent bone fractures at a young age, bowing of tubular bones and cemento-osseus lesions of the jawbones. Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) belongs to the anoctamin protein family that includes calcium-activated chloride channels. However, recent data together with our own experiments reported here add weight to the hypothesis that ANO5 may not function as calcium-activated chloride channel. By sequencing the entire ANO5 gene coding region and untranslated regions in a large Italian GDD family, we found a novel missense mutation causing the p.Thr513Ile substitution. The mutation segregates with the disease in the family and has never been described in any database as a polymorphism. To date, only two mutations on the same cysteine residue at position 356 of ANO5 amino-acid sequence have been described in GDD families. As ANO5 has also been found to be mutated in two different forms of muscular dystrophy, the finding of this third mutation in GDD adds clues to the role of ANO5 in these disorders. PMID:23047743

  13. Triggered deformation and seismic activity under Mammoth Mountain in long Valley caldera by the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Prejean, S.G.; Hill, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake triggered deformational offsets and microseismicity under Mammoth Mountain (MM) on the rim of Long Valley caldera, California, some 3460 km from the earthquake. Such strain offsets and microseismicity were not recorded at other borehole strain sites along the San Andreas fault system in California. The Long Valley offsets were recorded on borehole strainmeters at three sites around the western part of the caldera that includes Mammoth Mountain - a young volcano on the southwestern rim of the caldera. The largest recorded strain offsets were -0.1 microstrain at PO on the west side of MM, 0.05 microstrain at MX to the southeast of MM, and -0.025 microstrain at BS to the northeast of MM with negative strain extensional. High sample rate strain data show initial triggering of the offsets began at 22:30 UTC during the arrival of the first Rayleigh waves from the Alaskan earthquake with peak-to-peak dynamic strain amplitudes of about 2 microstrain corresponding to a stress amplitude of about 0.06 MPa. The strain offsets grew to their final values in the next 10 min. The associated triggered seismicity occurred beneath the south flank of MM and also began at 22:30 UTC and died away over the next 15 min. This relatively weak seismicity burst included some 60 small events with magnitude all less than M = 1. While poorly constrained, these strain observations are consistent with triggered slip and intrusive opening on a north-striking normal fault centered at a depth of 8 km with a moment of l016 N m, or the equivalent of a M 4.3 earthquake. The cumulative seismic moment for the associated seismicity burst was more than three orders of magnitude smaller. These observations and this model resemble those for the triggered deformation and slip that occurred beneath the north side of MM following the 16 October 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. However, in this case, we see little post-event slip decay reflected in

  14. Imaging the M7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake 2002 rupture at the Delta River using LiDAR, RADAR, and SASW Surface Wave Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Barnhardt, W.; Carkin, B.; Collins, B. D.; Grossman, E. E.; Minasian, D.; Thompson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake of 3 November 2002 resulted in approximately 5.5 meters of right-lateral offset and sub-meter (0.6m average) up-to-the north vertical displacement of alluvial deposits of the Delta River. We characterize the surface rupture and shallow fault structure of the Denali fault zone at the Delta River in order to better understand these most recent displacements and to estimate the total vertical offset of alluvium above glacially scoured bedrock. To analyze deformations along the fault-trace, we performed tripod-mounted ground-based LiDAR surveys, and Spectral analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) and Ground Penetrating RADAR (GPR) geophysical investigations. These studies were performed between the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAPS) corridor on the terrace deposits of the eastern flanks of the Delta River valley and the steeply sloping bedrock surface on the western side of the river. To produce digital terrain models (DTM) of the surface break we used a Riegl Z210i Laser-scanner to image eight independent LiDAR scans, and ISite3D modeling software to merge these scans into three DTM surfaces. We find that using a rotating scanning-laser allows us to produce ultra-high resolution quantitative DTMs for geomorphic analysis that can be used to resolve features and detect topographic changes on a fine-scale (0.9-2.5cm). Local geo-referencing control points are established using fixed auto reflectors. The near subsurface alluvium was imaged using reflection-based (GPR). A suite of parallel and orthogonal GPR reflection lines were measured to develop block models of the surface rupture at two locations. Radar imagery clearly delineates a plane of chaotic reflectors across the rupture zone. To characterize the depth of alluvium over bedrock on either side of the fault, we used the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) approach to invert the near-surface shear wave velocity profile. An Alyeska Co. Catepillar D9N track-mounted dozer was used as a high

  15. [Ano-rectal injuries in civilian practice in Cameroon. 10 case reports].

    PubMed

    Yao, J G; Masso-Misse, P; Malonga, E

    1994-01-01

    At the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, 10 ano-rectal injuries were treated over a period of 5 years. There were the same number of men and women and all patients were young (range: 7 to 35 years). The cause was illegal abortion in 2 cases and impalement following a fall from a tree in 3. The time lapse between injury and treatment was longer than 24 hours in 5 patients. In 2 cases the lesions were minor and simple debridement was possible. In the remaining 8 cases, construction of a colostomy was required using either the Hartmann terminal-type technique (n = 5) or the exclusion technique (n = 3). Three patients died: one from traumatic shock and two from septic shock. Complications were observed in 4 patients: 2 infections and 2 mechanical complications. Two patients presented permanent sequels including one with partial fecal incontinence. This study confirms the difficulty in management of ano-rectal injuries with limited facilities and reveals the variety of situations that can lead to these injuries especially in children in Africa. PMID:7934784

  16. Mutations in ANO3 Cause Dominant Craniocervical Dystonia: Ion Channel Implicated in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Holmström, Kira M.; Bras, Jose; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Preza, Elisavet; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Ryten, Mina; Schneider, Susanne A.; Stamelou, Maria; Trabzuni, Daniah; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combined linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing of two individuals to identify candidate causal variants in a moderately-sized UK kindred exhibiting autosomal-dominant inheritance of craniocervical dystonia. Subsequent screening of these candidate causal variants in a large number of familial and sporadic cases of cervical dystonia led to the identification of a total of six putatively pathogenic mutations in ANO3, a gene encoding a predicted Ca2+-gated chloride channel that we show to be highly expressed in the striatum. Functional studies using Ca2+ imaging in case and control fibroblasts demonstrated clear abnormalities in endoplasmic-reticulum-dependent Ca2+ signaling. We conclude that mutations in ANO3 are a cause of autosomal-dominant craniocervical dystonia. The locus DYT23 has been reserved as a synonym for this gene. The implication of an ion channel in the pathogenesis of dystonia provides insights into an alternative mechanism that opens fresh avenues for further research. PMID:23200863

  17. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H Criss

    2014-06-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl ((-)) channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure ("the nimbus") enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  18. Mechanism of non-specific-fistula-in-ano: Hormonal aspects-Review.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2012-02-01

    Abscesses could occur anywhere, but quite few that could proceed forward and develop fistulae. Crypto glandular abscess formation concept has been forming the basis for almost all designed strategies for management of cases of idiopathic fistula-in-ano for ages. Yet, this hypothesis failed to explain the reason(s) for the recorded lower incidences of idiopathic anal fistula in females than in males. Gram negative bacteria are largely the causative agents for these anal glands' abscesses that processed further and developed fistulae. Lipopolysaccharide component (LPS) of the bacterial cell wall could significantly attenuate the expression of mRNA of the oestrogen receptors and accordingly reduces the down signalling pathway. Yet, this kind of action could be inhibited in the presence of oestrogen. In addition, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that induces the secretion of other cytokines and enzymes in various cells and tissues. And LPS could activate pro-inflammatory cytokine by activating plasma membrane proteins (e.g. the toll like receptor 4 [TLR4] and CD14 that leads to the production of TNFα and other pro-inflammatory cytokines). This activation could be enhanced by testosterone but inhibited by oestrogen. These are likely the reasons for the higher prevalence of idiopathic fistula-in-ano in males than in females. PMID:21840183

  19. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  20. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  1. Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia: report of a family with a novel mutation of the ANO5 gene.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hannah A; Le, Karen T; Soulema, Albert L; Yueh, Ronald H; Scheuner, Maren T; Holick, Michael F; Christensen, Russell; Tajima, Tracey L; Leung, Angela M; Mallya, Sanjay M

    2016-05-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by florid osseous dysplasia of the jaws, bone fragility, and diaphyseal cortical thickening and bowing of long bones. We present a family with previously undiagnosed GDD. The disorder was identified by the characteristic gnathic and skeletal manifestations in the father. Clinical and radiologic examination of the patient's son also revealed the characteristic features of GDD. Gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation (c. 1067 G>A, p. Cys356 Tyr) in the ANO5 gene, which is causative for GDD. This mutation was predicted to be detrimental by computational analyses and by structural modeling of the protein. The implications for recognition and management of this disease are discussed. PMID:27068316

  2. Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano)

    PubMed Central

    Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano. Aim: To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted. Results: The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured. Conclusion: In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone). PMID:25558158

  3. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  4. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  5. The proposed use of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kenneth M; Smart, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Fistula in ano is a very common presentation to colorectal clinic. Embarrassment due to the symptoms makes accurate estimations of incidence difficult. It is estimated that up to 40% of peri-anal abscess will be accompanied by or preceded by a fistula. Fistulae can be classified into simple fistulae that involve no or minimal sphincter muscle and complex, which involve significant amounts of the anal sphincter muscle, possibly with multiple tracts. For complex fistulae a seton suture is usually placed through the tract and out through the anus to form a loop allowing pockets of sepsis to drain internally and externally and a mature tract of fibrous tissue to develop. Following this period definitive fistula treatment is considered. This can involve a number of procedures that have tremendously varied success rates in the literature. The first stage of surgical treatment is often a core fistulectomy, which entails surgical removal of the tract. This may be followed by insertion of fibrin glue, a collagen plug or formation of a rotation skin flap from surrounding tissue in order to close the resultant tissue defect. All current treatments have a significant failure rate. If this wound breaks down the surgery can leave a large painful peri-anal wound that can lead to ongoing fistulation. Should this occur resiting of the seton will be required with the patient only getting back to square one after months of healing around the seton. In addition removing cores of fibrous tissue passing through the sphincter can threaten the sphincter function resulting in impaired continence. Having seen radiofrequency ablation used to close varicose veins the authors propose that one could use similar techniques to close a fibrous tract matured with a seton in order to close a fistula. The authors propose that a short length radiofrequency catheter could be used to treat fistula in ano. This would in theory be less painful with less tissue destruction. In addition there would be no

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources. PMID:21975302

  7. Methods for Motivation, Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Reading Effectiveness.

    Adolescents are extremely interested in their cultural sex roles, relationships, changing bodies, changing relationships with parents and with members of the opposite sex, value patterns, and careers. Their reading interests are closely related to their emotional interests. Teachers need to be aware of the complexities of adolescent life and…

  8. Praxis release notes: Version 7. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.

    1988-04-07

    These release notes are intended as a guide to those responsible for Nova software and users of Praxis at other organizations. They assume previous knowledge of the Praxis language. All improvements and revisions made in this version of Praxis are described.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  10. H/V ratio in Athens and the strong motion at the Ano Liosia site during the 1999 Athens earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, A.; Tselentis, G.-A.; Zahradnik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The damaging 1999 Athens earthquake of Mw=5.9 occurred at about 20km from the city center. The intensity distribution in the capital, ranging from V to IX, was quite irregular due to combination of the source, path and site effects. The 30-stations temporary network of the University of Patras, installed in the area of Attica for 50 days, recorded a significant part of the aftershock sequence. The aftershocks not only delineated the mainshock fault plane, but they also provided important site classification. The Horizontal-to-Vertical spectral ratio method was applied, and the most significant amplification (H/V exceeding 4 in the frequency range 1-4Hz) was found at the Ano Liosia site, belonging to the most heavily damaged zones with intensity IX. The site is situated in a shallow basin, whose surface extent is about 4x4 km, and the maximum depth is of about 150 m. Based on geological and geophysical data (Vp, Vs, Q) measured at the site, the numerical modeling of the seismic site response was carried out. The finite-differences technique was used for a 2D modeling, and significant edge effects were revealed, e.g. the amplification by a factor of 3, with respect to the outcropping bedrock. The 1D effects of the sediment layering, modeled by the matrix technique, would produce much weaker amplification, and simpler time history of the response. No recording of the mainshock is available from Ano Liosia. Nevertheless, based on the finite-extent source model validated by the existing strong motion records in Athens, we assume that the bedrock motion in Ano Liosia had its PGA ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g, resulting from the relatively small epicentral distance (~ 10 km) and the forward source directivity (Serpetsidaki et al., session SM10). When combined with the above discussed site effect, the PGA values in Ano Liosia might locally exceed 0.6g.

  11. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  12. Magnetic field dependent neutron powder diffraction studies of Ru{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 2}YCu{sub 2.1}O{sub 7.9}

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, R.; Pan, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Stuesser, N.

    2010-05-15

    Temperature and magnetic field dependent neutron diffraction has been used to study the magnetic order in Ru{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 2}YCu{sub 2.1}O{sub 7.9}. The appearance of (1/2, 1/2, 1/2), (1/2, 1/2, 3/2), and (1/2, 1/2, 5/2) peaks below T{sub M}=140 K manifests the antiferromagnetic order. Neutron diffraction patterns measured in applied magnetic fields from 0 to 6 T show the destruction of the antiferromagnetic order with increasing field. There is no evidence of spontaneous or field-induced long range ferromagnetic order. This latter result contradicts the vast majority of other experimental observations for this system.

  13. Constraining the slip distribution and fault geometry of the Mw 7.9, 3 November 2002, Denali fault earthquake with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Tim J.; Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mw 7.9, Denali fault earthquake (DFE) is the largest continental strike-slip earthquake to occur since the development of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We use five interferograms, constructed using radar images from the Canadian Radarsat-1 satellite, to map the surface deformation at the western end of the fault rupture. Additional geodetic data are provided by displacements observed at 40 campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. We use the data to determine the geometry of the Susitna Glacier fault, thrusting on which initiated the DFE, and to determine a slip model for the entire event that is consistent with both the InSAR and GPS data. We find there was an average of 7.3 ± 0.4 m slip on the Susitna Glacier fault, between 1 and 9.5 km depth on a 29 km long fault that dips north at 41 ± 0.7° and has a surface projection close to the mapped rupture. On the Denali fault, a simple model with large slip patches finds a maximum of 8.7 ± 0.7 m of slip between the surface and 14.3 ± 0.2 km depth. A more complex distributed slip model finds a peak of 12.5 ± 0.8 m in the upper 4 km, significantly higher than the observed surface slip. We estimate a geodetic moment of 670 ± 10 × 1018 N m (Mw 7.9), consistent with seismic estimates. Lack of preseismic data resulted in an absence of InSAR coverage for the eastern half of the DFE rupture. A dedicated geodetic InSAR mission could obviate coverage problems in the future.

  14. IMPACT OF Ce DOPING ON THE MAGNETIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF Y1-xCexSr2Ru0.9Cu2.1O7.9; x = 0.05 AND 0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, S.

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of lightly Ce doped, Y1-xCexSr2Ru0.9Cu2.1 O7.9(x = 0.05 and 0.1) samples have been studied and their results are compared with the pristine rutheno-cuprate, YSr2Ru0.9Cu2.1O7.9. The electron doping due to Ce4+ for Y3+ ion impacts on the physical properties of the present system. The tetragonal stabilized samples exhibit magneto superconducting properties under zero field cooled condition (H = 10 Oe) and the diamagnetic onset transition, Td shift slightly towards higher temperature with the increase of "x". Weak antiferromagnetic like hysteresis curves are seen for these samples at 2 K in the magnetic field strength up to ±10 kOe and the magnetization moment, M(μB/Ru) decreases with increase of "x". While the magnetic property of the present system is due to canted Ru moments, the superconducting signal originates from CuO2 plane. Through electrical resistivity measurements we observe that none of the samples exhibit bulk superconductivity down to 2 K. However the x = 0.05 sample reveals lowest resistivity in the entire temperature range than x = 0 and 0.1 samples. The isothermal magnetoresistance, MR(H) measured at different temperatures vary with tuning of "x". While x = 0.1 doped sample shows lower -MR( 8%), the pristine sample exhibits maximum -MR(45%) at 2 K under ±90 kOe field condition.

  15. PERFACT procedure to treat supralevator fistula-in-ano: A novel single stage sphincter sparing procedure

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively perform the PERFACT procedure in supralevator anal fistula/abscess. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively in all the patients. Proximal cauterization around the internal opening, emptying regularly of fistula tracts and curettage of tracts (PERFACT) was done in all patients with supralevator fistula or abscess. All types of anal fistula and/or abscess with supralevator extension, whether intersphincteric or transsphincteric, were included in the study. The internal opening along with the adjacent mucosa was electrocauterized. The resulting wound was left open to heal by secondary intention so as to heal (close) the internal opening by granulation tissue. The supralevator tract/abscess was drained and thoroughly curetted. It was regularly cleaned and kept empty in the postoperative period. The primary outcome parameter was complete fistula healing. The secondary outcome parameters were return to work and change in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system) assessed preoperatively and at 3 mo after surgery. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were prospectively enrolled and followed for a median of 13 mo (range 5-21 mo). Mean age was 41.1 ± 13.4 years, M:F - 15:2. Fourteen (82.4%) had a recurrent fistula, 8 (47.1%) had an associated abscess, 14 (82.4%) had multiple tracts and 5 (29.4%) had horseshoe fistulae. Infralevator part of fistula was intersphincteric in 4 and transsphincteric in 13 patients. Two patients were excluded. Eleven out of fifteen (73.3%) were cured and 26.7% (4/15) had a recurrence. Two patients with recurrence were reoperated on with the same procedure and one was cured. Thus, the overall healing rate was 80% (12/15). All the patients could resume normal work within 48 h of surgery. There was no deterioration in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system). This is the largest series of supralevator fistula-in-ano (SLF) published to date. CONCLUSION: PERFACT procedure is an effective single

  16. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read…

  17. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  18. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance…

  19. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  20. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  1. 1990: Ano Internacional de la alfabetizacion: Acciones sugeridas para America Latina y el Caribe = 1990 International Literacy Year: Suggested Actions for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Michoacan (Mexico). Regional Office for Educ. in Latin America & Caribbean.

    This booklet discusses the needs for literacy education in Latin America and the Caribbean during International Literacy Year. Particular focus is on the objectives of International Literacy Year and suggested actions are provided in the four following areas: (1) operative strategies for the realization of the International Literacy Year,…

  2. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  3. Covalency hinders AnO2(H2O)(+)→ AnO(OH)2(+) isomerisation (An = Pa-Pu).

    PubMed

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-02-21

    The enthalpies of the reactions AnO2(+)→ AnO(+) + O and AnO2(+) + H2O → AnO2(H2O)(+), and those of the isomerisation of the latter to AnO(OH)2(+), have been calculated for An = Pa-Pu. The data match previous experimental and computational values very closely, and the computed enthalpy for the isomerisation of PaO2(H2O)(+) to PaO(OH)2(+), requested by the authors of Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54, 7474, is found to be 0.8 kJ mol(-1). The NPA, NBO and QTAIM approaches are used to probe covalency in the An-Oyl bond of AnO2(H2O)(+), and all metrics agree that these bonds become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed, providing rationalisation for the increasingly endothermic isomerisation reactions. QTAIM analysis indicates that the An=O and An-OH bonds in the oxide hydroxide isomers also become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed. PMID:26781751

  4. Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

  5. Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Tokuda, Harukuni; Enjo, Fumio; Toriumi, Masakazu; Kimura, Yumiko; Koike, Kazuo; Nikaido, Tamotsu; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-02-01

    The structures of three triterpene alcohols isolated from the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum were established to be eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (2; antiquol C), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (3; antiquol B), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (4; euphorbol) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3 and 4 have previously been assigned the erroneous structures of 10alpha-cucurbita-5,24-dien-3alpha-ol and 24-methyleupha-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol, respectively. Compounds 2-4 and four other known compounds isolated from the latex, euphol (1), lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3beta-ol (5), isohelianol (6), and camelliol C (7), showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). PMID:11858748

  6. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Regioselective synthesis and molecular modeling study of vasorelaxant active 7,9-dioxa-1,2-diaza-spiro[4.5]dec-2-ene-6,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Adel S; Ismail, Nasser S M; Farag, Hanaa; el-Eraky, Wafaa I; Saleh, Dalia O; Tala, Srinivasa R; Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-09-01

    Nitrilimines (PhC(-):N(+):NR') generated in situ from hydrazonoyl chlorides 2a,b reacted regioselectively with 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl[1,3]dioxane-4,6-diones 1a-f to afford 1,3,4-triaryl-8,8-dimethyl-7,9-dioxa-1,2-diaza-spiro[4.5]dec-2-ene-6,10-diones 3a-l. In vitro vasodilation activity screening of the synthesized compounds using isolated thoracic aortic rings of male Wister rats pre-contracted with norepinephrine hydrochloride revealed considerable vasodilation activity; compounds 3f and 3j had IC(50) (concentration necessary for 50% reduction of maximal norepinephrine hydrochloride induced contracture) of 0.325, 0.321 mM, respectively. Molecular modeling, including fitting to a 3D-pharmacophore model using Discovery studio 2.1 programs and their docking into optimized alpha(1)-AR homology models as alpha(1)-AR antagonist showed high-docking score and fit values. The experimental in vitro vasodilation activity of compounds 3a-l was consistent with the molecular modeling. PMID:20615586

  8. Inter-Satellite Calibration Linkages for the Visible and Near-Infrared Channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 Spacecraft. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NagarajaRao, C. R.; Chen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The post-launch degradation of the visible (channel 1: 0.58- 068 microns) and near-infrared (channel 2: approx. 0.72 - l.l microns) channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) was estimated using the south-eastern part of the Libyan Desert as a radiometrically stable calibration target. The relative annual degradation rates, in per cent, for the two channels are, respectively: 3.6 and 4.3 (NOAA-7); 5.9 and 3.5 (NOAA-9); and 1.2 and 2.0 (NOAA-11). Using the relative degradation rates thus determined, in conjunction with absolute calibrations based on congruent path aircraft/satellite radiance measurements over White Sands, New Mexico (USA), the variation in time of the absolute gain or slope of the AVHRR on NOAA-9 was evaluated. Inter-satellite calibration linkages were established, using the AVHRR on NOAA-9 as a normalization standard. Formulae for the calculation of calibrated radiances and albedos (AVHRR usage), based on these interlinkages, are given for the three AVHRRs.

  9. Mechanistic Study of the Phytocompound, 2- β -D-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in Human T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Using Combined Differential Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Jeng-Yuan; Yin, Shu-Yi; Chang, Shu-Lin; Hsu, Yi-Jou; Chen, Kai-Wei; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Feng, Ching-Shan; Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Wen-Chin; Wen, Tuan-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Bidens pilosa, a medicinal herb worldwide, is rich in bioactive polyynes. In this study, by using high resolution 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, as many as 2000 protein spots could be detected and those whose expression was specifically up- or downregulated in Jurkat T cells responsive to the treatment with 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHTT) can be identified. GHTT treatment can upregulate thirteen proteins involved in signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism, energy pathways, and channel transport in Jurkat cells. Nine proteins, that is, thioredoxin-like proteins, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID protein involving apoptosis), methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were downregulated in GHTT-treated Jurkat cells. Further, bioinformatics tool, Ingenuity software, was used to predict signaling pathways based on the data obtained from the differential proteomics approach. Two matched pathways, relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, in Jurkat cells were inferred from the proteomics data. Biochemical analysis further verified both pathways involving GHTT in Jurkat cells. These findings do not merely prove the feasibility of combining proteomics and bioinformatics methods to identify cellular proteins as key players in response to the phytocompound in Jurkat cells but also establish the pathways of the proteins as the potential therapeutic targets of leukemia. PMID:26557148

  10. Mechanistic Study of the Phytocompound, 2- β -D-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in Human T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Using Combined Differential Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shiau, Jeng-Yuan; Yin, Shu-Yi; Chang, Shu-Lin; Hsu, Yi-Jou; Chen, Kai-Wei; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Feng, Ching-Shan; Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Wen-Chin; Wen, Tuan-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Bidens pilosa, a medicinal herb worldwide, is rich in bioactive polyynes. In this study, by using high resolution 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, as many as 2000 protein spots could be detected and those whose expression was specifically up- or downregulated in Jurkat T cells responsive to the treatment with 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHTT) can be identified. GHTT treatment can upregulate thirteen proteins involved in signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism, energy pathways, and channel transport in Jurkat cells. Nine proteins, that is, thioredoxin-like proteins, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID protein involving apoptosis), methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were downregulated in GHTT-treated Jurkat cells. Further, bioinformatics tool, Ingenuity software, was used to predict signaling pathways based on the data obtained from the differential proteomics approach. Two matched pathways, relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, in Jurkat cells were inferred from the proteomics data. Biochemical analysis further verified both pathways involving GHTT in Jurkat cells. These findings do not merely prove the feasibility of combining proteomics and bioinformatics methods to identify cellular proteins as key players in response to the phytocompound in Jurkat cells but also establish the pathways of the proteins as the potential therapeutic targets of leukemia. PMID:26557148

  11. Analysing the primacy of distance in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Buor, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Although the distance factor has been identified as key in the utilization of health services in rural areas of developing countries, it has been analysed without recourse to related factors of travel time and transport cost. Also, the influence of distance on vulnerable groups in utilization has not been an object of survey by researchers. This paper addresses the impact of distance on utilization, and how distance compares with travel time and transport cost that are related to it in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South (rural) district in Ghana. The study, a cross-sectional survey, also identifies the position of distance among other important factors of utilization. A sample of 400, drawn through systematic random technique, was used for the survey. Data were analysed using the regression model and some graphic techniques. The main instruments used in data collection were formal (face-by-face) interview and a questionnaire. The survey finds that distance is the most important factor that influences the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district. Other key factors are income, service cost and education. The effect of travel time on utilization reflects that of distance and utilization. Recommendations to reduce distance coverage, improve formal education and reduce poverty have been made. PMID:14727709

  12. Functional disorders of the ano-rectal compartment of the pelvic floor: clinical and diagnostic value of dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    The obstructed defecation syndrome is the main functional disorder of the posterior or ano-rectal pelvic floor compartment. Different mechanical and functional rectal disorders may cause this syndrome, including rectocele, rectal invagination, rectal prolapse, and pubo-rectalis muscle dyskinesia. Since pelvic floor muscles and fasciae act as a unique functional entity, dysfunctions of the posterior compartment are usually associated to variable dysfunctions of the anterior and middle urogenital compartments as well. Over 50% of postmenopause women are affected by severe symptoms due to pelvic floor disorders, with frequent need of surgical invasive treatments. Both diagnosis of the specific ano-rectal dysfunction and identification of all possible associated disorders are mandatory for an effective surgical or conservative treatment. Currently, dynamic MRI provides an excellent morphological and functional display of the pelvic floor like no other imaging modality. Pros and cons of posterior pelvic floor MRI, different evaluation techniques, reference lines and grading systems together with the main imaging findings will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:23090206

  13. Survey and Interpretation Geophysical of Magnetic Isochrones 4n.2 a 2A.3 (7.9 3.6 Ma) in the Central Part of the Rivera Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, D. A.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Valle, S.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the results of six campaigns marine geophysics BABRIP06 in 2006, MAMRIV07 in 2007, MAMRIV08 in 2008, GUAYRIV10 in 2010, BATIBAJA11 in 2011 and MAMRIV12 in 2012, in the abyssal plain in the East Pacific Rise (EPR), on board the UNAM vessel, B/O El Puma. The oceanographic campaigns single beam bathymetric data collected and marine magnetic data. The results allow analyze and study the magnetic texture in the central north of the Rivera plate associated with geological structures and behavior of the seafloor to the isochronous 5A. The systematic survey of the magnetic data provided high resolution on the guidelines of the magnetic anomalies associated with cortical spreading between 7.9 and 3.6 Ma, generated by the northern segment of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), between the Rivera and Tamayo Oceanic Transformants. Multibeam bathymetry data and the acoustic reflectivity of the six campaigns are correlated with the geometry of the magnetic anomalies and seismic reflection profiles to understand the processes that formed the highlight recreational ocean in this area. The main results in this study is the identification of continuous magnetic isochrones 4n.2 to 2A.3, magnetic anomalies associated with seamounts, the geometry of the isochrones associated with a propagator and magnetic anomaly identification of isochronous 3n.3 had not been demonstrated by other oceanographic surveys. Possibly oceanic spreading rate was slower during these epochs and the identification of a cross anomaly was due to a fracture zone that generated the propagator.

  14. Sublithostatic pore fluid pressure in the brittle-ductile transition zone of Mesozoic Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and its implication for the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Liang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Li, Haibing

    2016-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanism for occurrence of large earthquakes in the Longmen Shan region, we indirectly estimated the flow stress and pore fluid pressure in the brittle-ductile transition zone by studying exhumed granitic rocks which experienced Mesozoic ductile deformation, and constructed rheological profiles for the brittle regime and transition zone. The samples were collected from a small pluton that includes granites and deformed granitic rocks overthrust at an outcrop along the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault. The outcrop profile consists of granitic gneiss, protomylonite and mylonite. We observed that heterogeneous ductile deformation occurred in the brittle-ductile transition zone, and that the flow stress ranges from 15 to 80 MPa. Moreover, the fault in that zone experienced a temporary brittle deformation, which might indicate a high strain rate during the co-seismic process and early post-seismic creep. Secondary fluid inclusions were found and measured to define the possible range of the capture temperature and fluid pressure. Sublithostatic pore fluid pressure was determined at the capture temperatures of 330-350 °C during the process of filling and/or healing of microcracks. According to constructed rheological profiles and related mechanisms, high, sublithostatic pore fluid pressure is likely to significantly weaken the fault and to be related to inception of a brittle fault slip above the brittle-ductile transition zone. A high strain rate driven by the coseismic slip in the brittle regime may lead to a brittle fault slip in the brittle-ductile transition zone, and then plastic deformation in the transition zone may resume gradually during post-seismic creep. The focal depth of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake may be controlled by a velocity weakening to velocity strengthening transition in frictional slip (brittle regime) of granite around a temperature of 350 °C.

  15. Magnetic mineral characterization close to the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault surface rupture zone of the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, 2008) and its implication for earthquake slip processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Sun, Zhiming; Liu, Jiang; Han, Liang; Chevalier, Marie-Luce

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake produced two major rupture zones: one in the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone (YBF) and another in the Anxian-Guanxian fault zone (AGF). A shallow trench was dug in Bajiaomiao village, Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province, which experienced a ∼4.3 m vertical offset during this large earthquake. The hanging wall of the YBF in this trench includes fault gouge and breccia. Optical microscope observations and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show obvious differences between the fault gouge and breccia. Moreover, rock magnetism measurements were collected and include mass magnetic susceptibility (MS), Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (IRM), Saturation Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (SIRM), high-temperature thermo-magnetism (K-T) and magnetic hysteresis loops. Several cm-thick magnetic mineral anomalies are observed close to the Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone of the YBF. Magnetite and Fe-sulfide are the main magnetic carrier materials for the fault rocks close to the surface rupture zone, including 3 cm-thick fault gouge and 3 cm-thick fault breccia, while the other fault breccia, further from the surface rupture zone, contains the paramagnetic minerals. The possible magnetic change is attributed to newly-formed magnetite from paramagnetic minerals at high temperatures (>500 °C) during the large earthquake, implying that the YBF has ever experienced high-temperature thermal pressurization earthquake slip dynamics. Moreover, the YBF has also experienced high-temperature frictional melting earthquake slip dynamics, constrained by the multiple vein pseudotachylite. These high-temperature earthquake slip processes may be responsible for the high dip angle thrust characteristic of the YBF.

  16. Inhibition of cell proliferation by a selective inhibitor of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel, Ano1

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzone, Amelia; Eisenman, Seth T.; Strege, Peter R.; Yao, Zhen; Ordog, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 blocked Ano1 currents in HEK cells expressing Ano1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation in ICC primary cultures and CFPAC-1 cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation of ICC in intact smooth muscle strips. -- Abstract: Background: Ion channels play important roles in regulation of cellular proliferation. Ano1 (TMEM16A) is a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel expressed in several tumors and cell types. In the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract Ano1 is selectively expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and appears to be required for normal gastrointestinal slow wave electrical activity. However, Ano1 is expressed in all classes of ICC, including those that do not generate slow waves suggesting that Ano1 may have other functions. Indeed, a role for Ano1 in regulating proliferation of tumors and ICC has been recently suggested. Recently, a high-throughput screen identified a small molecule, T16A{sub inh}-A01 as a specific inhibitor of Ano1. Aim: To investigate the effect of the T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibitor on proliferation in ICC and in the Ano1-expressing human pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. Methods: Inhibition of Ano1 was demonstrated by whole cell voltage clamp recordings of currents in cells transfected with full-length human Ano1. The effect of T16A{sub inh}-A01 on ICC proliferation was examined in situ in organotypic cultures of intact mouse small intestinal smooth muscle strips and in primary cell cultures prepared from these tissues. ICC were identified by Kit immunoreactivity. Proliferating ICC and CFPAC-1 cells were identified by immunoreactivity for the nuclear antigen Ki67 or EdU incorporation, respectively. Results: T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents by 60% at 10 {mu}M in a voltage-independent fashion. Proliferation of ICC was significantly reduced in primary cultures

  17. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; Ravindra, D R; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified

  18. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; DR, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S.; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified

  19. Theoretical studies on the AnO2(n+) (An = U, Np; n = 1, 2) complexes with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Nie, Chang-Ming; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-02-21

    Actinide separation in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is essential for the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Organophosphorus reagents have been found to exhibit strong affinities for actinides in experiments. In this work, the extraction complexes of AnO2(n+) (An = U, Np; n = 1, 2) with the traditional organophosphorus ligand HDEHP (di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid) have been investigated using density functional theory together with scalar-relativistic effective core potentials (ECPs) for actinide elements. According to our calculations, the HDEHP dimer prefers to act as a bidentate ligand in most of the studied complexes. HDEHP ligands show a higher extraction ability for An(vi) over An(v), and the formation of Np(vi) complexes is slightly more favorable than those of U(vi) analogues, which is mainly attributed to the stronger donor-acceptor interaction in Np(vi) complexes. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds play a significant role in the stability of the 1 : 1 type complexes AnO2(HL)2(NO3)2 (L = DEHP(-)). Moreover, AnO2(HL)2(NO3)2 are the most stable species in nitrate-rich acid solutions, while at low nitric acid concentrations, the complexing reaction of AnO2(H2O)5(2+) + 2(HL)2 → AnO2(HL2)2 + 2H(+) + 5H2O is probably the dominant reaction in the extraction process. Our results can help to understand the speciation of actinyl complexes in real solvent extraction of actinides with HDEHP at the molecular level. PMID:25598207

  20. Revisiting an ancient treatment for transphincteric fistula-in-ano ‘There is nothing new under the sun’ Ecclesiastes 1v9

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, G; Hargest, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The history of treatments for fistula-in-ano can be traced back to ancient times. Current treatment of transphincteric fistulae is controversial, with many options available. We reviewed the history of treatment using cutting setons and present our series of transphincteric fistulae in the light of the series in the literature. Design Literature review and case series. Setting Hospital based coloproctology service Participants 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula-in-ano were included. Main Outcome Measures The literature pertaining to treatment of transphincteric fistula was reviewed, along with the outcome of various treatment methods for this condition. Data were collected for 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula- in-ano were assessed for fistula healing, recurrence and complications. Results A total of 140 consecutive patients with fistula-in-ano were identified, of which 111 were cryptoglandular (79.3%). Eighty-one of these 111 were transphincteric (73.0%). At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 2–83 months), 70 transphincteric fistulae had healed (86.4%), 10 were still undergoing treatment (12.3%) and one patient was lost to follow-up prior to treatment (1.2%). Two patients in this group required a stoma (2.5%), six patients developed recurrence (7.4%); three ‘true’ recurrences (3.7%). One (1.2%) developed a chronic fissure. There were no reported cases of incontinence. Conclusions The management of transphincteric fistula-in-ano is complex and controversial, for which no clear surgical procedure has gained acceptance as the gold standard. This study demonstrates that transphincteric fistulae can be successfully treated using cutting setons. A high healing rate (86.4%), low recurrence rate (7.4%) and a low complication rate (3.7%) are shown, which compares favourably with published rates over a long follow-up. PMID:26152674

  1. A comparative clinical study of Snuhi Ksheera Sutra, Tilanala Kshara Sutra and Apamarga Kshara Sutra in Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Supreeth Joyal; Bhuyan, C.; Gupta, S. K.; Dudhamal, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano) at modern parlance is a common anorectal condition prevalent in the populations worldwide and its prevalence is second highest after Arsha (hemorrhoids). Kshara Sutra (K.S.) is one of the chief modality in the treatment of Bhagandara in Ayurvedic science. Exploration of the new plants for the preparation of Kshara as a better substitute to Apamarga Kshara is the need of the hour. To find out an effective alternative to Apamarga K.S. in view of easy processing, a Snuhi Ksheera Sutra without any Kshara and the Tilanala K.S. were opted for their clinical evaluation. Total 33 cases of Bhagandara were divided randomly into 3 groups, having 11 patients in each group. In Group A, Snuhi Ksheera Sutra; in Group B, Tilanala K.S. and in Group C, Apamarga K.S. were used. Assessment was done on objective (Unit Cutting Time - UCT) and subjective parameters. Statistically insignificant difference was observed in the efficacy of treatment by subjective parameters like pain, discharge, etc. between the three groups. It was found that Tilanala K.S. showed higher UCT (9.76 days) while lower in Snuhi Ksheera Sutra (7.42 days) as compared to Apamarga K.S. (8.82 days). Thus Tilanala K.S. can be used as a substitute for Apamarga K.S. and Snuhi Ksheera Sutra can be employed in the recurrent fibrosed cases of Bhagandara. PMID:23049190

  2. A comparative clinical study of Snuhi Ksheera Sutra, Tilanala Kshara Sutra and Apamarga Kshara Sutra in Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano).

    PubMed

    Lobo, Supreeth Joyal; Bhuyan, C; Gupta, S K; Dudhamal, T S

    2012-01-01

    Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano) at modern parlance is a common anorectal condition prevalent in the populations worldwide and its prevalence is second highest after Arsha (hemorrhoids). Kshara Sutra (K.S.) is one of the chief modality in the treatment of Bhagandara in Ayurvedic science. Exploration of the new plants for the preparation of Kshara as a better substitute to Apamarga Kshara is the need of the hour. To find out an effective alternative to Apamarga K.S. in view of easy processing, a Snuhi Ksheera Sutra without any Kshara and the Tilanala K.S. were opted for their clinical evaluation. Total 33 cases of Bhagandara were divided randomly into 3 groups, having 11 patients in each group. In Group A, Snuhi Ksheera Sutra; in Group B, Tilanala K.S. and in Group C, Apamarga K.S. were used. Assessment was done on objective (Unit Cutting Time - UCT) and subjective parameters. Statistically insignificant difference was observed in the efficacy of treatment by subjective parameters like pain, discharge, etc. between the three groups. It was found that Tilanala K.S. showed higher UCT (9.76 days) while lower in Snuhi Ksheera Sutra (7.42 days) as compared to Apamarga K.S. (8.82 days). Thus Tilanala K.S. can be used as a substitute for Apamarga K.S. and Snuhi Ksheera Sutra can be employed in the recurrent fibrosed cases of Bhagandara. PMID:23049190

  3. Why do we have to review our experience in managing cases with idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly?

    PubMed Central

    Fucini, Claudio; Giani, Iacopo

    2011-01-01

    “Why do we have to review our experience in managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly?” In order to answer this apparently simple question, we reviewed our clinical and surgical cases and most important relevant literature to find a rational and scientific answer. It would appear that whatever method you adopt in fistula management, there is a price to pay regarding either rate of recurrence (higher with conservative methods) or impairment of continence (higher with traditional surgery). Since, at the moment, reliable data to identify a treatment as a gold standard in the management of anal fistulas are lacking, the correct approach to this condition must consider all the anatomic and clinicopathological aspects of the disease; this knowledge joined to an eclectic attitude of the surgeon, who should be familiar with different types of treatment, is the only guarantee for a satisfactory treatment. As a conclusion, it is worthwhile to remember that adequate initial treatment significantly reduces recurrence, which, when it occurs, is usually due to failure to recognise the tract and primary opening at the initial operation. PMID:21876617

  4. D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11 substance P, a neuropeptide antagonist, blocks binding, Ca2(+)-mobilizing, and mitogenic effects of endothelin and vasoactive intestinal contractor in mouse 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fabregat, I.; Rozengurt, E. )

    1990-10-01

    Endothelin (ET1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) stimulate quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells to resume DNA synthesis acting synergistically with epidermal growth factors (EGF) and other mitogens. The peptide (D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11) substance P has been identified as a broad spectrum neuropeptide antagonist which blocks the binding and biological effects of the Ca2(+)-mobilizing neuropeptides bombesin, vasopressin, and bradykinin. In the present study we show that (D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11) substance P also acts as an ET1/VIC antagonist as judged by the following criteria: (a) inhibition of specific 125I-labelled ET1 binding to a ET1/VIC receptor in a competitive and dose-dependent manner; (b) blocking of the rapid increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration promoted by ET1 or VIC; and (c) inhibition of DNA synthesis stimulated by VIC in the presence of EGF. The inhibitory effects of (D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu 11) substance P on Ca2+ mobilization and DNA synthesis were reversed by increasing the concentration of VIC. This is the first time that a peptide structurally unrelated to ET1 or VIC is shown to block the binding and mitogenic effects of peptides of the endothelin family.

  5. Innovative approach in the management of horse-shoe fistula-in-ano with Kṣārasūtra

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Amruta A.; Dongargaon, Tajahmed N.; Shilpa, M. P.; Toshikhane, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The “Śambukāvarta Bhagandara” described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor “Kṣārasūtra” treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o’ clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o’clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o’clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months. PMID:26120231

  6. X-ray sterilization of the An. arabiensis genetic sexing strain 'ANO IPCL1' at pupal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Ndo, C; Yamada, H; Damiens, D D; N'do, S; Seballos, G; Gilles, J R L

    2014-03-01

    With a view to area wide integrated pest management programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, the effects of X-ray exposure of males of the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of An. arabiensis, "ANO IPCL1" have been tested. The suitability of X-ray was assessed in comparison to gamma-ray for mosquito sterilization in operational settings where the acquisition of gamma ray irradiators may be problematic. Pupae and adult males were sterilized using X-ray irradiation at 5 increasing doses and effects were observed in terms of fecundity and fertility. Irradiated pupae and adults were further observed for effects on longevity. The adult stage appeared to be more sensitive to radiation exposure than the pupal stage, with a residual fertility of 1% in adults irradiated at 75Gy and 0% at 105Gy, compared to 8%at 75Gy and 4% at 105Gy in adults irradiated at the pupal stage. All treatment groups except those irradiated at 60Gy were statistically different from the control groups in terms of adult longevity post treatment, however overall survival was not highly compromised in the 75Gy treatment group which showed 96% of induced sterility. To ensure the fine balance between the induced sterility and the fitness of the insect produced is achieved, irradiation of adults at this dose may be a good compromise for the SIT as applied for this species, especially in specific cases such as sterilization after female elimination by spiking blood meals. Investigation into the combined effects of blood spiking and irradiation at the adult stage and additional competitiveness studies both in laboratory and field cages will provide more insight into the radiation dose and mosquito stage to be used in the frame of future SIT programs targeting this important malaria vector. PMID:24361725

  7. ANO5 gene analysis in a large cohort of patients with anoctaminopathy: confirmation of male prevalence and high occurrence of the common exon 5 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Anna; Hicks, Debbie; Hudson, Judith; Laval, Steve H; Barresi, Rita; Hilton-Jones, David; Deschauer, Marcus; Harris, Elizabeth; Rufibach, Laura; Hwang, Esther; Bashir, Rumaisa; Walter, Maggie C; Krause, Sabine; van den Bergh, Peter; Illa, Isabel; Pénisson-Besnier, Isabelle; De Waele, Liesbeth; Turnbull, Doug; Guglieri, Michela; Schrank, Bertold; Schoser, Benedikt; Seeger, Jürgen; Schreiber, Herbert; Gläser, Dieter; Eagle, Michelle; Bailey, Geraldine; Walters, Richard; Longman, Cheryl; Norwood, Fiona; Winer, John; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael; Roberts, Mark; Bindoff, Laurence A; Brierley, Charlotte; Cooper, Robert G; Cottrell, David A; Davies, Nick P; Gibson, Andrew; Gorman, Gráinne S; Hammans, Simon; Jackson, Andrew P; Khan, Aijaz; Lane, Russell; McConville, John; McEntagart, Meriel; Al-Memar, Ali; Nixon, John; Panicker, Jay; Parton, Matt; Petty, Richard; Price, Christopher J; Rakowicz, Wojtek; Ray, Partha; Schapira, Anthony H; Swingler, Robert; Turner, Chris; Wagner, Kathryn R; Maddison, Paul; Shaw, Pamela J; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2013-08-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L or anoctaminopathy is a condition mainly characterized by adult onset proximal lower limb muscular weakness and raised CK values, due to recessive ANO5 gene mutations. An exon 5 founder mutation (c.191dupA) has been identified in most of the British and German LGMD2L patients so far reported. We aimed to further investigate the prevalence and spectrum of ANO5 gene mutations and related clinical phenotypes, by screening 205 undiagnosed patients referred to our molecular service with a clinical suspicion of anoctaminopathy. A total of 42 unrelated patients had two ANO5 mutations (21%), whereas 14 carried a single change. We identified 34 pathogenic changes, 15 of which are novel. The c.191dupA mutation represents 61% of mutated alleles and appears to be less prevalent in non-Northern European populations. Retrospective clinical analysis corroborates the prevalently proximal lower limb phenotype, the male predominance and absence of major cardiac or respiratory involvement. Identification of cases with isolated hyperCKaemia and very late symptomatic male and female subjects confirms the extension of the phenotypic spectrum of the disease. Anoctaminopathy appears to be one of the most common adult muscular dystrophies in Northern Europe, with a prevalence of about 20%-25% in unselected undiagnosed cases. PMID:23606453

  8. Microscopic theory of the insulating electronic ground states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.-T.; Magnani, N.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    The electronic states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (with An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are investigated employing first-principles calculations within the framework of the local density approximation +U (LDA+U) approach, implemented in a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. A systematic analysis of the An-5f states is performed which provides intuitive connections between the electronic structures and the local crystalline fields of the f states in the AnO2 series. Particularly the mechanisms leading to the experimentally observed insulating ground states are investigated. These are found to be caused by the strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions of the 5f orbitals; however, as a result of the different configurations, this mechanism works in distinctly different ways for each of the AnO2 compounds. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic states of plutonium and curium dioxide are computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium, neptunium, and americium dioxides require additional symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. We show that the occupancy of the An-f orbitals is closely connected to each of the appearing insulating mechanisms. We furthermore investigate the detailed constitution of the noncollinear multipolar moments for transverse 3q magnetic ordered states in UO2 and longitudinal 3q high-rank multipolar ordered states in NpO2 and AmO2.

  9. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  10. Ion channel and lipid scramblase activity associated with expression of TMEM16F/ANO6 isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Scudieri, Paolo; Caci, Emanuela; Venturini, Arianna; Sondo, Elvira; Pianigiani, Giulia; Marchetti, Carla; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J V

    2015-01-01

    Abstract TMEM16F, also known as ANO6, is a membrane protein that has been associated with phospholipid scramblase and ion channel activity. However, the characteristics of TMEM16F-dependent channels, particularly the ion selectivity, are a matter of debate. Furthermore, the direct involvement of TMEM16F in phospholipid scrambling has been questioned. We studied the properties of different TMEM16F variants generated by alternative splicing. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that V1, V2 and V5 variants generated membrane currents activated by very high (micromolar) intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and positive membrane potentials. These variants showed different degrees of Ca2+ sensitivity and kinetics of activation but similar ion permeability, characterized by a slight selectivity for Cl− over Na+. A fourth variant (V3) showing a unique carboxy-terminus was devoid of activity, in agreement with its intracellular localization. We also measured scramblase activity using the binding of annexin V to detect phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. V1, V2 and V5 variants were associated with calcium-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization. Interestingly, introduction of an activating mutation, D409G, produced a marked increase in the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of TMEM16F-dependent channels. In parallel, this mutation also enhanced the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization that occurred even under resting conditions. These results support the conclusion that TMEM16F proteins are directly involved in dual activity, as a phospholipid scramblase and as an ion channel. Key points TMEM16F is a membrane protein with possible dual function as an ion channel and a phospholipid scramblase. The properties of ion channels associated with TMEM16F and the link between ion channel and scramblase activity are a matter of debate. We studied the properties of four isoforms of TMEM16F generated by alternative splicing. Upregulation of three TMEM16F isoforms or

  11. Potassium and ANO1/TMEM16A chloride channel profiles distinguish atypical and typical smooth muscle cells from interstitial cells in the mouse renal pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Tonta, Mary A; Mitsui, Retsu; Li, Qun; Kett, Michelle; Li, Jinhua; Parkington, Helena C; Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although atypical smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the proximal renal pelvis are thought to generate the pacemaker signals that drive pyeloureteric peristalsis, their location and electrical properties remain obscure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Standard patch clamp, intracellular microelectrode and immunohistochemistry techniques were used. To unequivocally identify SMCs, transgenic mice with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) expressed in cells containing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were sometimes used. KEY RESULTS Atypical SMCs were distinguished from typical SMCs by the absence of both a transient 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ current (IKA) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) upon the opening of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. Many typical SMCs displayed a slowly activating, slowly decaying Cl- current blocked by niflumic acid (NFA). Immunostaining for KV4.3 and ANO1/ TMEM16A Cl- channel subunits co-localized with α-SMA immunoreactive product predominately in the distal renal pelvis. Atypical SMCs fired spontaneous inward currents that were either selective for Cl- and blocked by NFA, or cation-selective and blocked by La3+. α-SMA- interstitial cells (ICs) were distinguished by the presence of a Xe991-sensitive KV7 current, BK channel STOCs and Cl- selective, NFA-sensitive spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs). Intense ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunostaining was present in Kit-α-SMA- ICs in the suburothelial and adventitial regions of the renal pelvis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We conclude that KV4.3+α-SMA+ SMCs are typical SMCs that facilitate muscle wall contraction, that ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunoreactivity may be selective markers of Kit- ICs and that atypical SMCs which discharge spontaneous inward currents are the pelviureteric pacemakers. PMID:22014103

  12. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, T. V.; Tyazhelova, T. V.; Rykalina, V. N.; Gusev, F. E.; Goltsov, A. Yu.; Zolotareva, O. I.; Aliseichik, M. P.; Borodina, T. A.; Grigorenko, A. P.; Reshetov, D. A.; Ginter, E. K.; Amelina, S. S.; Zinchenko, R. A.; Rogaev, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  13. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, T V; Tyazhelova, T V; Rykalina, V N; Gusev, F E; Goltsov, A Yu; Zolotareva, O I; Aliseichik, M P; Borodina, T A; Grigorenko, A P; Reshetov, D A; Ginter, E K; Amelina, S S; Zinchenko, R A; Rogaev, E I

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  14. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  15. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  16. Separating para and ortho water.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-10-27

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

  17. Marine Ecology Research Resource Units Grades 7-9. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa County Dept. of Education, Pleasant Hill, CA.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological unit designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The teachers are also involved with MER through inservice participation and materials preparation. The unit is designed to be incorporated within the existing science curriculum. Specifically, the activities concern…

  18. 11 CFR 7.9 - Outside employment or activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual begins to serve as a member of the Commission shall appropriately limit such activity no later... impression that the activity is officially endorsed or approved by the Commission or is part of the...) Outside employment or other activities which tend to impair the employee's mental or physical...

  19. Elective Reading Course for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kathy

    The program of studies for a reading elective course for avid or potentially avid readers at the junior high school level contained in this guide represents an attempt to address problems experienced by young adult readers. The program would provide time for them to read, and it would allow students the opportunity to value reading whether it be…

  20. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel or the trailer or the carrier of that vessel has been in water infested or contaminated with... species contaminated or infested waters may enter after being inspected and cleaned using the technique or... contaminated by aquatic nuisance species is prohibited. (e) Using a wet suit or associated water use and...

  1. Fe L-Shell Emission Lines at 7 - 9 Angstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Greg; Behar, Edhud

    Fe L-shell emission lines at wavelengths less than 10 angstroms come from n to 2 (n = 4 5 6..) transitions. These lines embed information such as electron density and/or temperature that is of fundamental importance to understanding the physics of astrophysical objects. Unresolved by previous x-ray observatories these low wavelength Fe lines are clearly observable by Chandra and XMM x-ray satellites. To meet the needs of using these lines as diagnostics we have studied the n to 2 transitions (n = 4 5 6..) Fe L-shell lines using the LLNL electron beam ion trap following our Fe L-shell emission line measurements for the 3-2 transitions (Brown et al APJ supp. 2002). Our measurement and its comparison with code simulations will be reported together with a discussion of the possible use of these lines as diagnostics for astrophysics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL GSFC and Columbia University.

  2. An Environmental Approach to Art for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueman, Lavone

    Striving for an environmentally-oriented curriculum in junior high school art, this resource booklet for teachers offers numerous suggestions for incorporating environmental learnings into the arts curriculum. Ideas presented are examples of how learning in art can be directed in ways that lead to increased awareness and perception of the…

  3. 44 CFR 7.9 - Assurances from institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... application for Federal financial assistance to an institution of higher education, the assurance required by... students. (b) The assurances required with respect to an institution of higher education, hospital, or any other institution, insofar as the assurance relates to the institution's practices with respect...

  4. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessel or the trailer or the carrier of that vessel has been in water infested or contaminated with... containers, live wells, or other water-holding devises that are or were filled with waters holding or contaminated by aquatic nuisance species is prohibited. (e) Using a wet suit or associated water use and...

  5. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessel or the trailer or the carrier of that vessel has been in water infested or contaminated with... containers, live wells, or other water-holding devises that are or were filled with waters holding or contaminated by aquatic nuisance species is prohibited. (e) Using a wet suit or associated water use and...

  6. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessel or the trailer or the carrier of that vessel has been in water infested or contaminated with... containers, live wells, or other water-holding devises that are or were filled with waters holding or contaminated by aquatic nuisance species is prohibited. (e) Using a wet suit or associated water use and...

  7. Emergency Management Instruction. Instructor's Guide for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Div. of Emergency Management, Raleigh.

    Emergency Management education seeks to give students basic information about natural and man-made disasters, preparedness procedures, and survival techniques. The intent of this guide is to aid teachers in presenting disaster survival instruction in the junior high school grades. The materials are designed to supplement existing curricula, where…

  8. The Olympics: An Educational Opportunity. Enrichment Units, 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO.

    The learning activities presented in this handbook illustrate educational opportunities related to participation in competitive activity as exemplified by the Olympic Games. Designed for use with students in grades seven through nine, these learning units may be integrated with the existing curriculum for the class. Subjects offered include…

  9. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  10. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of a 12.5 Mb Homozygous Region Reveals ANO10 Mutations in Patients with Autosomal-Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Sascha; Hoischen, Alexander; Meijer, Rowdy P.P.; Gilissen, Christian; Neveling, Kornelia; Wieskamp, Nienke; de Brouwer, Arjan; Koenig, Michel; Anheim, Mathieu; Assoum, Mirna; Drouot, Nathalie; Todorovic, Slobodanka; Milic-Rasic, Vedrana; Lochmüller, Hanns; Stevanin, Giovanni; Goizet, Cyril; David, Albert; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Kremer, Berry; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.C.; Schijvenaars, Mascha M.V.A.P.; Heister, Angelien; Kwint, Michael; Arts, Peer; van der Wijst, Jenny; Veltman, Joris; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; Knoers, Nine

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to their dominant counterparts, unraveling the molecular background of these ataxias has proven to be more complicated and the currently known mutations provide incomplete coverage for genotyping of patients. By combining SNP array-based linkage analysis and targeted resequencing of relevant sequences in the linkage interval with the use of next-generation sequencing technology, we identified a mutation in a gene and have shown its association with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia. In a Dutch consanguineous family with three affected siblings a homozygous 12.5 Mb region on chromosome 3 was targeted by array-based sequence capture. Prioritization of all detected sequence variants led to four candidate genes, one of which contained a variant with a high base pair conservation score (phyloP score: 5.26). This variant was a leucine-to-arginine substitution in the DUF 590 domain of a 16K transmembrane protein, a putative calcium-activated chloride channel encoded by anoctamin 10 (ANO10). The analysis of ANO10 by Sanger sequencing revealed three additional mutations: a homozygous mutation (c.1150_1151del [p.Leu384fs]) in a Serbian family and a compound-heterozygous splice-site mutation (c.1476+1G>T) and a frameshift mutation (c.1604del [p.Leu535X]) in a French family. This illustrates the power of using initial homozygosity mapping with next-generation sequencing technology to identify genes involved in autosomal-recessive diseases. Moreover, identifying a putative calcium-dependent chloride channel involved in cerebellar ataxia adds another pathway to the list of pathophysiological mechanisms that may cause cerebellar ataxia. PMID:21092923