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Sample records for 7-cell hollow-core photonic

  1. Two-mode multiplexing at 2 × 10.7 Gbps over a 7-cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Peucheret, Christophe; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian; Leick, Lasse

    2012-05-21

    Current technologies are fast approaching the capacity limit of single mode fibers (SMFs). Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs) are expected to provide attractive long-term solutions in terms of ultra-low fiber nonlinearities associated with the possibility of mode scaling, thus enabling mode division multiplexing (MDM). In this work, we demonstrate MDM over a HC-PBGF for the first time. Two 10.7 Gbps channels are simultaneously transmitted over two modes of a 30-m long 7-cell HC-PBGF. Bit error ratio (BER) performances below the FEC threshold limit (3.3 × 10(-3)) are shown for both data channels when the two modes are transmitted simultaneously. No power penalty and up to 3 dB power penalty at a BER of 10(-9) are measured for single mode transmission using the fundamental and the LP(11) mode, respectively. The performance of this exploratory demonstration is expected to improve significantly if advanced mode launching and detection methods are used. PMID:22714232

  2. Flying particle sensors in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, D. S.; Schmidt, O. A.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical fibre sensors make use of diverse physical effects to measure parameters such as strain, temperature and electric field. Here we introduce a new class of reconfigurable fibre sensor, based on a ‘flying-particle’ optically trapped inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre and illustrate its use in electric field and temperature sensing with high spatial resolution. The electric field distribution near the surface of a multi-element electrode is measured with a resolution of ∼100 μm by monitoring changes in the transmitted light signal due to the transverse displacement of a charged silica microparticle trapped within the hollow core. Doppler-based velocity measurements are used to map the gas viscosity, and thus the temperature, along a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. The flying-particle approach represents a new paradigm in fibre sensors, potentially allowing multiple physical quantities to be mapped with high positional accuracy over kilometre-scale distances.

  3. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber based viscometer with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Horan, L E; Ruth, A A; Gunning, F C Garcia

    2012-12-14

    The velocity of a liquid flowing through the core of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (driven by capillary forces) is used for the determination of a liquid's viscosity, using volumes of less than 10 nl. The simple optical technique used is based on the change in propagation characteristics of the fiber as it fills with the liquid of interest via capillary action, monitored by a laser source. Furthermore, the liquid filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber is then used as a vessel to collect Raman scattering from the sample to determine the molecular fingerprint of the liquid under study. This approach has a wide variety of indicative uses in cases where nano-liter samples are necessary. We use 10-12 cm lengths of hollow core photonic crystal fibers to determine the viscosity and Raman spectra of small volumes of two types of monosaccharides diluted in a phosphate buffer solution to demonstrate the principle. The observed Raman signal is strongest when only the core of the hollow core photonic crystal fiber is filled, and gradually decays as the rest of the fiber fills with the sample. PMID:23249014

  4. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber based viscometer with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, L. E.; Ruth, A. A.; Garcia Gunning, F. C.

    2012-12-01

    The velocity of a liquid flowing through the core of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (driven by capillary forces) is used for the determination of a liquid's viscosity, using volumes of less than 10 nl. The simple optical technique used is based on the change in propagation characteristics of the fiber as it fills with the liquid of interest via capillary action, monitored by a laser source. Furthermore, the liquid filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber is then used as a vessel to collect Raman scattering from the sample to determine the molecular fingerprint of the liquid under study. This approach has a wide variety of indicative uses in cases where nano-liter samples are necessary. We use 10-12 cm lengths of hollow core photonic crystal fibers to determine the viscosity and Raman spectra of small volumes of two types of monosaccharides diluted in a phosphate buffer solution to demonstrate the principle. The observed Raman signal is strongest when only the core of the hollow core photonic crystal fiber is filled, and gradually decays as the rest of the fiber fills with the sample.

  5. Hollow-Core Photonic Band Gap Fibers for Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J.; Spencer, James E.; Kuhlmey, Boris T.; /Sydney U.

    2011-08-19

    Photonic band gap (PBG) dielectric fibers with hollow cores are being studied both theoretically and experimentally for use as laser driven accelerator structures. The hollow core functions as both a longitudinal waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM) accelerating fields and a channel for the charged particles. The dielectric surrounding the core is permeated by a periodic array of smaller holes to confine the mode, forming a photonic crystal fiber in which modes exist in frequency pass-bands, separated by band gaps. The hollow core acts as a defect which breaks the crystal symmetry, and so-called defect, or trapped modes having frequencies in the band gap will only propagate near the defect. We describe the design of 2-D hollow-core PBG fibers to support TM defect modes with high longitudinal fields and high characteristic impedance. Using as-built dimensions of industrially-made fibers, we perform a simulation analysis of the first prototype PBG fibers specifically designed to support speed-of-light TM modes.

  6. Selective mode excitation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, A. D.; Couny, F.; Coupland, S.; Roberts, P. J.; Sabert, H.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, Philip St. J.

    2005-04-01

    Modes are selectively excited by launching light through the cladding from the side into a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Measuring the total output power at the end of the fiber as a function of the angle of incidence of the exciting laser beam provides a powerful diagnostic for characterizing the cladding bandgap. Furthermore, various types of modes on either side of the bandgap are excited individually, and their near-field images are obtained.

  7. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette M.; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier setup. It provided 22ps pulses with a maximum average power of 95W, 40MHz repetition rate at 1032nm (~2.4μJ pulse energy), with M2 <1.3. We determined the facet damage threshold for a 7-cells hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and showed up to 59W average power output for a 5 meters fiber. The damage threshold for a 19-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber exceeded the maximum power provided by the light source and up to 76W average output power was demonstrated for a 1m fiber. In both cases, no special attention was needed to mitigate bend sensitivity. The fibers were coiled on 8 centimeters radius spools and even lower bending radii were present. In addition, stimulated rotational Raman scattering arising from nitrogen molecules was measured through a 42m long 19 cell hollow core fiber.

  8. Single-polarization hollow-core square photonic bandgap waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Masashi; Tsuji, Yasuhide

    2016-07-01

    Materials with a periodic structure have photonic bandgaps (PBGs), in which light can not be guided within certain wavelength ranges; thus light can be confined within a low-index region by the bandgap effect. In this paper, rectangular-shaped hollow waveguides having waveguide-walls (claddings) using the PBG have been discussed. The design principle for HE modes of hollow-core rectangular PBG waveguides with a Bragg cladding consisting of alternating high- and low-index layers, based on a 1D periodic multilayer approximation for the Bragg cladding, is established and then a novel single-polarization hollow-core square PBG waveguide using the bandgap difference between two polarized waves is proposed. Our results demonstrated that a single-polarization guiding can be achieved by using the square Bragg cladding structure with different layer thickness ratios in the mutually orthogonal directions and the transmission loss of the guided mode in a designed hollow-core square PBG waveguide is numerically estimated to be 0.04 dB/cm.

  9. Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Euser, T G; Abdolvand, A; Babic, F; Tani, F; Joly, N Y; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the first soft-glass hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is made from a high-index lead-silicate glass (Schott SF6, refractive index 1.82 at 500 nm). Fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, the fiber incorporates a 7-cell hollow core embedded in a highly uniform 6-layer cladding structure that resembles a kagomé-like lattice. Effective single mode guidance of light is observed from 750 to 1050 nm in a large mode area (core diameter ~30 µm) with a low loss of 0.74 dB/m. The underlying guidance mechanism of the fiber is investigated using finite element modeling. The fiber is promising for applications requiring single mode guidance in a large mode area, such as particle guidance, fluid and gas filled devices. PMID:21934907

  10. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  11. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for refilling and connectorization of hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas reference cells. Thees hollow-core photonic crystal fiber allow optical propagation in air or vacuum and are for use as gas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  12. Forward Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, W. H.; Shin, H.; Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Kittlaus, E. A.; Rakich, P. T.

    2016-02-01

    We quantify the strength of stimulated forward Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber through a combination of experiments and multi-physics simulations. Brillouin spectroscopy methods reveal a family of densely spaced Brillouin-active phonon modes below 100 MHz with coupling strengths that approach those of conventional silica fiber. The experimental results are corroborated by multi-physics simulations, revealing that relatively strong optomechanical coupling is mediated by a combination of electrostriction and radiation pressure within the nano-scale silica-air matrix; the nontrivial mechanical properties of this silica-air matrix facilitate the large optomechanical response produced by this system. Simulations also reveal an incredible sensitivity of the Brillouin spectrum to fiber critical dimensions, suggesting opportunity for enhancement or suppression of these interactions. Finally, we relate the measured and calculated couplings to the noise properties of the fiber as the foundation for phase- and polarization-noise estimates in hollow-core fiber. More generally, such Brillouin interactions are an important consideration in both the high and low optical intensity limits.

  13. Scattering loss analysis and structure optimization of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jingming; Wu, Rong; Sun, Kang; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2016-06-01

    Effects of core structure in 7 cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs) on scattering loss are analyzed by means of investigating normalized interface field intensity. Fibers with different core wall thickness, core radius and rounding corner of air hole are simulated. Results show that with thick core wall and expanded core radius, scattering loss could be greatly reduced. The scattering loss of the HC-PBGFs in the wavelength range of 1.5-1.56 μm could be decreased by about 50 % of the present level with optimized core structure design.

  14. Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Couny, F; Benabid, F; Light, P S

    2006-12-15

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a new type of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based on large-pitch (approximately 12 microm) kagome lattice cladding. The optical characteristics of the 19-cell, 7-cell, and single-cell core defect fibers include broad optical transmission bands covering the visible and near-IR parts of the spectrum with relatively low loss and low chromatic dispersion, no detectable surface modes and high confinement of light in the core. Various applications of such a novel fiber are also discussed, including gas sensing, quantum optics, and high harmonic generation. PMID:17130907

  15. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for evacuating, refilling and connectorizing hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for use asgas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to amechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  16. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber as a robust Raman biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour T. Monfared, Ali; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Anis, Hanan; Riordon, Jason; Godin, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The present work demonstrates the integration of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF), microfluidics, and statistical analysis for monitoring biomolecules using Raman spectroscopy. HC-PCF as a signal enhancer has been proven by many researchers. However, there have been challenges in using HC-PCF for practical applications due to limitations such as coupling, stability, evaporation, clogging, consistent filling, and reusing the same fiber. This limited the potential of HC-PCF to detect low concentrations of liquid samples, which is why HC-PCF still hasn't transcended the lab barriers. The current device is based on an H-design lay-out which uses the pressure difference between the two ends of the fiber for filling and flushing the liquid samples. This mitigated several issues related to device performance by allowing us to fill the fiber with liquid samples consistently, rapidly and reproducibly. The resulting Raman signals were significantly more stable as various concentrations of ethanol in water were sequentially introduced into the fiber. The scheme also allowed us to overcome the barrier of predicting low concentrations by applying Partial Least Square (PLS) technique which was done for the first time using HC-PCF. Thus, the present scheme paves path for the inclusion of HC-PCF in the main stream point-of-care technology.

  17. Micro-Displacement Sensor Based on a Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana Margarida Rodrigues; Baptista, José Manuel; Santos, José Luís; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Frazão, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    A sensing head based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for in-reflection measurement of micro-displacements is presented. The sensing structure takes advantage of the multimodal behavior of a short segment of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber in-reflection, being spliced to a single mode fiber at its other end. A modal interferometer is obtained when the sensing head is close to a mirror, through which displacement is measured. PMID:23247414

  18. Depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjia Elser née; Stiller, Birgit; Elser, Dominique; Heim, Bettina; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-10-19

    By performing quantum-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection, we observe polarization noise in light after propagation through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We compare the noise spectrum to the one of a standard fiber and find an increase of noise even though the light is mainly transmitted in air in a hollow-core PCF. Combined with our simulation of the acoustic vibrational modes in the hollow-core PCF, we are offering an explanation for the polarization noise with a variation of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS). Here, instead of modulating the strain in the fiber core as in a solid core fiber, the acoustic vibrations in hollow-core PCF influence the effective refractive index by modulating the geometry of the photonic crystal structure. This induces polarization noise in the light guided by the photonic crystal structure. PMID:26480433

  19. The use of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres as biological sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Malinin, A V; Skibina, Yu S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Chainikov, M V; Beloglazov, V I; Silokhin, I Yu; Zanishevskaya, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Dolmashkin, A A

    2011-04-30

    The results of development and study of a new type of a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre with radially increasing diameter of capillaries in the structured cladding are presented. The waveguide possesses a specific transmission spectrum and can be used as an efficient analyser of biological media. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  20. Broadband single-photon-level memory in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, M. R.; Michelberger, P. S.; Champion, T. F. M.; England, D. G.; Nunn, J.; Jin, X.-M.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2014-04-01

    Storing information encoded in light is critical for realizing optical buffers for all-optical signal processing and quantum memories for quantum information processing. These proposals require efficient interaction between atoms and a well-defined optical mode. Photonic crystal fibres can enhance light-matter interactions and have engendered a broad range of nonlinear effects; however, the storage of light has proven elusive. Here, we report the first demonstration of an optical memory in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. We store gigahertz-bandwidth light in the hyperfine coherence of caesium atoms at room temperature using a far-detuned Raman interaction. We demonstrate a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.6:1 at the single-photon level and a memory efficiency of 27 +/- 1%. Our results demonstrate the potential of a room-temperature fibre-integrated optical memory for implementing local nodes of quantum information networks.

  1. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'Skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-06-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0-3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.

  2. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    PubMed Central

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  3. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the (1)S0-(3)P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  4. Bio-functionalized hollow core photonic crystal fibers for label-free DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candiani, A.; Salloom, Hussein T.; Coscelli, E.; Sozzi, M.; Manicardi, A.; Ahmad, Ahmad K.; Al-Janabi, A. Hadi; Corradini, R.; Picchi, G.; Cucinotta, A.; Selleri, S.

    2014-02-01

    Bio-functionalization of inner surfaces of all silica Hollow Core-Photonic Crystal Fibers (HC-PCF) has been investigated. The approach is based on layer-by-layer self-assembly Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes, which is an oligonucleotide mimic that is well suited for specific DNA target recognition. Two kinds of HC-PCFs have been considered: a photonic Bragg fiber and a hollow core (HC-1060) fiber. After spectral characterization and internal surface functionalization by using PNA probes, genomic DNA solutions from soy flour were infiltrated into the fibers. The experimental results indicate that hybridization of the complementary strand of target DNA increases the thickness of the silica layer and leads up to the generation of surface modes, resulting in a significant modulation of the transmission spectra. Numerical analysis confirms such behavior, suggesting the possibility to realize biological sensing.

  5. Broadband orbital angular momentum transmission using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisu; Ren, Guobin; Lian, Yudong; Zhu, Bofeng; Tang, Min; Zhao, Yuanchu; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-08-01

    We present the viability of exploiting a current hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) to support orbital angular momentum (OAM) states. The photonic bandgap intrinsically provides a large refractive index spacing for guiding light, leading to OAM transmission with low crosstalk. From numerical simulations, a broad OAM±1 mode transmission window with satisfied effective index separations between vector modes (>10-4) and low confinement loss (<3  dB/km) covering 240 nm bandwidth is observed. The OAM purity (defined as normalized power weight for OAM mode) is found to be affected by the modal effective area. Simulation results also show HC-PBGF based OAM transmission is immune to fabrication inaccuracies near the hollow core. This work illustrates that HC-PBGF is a competitive candidate for high-capacity communication harnessing OAM multiplexing. PMID:27472626

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Benabid, F; Knight, J C; Antonopoulos, G; Russell, P St J

    2002-10-11

    We report on stimulated Raman scattering in an approximately 1-meter-long hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with hydrogen gas under pressure. Light was guided and confined in the 15-micrometer-diameter hollow core by a two-dimensional photonic bandgap. Using a pulsed laser source (pulse duration, 6 nanoseconds; wavelength, 532 nanometers), the threshold for Stokes (longer wavelength) generation was observed at pulse energies as low as 800 +/- 200 nanojoules, followed by a coherent anti-Stokes (shorter wavelength) generation threshold at 3.4 +/- 0.7 microjoules. The pump-to-Stokes conversion efficiency was 30 +/- 3% at a pulse energy of only 4.5 microjoules. These energies are almost two orders of magnitude lower than any other reported energy, moving gas-based nonlinear optics to previously inaccessible parameter regimes of high intensity and long interaction length. PMID:12376698

  7. Enhanced four-wave mixing in a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Konorov, S O; Fedotov, A B; Zheltikov, A M

    2003-08-15

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to substantially enhance four-wave mixing (FWM) of laser pulses in a gas filling the fiber core. Picosecond pulses of Nd:YAG fundamental radiation and its second harmonic are used to generate a signal at the frequency of the third harmonic by the FWM process 3omega = 2omega + 2omega - omega. The efficiency achieved for this process in a 9-cm-long, 13-microm-hollow-core-diameter photonic-crystal fiber, designed to simultaneously transmit a two-color pump and the FWM signal, is shown to be approximately 800 times higher than the maximum FWM efficiency attainable with the same laser pulses in the tight-focusing regime. PMID:12943087

  8. Parametrically polarization-shaped pulses via a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Weise, Fabian; Achazi, Georg; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2010-11-15

    We present a procedure to generate parametrically shaped pulses after propagation through a microstructured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The properties of the fiber are characterized and employed to analytically design sequences of subpulses which are available after the fiber. In these sequences, each subpulse can be individually controlled in its physically intuitive parameters: position in time, energy, phase, and chirp as well as the polarization state with orientation, ellipticity, and helicity. Various endoscopic applications may arise from this approach.

  9. Partially liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber polarizer.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenwen; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Wang, Yunpeng; Chan, Chi Chiu; Liu, Shujing; Jin, Wei

    2011-08-15

    A compact fiber polarizer is demonstrated by the filling of selected air holes of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a liquid. The liquid-filling results in an asymmetric waveguide structure, leading to a large polarization dependent loss. A 6 mm long ethanol-filled PCF exhibits a polarization extinction ratio of ∼18 dB over a wavelength range from 1480 nm to 1600 nm. PMID:21847239

  10. Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ren, H; Nazarkin, A; Nold, J; Russell, P St J

    2008-10-13

    The potential of hollow core photonic crystal fiber as a nonlinear gas cell for efficient high harmonic generation is discussed. The feasibility of phase-matching this process by modulating the phase of ionization electrons using a counter-propagating laser field is shown. In this way, harmonics with energies of several hundreds of eV can be produced using fs-laser pump pulses of microJ energy. PMID:18852815

  11. Optical harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres: analysis of optical losses and phase-matching conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, A N; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2002-02-28

    We consider hollow-core fibres with a microstructure photonic-crystal cladding, which open a unique opportunity of implementing nonlinear-optical interactions of waveguide modes with transverse sizes on the order of several microns in the gas phase. Phase-matching conditions for optical harmonic generation can be improved in higher waveguide modes of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres by optimising parameters of the gas medium filling the fibre and characteristics of the fibre. (optical fibres)

  12. In-line fiber-optic etalon formed by hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y J; Zhu, T; Yang, X C; Duan, D W

    2007-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-line etalon formed by splicing a section of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) in between two single-mode fibers is proposed and demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge. Such a HCPCF-based etalon acts as an excellent optical waveguide to form a Fabry-Perot interferometer and hence allows the cavity length to be as long as several centimeters with good visibility as the transmission loss of the HCPCF is much smaller than that of a hollow core fiber; this offers great potential to generate a practical dense fiber-optic sensor network with spatial frequency division-multiplexing. This novel etalon is demonstrated for strain measurement, and the experimental results show that a good visibility of 0.3 and a strain accuracy of better than +/- 5 microepsilon are achieved. PMID:17873927

  13. Reconfigurable optothermal microparticle trap in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, O A; Garbos, M K; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2012-07-13

    We report a novel optothermal trapping mechanism that occurs in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In the confined environment of the core, the motion of a laser-guided particle is strongly influenced by the thermal-gradient-driven flow of air along the core surface. Known as "thermal creep flow," this can be induced either statically by local heating, or dynamically by the absorption (at a black mark placed on the fiber surface) of light scattered by the moving particle. The optothermal force on the particle, which can be accurately measured in hollow-core fiber by balancing it against the radiation forces, turns out to exceed the conventional thermophoretic force by 2 orders of magnitude. The system makes it possible to measure pN-scale forces accurately and to explore thermally driven flow in micron-scale structures. PMID:23030165

  14. Optical frequency standard using acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Triches, Marco; Michieletto, Mattia; Hald, Jan; Lyngsø, Jens K; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole

    2015-05-01

    Gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers are used to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1+ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. Four hollow-core fibers with different crystal structure are compared in terms of long term lock-point repeatability and fractional frequency instability. The locked fiber laser shows a fractional frequency instability below 4 × 10(-12) for averaging time up to 10(4) s. The lock-point repeatability over more than 1 year is 1.3 × 10(-11), corresponding to a standard deviation of 2.5 kHz. A complete experimental investigation of the light-matter interaction between the spatial modes excited in the fibers and the frequency of the locked laser is presented. A simple theoretical model that explains the interaction is also developed. PMID:25969219

  15. Reconfigurable Optothermal Microparticle Trap in Air-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, O. A.; Garbos, M. K.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2012-07-01

    We report a novel optothermal trapping mechanism that occurs in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In the confined environment of the core, the motion of a laser-guided particle is strongly influenced by the thermal-gradient-driven flow of air along the core surface. Known as “thermal creep flow,” this can be induced either statically by local heating, or dynamically by the absorption (at a black mark placed on the fiber surface) of light scattered by the moving particle. The optothermal force on the particle, which can be accurately measured in hollow-core fiber by balancing it against the radiation forces, turns out to exceed the conventional thermophoretic force by 2 orders of magnitude. The system makes it possible to measure pN-scale forces accurately and to explore thermally driven flow in micron-scale structures.

  16. Resonant optical propulsion of a particle inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Maslov, A V

    2016-07-01

    Resonant propulsion of small nonresonant particles inside metal waveguides due to the formation of resonant states by the guided modes below their cutoffs has been predicted in the past. Here it is shown that stable resonant propulsion exists in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, which are all-dielectric structures and are a major platform for various photonic applications. Specific features of the resonant propulsion are discussed together with the fiber design issues. The results may enable power-efficient transport of particles over long distances, particle sorting, and sensitive detection. PMID:27367102

  17. Continuous generation of rubidium vapor in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Donvalkar, Prathamesh S; Ramelow, Sven; Clemmen, Stéphane; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate high optical depths (50±5) that last for hours in rubidium-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers, which represent a 1000× improvement over the operation times previously reported. We investigate the vapor generation mechanism using both a continuous wave and a pulsed light source, and find that the mechanism for generating the rubidium atoms is primarily due to thermal vaporization. The continuous generation of large vapor densities should enable measurements at the single-photon level by averaging over longer time scales. PMID:26565879

  18. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  19. Photochemistry on soft-glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillas, Ana M.; Jiang, Xin; Euser, Tijmen G.; Taccardi, Nicola; Etzold, Bastian J. M.; Wasserscheid, Peter; Russell, Philip St. J.

    2014-05-01

    Hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF) offers strong light confinement and long interaction lengths in an optofluidic channel. These unique advantages have motivated its recent use as a highly efficient and versatile microreactor for liquid-phase photochemistry and catalysis. In this work, we use a soft-glass HC-PCF to carry out photochemical experiments in a high-index solvent such as toluene. The high-intensity and strong confinement in the fibre is demonstrated to enhance the performance of a proof-of-principle photolysis reaction.

  20. Dual-bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for third harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Montz, Z; Ishaaya, A A

    2015-01-01

    We present two novel hybrid photonic structures made of silica that possess two well-separated frequency bandgaps. The addition of interstitial air holes in a precise location and size allows these bandgaps to open with a ratio of ∼3 between their central frequencies at the air line ck(z)/w=1, thus fulfilling the basic guidance condition for third harmonic generation in hollow-core fibers. In addition, these designs may serve for high-power laser delivery of two well-separated wavelengths, such as visible and near infrared. PMID:25531607

  1. Laser-cooled atoms inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Bajcsy, M.; Hofferberth, S.; Balic, V.; Zibrov, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.; Peyronel, T.; Liang, Q.; Vuletic, V.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the loading of laser-cooled rubidium atoms into a single-mode hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber. Inside the fiber, the atoms are confined by a far-detuned optical trap and probed by a weak resonant beam. We describe different loading methods and compare their trade-offs in terms of implementation complexity and atom-loading efficiency. The most efficient procedure results in loading of {approx}30,000 rubidium atoms, which creates a medium with an optical depth of {approx}180 inside the fiber. Compared to our earlier study this represents a sixfold increase in the maximum achieved optical depth in this system.

  2. Photothermal effect in gas-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Jin, Wei; Cao, Yingchun; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2015-09-01

    We exploit photothermal effect in gas-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers, and demonstrate remarkably sensitive all-fiber (acetylene) gas sensors with noise equivalent concentration of 1-3 parts-per-billion and an unprecedented dynamic range of nearly six orders of magnitude. These results are two to three orders of magnitude better than previous direct absorption-based optical fiber gas sensors. The realization of photothermal spectroscopy in fiber-optic format will allow a new class of sensors with ultra-sensitivity and selectivity, compact size, remote and multiplexed multi-point detection capability.

  3. Luttinger liquid of photons and spin-charge separation in hollow-core fibers.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Dimitris G; Huo, Mingxia; Kyoseva, Elica; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2011-04-15

    In this work we show that light-matter excitations (polaritons) generated inside a hollow-core one-dimensional fiber filled with two types of atoms, can exhibit Luttinger liquid behavior. We first explain how to prepare and drive this quantum-optical system to a strongly interacting regime, described by a bosonic two-component Lieb-Liniger model. Utilizing the connection between strongly interacting bosonic and fermionic systems, we then show how spin-charge separation could be observed by probing the correlations in the polaritons. This is performed by first mapping the polaritons to propagating photon pulses and then measuring the effective photonic spin and charge densities and velocities by analyzing the correlations in the emitted photon spectrum. The necessary regime of interactions is achievable with current quantum-optical technology. PMID:21568557

  4. Fabrication of silica hollow core photonic crystal fibres for Er:YAG surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Artur; Maier, Robert R. J.; Knight, Jonathan C.; Mangan, Brian J.; Renshaw, Steven; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the fabrication of silica hollow core photonic crystal fibres (HC-PCF) with guidance at 2.94μm. As light is confined inside the hollow core with a very small overlap of the guided E-M wave with the fibre material, the high intrinsic loss of silica at these mid-infrared wavelengths can be overcome. The band gap effect is achieved by a periodic structure made out of air and fused silica. As silica is bio-inert, chemically stable and mechanically robust, these fibres have potential advantages over other multi-component, non-silica optical fibres designed to guide in this wavelength regime. These fibres have a relatively small diameter, low bend sensitivity and single-mode like guidance which are ideal conditions for delivering laser light down a highly flexible fibre. Consequently they provide a potential alternative to existing surgical laser delivery methods such as articulated arms and lend themselves to endoscopy and other minimally invasive surgical procedures. In particular, we present the characterisation and performance of these fibres at 2.94 μm, the wavelength of an Er:YAG laser. This laser is widely used in surgery since the wavelength overlaps with an absorption band of water which results in clean, non-cauterised cuts. However, the practical implementation of these types of fibres for surgical applications is a significant challenge. Therefore we also report on progress made in developing hermetically sealed end tips for these hollow core fibres to avoid contamination. This work ultimately prepares the route towards a robust, practical delivery system for this wavelength.

  5. Polarization-maintaining fiber pulse compressor by birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Akira; Tanisho, Motoyuki; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2006-12-11

    Structural birefringent properties of a hollow-core photonic-bandgap fiber were carefully investigated and applied to all-fiber chirped-pulse amplification as a compressor. The group birefringence of as high as 6.9x10(-4) and the dispersion splitting by as large as 149 ps/nm/km between the two principal polarization modes were observed at 1557 nm. By launching the amplifier output to one of the polarization modes a 17-dB polarization extinction ratio was obtained without any pulse degradation originating from polarization-mode dispersion. A hybrid fiber stretcher effectively compensates the peculiar dispersion of the photonic-bandgap fiber and pedestal-free 440-fs pulses with a 1-W average power and 21-nJ pulse energy were obtained. Polarization-maintaining fiber-pigtail output of high-power femtosecond pulses is useful for various applications. PMID:19529631

  6. Optical trapping and control of nanoparticles inside evacuated hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grass, David; Fesel, Julian; Hofer, Sebastian G.; Kiesel, Nikolai; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical conveyor belt for levitated nanoparticles over several centimeters inside both air-filled and evacuated hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCF). Detection of the transmitted light field allows three-dimensional read-out of the particle center-of-mass motion. An additional laser enables axial radiation pressure based feedback cooling over the full fiber length. We show that the particle dynamics is a sensitive local probe for characterizing the optical intensity profile inside the fiber as well as the pressure distribution along the fiber axis. In contrast to some theoretical predictions, we find a linear pressure dependence inside the HCPCF, extending over three orders of magnitude from 0.2 mbar to 100 mbar. A targeted application is the controlled delivery of nanoparticles from ambient pressure into medium vacuum.

  7. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-01

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems. PMID:24514492

  8. Optofluidic immobility of particles trapped in liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Garbos, M K; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2011-09-26

    We study the conditions under which a particle, laser-guided in a vertically-oriented hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with liquid, can be kept stationary against a microfluidic counter-flow. An immobility parameter-the fluid flow rate required to immobilize a particle against the radiation force produced by unit guided optical power-is introduced to quantify the conditions under which this occurs, including radiation, viscous and gravity forces. Measurements show that this parameter depends strongly on the ratio of particle radius a to core radius R, peaking at an intermediate value of a/R. The results follow fairly well the theoretical estimates of the optical (calculated approximately using a ray optics approach) and numerically simulated drag forces. We suggest that the system has potential applications in, e.g., measurement of the diameter, refractive index and density of particles, synthesis and biomedical research. PMID:21996905

  9. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber for monitoring leukemia cells using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour, Ali; Alarcon, Emilio I.; Anis, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates an antibody-free, robust, fast, and portable platform for detection of leukemia cells using Raman spectroscopy with a 785-nm laser diode coupled to a hollow core photonic crystal (HC-PCF) containing silver nanoparticles. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the most common bone marrow cancers in children and youths. Clinical studies suggest that early diagnosis and remission evaluation of myoblasts in the bone marrow are pivotal for improving patient survival. However, the current protocols for leukemic cells detection involve the use of expensive antibodies and flow cytometers. Thus, we have developed a new technology for detection of leukemia cells up to 300 cells/ml using a compact fiber HC-PCF, which offers a novel alternative to existing clinical standards. Furthermore, we were also able to accurately distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic leukemic cells. PMID:26601021

  10. Direct fiber comb stabilization to a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun; Wang, Chenchen; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2014-09-22

    We have isolated a single tooth from a fiber laser-based optical frequency comb for nonlinear spectroscopy and thereby directly referenced the comb. An 89 MHz erbium fiber laser frequency comb is directly stabilized to the P(23) (1539.43 nm) overtone transition of (12)C(2)H(2) inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To do this, a single comb tooth is isolated and amplified from 20 nW to 40 mW with sufficient fidelity to perform saturated absorption spectroscopy. The fractional stability of the comb, ~7 nm away from the stabilized tooth, is shown to be 6 × 10(-12) at 100 ms gate time, which is over an order of magnitude better than that of a comb referenced to a GPS-disciplined Rb oscillator. PMID:25321837

  11. Mechanism and characteristics of long period fiber gratings in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhifang; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-ge; Han, Tingting; Li, Shuo; Wei, Huifeng

    2011-08-29

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality LPFGs in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, composed of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, using CO2-laser-irradiation method. Theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that the LPFGs are originated from the strong mode-coupling between the LP01 and LP11 core modes. And a dominant physical mechanism for the mode-coupling is experimentally confirmed to be the periodic microbends rather than the deformations of the cross-section or other common factors. In addition, the LPFGs are highly sensitive to strain and nearly insensitive to temperature, and are promising candidates for gas sensors and nonlinear optical devices. PMID:21935098

  12. Monitoring of heparin concentration in serum by Raman spectroscopy within hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetani, Altaf; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Harb, Alaa; Anis, Hanan

    2011-08-01

    The feasibility of using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy has been explored for real time monitoring of heparin concentration in serum. Heparin is an important blood anti-coagulant whose precise monitoring and controlling in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and dialysis is of utmost importance. Our method of heparin monitoring offers a novel alternative to existing clinical procedures in terms of accuracy, response time and sample volume. The optical design configuration simply involves a 785-nm laser diode whose light is coupled into HC-PCF filled with heparin-serum mixtures. By non-selectively filling HC-PCF, a strong modal field overlap is obtained. Consequently, an enhanced Raman signal (>90 times) is obtained from various heparin-serum mixtures filled HC-PCFs compared to its bulk counterpart (cuvette). The present scheme has the potential to serve as a `generic biosensing tool' for diagnosing a wide range of biological samples.

  13. Fluorescence-based remote irradiation sensor in liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltner, R.; Bykov, D. S.; Xie, S.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report an irradiation sensor based on a fluorescent "flying particle" that is optically trapped and propelled inside the core of a water-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. When the moving particle passes through an irradiated region, its emitted fluorescence is captured by guided modes of the fiber core and so can be monitored using a filtered photodiode placed at the fiber end. The particle speed and position can be precisely monitored using in-fiber Doppler velocimetry, allowing the irradiation profile to be measured to a spatial resolution of ˜10 μm. The spectral response can be readily adjusted by appropriate choice of particle material. Using dye-doped polystyrene particles, we demonstrate detection of green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (340 nm) light.

  14. Atomic mercury vapor inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Ulrich; Peuntinger, Christian; Joly, Nicolas Y; Russell, Philip St J; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate high atomic mercury vapor pressure in a kagomé-style hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at room temperature. After a few days of exposure to mercury vapor the fiber is homogeneously filled and the optical depth achieved remains constant. With incoherent optical pumping from the ground state we achieve an optical depth of 114 at the 6(3)P(2) - 6(3)D(3) transition, corresponding to an atomic mercury number density of 6 × 10(10) cm(-3). The use of mercury vapor in quasi one-dimensional confinement may be advantageous compared to chemically more active alkali vapor, while offering strong optical nonlinearities in the ultraviolet region of the optical spectrum. PMID:25606871

  15. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber for monitoring leukemia cells using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour, Ali; Alarcon, Emilio I; Anis, Hanan

    2015-11-01

    The present paper demonstrates an antibody-free, robust, fast, and portable platform for detection of leukemia cells using Raman spectroscopy with a 785-nm laser diode coupled to a hollow core photonic crystal (HC-PCF) containing silver nanoparticles. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the most common bone marrow cancers in children and youths. Clinical studies suggest that early diagnosis and remission evaluation of myoblasts in the bone marrow are pivotal for improving patient survival. However, the current protocols for leukemic cells detection involve the use of expensive antibodies and flow cytometers. Thus, we have developed a new technology for detection of leukemia cells up to 300 cells/ml using a compact fiber HC-PCF, which offers a novel alternative to existing clinical standards. Furthermore, we were also able to accurately distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic leukemic cells. PMID:26601021

  16. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  17. Continuous Wave Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy Inside a Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, Jose L.; Cueto, Maite

    2013-06-01

    Hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCF) have raised new opportunities to study light-matter interaction. Dielectric or metallic capillaries are intrinsically lossy, making poor light guides. In contrast, HCPCFs can guide light quite efficiently, due to the band-gap effect produced by an array of smaller channels which surrounds a central hollow core with a few μm diameter. The tight confinement of light inside the core, that can be filled with gases, as well as a long interaction length, enhance multiple nonlinear phenomena, making it possible to devise new ways to do low signal level spectroscopy, as is the case of high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS). A. Owyoung demonstrated high resolution continuous wave SRS in 1978. Shortly afterwards, seeking higher sensitivity, he developed the quasi-continuous SRS technique (a high peak power pump laser, interacting with a low power cw probe laser). That variant remains today the best compromise between resolution and sensitivity for gas-phase Raman spectroscopy. In this work, we show the possibility of fully cw stimulated Raman spectroscopy, using a gas cell built around a HCPCF to overcome the limitations posed by the weakness of the stimulated Raman effect when not using pulsed sources. The interaction length (1.2 m), longer than that of a multiple pass refocusing cell, and the narrow diameter of the core (4.8 μm), can compensate for the much lower laser powers used in the cw set-up. The experimental complexity is considerably reduced and the instrumental resolution is at the 10's of MHz level, limited, with our fiber, by transit time effects. At present, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the experiment, a sensitivity enhancement of ˜ 6000 over the single focus regime, and a spectral resolution better than 0.005 wn in the unresolved Q-branch of the ν_1 component of the Fermi dyad of CO_2 at 1388 wn. Other examples of rotationally resolved spectra will be shown: the Q branch of O_2 at 1555 wn

  18. Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabid, F.; Couny, F.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, P. St J.

    2005-03-01

    Gas-phase materials are used in a variety of laser-based applications-for example, in high-precision frequency measurement, quantum optics and nonlinear optics. Their full potential has however not been realized because of the lack of a suitable technology for creating gas cells that can guide light over long lengths in a single transverse mode while still offering a high level of integration in a practical and compact set-up or device. As a result, solid-phase materials are still often favoured, even when their performance compares unfavourably with gas-phase systems. Here we report the development of all-fibre gas cells that meet these challenges. Our structures are based on gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, in which we have recently demonstrated substantially enhanced stimulated Raman scattering, and which exhibit high performance, excellent long-term pressure stability and ease of use. To illustrate the practical potential of these structures, we report two different devices: a hydrogen-filled cell for efficient generation of rotational Raman scattering using only quasi-continuous-wave laser pulses; and acetylene-filled cells, which we use for absolute frequency-locking of diode lasers with very high signal-to-noise ratios. The stable performance of these compact gas-phase devices could permit, for example, gas-phase laser devices incorporated in a `credit card' or even in a laser pointer.

  19. Coherent light transmission properties of commercial photonic crystal hollow core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cranch, G A; Miller, G A

    2015-11-01

    Photonic crystal hollow core fiber (PC-HCF) has enabled many exciting new applications in nonlinear optics and spectroscopy. However, to date there has been less impact in coherent applications where preservation of optical phase over long fiber lengths is crucial. This paper presents characteristics of three commercially available PC-HCFs relevant to coherent applications including higher-order mode analysis, birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, and their impact on coherent light transmission in PC-HCF. Multipath interference due to higher-order mode propagation and Fresnel reflection is shown to generate excess intensity noise in transmission, which can be suppressed by up to 20 dB through high frequency phase modulation of the source laser. To demonstrate the potential of PC-HCF in high performance sensing, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) incorporating 10 m of PC-HCF in each arm is characterized and demonstrates a phase resolution (59×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz) close to the shot noise limit, which is better than can be achieved in a MZI made with the same length of single mode solid core fiber because of the limit set by fundamental thermodynamic noise (74×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz). PMID:26560626

  20. Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2012-03-01

    The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

  1. Sensitivity enhancement in high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy of gases with hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Doménech, José Luis; Cueto, Maite

    2013-10-15

    We show the first experimental evidence of the sensitivity enhancement that can be achieved in high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy of gases using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs). Using low power cw lasers and a HCPCF containing the gas, we have observed more than four orders of magnitude enhancement of sensitivity when compared with the cw single focus regime, and a similar sensitivity to that achieved in the more sensitive quasi-cw setups with multipass cells. PMID:24321926

  2. Soliton delivery of few-cycle optical gigawatt pulses in Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Song-Jin; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2010-08-15

    We study the delivery of few-cycle soliton-like pulses at 800 nm with gigawatt power or microjoule energy through a hollow-core kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber over 1 m with preserved temporal and spectral shape. We show that with optimized pressure of the argon filling, 5 fs input pulses are compressed up to 2.5 fs after 20 cm and restore their shape after 1 m propagation.

  3. High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, O. H.; Baer, C. R. E.; Kränkel, C.; Marchese, S. V.; Schapper, F.; Holler, M.; Südmeyer, T.; Robinson, J. S.; Tisch, J. W. G.; Couny, F.; Light, P.; Benabid, F.; Keller, U.

    2009-10-01

    :270, 2007). The interaction between the laser pulses and the gas occurs in a Kagome-type Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) (Benabid et al., Science 298:399, 2002), which reduces the detection threshold for HHG to only 200 nJ. This novel type of fiber guides nearly all of the light in the hollow core (Couny et al., Science 318:1118, 2007), preventing damage even at intensities required for HHG. Our fiber guided 30-fs pulses with a pulse energy of more than 10 μJ, which is more than five times higher than for any other photonic crystal fiber (Hensley et al., Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), IEEE Press, New York, 2008).

  4. Modal content in hypocycloid Kagomé hollow core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Thomas D; Wheeler, Natalie V; Jasion, Gregory T; Gray, David; Hayes, John; Gouveia, Marcelo Alonso; Sandoghchi, Seyed R; Chen, Yong; Poletti, Francesco; Richardson, David; Petrovich, Marco

    2016-07-11

    The modal content of 7 and 19 cell Kagomé anti resonant hollow core fibers (K-ARF) with hypocycloid core surrounds is experimentally investigated through the spectral and spatial (S2) imaging technique. It is observed that the 7 and 19 cell K-ARF reported here, support 4 and 7 LP mode groups respectively, however the observation that K-ARF support few mode groups is likely to be ubiquitous to 7 and 19 cell K-ARFs. The transmission loss of the higher order modes (HOMs) was measured via S2 and a cutback method. In the 7 cell K-ARF it is found that the LP11 and LP21 modes have approximately 3.6 and 5.7 times the loss of the fundamental mode (FM), respectively. In the 19 cell it is found that the LP11 mode has approximately 2.57 times the loss of the FM, while the LP02 mode has approximately 2.62 times the loss of the FM. Additionally, bend loss in these fibers is studied for the first time using S2 to reveal the effect of bend on modal content. Our measurements demonstrate that K-ARFs support a few mode groups and indicate that the differential loss of the HOMs is not substantially higher than that of the FM, and that bending the fiber does not induce significant inter modal coupling. A study of three different input beam coupling configurations demonstrates increased HOM excitation at output and a non-Gaussian profile of the output beam if poor mode field matching is achieved. PMID:27410850

  5. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, J. Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F.; Latifi, H.; Santos, J. L.

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5 × 10{sup −5} nm/psi at 1480 nm to 1.3 × 10{sup −3} nm/psi at 1680 nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000 psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from −3.4 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi to −1.3 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi and from −5 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi to −1.8 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  6. High-sensitivity molecular sensing using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Shi, Chao; Wheeler, Damon; Newhouse, Rebecca; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jin Z; Gu, Claire

    2010-05-01

    A high-sensitivity molecular sensor using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been experimentally demonstrated and theoretically analyzed. A factor of 100 in sensitivity enhancement is shown in comparison to direct sampling under the same conditions. With a silver nanoparticle colloid as the SERS substrate and Rhodamine 6G as a test molecule, the lowest detectable concentration is 10(-10) M with a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber (LCPCF) probe, and 10(-8) M for direct sampling. The high sensitivity provided by the LCPCF SERS probe is promising for molecular detection in various sensing applications. PMID:20448763

  7. Phase-matching solutions for high-order harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Serebryannikov, E E; von der Linde, D; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow phase-matched high-order harmonic generation by an isolated guided mode of pump radiation. Regimes of phase matching are analyzed for the fundamental guided mode of pump field with a wavelength around 800 nm, generating harmonics within the wavelength range of 25-50 nm in hollow photonic-crystal fibers filled with argon, krypton, and helium. Geometric parameters of the fiber structure and the pressure of the gas filling the fiber core are shown to serve as important, often orthogonal, control knobs, allowing a fine adjustment of the phase matching for high-order harmonic generation. PMID:15697538

  8. Generation of a phase-locked Raman frequency comb in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Abdolvand, A; Walser, A M; Ziemienczuk, M; Nguyen, T; Russell, P St J

    2012-11-01

    In a relatively simple setup consisting of a microchip laser as pump source and two hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, a broad, phase-locked, purely rotational frequency comb is generated. This is achieved by producing a clean first Stokes seed pulse in a narrowband guiding photonic bandgap fiber via stimulated Raman scattering and then driving the same Raman transition resonantly with a pump and Stokes fields in a second broadband guiding kagomé-style fiber. Using a spectral interferometric technique based on sum frequency generation, we show that the comb components are phase locked. PMID:23114296

  9. Ultrahigh and persistent optical depths of cesium in Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Saunders, Dylan J; Sprague, Michael R; Kolthammer, W Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Walmsley, Ian A; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibers are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD). However, until now these large optical depths could only be generated for seconds, at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of the highest observed transient (>10(5) for up to a minute) and highest observed persistent (>2000 for hours) optical depths of alkali vapors in a light-guiding geometry to date, using a cesium-filled Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as generation of single-photon-level nonlinearities and development of single photon quantum memories. PMID:26625056

  10. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based multifunctional optical system for trapping, position sensing, and detection of fluorescent particles.

    PubMed

    Shinoj, V K; Murukeshan, V M

    2012-05-15

    We demonstrate a novel multifunctional optical system that is capable of trapping, imaging, position sensing, and fluorescence detection of micrometer-sized fluorescent test particles using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). This multifunctional optical system for trapping, position sensing, and fluorescent detection is designed such that a near-IR laser light is used to create an optical trap across a liquid-filled HC-PCF, and a 473 nm laser is employed as a source for fluorescence excitation. This proposed system and the obtained results are expected to significantly enable an efficient integrated trapping platform employing HC-PCF for diagnostic biomedical applications. PMID:22627511

  11. Pressure-controlled phase matching to third harmonic in Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Nold, J; Hölzer, P; Joly, N Y; Wong, G K L; Nazarkin, A; Podlipensky, A; Scharrer, M; Russell, P St J

    2010-09-01

    We report tunable third-harmonic generation (THG) in an Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, pumped by broadband <2 microJ, 30 fs pulses from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. The overall dispersion is precisely controlled by balancing the negative dielectric susceptibility of the waveguide against the positive susceptibility of the gas. We demonstrate THG to a higher-order guided mode and show that the phase-matched UV wavelength is tunable by adjusting the gas pressure. PMID:20808370

  12. Nonstationary coherent optical effects caused by pulse propagation through acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocegueda, M.; Hernandez, E.; Stepanov, S.; Agruzov, P.; Shamray, A.

    2014-06-01

    Experimental observations of nonstationary coherent optical phenomena, i.e., optical nutation, free induction, and photon echo, in the acetylene (12C2H2) filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) are reported. The presented results were obtained for the acetylene vibration-rotational transition P9 at wavelength 1530.37 nm at room temperature under a gas pressure of <0.5 Torr. An all-fiber pumped-through cell based on the commercial 2.6-m-long PCF with a 10-μm hollow-core diameter was used. The characteristic relaxation time T2 during which the optical coherent effects were typically observed in our experiments was estimated to be ≈8 ns. This time is governed by the limited time of the acetylene molecules' presence inside the effective PCF modal area and by intermolecule collisions. An accelerated attenuation of the optical nutation oscillations is explained by a random orientation of acetylene molecules.

  13. Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Chang, Wonkeun; Hölzer, Philipp; Nazarkin, Alexander; Travers, John C; Joly, Nicolas Y; Russell, Philip St J; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-11-11

    We show theoretically that the photoionization process in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with a Raman-inactive noble gas leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous shift to higher frequencies, limited only by ionization loss. This phenomenon is opposite to the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers. We also predict the existence of unconventional long-range nonlocal soliton interactions leading to spectral and temporal soliton clustering. Furthermore, if the core is filled with a Raman-active molecular gas, spectral transformations between redshifted, blueshifted, and stabilized solitons can take place in the same fiber. PMID:22181733

  14. Two techniques for temporal pulse compression in gas-filled hollow-core kagomé photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Mak, K F; Travers, J C; Joly, N Y; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate temporal pulse compression in gas-filled kagomé hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using two different approaches: fiber-mirror compression based on self-phase modulation under normal dispersion, and soliton effect self-compression under anomalous dispersion with a decreasing pressure gradient. In the first, efficient compression to near-transform-limited pulses from 103 to 10.6 fs was achieved at output energies of 10.3 μJ. In the second, compression from 24 to 6.8 fs was achieved at output energies of 6.6 μJ, also with near-transform-limited pulse shapes. The results illustrate the potential of kagomé-PCF for postprocessing the output of fiber lasers. We also show that, using a negative pressure gradient, ultrashort pulses can be delivered directly into vacuum. PMID:24104822

  15. Subwatt threshold cw Raman fiber-gas laser based on H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Couny, F; Benabid, F; Light, P S

    2007-10-01

    We report on what is, to our knowledge, the first cw pumped Raman fiber-gas laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with hydrogen. The high efficiency of the gas-laser interaction inside the fiber allows operation in a single-pass configuration. The transmitted spectrum exhibits 99.99% of the output light at the Stokes wavelength and a pump power threshold as low as 2.25 W. The study of the Stokes emission evolution with pressure shows that highly efficient Raman amplification is still possible even at atmospheric pressure. The addition of fiber Bragg gratings to the system, creating a cavity at the Stokes wavelength, reduces the Raman threshold power below 600 mW. PMID:17930673

  16. Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P.; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-07-01

    The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high intensity ({approx}200 GW/cm2 for nanosecond pulses). Analysis suggests the use of coated hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). We study the effects of launch conditions and bending for 2 m long coated hollow fibers and find an optimum launch f of {approx}55 allowing spark formation with {approx}98% reliability for bends up to a radius of curvature of 1.5 m in atmospheric pressure air. Spark formation using the output of a pulsed fiber laser is described, and delivery of 0.55 mJ pulses through PCFs is shown.

  17. Phase-matched electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in Xe-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Jean-Michel; Russell, Philip St J

    2015-08-01

    Second-order nonlinearity is induced inside a Xe-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by applying an external dc field. The system uniquely allows the linear optical properties to be adjusted by changing the gas pressure, allowing for precise phase matching between the LP01 mode at 1064 nm and the LP02 mode at 532 nm. The dependence of the second-harmonic conversion efficiency on the gas pressure, launched pulse energy, and applied field agrees well with theory. The ultra-broadband guidance offered by anti-resonant reflecting hollow-core PCFs, for example, a kagomé PCF, offers many possibilities for generating light in traditionally difficult-to-access regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as the ultraviolet or the terahertz windows. The system can also be used for noninvasive measurements of the transmission loss in a hollow-core PCF over a broad spectrum, including the deep and vacuum UV regions. PMID:26258387

  18. Low-light-level nonlinear optics with rubidium atoms in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Amar Ramdas

    Low-light-level optical nonlinearities are of significant interest for performing operations such as single-photon switching and quantum non-demolition measurements on single-photons. To evoke strong nonlinearities from single-photons, one can enhance the matter-photon interaction using strongly nonlinear materials such as alkali vapors in combination with an appropriate geometry such as a waveguide, which provides a long interaction length while maintaining a small light mode area. We demonstrate for the first time that such a system can be experimentally realized by loading rubidium vapor inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber. Using the technique of light-induced atomic desorption in this geometry, we have generated optical depths greater than 1000. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with control powers 1000 times lower than those used for hot vapor cells in a focused beam geometry. Working with such a high aspect ratio geometry requires us to identify and measure the various sources of decoherence via spectroscopy of desorbed atoms in the fiber. Using such techniques, we also estimate the temperature of the desorbing atoms inside the fiber. The desorption mechanism is studied, and we show that pulsed desorption beams of the right amplitude and duration can be used for generating precisely controlled optical depths. Finally, we investigate the use of various buffer gas techniques for increasing the effective transverse path of the atoms as they move across the fiber in order to reduce their ground state decoherence and map this effect as a function of buffer gas pressure.

  19. Integration of a 3D hydrogel matrix within a hollow core photonic crystal fibre for DNA probe immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutowska, Monika S.; Garcia Gunning, Fatima C.; Kivlehan, Francine; Moore, Eric; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Ellis, Andrew D.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the integration of a 3D hydrogel matrix within a hollow core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF). In addition, we also show the fluorescence of Cy5-labelled DNA molecules immobilized within the hydrogel formed in two different types of HC-PCF. The 3D hydrogel matrix is designed to bind with the amino groups of biomolecules using an appropriate cross-linker, providing higher sensitivity and selectivity than the standard 2D coverage, enabling a greater number of probe molecules to be available per unit area. The HC-PCFs, on the other hand, can be designed to maximize the capture of fluorescence to improve sensitivity and provide longer interaction lengths. This could enable the development of fibre-based point-of-care and remote systems, where the enhanced sensitivity would relax the constraints placed on sources and detectors. In this paper, we will discuss the formation of such polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels within a HC-PCF, including their optical properties such as light propagation and auto-fluorescence.

  20. Design and fabrication of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for high-power ultrashort pulse transportation and pulse compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Peng, Xiang; Alharbi, M; Dutin, C Fourcade; Bradley, T D; Gérôme, F; Mielke, Michael; Booth, Timothy; Benabid, F

    2012-08-01

    We report on the recent design and fabrication of kagome-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for the purpose of high-power ultrashort pulse transportation. The fabricated seven-cell three-ring hypocycloid-shaped large core fiber exhibits an up-to-date lowest attenuation (among all kagome fibers) of 40 dB/km over a broadband transmission centered at 1500 nm. We show that the large core size, low attenuation, broadband transmission, single-mode guidance, and low dispersion make it an ideal host for high-power laser beam transportation. By filling the fiber with helium gas, a 74 μJ, 850 fs, and 40 kHz repetition rate ultrashort pulse at 1550 nm has been faithfully delivered at the fiber output with little propagation pulse distortion. Compression of a 105 μJ laser pulse from 850 fs down to 300 fs has been achieved by operating the fiber in ambient air. PMID:22859102

  1. Enhanced chemiluminescent detection scheme for trace vapor sensing in pneumatically-tuned hollow core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Stolyarov, Alexander M; Gumennik, Alexander; McDaniel, William; Shapira, Ofer; Schell, Brent; Sorin, Fabien; Kuriki, Ken; Benoit, Gilles; Rose, Aimee; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2012-05-21

    We demonstrate an in-fiber gas phase chemical detection architecture in which a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction is spatially and spectrally matched to the core modes of hollow photonic bandgap (PBG) fibers in order to enhance detection efficiency. A peroxide-sensitive CL material is annularly shaped and centered within the fiber's hollow core, thereby increasing the overlap between the emission intensity and the intensity distribution of the low-loss fiber modes. This configuration improves the sensitivity by 0.9 dB/cm compared to coating the material directly on the inner fiber surface, where coupling to both higher loss core modes and cladding modes is enhanced. By integrating the former configuration with a custom-built optofluidic system designed for concomitant controlled vapor delivery and emission measurement, we achieve a limit-of-detection of 100 parts per billion (ppb) for hydrogen peroxide vapor. The PBG fibers are produced by a new fabrication method whereby external gas pressure is used as a control knob to actively tune the transmission bandgaps through the entire visible range during the thermal drawing process. PMID:22714227

  2. In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for gas refractive index measurements based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nicholas L P; Ross, Rachel; Munzke, Dorit; van Hoorn, Camiel; Brzezinski, Andrew; Barnes, Jack A; Reich, Oliver; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2016-06-27

    We describe an in-fiber interferometer based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Expressions for the sensitivity, figure of merit and refractive index resolution are derived, and values are experimentally measured and theoretically validated using mode field calculations. The refractive indices of nine monoatomic and molecular gases are measured with a resolution of δns < 10-6. PMID:27410569

  3. Low optical insertion-loss and vacuum-pressure all-fiber acetylene cell based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Light, P S; Couny, F; Benabid, F

    2006-09-01

    We report a novel and easy-to-implement hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cell fabrication technique based on helium diffusion through silica. The formed gas cells combine low optical insertion loss (1.8 dB) and vacuum acetylene pressure (microbar regime). The estimates of the final gas pressure, using both Voigt interpolation and electromagnetically induced transparency, show a good match with the initial fitting pressure. PMID:16902611

  4. Tunable frequency-up/down conversion in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    Based on the interplay between photoionization and Raman effects in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers, we propose a new optical device to control frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses. By tuning the input-pulse energy, the output spectrum can be either down-converted, up-converted, or even frequency-shift compensated. For low input energies, the Raman effect is dominant and leads to a redshift that increases linearly during propagation. For larger pulse energies, photoionization starts to take over the frequency-conversion process and induces a strong blueshift. The fiber-output pressure can be used as an additional degree of freedom to control the spectrum shift. PMID:26371900

  5. Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Urich, A; Maier, R R J; Mangan, B J; Renshaw, S; Knight, J C; Hand, D P; Shephard, J D

    2012-03-12

    In this paper the delivery of high power Er:YAG laser pulses through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated. The Er:YAG wavelength of 2.94 µm is well beyond the normal transmittance of bulk silica but the unique hollow core guidance allows silica to guide in this regime. We have demonstrated for the first time the ability to deliver high energy pulses through an all-silica fibre at 2.94 µm. These silica fibres are mechanically and chemically robust, biocompatible and have low sensitivity to bending. A maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ at 2.94 µm was delivered through the fibre. This, to our knowledge, is the first time a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre has been shown to transmit 2.94 μm laser light at a fluence exceeding the thresholds required for modification (e.g. cutting and drilling) of hard biological tissue. Consequently, laser delivery systems based on these fibres have the potential for the realization of novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures. PMID:22418551

  6. High average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery using large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Mielke, Michael; Booth, Timothy

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate high average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse (<1 ps) laser delivery using helium-filled and argon-filled large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fibers and compare relevant performance parameters. The ultra-short pulse laser beam-with pulse energy higher than 7 μJ and pulse train average power larger than 0.7 W-is output from a 2 m long hollow core fiber with diffraction limited beam quality. We introduce a pulse tuning mechanism of argon-filled hollow core photonic band-gap fiber. We assess the damage threshold of the hollow core photonic band-gap fiber and propose methods to further increase pulse energy and average power handling. PMID:21263632

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberger, H. Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  8. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-08-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  9. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  10. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.; Konorov, S.O.; Mitrokhin, V.P.; Serebryannikov, E.E

    2004-10-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to offer the unique possibility of coherent excitation and probing of Raman-active vibrations in molecules by isolated air-guided modes of electromagnetic radiation. A 3-cm section of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber is used to prepare isolated air-guided modes of pump and probe fields for a coherent excitation of 2331-cm{sup -1} Q-branch vibrations of molecular nitrogen in the gas filling the fiber core, enhancing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering through these vibrations by a factor of 15 relative to the regime of tight focusing.

  11. Plasma-induced asymmetric self-phase modulation and modulational instability in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Chang, Wonkeun; Travers, John C; Russell, Philip St J; Biancalana, Fabio

    2012-09-14

    We study theoretically the propagation of relatively long pulses with ionizing intensities in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with a Raman-inactive noble gas. Because of photoionization, an extremely asymmetric self-phase modulation and a new kind of "universal" plasma-induced modulational instability appear in both normal and anomalous dispersion regions. We also show that it is possible to spontaneously generate a plasma-induced continuum of blueshifting solitons, opening up new possibilities for pushing supercontinuum generation towards shorter and shorter wavelengths. PMID:23005629

  12. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber and micro-fiber for a narrow-linewidth laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-05-01

    A novel tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is proposed and demonstrated by using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) and a micro-fiber. The interference cavity is a hollow core of HC-PBF. One of the reflection mirrors is the splicing point between a section of HC-PBF and a single mode fiber. The other reflection mirror is a gold-coated end of micro-fiber that uses chemical etching process to obtain the similar diameter as the core of HC-PBF. Hence the movable mirror can be adjusted with long distance inside the hollow core of HC-PBF. Tunable FP filter is used as a mode selecting component in the reflection mode to implement stable single longitudinal mode (SLM) operation in a ring laser. With FP cavity length of 0.25 ± 0.14 mm, the wavelength of SLM laser can be tuned over 1554-1562 nm with a tuning step of 0.2-0.3 nm, a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 32-36 dB and a linewidth of 3.0-5.1 kHz. With FP cavity length of 2.37 ± 0.37 mm, the SLM laser can be tuned over 1557.3-1560.2 nm with a tuning step of 0.06-0.1 nm, a SMSR of 44-51 dB and a linewidth of 1.8-3.0 kHz. PMID:21643220

  13. Matched cascade of bandgap-shift and frequency-conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in a tapered hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Beaudou, B; Couny, F; Wang, Y Y; Light, P S; Wheeler, N V; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2010-06-01

    We report on a novel means which lifts the restriction of the limited optical bandwidth of photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber on generating high order stimulated Raman scattering in gaseous media. This is based on H(2)-filled tapered HC-PCF in which the taper slope is matched with the effective length of Raman process. Raman orders outside the input-bandwidth of the HC-PCF are observed with more than 80% quantum-conversion using a compact, low-power 1064 nm microchip laser. The technique opens prospects for efficient sources in spectral regions that are poorly covered by currently existing lasers such as mid-IR. PMID:20588364

  14. Generation of surface-wave microwave microplasmas in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based on a split-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Vial, Florian; Gadonna, Katell; Debord, Benoît; Delahaye, Frédéric; Amrani, Foued; Leroy, Olivier; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah

    2016-05-15

    We report on a new and highly compact scheme for the generation and sustainment of microwave-driven plasmas inside the core of an inhibited coupling Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The microwave plasma generator consists of a split-ring resonator that efficiently couples the microwave field into the gas-filled fiber. This coupling induces the concomitant generation of a microwave surface wave at the fiber core surround and a stable plasma column confined in the fiber core. The scheme allowed the generation of several centimeters long argon microplasma columns with a very low excitation power threshold. This result represents an important step toward highly compact plasma lasers or plasma-based photonic components. PMID:27176984

  15. Photoionization-Induced Emission of Tunable Few-Cycle Midinfrared Dispersive Waves in Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers.

    PubMed

    Novoa, D; Cassataro, M; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-07-17

    We propose a scheme for the emission of few-cycle dispersive waves in the midinfrared using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with noble gas. The underlying mechanism is the formation of a plasma cloud by a self-compressed, subcycle pump pulse. The resulting free-electron population modifies the fiber dispersion, allowing phase-matched access to dispersive waves at otherwise inaccessible frequencies, well into the midinfrared. Remarkably, the pulses generated turn out to have durations of the order of two optical cycles. In addition, this ultrafast emission, which occurs even in the absence of a zero dispersion point between pump and midinfrared wavelengths, is tunable over a wide frequency range simply by adjusting the gas pressure. These theoretical results pave the way to a new generation of compact, fiber-based sources of few-cycle midinfrared radiation. PMID:26230794

  16. All-fiber reflecting temperature probe based on the simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with aqueous quantum dot solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Yin, Xiaojin; Wang, Wenyuan; Hong, Xueming; Du, Yu; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin

    2016-02-10

    An all-fiber reflecting fluorescent temperature probe is proposed based on the simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (SHC-PCF) filled with an aqueous CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solution. SHC-PCF is an excellent PCF used to fill liquid materials, which has low loss transmission bands in the visible wavelength range and enlarged core sizes. Both end faces of the SHC-PCF were spliced with multimode fiber after filling in order to generate a more stable and robust waveguide structure. The obtained temperature sensitivity dependence of the emission wavelength and the self-referenced intensity are 126.23 pm/°C and -0.007/°C in the temperature range of -10°C-120°C, respectively. PMID:26906361

  17. Temporal pulse compression in a xenon-filled Kagome-type hollow-core photonic crystal fiber at high average power.

    PubMed

    Heckl, O H; Saraceno, C J; Baer, C R E; Südmeyer, T; Wang, Y Y; Cheng, Y; Benabid, F; Keller, U

    2011-09-26

    In this study we demonstrate the suitability of Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers (HC-PCF) for multiwatt average power pulse compression. We spectrally broadened picosecond pulses from a SESAM mode-locked thin disk laser in a xenon gas filled Kagome-type HC-PCF and compressed these pulses to below 250 fs with a hypocycloid-core fiber and 470 fs with a single cell core defect fiber. The compressed average output power of 7.2 W and 10.2 W at a pulse repetition rate of approximately 10 MHz corresponds to pulse energies of 0.7 µJ and 1 µJ and to peak powers of 1.6 MW and 1.7 MW, respectively. Further optimization of the fiber parameters should enable pulse compression to below 50 fs duration at substantially higher pulse energies. PMID:21996856

  18. Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Benabid, F; Bouwmans, G; Knight, J C; Russell, P St J; Couny, F

    2004-09-17

    We report on the generation of pure rotational stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen gas hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using the special properties of this low-loss fiber, the normally dominant vibrational stimulated Raman scattering is suppressed, permitting pure conversion to the rotational Stokes frequency in a single-pass configuration pumped by a microchip laser. We report 92% quantum conversion efficiency (40 nJ pulses in 2.9 m fiber) and threshold energies (3 nJ in 35 m) more than 1 x 10(6) times lower than previously reported. The control of the output spectral components by varying only the pump polarization is also shown. The results point to a new generation of highly engineerable and compact laser sources. PMID:15447265

  19. 100 Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2 µm: transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Kavanagh, N; Li, Z; Zhao, J; Ye, N; Chen, Y; Wheeler, N V; Wooler, J P; Hayes, J R; Sandoghchi, S R; Poletti, F; Petrovich, M N; Alam, S U; Phelan, R; O'Carroll, J; Kelly, B; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Richardson, D J; Corbett, B; Garcia Gunning, F C

    2015-02-23

    We show for the first time 100 Gbit/s total capacity at 2 µm waveband, using 4 × 9.3 Gbit/s 4-ASK Fast-OFDM direct modulation and 4 × 15.7 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK external modulation, spanning a 36.3 nm wide wavelength range. WDM transmission was successfully demonstrated over 1.15 km of low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) and over 1 km of solid core fiber (SCF). We conclude that the OSNR penalty associated with the SCF is minimal, while a ~1-2 dB penalty was observed after the HC-PBGF probably due to mode coupling to higher-order modes. PMID:25836529

  20. Supercontinuum generation in the vacuum ultraviolet through dispersive-wave and soliton-plasma interaction in a noble-gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Frosz, M. H.; Travers, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the generation of a three-octave-wide supercontinuum extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to the near infrared, spanning at least 113-1000 nm (i.e., 11 -1.2 eV ), in He-filled hollow-core kagome-style photonic crystal fiber. Numerical simulations confirm that the main mechanism is an interaction between dispersive-wave emission and plasma-induced blue-shifted soliton recompression around the fiber zero dispersion frequency. The VUV part of the supercontinuum, the modeling of which proves to be coherent and possesses a simple phase structure, has sufficient bandwidth to support single-cycle pulses of 500 asec duration. We also demonstrate, in the same system, the generation of narrower-band VUV pulses through dispersive-wave emission, tunable from 120 to 200 nm with efficiencies exceeding 1 % and VUV pulse energies in excess of 50 nJ.

  1. Widely tunable broadband deep-ultraviolet to visible wavelength generation by the cross phase modulation in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J. H.; Sang, X. Z.; Wu, Q.; Yu, C. X.; Zhou, G. Y.; Shen, X. W.; Wang, K. R.; Yan, B. B.; Teng, Y. L.; Xia, C. M.; Han, Y.; Li, S. G.; Farrell, G.; Hou, L. T.

    2013-08-01

    The deep-ultraviolet (UV) to visible wavelengths are efficiently generated for the first time by the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the red-shifted solitons and the blue-shifted dispersive waves (DWs) in the fundamental guided mode of the multi-knots of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding (HC-PCFC). When the femtosecond pulses with a wavelength of 850 nm and average power of 300 mW are coupled into the knots 1-3, the conversion efficiency ηuv-v of 11% and bandwidth Buv-v of 100 nm in the deep-UV region are experimentally obtained. The multi-milliwatt ultrashort pulses are tunable over the deep-UV (below 200 nm) to visible spectral region by adjusting the wavelengths of the pump pulses in different knots. It is expected that these widely tunable broadband ultrashort deep-UV-visible pulse sources could have important applications in ultrafast photonics, femtochemisty, photobiology, and UV-visible resonant Raman scattering.

  2. Understanding the dynamics of photoionization-induced nonlinear effects and solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Mohammed F.; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-12-15

    We present the details of our previously formulated model [Saleh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011)] that governs pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by an ionizable gas. By using perturbative methods, we find that the photoionization process induces the opposite phenomenon of the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers, as was recently experimentally demonstrated [Hoelzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011)]. This process is only limited by ionization losses, and leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous blueshift in the frequency domain. By applying the Gagnon-Belanger gauge transformation, multipeak ''inverted gravitylike'' solitary waves are predicted. We also demonstrate that the pulse dynamics shows the ejection of solitons during propagation in such fibers, analogous to what happens in conventional solid-core fibers. Moreover, unconventional long-range nonlocal interactions between temporally distant solitons, unique of gas plasma systems, are predicted and studied. Finally, the effects of higher-order dispersion coefficients and the shock operator on the pulse dynamics are investigated, showing that the conversion efficiency of resonant radiation into the deep UV can be improved via plasma formation.

  3. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers.

  4. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Novoa, D; Russell, P St J

    2015-12-11

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers. PMID:26705636

  5. Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqin; Chen, Xue; Huang, Quandong; Du, Chenlin; Ruan, Shuangchen; Wei, Huifeng

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a novel and compact fiber-probe pressure sensor based on a micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The device is fabricated by splicing both ends of a short-section simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (SHC-PCF) with single-mode fibers. Then, a microchannel is drilled by a femtosecond laser micromachining in the SHC-PCF to allow air to diffuse in. The pressure sensing mechanism is based on the dependence of the air refractive index on pressure. We use both theory and experiment to investigate the sensing characteristics. A micro-FPI with a length of 272 μm demonstrates a pressure sensitivity of 4.071 nm/MPa at 1580 nm and a low-temperature sensitivity of 1.1 pm/°C at atmospheric pressure. We further study the temperature cross sensitivity of the sensor under different pressures. The sensor also shows strong stability and good reversibility, and may be potentially used in pressure sensing applications.

  6. Hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot photothermal gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Yanzhen; Jin, Wei; Lin, Yuechuan; Qi, Yun; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, compact, and low-cost trace gas sensor based on photothermal effect in a hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is described. The Fabry-Perot sensor is fabricated by splicing a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) to single-mode fiber pigtails at both ends. The absorption of a pump beam in the hollow core results in phase modulation of probe beam, which is detected by the FPI. Experiments with a 2 cm long HC-PBF with femtosecond laser drilled side-holes demonstrated a response time of less than 19 s and noise equivalent concentration (NEC) of 440 parts-per-billion (ppb) using a 1 s lock-in time constant, and the NEC goes down to 117 ppb (2.7×10-7 in absorbance) by using 77 s averaging time. PMID:27367092

  7. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery.

    PubMed

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K; Jakobsen, Christian; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Alkeskjold, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30µm was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10µm and a 18µm core diameter photonic band gap hollow-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. PMID:27137004

  8. Towards Rydberg quantum optics in a hollow core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, Mohammad; Langbecker, Maria; Windpassinger, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Cold atoms inside hollow-core fibers present a promising candidate to study strongly coupled light-matter systems. Adding coherent quantum state control and the intriguing features of Rydberg atoms, i.e. long range dipolar interactions leading to a dipole blockade, to the system should allow for the generation of exotic polaritonic and photonic states. This talk will review the current status of our experimental setup where laser cooled Rubidium atoms are transported into a hollow-core fiber. We present the first measurements of Rydberg EIT in the dipole trap in front of the fiber and discuss the progress towards Rydberg physics in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry. This work is supported by FP7, Marie Curie ITN 317485, QTea.

  9. Ionization-induced blueshift of high-peak-power guided-wave ultrashort laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. B.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-11-15

    Ionization-induced change in the refractive index of a gas is shown to give rise to a substantial spectral blueshift of megawatt light pulses transmitted through a gas-filled hollow photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). This effect suggests the ways of controlling not only the rate, but also the sign of the soliton frequency shift for high-peak-power ultrashort light pulses guided in hollow PCFs filled with Raman-active ionizing gases.

  10. RF-dressed Rydberg atoms in hollow-core fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, C.; Epple, G.; Kübler, H.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.

    2016-07-01

    The giant electro-optical response of Rydberg atoms manifests itself in the emergence of sidebands in the Rydberg excitation spectrum if the atom is exposed to a radio-frequency (RF) electric field. Here we report on the study of RF-dressed Rydberg atoms inside hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, a system that enables the use of low modulation voltages and offers the prospect of miniaturised vapour-based electro-optical devices. Narrow spectroscopic features caused by the RF field are observed for modulation frequencies up to 500 MHz.

  11. Design of composite hollow-core panels

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe, M.H.; Naciri, T.; Ehrlacher, A.

    1996-11-01

    A design method is proposed to describe the static behavior of hollow-core panels under flexure. These panels are made of diagonal stiffeners placed between two faces with a composite material (carbon-epoxy). The hollow-core panels and the design method were both developed by the ENPC for the making of structural components having a high stiffness/weight ratio. An analytical model based on a periodic media homogenization method was developed to obtain the constitutive law of the equivalent homogeneous panel. The accuracy of this model was assessed by comparing the calculated deflections with those of another 3D finite element model. An optimization method, based on the Euler equations, was further developed to provide the minimum weight for a given deflection. The faces and the stiffeners thicknesses were set as variables for the optimization process. With the partnership of the SNCF (the French railroads company), this method was applied to the design of the intermediate floor of the two-levels cabins for the TGV trains (high speed trains). The deflection of the aluminum honeycomb core sandwich floor already used by the SNCF was computed and, afterwards, the optimization method was used to find a hollow-core floor having the same deflection but a minimum weight. The results of the optimization clearly indicate that it is possible to reduce the aluminum TGV floor weight to one third.

  12. Integrated hollow-core fibers for nonlinear optofluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Wheeler, Natalie V; Healy, Noel; Peacock, Anna C

    2013-11-18

    A method to fabricate all-in-fiber liquid microcells has been demonstrated which allows for the incorporation of complex hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs). The approach is based on a mechanical splicing method in which the hollow-core fibers are pigtailed with telecoms fibers to yield devices that have low insertion losses, are highly compact, and do not suffer from evaporation of the core material. To isolate the PCF cores for the infiltration of low index liquids, a pulsed CO2 laser cleaving technique has been developed which seals only the very ends of the cladding holes, thus minimizing degradation of the guiding properties at the coupling region. The efficiency of this integration method has been verified via strong cascaded Raman scattering in both toluene (high index) core capillaries and ethanol (low index) core HCPCFs, for power thresholds up to six orders of magnitude lower than previous results. We anticipate that this stable, robust all-fiber integration approach will open up new possibilities for the exploration of optofluidic interactions. PMID:24514387

  13. Spectroscopy of Rb atoms in hollow-core fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Bhagwat, Amar R.; Venkataraman, Vivek; Londero, Pablo; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2010-05-15

    Recent demonstrations of light-matter interactions with atoms and molecules confined to hollow waveguides offer great promise for ultralow-light-level applications. The use of waveguides allows for tight optical confinement over interaction lengths much greater than what could be achieved in bulk geometries. However, the combination of strong atom-photon interactions and nonuniformity of guided light modes gives rise to spectroscopic features that must be understood in order to take full advantage of the properties of such systems. We use light-induced atomic desorption to generate an optically dense Rb vapor at room temperature inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber. Saturable-absorption spectroscopy and passive slow-light experiments reveal large ac Stark shifts, power broadening, and transit-time broadening, that are present in this system even at nanowatt powers.

  14. Anti-resonant hexagram hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Poletti, Francesco; Abokhamis, Mousavi S; Wheeler, Natalie V; Baddela, Naveen K; Richardson, David J

    2015-01-26

    Various simple anti-resonant, single cladding layer, hollow core fiber structures are examined. We show that the spacing between core and jacket glass and the shape of the support struts can be used to optimize confinement loss. We demonstrate the detrimental effect on confinement loss of thick nodes at the strut intersections and present a fabricated hexagram fiber that mitigates this effect in both straight and bent condition by presenting thin and radially elongated nodes. This fiber has loss comparable to published results for a first generation, multi-cladding ring, Kagome fiber with negative core curvature and has tolerable bend loss for many practical applications. PMID:25835888

  15. Sensing Features of Long Period Gratings in Hollow Core Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Iadicicco, Agostino; Campopiano, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the sensing features of the Long-Period fiber Gratings (LPGs) fabricated in hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) by the pressure assisted Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the characterization of the LPG in terms of shift in resonant wavelengths and changes in attenuation band depth to the environmental parameters: strain, temperature, curvature, refractive index and pressure is presented. The achieved results show that LPGs in HC-PCFs represent a novel high performance sensing platform for measurements of different physical parameters including strain, temperature and, especially, for measurements of environmental pressure. The pressure sensitivity enhancement is about four times greater if we compare LPGs in HC and standard fibers. Moreover, differently from LPGs in standard fibers, these LPGs realized in innovative fibers, i.e., the HC-PCFs, are not sensitive to surrounding refractive index. PMID:25855037

  16. Sensing features of long period gratings in hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Iadicicco, Agostino; Campopiano, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the sensing features of the Long-Period fiber Gratings (LPGs) fabricated in hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) by the pressure assisted Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the characterization of the LPG in terms of shift in resonant wavelengths and changes in attenuation band depth to the environmental parameters: strain, temperature, curvature, refractive index and pressure is presented. The achieved results show that LPGs in HC-PCFs represent a novel high performance sensing platform for measurements of different physical parameters including strain, temperature and, especially, for measurements of environmental pressure. The pressure sensitivity enhancement is about four times greater if we compare LPGs in HC and standard fibers. Moreover, differently from LPGs in standard fibers, these LPGs realized in innovative fibers, i.e., the HC-PCFs, are not sensitive to surrounding refractive index. PMID:25855037

  17. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters. PMID:27464191

  18. High peak-power monolithic femtosecond ytterbium fiber chirped pulse amplifier with a spliced-on hollow core fiber compressor.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, A J; Jespersen, K; Andersen, T V; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Flöry, T; Zhu, L; Baltuška, A; Fernández, A

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate a monolithic Yb-fiber chirped pulse amplifier that uses a dispersion matched fiber stretcher and a spliced-on hollow core photonic bandgap fiber compressor. For an output energy of 77 nJ, 220 fs pulses with 92% of the energy contained in the main pulse, can be obtained with minimal nonlinearities in the system. 135 nJ pulses are obtained with 226 fs duration and 82 percent of the energy in the main pulse. Due to the good dispersion match of the stretcher to the hollow core photonic bandgap fiber compressor, the duration of the output pulses is within 10% of the Fourier limited duration. PMID:25090494

  19. Fabrication of an IR hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glass extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Minming; Wang, Xunsi; Pan, Zhanghao; Cheng, Ci; Zhu, Qingde; Jiang, Chen; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Tao, Guangming; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-05-01

    The theoretical analysis and experimental preparation of a hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glasses are demonstrated. The fiber has potential applications in bio-sensing and IR energy transmission. Two chalcogenide glasses with, respectively, high and low refractive indexes are investigated in detail for the fabrication of hollow-core Bragg fibers. The most appropriate structure is selected; this structure is composed of four concentric rings and a center air hole . Its band gap for the Bragg fiber is analyzed by the plane wave method. The chalcogenide glasses Ge15Sb20S58.5I13 and Ge15Sb10Se75 are chosen to extrude the robust multi-material glass preform with a specialized punch and glass container. The glass preform is simultaneously protected with a polyetherimide polymer. The hollow-core Bragg fibers are finally obtained after glass preform extrusion, fiber preform fabrication, and fiber drawing. Results showed that the fiber has a transparency window from 2.5 to 14 μm, including a low-loss transmission window from 10.5 to 12 μm. The location of this low-loss transmission window matches the predicted photonic band gap in the simulation.

  20. Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport.

    PubMed

    Measor, Philip; Kühn, Sergei; Lunt, Evan J; Phillips, Brian S; Hawkins, Aaron R; Schmidt, Holger

    2008-04-01

    We introduce a method for optical characterization of hollow-core optical waveguides. Radiation pressure exerted by the waveguide modes on dielectric microspheres is used to analyze salient properties such as propagation loss and waveguide mode profiles. These quantities were measured for quasi-single-mode and multimode propagation in on-chip liquid-filled hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides. Excellent agreement with analytical and numerical models is found, demonstrating that optically induced particle transport provides a simple, inexpensive, and nondestructive alternative to other characterization methods. PMID:18382513

  1. Liquid-filled hollow core microstructured polymer optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cox, F M; Argyros, A; Large, M C J

    2006-05-01

    Guidance in a liquid core is possible with microstructured optical fibers, opening up many possibilities for chemical and biochemical fiber-optic sensing. In this work we demonstrate how the bandgaps of a hollow core microstructured polymer optical fiber scale with the refractive index of liquid introduced into the holes of the microstructure. Such a fiber is then filled with an aqueous solution of (-)-fructose, and the resulting optical rotation measured. Hence, we show that hollow core microstructured polymer optical fibers can be used for sensing, whilst also fabricating a chiral optical fiber based on material chirality, which has many applications in its own right. PMID:19516562

  2. Towards implementation of hollow core fibres for surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Artur; Delmonte, Tiina; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2011-03-01

    Presently, there is no truly flexible delivery system for light from Er:Yag medical lasers (λ = 2.94 μm) which allows surgeons to work unrestricted. Instead, either a relatively inflexible articulated arm or multi-mode fibre, limited to large bend radii, must be used. One proposed solution is the use of novel types of hollow core - band gap optical fibre rather than more traditional large area solid core fibres. In these silica based fibres, material absorption and damage limitations are overcome by using a photonic band gap structure. This confines radiation to lower order modes, that are guided in a small diameter air core. The overall fibre diameter is also smaller, which allows a smaller mechanical bend radius. Together with the guidance in air, this improves the laser power damage threshold. However, there are many practical hurdles that must be overcome to achieve a robust system for use in surgery. One of the main problems is that the fibre structure is hollow and ingress of dust, vapour, fluids and other contaminants need to be prevented to ensure safe in-vivo usage. Additionally, any infibre contamination will degrade the laser damage resistance of the fibre leading to potential catastrophic failure. The development of a robust and hermetically sealed end cap for the fibre, without adversely affecting beam quality or damage threshold is an essential prerequisite for the safe and efficient use of such fibres in surgery. In this paper we report on the progress on implementing end caps and describe novel methods of sealing off these hollow fibres in particular for surgical applications. This work will demonstrate that the use of these superior fibres with low loss guidance at 2.94 μm in surgery is feasible.

  3. Selective excitation of higher order modes in hollow-core PCF via prism-coupling.

    PubMed

    Trabold, Barbara M; Novoa, David; Abdolvand, Amir; Russell, Philip St J

    2014-07-01

    Prism-coupling through the microstructured cladding is used to selectively excite individual higher order modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). Mode selection is achieved by varying the angle between the incoming beam and the fiber axis, in order to match the axial wavevector component to that of the desired mode. The technique allows accurate measurement of the effective indices and transmission losses of modes of arbitrary order, even those with highly complex transverse field distributions that would be extremely difficult to excite by conventional endfire coupling. PMID:24978724

  4. Manipulation of coherent Stokes light by transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Chugreev, Alexey; Nazarkin, Alexander; Abdolvand, Amir; Nold, Johannes; Podlipensky, Alexander; Russell, Philip St J

    2009-05-25

    Transient stimulated Raman scattering is investigated in methane-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using frequency-chirped ps-pulses at 1.06 microm as pump and tunable CW-radiation as Stokes seed, the vibrational excitation of the CH(4) molecules can be controlled on the sub T(2) time-scale. In this way the generated Stokes pulse can be phase-locked to the pump pulse and its spectrum manipulated. PMID:19466132

  5. Terahertz antiresonant reflecting hollow-core waveguides for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Borwen; Lu, Ja-Yu; Chan, Chi-Yu; Yu, Chin-Ping; Chen, Hao-Zai; Liu, Tze-An; Peng, Jin-Long

    2011-02-01

    A dielectric hollow-core tube utilized as a terahertz anti-resonant reflecting hollow-core waveguide (THz-ARRHW) sensor has been demonstrated to detect the minute variation of both refractive index and thickness in macromolecule layers, deposited on the tube wall, and to identify liquid vapors from the various core indices. The minimal quantity of macromolecule layers loaded on the tube wall of a polypropylene tube can be detected at 1.2picomole/mm2 and 0.2%, corresponding to the variation of 2.9μm-thickness and 0.001-refractive-index. And the sensing performance of a THz- ARRHW to detect core index variation for identifying volatile liquids is also realized at 0.0001g/cm3- vapor density.

  6. Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavík, Radan; Marra, Giuseppe; Fokoua, Eric Numkam; Baddela, Naveen; Wheeler, Natalie V.; Petrovich, Marco; Poletti, Francesco; Richardson, David J.

    2015-10-01

    Propagation time through an optical fibre changes with the environment, e.g., a change in temperature alters the fibre length and its refractive index. These changes have negligible impact in many key fibre applications, e.g., telecommunications, however, they can be detrimental in many others. Examples are fibre-based interferometry (e.g., for precise measurement and sensing) and fibre-based transfer and distribution of accurate time and frequency. Here we show through two independent experiments that hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres have a significantly smaller sensitivity to temperature variations than traditional solid-core fibres. The 18 times improvement observed, over 3 times larger than previously reported, makes them the most environmentally insensitive fibre technology available and a promising candidate for many next-generation fibre systems applications that are sensitive to drifts in optical phase or absolute propagation delay.

  7. Intensity modulated SMF cascaded tapers with a hollow core PCF based microcavity for curvature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Sumit; Narayan Dash, Jitendra; Jha, Rajan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a highly sensitive curvature sensor based on cascaded single mode fiber (SMF) tapers with a microcavity. The microcavity is created by splicing a small piece of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) at the end of an SMF to obtain a sharp interference pattern. Experimental results show that two SMF tapers enhance the curvature sensitivity of the system and by changing the tapering parameters of the second taper, the curvature sensitivity of the system can be tailored, together with the fringe contrast of the interference pattern. A maximum curvature sensitivity of 10.4 dB/m-1 is observed in the curvature range 0 to 1 m-1 for a second taper diameter of 18 μm. The sensing setup is highly stable and shows very low temperature sensitivity. As the interrogation is intensity based, a low cost optical power meter can be utilized to determine the curvature.

  8. Supercontinuum up-conversion via molecular modulation in gas-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Novoa, D; Trabold, B M; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J

    2014-08-25

    We report on the efficient, tunable, and selective frequency up-conversion of a supercontinuum spectrum via molecular modulation in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The vibrational Q(1) Raman transition of hydrogen is excited in the fiber by a pump pre-pulse, enabling the excitation of a synchronous, collective oscillation of the molecules. This coherence wave is then used to up-shift the frequency of an arbitrarily weak, delayed probe pulse. Perfect phase-matching for this process is achieved by using higher order fiber modes and adjusting the pressure of the filling gas. Conversion efficiencies of ~50% are obtained within a tuning range of 25 THz. PMID:25321261

  9. Differential high-resolution stimulated CW Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen in a hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Philip G; Lassen, Mikael; Petersen, Jan C

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate sensitive high-resolution stimulated Raman measurements of hydrogen using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The Raman transition is pumped by a narrow linewidth (< 50 kHz) 1064 nm continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser. The probe light is produced by a homebuilt CW optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable from around 800 nm to 1300 nm (linewidth ∼ 5 MHz). These narrow linewidth lasers allow for an excellent spectral resolution of approximately 10(-4) cm(-1). The setup employs a differential measurement technique for noise rejection in the probe beam, which also eliminates background signals from the fiber. With the high sensitivity obtained, Raman signals were observed with only a few mW of optical power in both the pump and probe beams. This demonstration allows for high resolution Raman identification of molecules and quantification of Raman signal strengths. PMID:26193604

  10. Ultralow thermal sensitivity of phase and propagation delay in hollow core optical fibres

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Radan; Marra, Giuseppe; Fokoua, Eric Numkam; Baddela, Naveen; Wheeler, Natalie V.; Petrovich, Marco; Poletti, Francesco; Richardson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation time through an optical fibre changes with the environment, e.g., a change in temperature alters the fibre length and its refractive index. These changes have negligible impact in many key fibre applications, e.g., telecommunications, however, they can be detrimental in many others. Examples are fibre-based interferometry (e.g., for precise measurement and sensing) and fibre-based transfer and distribution of accurate time and frequency. Here we show through two independent experiments that hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres have a significantly smaller sensitivity to temperature variations than traditional solid-core fibres. The 18 times improvement observed, over 3 times larger than previously reported, makes them the most environmentally insensitive fibre technology available and a promising candidate for many next-generation fibre systems applications that are sensitive to drifts in optical phase or absolute propagation delay. PMID:26490424

  11. Generation of three-octave-spanning transient Raman comb in hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Tani, F; Belli, F; Abdolvand, A; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-03-15

    A noise-seeded transient comb of Raman sidebands spanning three octaves from 180 to 2400 nm, is generated by pumping a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with 26-μJ, 300-fs pulses at 800 nm. The pump pulses are spectrally broadened by both Kerr and Raman-related self-phase modulation (SPM), and the broadening is then transferred to the Raman lines. In spite of the high intensity, and in contrast to bulk gas-cell based experiments, neither SPM broadening nor ionization are detrimental to comb formation. PMID:25768173

  12. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-12-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the ^{13}{C}_2{H}_2 P(16) (ν _1 + ν _3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal the hollow-core fiber with easy light coupling, showing negligible pressure increase over two months. The locked laser shows a fractional frequency instability below 8 × 10^{-12} for an averaging time up to 104 s. The lock-point repeatability over one month is 2.6 × 10^{-11}, corresponding to a standard deviation of 5.3 kHz. The system is also assembled in a more compact and easy-to-use configuration ( Plug&Play), showing comparable performance with previously published work. The real portability of this technology is proved by shipping the system to a collaborating laboratory, showing unchanged performance after the return.

  13. Raman-free nonlinear optical effects in high pressure gas-filled hollow core PCF.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Wong, G K L; Chang, W; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2013-02-25

    The effective Kerr nonlinearity of hollow-core kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with argon gas increases to ~15% of that of bulk silica glass when the pressure is increased from 1 to 150 bar, while the zero dispersion wavelength shifts from 300 to 900 nm. The group velocity dispersion of the system is uniquely pressure-tunable over a wide range while avoiding Raman scattering-absent in noble gases-and having an extremely high optical damage threshold. As a result, detailed and well-controlled studies of nonlinear effects can be performed, in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, using only a fixed-frequency pump laser. For example, the absence of Raman scattering permits clean observation, at high powers, of the interaction between a modulational instability side-band and a soliton-created dispersive wave. Excellent agreement is obtained between numerical simulations and experimental results. The system has great potential for the realization of reconfigurable supercontinuum sources, wavelength convertors and short-pulse laser systems. PMID:23481974

  14. Efficient anti-Stokes generation via intermodal stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Trabold, B M; Abdolvand, A; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2013-12-01

    A strong anti-Stokes Raman signal, from the vibrational Q(1) transition of hydrogen, is generated in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To be efficient, this process requires phase-matching, which is not automatically provided since the group velocity dispersion is typically non-zero and--inside a fiber--cannot be compensated for using a crossed-beam geometry. Phase-matching can however be arranged by exploiting the different dispersion profiles of higher-order modes. We demonstrate the generation of first and second anti-Stokes signals in higher-order modes by pumping with an appropriate mixture of fundamental and a higher-order modes, synthesized using a spatial light modulator. Conversion efficiencies as high as 5.3% are achieved from the pump to the first anti-Stokes band. PMID:24514522

  15. Tunable optofluidic microring laser based on a tapered hollow core microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Li; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Luo, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yan-Ge; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-20

    A tunable optofluidic microring dye laser within a tapered hollow core microstructured optical fiber was demonstrated. The fiber core was filled with a microfluidic gain medium plug and axially pumped by a nanosecond pulse laser at 532 nm. Strong radial emission and low-threshold lasing (16 nJ/pulse) were achieved. Lasing was achieved around the surface of the microfluidic plug. Laser emission was tuned by changing the liquid surface location along the tapered fiber. The possibility of developing a tunable laser within the tapered simplified hollow core microstructured optical fiber presents opportunities for developing liquid surface position sensors and biomedical analysis. PMID:25969082

  16. Effects of cholesterol on plasma membrane lipid order in MCF-7 cells by two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yixiu; Chen, Jianling; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipids- enriched microdomains on plasma membrane surface of mammal cells, involved in a variety of cellular processes. Depleting cholesterol from the plasma membrane by drugs influences the trafficking of lipid raft markers. Optical imaging techniques are powerful tools to study lipid rafts in live cells due to its noninvasive feature. In this study, breast cancer cells MCF-7 were treated with different concentrations of MβCD to deplete cholesterol and an environmentally sensitive fluorescence probe, Laurdan was loaded to image lipid order by two-photon microscopy. The generalized polarization (GP) values were calculated to distinguish the lipid order and disorder phase. GP images and GP distributions of native and cholesterol-depleted MCF-7 cells were obtained. Our results suggest that even at low concentration (0.5 mM) of MβCD, the morphology of the MCF-7 cells changes. Small high GP areas (lipid order phase) decrease more rapidly than low GP areas (lipid disorder phase), indicating that lipid raft structure was altered more severely than nonraft domains. The data demonstrates that cholesterol dramatically affect raft coverage and plasma membrane fluidity in living cells.

  17. Sol-gel processing to form doped sol-gel monoliths inside hollow core optical fiber and sol-gel core fiber devices made thereby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C. (Inventor); Ott, Melanie N. (Inventor); Manuel, Michele V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process of fabricating a fiber device includes providing a hollow core fiber, and forming a sol-gel material inside the hollow core fiber. The hollow core fiber is preferably an optical fiber, and the sol-gel material is doped with a dopant. Devices made in this manner includes a wide variety of sensors.

  18. Frequency stabilization of a 2.05 μm laser using hollow-core fiber CO2 frequency reference cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meras, Patrick; Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2010-04-01

    We have designed and built a hollow-core fiber frequency reference cell, filled it with CO2, and used it to demonstrate frequency stabilization of a 2.05 μm Tm:Ho:YLF laser using frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy technique. The frequency reference cell is housed in a compact and robust hermetic package that contains a several meter long hollow-core photonic crystal fiber optically coupled to index-guiding fibers with a fusion splice on one end and a mechanical splice on the other end. The package has connectorized fiber pigtails and a valve used to evacuate, refill it, or adjust the gas pressure. We have demonstrated laser frequency standard deviation decreasing from >450MHz (free-running) to <2.4MHz (stabilized). The 2.05 μm laser wavelength is of particular interest for spectroscopic instruments due to the presence of many CO2 and H20 absorption lines in its vicinity. To our knowledge, this is the first reported demonstration of laser frequency stabilization at this wavelength using a hollow-core fiber reference cell. This approach enables all-fiber implementation of the optical portion of laser frequency stabilization system, thus making it dramatically more lightweight, compact, and robust than the traditional free-space version that utilizes glass or metal gas cells. It can also provide much longer interaction length of light with gas and does not require any alignment. The demonstrated frequency reference cell is particularly attractive for use in aircraft and space coherent lidar instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 profile.

  19. Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 μm with novel hollow-core silica glass fibres: demonstration of tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Artur; Maier, Robert R. J.; Knight, Jonathan C.; Yu, Fei; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present the delivery of high energy Er:YAG laser pulses operating at 2.94 μm through a hollow-core negative curvature fibre (HC-NCF) and a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF) and their use for the ablation of biological tissue. In HC-NCF fibres, which have been developed recently, the laser radiation is confined in a hollow core and by an anti-resonant or reflection principle (also known as ARROW). Both fibres are made of fused silica which has high mechanical and chemical durability, is bio-inert and results in a fibre with the flexibility that lends itself to easy handling and minimally invasive procedures. The HC-NCF structure consists of only one ring of capillaries around a realtively large core, followed by a protecting outer layer, hence the preform is relatively easy to build compared to traditional HC-PCF. The measured attenuation at 2.94 μm is 0.06 dB/m for the HC-NCF and 1.2 dB/m for the HC-PCF. Both fibres have a single mode output beam profile which can be advantageous for surgical applications as the beam profile is maintained during fibre movement. We demonstrate delivery of high energy pulses through both fibres, well above the thresholds needed for the ablation of biological tissue in non-contact and contact mode. Delivered energy densities reached > 750 J/cm-2 after 10 m of HC-NCF and > 3400 J/cm2 through a 44 cm HC-PCF.

  20. Hollow core waveguide as mid-infrared laser modal beam filter

    SciTech Connect

    Patimisco, P.; Giglio, M.; Spagnolo, V.; Sampaolo, A.; Kriesel, J. M.; Tittel, F. K.

    2015-09-21

    A novel method for mid-IR laser beam mode cleaning employing hollow core waveguide as a modal filter element is reported. The influence of the input laser beam quality on fiber optical losses and output beam profile using a hollow core waveguide with 200 μm-bore size was investigated. Our results demonstrate that even when using a laser with a poor spatial profile, there will exist a minimum fiber length that allows transmission of only the Gaussian-like fundamental waveguide mode from the fiber, filtering out all the higher order modes. This essentially single mode output is preserved also when the waveguide is bent to a radius of curvature of 7.5 cm, which demonstrates that laser mode filtering can be realized even if a curved light path is required.

  1. Perforated hollow-core optical waveguides for on-chip atomic spectroscopy and gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud-Carrier, M.; Hill, C.; Decker, T.; Black, J. A.; Schmidt, H.; Hawkins, A.

    2016-03-01

    A hollow-core waveguide structure for on-chip atomic spectroscopy is presented. The devices are based on Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguides and may be used for a wide variety of applications which rely on the interaction of light with gases and vapors. The designs presented here feature short delivery paths of the atomic vapor into the hollow waveguide. They also have excellent environmental stability by incorporating buried solid-core waveguides to deliver light to the hollow cores. Completed chips were packaged with an Rb source and the F = 3 ≥ F' = 2, 3, 4 transitions of the D2 line in 85Rb were monitored for optical absorption. Maximum absorption peak depths of 9% were measured.

  2. Silica hollow core microstructured fibers for beam delivery in industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Jonathan; Urich, Artur; Carter, Richard; Jaworski, Piotr; Maier, Robert; Belardi, Walter; Yu, Fei; Wadsworth, William; Knight, Jonathan; Hand, Duncan

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this review is our recent work to develop microstructured hollow core fibers for two applications where the flexible delivery of a single mode beam is desired. Also, a review of other fiber based solutions is included. High power, short-pulsed lasers are widely used for micro-machining, providing high precision and high quality. However, the lack of truly flexible beam delivery systems limits their application to the processing of relatively small planar components. To address this, we developed hollow-core optical fibers for the 1 μm and green wavelength ranges. The hollow core overcomes the power delivery limitations of conventional silica fibers arising from nonlinear effects and material damage in the solid core. We have characterized such fibers in terms of power handling capability, damage threshold, bend loss and dispersion, and practically demonstrated delivery of high peak power pulses from the nanosecond to the femtosecond regime. Such fibers are ideal candidates for industrial laser machining applications. In laser surgical applications, meanwhile, an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) is frequently the laser of choice because the water contained in tissue strongly absorbs this wavelength. If this laser beam is precisely delivered damage to surrounding tissue can be minimized. A common delivery method of surgical lasers, for use in the operating theatre, is articulated arms that are bulky, cumbersome and unsuitable for endoscopic procedures. To address this need for flexible mid-IR delivery we developed silica based hollow core fibers. By minimizing the overlap of the light with glass it is possible to overcome the material absorption limits of silica and achieve low attenuation. Additionally, it is possible to deliver pulse energies suitable for the ablation of both hard and soft tissue even with very small bend radii. The flexibility and small physical size of systems based on these fibers will enable new minimally invasive surgical procedures.

  3. Hollow-core revolver fibre with a double-capillary reflective cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosolapov, A. F.; Alagashev, G. K.; Kolyadin, A. N.; Pryamikov, A. D.; Biryukov, A. S.; Bufetov, I. A.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of the first hollow-core revolver fibre with a core diameter as small as 25 μm and an optical loss no higher than 75 dB km-1 at a wavelength of 1850 nm. The decrease in core diameter, with no significant increase in optical loss, is due to the use of double nested capillaries in the reflective cladding design. A number of technical problems pertaining to the fabrication of such fibres are resolved.

  4. Symmetrization of a polygonal hollow-core vortex through beat-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Siddiqui, Kamran; Vatistas, Georgios H; Fayed, Mohamed; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2011-05-01

    We report on the symmetrization phenomenon of a hollow-core vortex in shallow liquid conditions. This phenomenon accompanies the transition of m wave into (m+1) wave and involves a beat-wave resonance that mediates energy transfer between the background flow and the vortex core. It is shown that this beat wave has a frequency m/(m-1)times the frequency of the parent m wave. PMID:21728659

  5. Research of the DC discharge of He-Ne gas mixture in hollow core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian

    2013-09-01

    Since the first waveguide 0.633 μm He-Ne laser from a 20 cm length of 430 μm glass capillary was reported in 1971, no smaller waveguide gas laser has ever been constructed. Recently as the development of low loss hollow core PBG fiber, it is possible to constract a He-Ne lasers based on hollow-core PBG fibers. For the small diameter of the air hole, it is necessary to do some research to obtain glow discharge in hollow core fibers. In this paper, the experimental research of DC discharge in 200 μm bore diameter hollow core fibers was reported. Stable glow discharge was obained at varioue He-Ne mixtures from 4 Torr to 18 Torr. In order to obtain the plasma parameter of the discharge, the trace gasses of N2 and H2 were added to the He-Ne mixtures, the optical emission spectroscopy of the discharge was recorded by a PI 2750 spectroscopy with a CCD camera. The gas temperature (Tg) could be obtained by matching the simulated rovibronic band of the N2 emission with the observed spectrum in the ultraviolet region. The spectral method was also used to obtained the electron density, which is based on the analysis of the wavelength profile of the 486.13 nm Hβ line, and the electron temperature was obtain by Boltzmann plot methods. Experimental results show that it is very difficult to achieve DC discharge in bore diameter less than 50 μm, and a RF discharge method was proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61078033).

  6. Diffusion and Molecular Exchange in Hollow Core-Shell Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pochert, A; Schneider, D; Haase, J; Linden, M; Valiullin, R

    2015-09-22

    The diffusion behavior of small molecules in hollow core-shell nanocapsules was studied using pulsed field gradient NMR. By purposefully selecting the liquid saturating the hollow core and the porous shell and the solvent between the nanocapsules, two different situations corresponding to the excluded and admitted molecular exchange between the intra- and intercapsule liquids at the external boundary of the nanoparticles were covered. In the former case, corresponding to the reflective boundary condition for the molecules approaching the nanocapsule boundary, restricted diffusion in the complex pore space formed by the hollow core and the mesoporous shell was observed. The time-dependent diffusivities measured in the experiment were inter-related with the geometry of the intraparticle pore space. The thus assessed structural information was found to be in a good agreement with that provided by electron microscopy. In the case of the molecular exchange occurring between the two pools of molecules in the nanocapsules and between them, the diffusive dynamics of only the molecules remaining in the nanocapsules during the entire observation times was studied. PMID:26327167

  7. Tailored loss discrimination in indefinite metamaterial-clad hollow-core fibers.

    PubMed

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-07-11

    We analyze the modal attenuation properties of silica hollow-core fibers with a gold-wire based indefinite metamaterial cladding at 10.6 µm. We find that by varying the metamaterial feature sizes and core diameter, the loss discrimination can be tailored such that either the HE11, TE01 or TM01 mode has the lowest loss, which is particularly difficult to achieve for the radially polarized mode in commonly used hollow-core fibers. Furthermore, it is possible to tailor the HE11 and TM01 modes in the metamaterial-clad waveguide so that they possess attenuations lower than in hollow tubes composed of the individual constituent materials. We show that S-parameter retrieval techniques in combination with an anisotropic dispersion equation can be used to predict the loss discrimination properties of such fibers. These results pave the way for the design of metamaterial hollow-core fibers with novel guidance properties, in particular for applications demanding cylindrically polarized modes. PMID:27410842

  8. Broadband electric-field-induced LP01 and LP02 second harmonic generation in Xe-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Jean-Michel; Köttig, Felix; St J Russell, Philip

    2016-08-15

    Second harmonic (SH) generation with 300 fs pump pulses is reported in a xenon-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) across which an external bias voltage is applied. Phase-matched intermodal conversion from a pump light in the LP01 mode to SH light in the LP02 mode is achieved at a particular gas pressure. Using periodic electrodes, quasi-phase-matched SH generation into the low-loss LP01 mode is achieved at a different pressure. The low linear dispersion of the gas enables phase-matching over a broad spectral window, resulting in a measured bandwidth of ∼10  nm at high pump energies. A conversion efficiency of ∼18%/mJ is obtained. Gas-filled anti-resonant-reflecting hollow-core PCF uniquely offers pressure-tunable phase-matching, ultra-broadband guidance, and a very high optical damage threshold, which hold great promise for efficient three-wave mixing, especially in difficult-to-access regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. PMID:27519091

  9. Broadband robustly single-mode hollow-core PCF by resonant filtering of higher-order modes.

    PubMed

    Uebel, Patrick; Günendi, Mehmet C; Frosz, Michael H; Ahmed, Goran; Edavalath, Nitin N; Ménard, Jean-Michel; Russell, Philip St J

    2016-05-01

    We report a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber that is engineered so as to strongly suppress higher-order modes, i.e., to provide robust LP01 single-mode guidance in all the wavelength ranges where the fiber guides with low loss. Encircling the core is a single ring of nontouching glass elements whose modes are tailored to ensure resonant phase-matched coupling to higher-order core modes. We show that the resulting modal filtering effect depends on only one dimensionless shape parameter, akin to the well-known d/Λ parameter for endlessly single-mode solid-core PCF. Fabricated fibers show higher-order mode losses some ∼100 higher than for the LP01 mode, with LP01 losses <0.2  dB/m in the near-infrared and a spectral flatness ∼1  dB over a >110  THz bandwidth. PMID:27128049

  10. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-01

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment. PMID:24892188

  11. Design, synthesis and applications of core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Habila, Mohamed A; Labis, Joselito Puzon; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alhoshan, Mansour; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core-shell nanoparticles. Core-shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core-shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core-shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core-shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core-shell, hollow core-shell and rattle core-shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in

  12. Design, synthesis and applications of core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Habila, Mohamed A.; Labis, Joselito Puzon; Alothman, Zeid A.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core-shell nanoparticles. Core-shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core-shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core-shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core-shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core-shell, hollow core-shell and rattle core-shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering in a hollow core microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cox, Felicity M; Argyros, Alexander; Large, Maryanne C J; Kalluri, Srinath

    2007-10-17

    Improvement of surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) signals is demonstrated by confining the scattering event to the core of a hollow core microstructured optical fiber. The analyte solution fills the entire microstructure. The pump light is guided in the liquid core and the Raman scattered signal is efficiently collected by the fiber and transmitted to the detector. Rhodamine 6G (210nM) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution is used as a demonstration system and it was found that it is possible to collect usable Raman signals from the solution filled optical fiber well beyond the detection limit of an equivalent free-space system. PMID:19550638

  14. Optimal design of hollow core-shell structural active materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Li, Tingting; Ma, Zengsheng; Lin, Jianguo; Lu, Chunsheng

    To mitigate mechanical and chemical degradation of active materials, hollow core-shell structures have been applied in lithium ion batteries. Without embedding of lithium ions, the rigid coating shell can constrain the inward volume deformation. In this paper, optimal conditions for the full use of inner hollow space are identified in terms of the critical ratio of shell thickness and inner size and the state of charge. It is shown that the critical ratios are 0.10 and 0.15 for Si particle and tube (0.12 and 0.18 for Sn particle and tube), and above which there is lack of space for further lithiation.

  15. Single-ring hollow core optical fibers made by glass billet extrusion for Raman sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsiminis, G; Rowland, K J; Schartner, E P; Spooner, N A; Monro, T M; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H

    2016-03-21

    We report the fabrication of the first extruded hollow core optical fiber with a single ring of cladding holes, and its use in a chemical sensing application. These single suspended ring structures show antiresonance reflection optical waveguiding (ARROW) features in the visible part of the spectrum. The impact of preform pressurization on the geometry of these fibers is determined by the size of the different hole types in the preform. The fibers are used to perform Raman sensing of methanol, demonstrating their potential for future fiber sensing applications. PMID:27136787

  16. High-contrast grating hollow-core waveguide splitter applied to optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Che; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Te; Peng, Chao; Hu, Weiwei

    2014-11-01

    A novel hollow-core (HW) Y-branch waveguide splitter based on high-contrast grating (HCG) is presented. We calculated and designed the HCG-HW splitter using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Finite-different timedomain (FDTD) simulation shows that the splitter has a broad bandwidth and the branching loss is as low as 0.23 dB. Fabrication is accomplished with standard Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process. The experimental measurement results indicate its good performance on beam splitting near the central wavelength λ = 1550 nm with a total insertion loss of 7.0 dB.

  17. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  18. Spf/db hollow core fan blade. [SuperPlastically Formed/Diffusion Bonded

    SciTech Connect

    Velicki, A.

    1993-08-31

    A hollow core rotor blade for a turbine engine, comprising: a generally airfoil-shaped outer structure comprised of a superplastically formed, diffusion bonded sheet material, the outer structure having a trailing edge and a leading edge and being comprised of a matrix structure, with generally longitudinally oriented composite fibers being embedded within the superplastically formed material to increase the bending stiffness of the blade, the leading edge having an outer surface; and a hollow core spacing enclosed by the outer structure; wherein the outer surface of the leading edge is formed from a single sheet of material and is therefore structurally continuous and seamless, thereby allowing the rotor blade to be relatively lightweight, efficient, and durable, wherein each surface layer is comprised of an antifretting material having sufficient strength to withstand stresses between the blade and rotor during engine operation and sufficient ductility for forming into the manufactured shape; and wherein the shim is disposed between the dovetail and the dovetail slot, such that a portion of the first surface layer of the shims contacts at least a portion of each side face of the dovetail, and such that a portion of the second surface layer of the shim contacts at least a portion of each side wall of the dovetail slot.

  19. Thermal and Structural Analysis of a Hollow Core Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; McGaw, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of primary and secondary orientations on the elastic response of a hollow core, (001)-oriented nickel base single-crystal superalloy turbine blade, was investigated under combined thermal and mechanical conditions. Finite element techniques is employed through MARC finite element code to conduct the analyses on a hollow core SSME turbine blade made out of PWA 1480 single crystal material. Primary orientation of the single crystal superalloy was varied in increments of 2 deg, from 0 to 10 deg, from the (001) direction. Two secondary orientations (0 and 45 deg) were considered with respect to the global coordinate system, as the primary orientation angle was varied. The stresses developed within the single crystal blade were determined for different orientations of the blade. The influence of angular offsets such as the single crystal's primary and secondary orientations and the loading conditions on the elastic stress response of the PWA 1480 hollow blade are summarized. The influence of he primary orientation angle, when constrained between the bounds considered, was not found to be as significant as the influence of the secondary orientation angle.

  20. Enhanced spontaneous Raman scattering using a photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.P.; Falk, J.; Chen, K.; Woodruff, S.D.

    2008-07-22

    The output power from spontaneous gas-phase Raman scattering is enhanced using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for the gas cell and Stokes light collector, yielding >100 times enhancement over a free-space configuration.

  1. Enhanced Spontaneous Raman Scattering using a Photonic Crystal Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    M.P. Buric; J. Fal; K. Chen; S. Woodruff1

    2007-10-01

    The output power from spontaneous gas-phase Raman scattering is enhanced using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for the gas cell and Stokes light collector, yielding >100 times enhancement over a free-space configuration.

  2. Experimental study of low-loss single-mode performance in anti-resonant hollow-core fibers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Xu, Mengrong; Knight, Jonathan C

    2016-06-13

    Anti-resonant hollow-core fibers are optical fiber waveguides which exhibit very low dispersion, high damage threshold and ultra-low nonlinear response. However, they typically deliver the light in several spatial modes, whereas their application usually requires that they support a single spatial mode. We report the principles, fabrication, demonstration and characterization of anti-resonant hollow-core fibres with strong differential modal attenuations and low overall attenuations. These fibers perform as single-mode and are eminently suitable for delivery of powerful ultrashort optical pulses in machining, cutting, welding and multiphoton microscopy applications. PMID:27410316

  3. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements. Part 3: Prestressed hollow-core slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, L.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions. In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The model takes into account the resistance against the formation of cracks due to prestressing as well as the variation of the prestressing force in the transfer zone. Due to the fact that the anchorage of the reinforcement takes place by bond, a rotation failure, which is indeed by a crack formed at the support with subsequent slip of the reinforcement, is also considered. This failure mode is likely to occur in cases with a high prestressing force combined with a short shear span. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results form the literature. A good agreement has been found.

  4. Nanofilms on Hollow Core Fiber-Based Structures: An Optical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Javier; Matías, Ignacio R.; Del Villar, Ignacio; Corres, Jesús M.; Arregui, Francisco J.

    2006-05-01

    The optical characteristics of one multimode fiber (MMF)-hollow core fiber (HCF)-structure when a nanofilm is deposited on it has been theoretically and experimentally studied. The electrostatic self-assembly method has been used as the deposition technique, and the polymers chosen are polydiallyldimethylammonium and Poly R-478. Two different types of HCF have been used for the fabrication of the devices: 10/150 and 50/150 µm inner and outer diameters, respectively. Depending on several design parameters, the transmitted optical-power characteristic of the device experiences important changes that could be interesting towards development of several practical optical devices. The length and thickness of the HCF segment, the refractive index of the material deposited, the angle of the light when it reach the HCF section, and the wavelength of the light source will be analyzed.

  5. Propagation of femtosecond pulses in a hollow-core revolver fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Yu P.; Krylov, A. A.; Pryamikov, A. D.; Kosolapov, A. F.; Kolyadin, A. N.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Bufetov, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have studied for the first time the propagation of femtosecond pulses through an optical fibre with an air-filled hollow core and a cladding in the form of one ring of noncontacting cylindrical capillaries for high-power radiation transmission in the 1.55-μm telecom range. Numerical analysis results demonstrate that the parameters of the fibre enable radiation transmission in the form of megawatt-power Raman solitons through up to a 25-m length of the fibre and tuning of the emission wavelength over 130 nm. We have experimentally demonstrated femtosecond pulse transmission through fibres up to 5 m in length in the linear propagation regime, without distortions of the pulse spectrum, with a dispersion-induced temporal pulse broadening within 20%.

  6. Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material

    SciTech Connect

    Bejot, P.; Schmidt, B. E.; Legare, F.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2010-06-15

    We numerically investigate the pulse compression mechanism in the infrared spectral range based on the successive action of nonlinear pulse propagation in a hollow-core fiber followed by linear propagation through bulk material. We found an excellent agreement of simulated pulse properties with experimental results at 1.8 {mu}m in the two-optical-cycle regime close to the Fourier limit. In particular, the spectral phase asymmetry attributable to self-steepening combined with self-phase modulation is a necessary prerequisite for subsequent compensation by the phase introduced by glass material in the anomalous dispersion regime. The excellent agreement of the model enabled simulating pressure and wavelength tunability of sub-two cycles in the range from 1.5 to 4 {mu}m with this cost-efficient and robust approach.

  7. Terahertz Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow-core metallic ridge waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, M.; Beigang, R.; Rahm, M.

    2015-04-01

    While terahertz time-domain spectroscopy directly measures amplitude and phase of pulsed terahertz electric fields, the use of more compact terahertz continuous wave sources requires interferometric measurement techniques to obtain phase information. Since constructive and destructive interference are governed by the relative phase of the superimposing fields the phase information can be retrieved from the amplitude modulation signal at the output of the interferometer. Here, we present phase-sensitive measurements of terahertz electric fields in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is integrated in a hollow-core metallic ridge waveguide. With lactose in one of the interferometer arms, we measured the modulated amplitude spectrum of the interferometer output signal which carries information about the dielectric properties of the investigated lactose. We explain the measured transmission spectra and the observed dielectric resonances by analytic and numerical means and further confirmed the results by a spectroscopic reference measurement of lactose in a conventional waveguide.

  8. Engineering of Hollow Core-Shell Interlinked Carbon Spheres for Highly Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; He, Bin; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Lu, An-Hui

    2015-08-25

    We report engineered hollow core-shell interlinked carbon spheres that consist of a mesoporous shell, a hollow void, and an anchored carbon core and are expected to be ideal sulfur hosts for overcoming the shortage of Li-S batteries. The hollow core-shell interlinked carbon spheres were obtained through solution synthesis of polymer spheres followed by a pyrolysis process that occurred in the hermetical silica shell. During the pyrolysis, the polymer sphere was transformed into the carbon core and the carbonaceous volatiles were self-deposited on the silica shell due to the blocking effect of the hermetical silica shell. The gravitational force and the natural driving force of lowering the surface energy tend to interlink the carbon core and carbon/silica shell, resulting in a core-shell interlinked structure. After the SiO2 shell was etched, the mesoporous carbon shell was generated. When used as the sulfur host for Li-S batteries, such a hierarchical structure provides access to Li(+) ingress/egress for reactivity with the sulfur and, meanwhile, can overcome the limitations of low sulfur loading and a severe shuttle effect in solid carbon-supported sulfur cathodes. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy images provide visible evidence that sulfur is well-encapsulated in the hollow void. Importantly, such anchored-core carbon nanostructures can simultaneously serve as a physical buffer and an electronically connecting matrix, which helps to realize the full potential of the active materials. Based on the many merits, carbon-sulfur cathodes show a high utilization of sulfur with a sulfur loading of 70 wt % and exhibit excellent cycling stability (i.e., 960 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C). PMID:26182333

  9. Nonlinear compression of ultrafast industrial lasers in hypocyloid-core Kagome hollow-core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giree, A.; Guichard, F.; Machinet, G.; Zaouter, Y.; Hagen, Y.; Debords, B.; Dupriez, P.; Gérôme, F.; Hanna, M.; Benabid, F.; Hönninger, C.; Georges, P.; Mottay, E.

    2015-03-01

    The duration of energetic ultrashort pulses is usually limited by the available gain bandwidth of ultrashort amplifiers used to amplify nJ or pJ level seed to hundreds of μμJ or even several mJ. In the case of Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers, the available bandwidth is of the order of 40 nm, typically limiting the pulse duration of high-energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers to durations above 300 fs. In the case of solid-state amplifier based on Yb:YAG crystals, the host matrix order restricts the amplification bandwidth even more leading to pulses in the low picosecond range. Both architecture would greatly benefit from pulse durations well-below what is allowed by their respective gain bandwidth e.g. sub-100 fs for fiber amplifier and sub-300 fs for solid-state Yb:YAG amplifier. In this contribution, we report on the post-compression of two high energy industrial ultrashort fiber and thin-disk amplifiers using an innovative and efficient hollow core fiber structure, namely the hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. This fiber exhibits remarkably low propagation losses due to the unique inhibited guidance mechanism that minimize that amount of light propagating in the silica cladding surrounding the hollow core. Spectral broadening is realized in a short piece of Kagome fiber filled with air at 1 atmosphere pressure. For both amplifiers, we were able to demonstrate more than 200 μJ of energy per pulse with duration <100 fs in the case of the fiber amplifier and <300 fs in the case of the thin disk amplifier. Limitations and further energy scaling will also be discussed.

  10. Nonlinear endoscopy with Kagomé lattice hollow-core fibers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardini, Alberto; Sivankutty, Siddharth; Chen, Xueqin; Wenger, Jérôme; Habert, Rémi; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Andresen, Esben R.; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    The development of nonlinear fiber-endoscopes capable of imaging deeper in tissues and accessing internal organs represents a very attractive perspective for application of nonlinear optical microscopes to in-vivo research and diagnostics. The transmission of ultra-short laser pulses within a fiber is a critical issue in the development of such endoscopes. For instance, self-phase modulation (SPM), four-wave mixing (FWM) and Raman scattering occurring in conventional fibers severely affect transmitted pulses profiles in the time and frequency domains. Hollow-core (HC) fibers bring a solution to the problem, since propagation of the pulses in the air core limits nonlinear interactions. We employ here a novel double clad Kagomé-lattice HC fiber for the delivery of ultrafast pulses across a large spectral window (~400nm) with no pulse distortion. The epi-collection of the signal generated at the sample is efficiently performed with a specially designed outer multimode cladding. The fiber is incorporated in a prototype endoscope using a four-quartered piezo-electric tube to scan the laser beam on the sample. The low numerical aperture of the hollow-core (0.02) is efficiently increased by means of a dielectric microsphere attached to the fiber face. This results in tight focusing (~1 micron) of the beam at the HC fiber output. Resonant scanning of the fiber tip allows imaging over a field of 300 microns using low driving voltages. High-resolution images with different contrast mechanisms, such as SHG and TPEF, acquired with the prototype endoscope illustrate the potential of these fibers for nonlinear imaging in regions otherwise inaccessible to conventional optical microscopes.

  11. Recent developments in laser-driven and hollow-core fiber optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digonnet, M. J. F.; Chamoun, J. N.

    2016-05-01

    Although the fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) continues to be a commercial success, current research efforts are endeavoring to improve its precision and broaden its applicability to other markets, in particular the inertial navigation of aircraft. Significant steps in this direction are expected from the use of (1) laser light to interrogate the FOG instead of broadband light, and (2) a hollow-core fiber (HCF) in the sensing coil instead of a conventional solid-core fiber. The use of a laser greatly improves the FOG's scale-factor stability and eliminates the source excess noise, while an HCF virtually eliminates the Kerr-induced drift and significantly reduces the thermal and Faraday-induced drifts. In this paper we present theoretical evidence that in a FOG with a 1085-m coil interrogated with a laser, the two main sources of noise and drift resulting from the use of coherent light can be reduced below the aircraft-navigation requirement by using a laser with a very broad linewidth, in excess of 40 GHz. We validate this concept with a laser broadened with an external phase modulator driven with a pseudo-random bit sequence at 2.8 GHz. This FOG has a measured noise of 0.00073 deg/√h, which is 30% below the aircraft-navigation requirement. Its measured drift is 0.03 deg/h, the lowest reported for a laser-driven FOG and only a factor of 3 larger than the navigation-grade specification. To illustrate the potential benefits of a hollow-core fiber in the FOG, this review also summarizes the previously reported performance of an experimental FOG utilizing 235 m of HCF and interrogated with broadband light.

  12. Photonic-Crystal-Fiber Raman Spectroscopy for Real-Time, Gas-Composition Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.P.; Chen, K.P.; Falk, J.; Woodruff, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy in a hollow-core, photonic crystal fiber is reported. The fiber is used as the sample cell and the Stokes light collector. Raman signals were observed for major species in air and natural gas.

  13. Process for the fabrication of hollow core solenoidal microcoils in borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Mona J. K.; Ono, Takahito; Esashi, Masayoshi; Korvink, Jan G.

    2008-07-01

    We report the fabrication of solenoidal microcoils with hollow core embedded within two 100 µm thick borosilicate glass wafers. The main process steps are the reactive ion etching of borosilicate glass, anodic wafer bonding, copper metal organic chemical vapor deposition (Cu MOCVD) and electroless galvanization. Our motivation stems from the need for a reliable, precise fabrication method of microcoils for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For reduced loss at high-frequency operation, glass, with a lower dielectric constant as compared to silicon, was chosen as a substrate material. Simultaneously, this offers MRI sample observation owing to its optical transparency. Further essential parameters for the coil design were the need for small coil dimensions, a high filling factor (region of interest within the coil occupied by the sample/overall coil volume), and low-loss electrical connectability to external devices. In an attempt to achieve those requirements, the reported process demonstrates the combination of front- and backside borosilicate glass RIE of small dimensional features (down to 10 µm wall thickness) with subsequent conformal metallization of the 3D solenoidal coil by means of Cu MOCV and electroless galvanization.

  14. [Raman Signal Enhancement for Gas Detection Using a Hollow Core Optical Fiber].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-jia; Yang, De-wang; Liu, Chun-hao

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for gas detection due to the advantages of simultaneous multiple species recognition, rapid analysis, and no sample preparation, etc. Low sensitivity is still a great limitation for Raman application. In this work a Raman system based on a hollow core optical fiber (HCOF) was built and the detection sensitivity for the gas was significantly improved. Also a comparison was carried out between the HCOF Raman system and back-scattering Raman system. The obtained results indicated that the HCOF Raman system could well enhance the signal while also for the background and noise. Using HCOF system, 60 folds signal enhancement was achieved with SNR improvement of 6 times for the N2 and O2 in air when comparing to the back-scattering system. While for the same signal intensity, with HCOF system the exposure time was well shortened to 1/60 and the noise was decreased to 1/2 than the back-scattering system. PMID:27228748

  15. Yeast cells-derived hollow core/shell heteroatom-doped carbon microparticles for sustainable electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Xiaoxin; Meng, Yuying; Mikmeková, Eliška; Chen, Hui; Voiry, Damien; Goswami, Anandarup; Chhowalla, Manish; Asefa, Tewodros

    2015-01-28

    The use of renewable resources to make various synthetic materials is increasing in order to meet some of our sustainability challenges. Yeast is one of the most common household ingredients, which is cheap and easy to reproduce. Herein we report that yeast cells can be thermally transformed into hollow, core-shell heteroatom-doped carbon microparticles that can effectively electrocatalyze the oxygen reduction and hydrazine oxidation reactions, reactions that are highly pertinent to fuel cells or renewable energy applications. We also show that yeast cell walls, which can easily be separated from the cells, can produce carbon materials with electrocatalytic activity for both reactions, albeit with lower activity compared with the ones obtained from intact yeast cells. The results reveal that the intracellular components of the yeast cells such as proteins, phospholipids, DNAs and RNAs are indirectly responsible for the latter's higher electrocatalytic activity, by providing it with more heteroatom dopants. The synthetic method we report here can serve as a general route for the synthesis of (electro)catalysts using microorganisms as raw materials. PMID:25547005

  16. Lubrication mechanisms of hollow-core inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles: coupling experimental and computational works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahouij, I.; Bucholz, E. W.; Vacher, B.; Sinnott, S. B.; Martin, J. M.; Dassenoy, F.

    2012-09-01

    Inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles made of metal dichalcogenides have previously been recognized to be good friction modifiers and anti-wear additives under boundary lubrication conditions. The tribological performance of these particles appears to be a result of their size, structure and morphology, along with the test conditions. However, the very small scale of the IF nanoparticles makes distinguishing the properties which affect the lubrication mechanism exceedingly difficult. In this work, a high resolution transmission electron microscope equipped with a nanoindentation holder is used to manipulate individual hollow IF-WS2 nanoparticles and to investigate their responses to compression. Additional atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of similarly structured, individual hollow IF-MoS2 nanoparticles are performed for compression studies between molybdenum surfaces on their major and minor axis diameters. MD simulations of these structures allows for characterization of the influence of structural orientation on the mechanical behavior and nano-sheet exfoliation of hollow-core IF nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical results for these similar nanoparticles are qualitatively compared.

  17. Hollow core fiber optics for mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Gat, Nahum; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, James A.

    2011-05-01

    We describe the development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems. Spectroscopy measurements in these wavelength regions (i.e., from 3 to 14 μm) are useful for detecting trace chemical compounds for a variety of security and defense related applications, and fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of detection and calibration systems. Hollow glass fibers have the advantage over solid-core fibers (e.g., chalcogenide) in that they are less fragile, do not produce cladding modes, do not require angle cleaving or antireflection coatings to minimize laser feedback effects, and effectively transmit deeper into the infrared. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow fiber technology geared specifically for infrared spectroscopy, including single mode beam delivery with relatively low bending loss. Results are presented from tests conducted using both Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) and CO2 lasers operating in the LWIR wavelength regime. Single-mode waveguides are shown to effectively deliver beams with relatively low loss (~ 1 dB/m) and relatively high beam quality. The fibers are also shown to effectively mode-filter the "raw" multi-mode output from a QCL, in effect damping out the higher order modes to produce a circularly symmetric Gaussian-like beam profile.

  18. Comparison of the filamentation and the hollow-core fibercharacteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmann, L.; Pfeifer, T.; Nagel, P.M.; Abel, M.J.; Neumark,D.M.; Leone, S.R.

    2006-10-23

    The gas-filled hollow-core fiber compression and the opticalfilamentation technique are compared experimentally in a parameter regimesuitable for intense few-cycle pulse generation. In particular, pointingstability, spectral properties, and spatial chirp are investigated. It isfound that in the case of filamentation, the critical parameter forpointing stability is gas pressure inside the generation cell whereas forthe hollow-core fiber it is alignment that plays this role. Thehollow-core fiber technique yields spectra that are better suited forchirped-mirror pulse compression whereas filamentation offers higherthroughput and prospects for easy-to-implement self-compression. Wepresent spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-fieldreconstruction (SPIDER) measurements that directly show the transition inthe spectral phase of the output continua into the self-compressionregime as the gas pressure is increased.

  19. Fiber Diffraction Data Indicate a Hollow Core for the Alzheimer’s Aβ Three-fold Symmetric Fibril

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Michele; Box, Hayden; Bian, Wen; Kendall, Amy; Tycko, Robert; Stubbs, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid β protein (Aβ), the principal component of the extracellular plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients, forms fibrils well suited to structural study by X-ray fiber diffraction. Fiber diffraction patterns from the 40-residue form Aβ(1–40) confirm a number of features of a three-fold symmetric Aβ model from solid state NMR, but suggest that the fibrils have a hollow core, not present in the original ssNMR models. Diffraction patterns calculated from a revised hollow three-fold model with a more regular β-sheet structure are in much better agreement with the observed diffraction data than patterns calculated from the original ssNMR model. Refinement of a hollow-core model against ssNMR data led to a revised ssNMR model, similar to the fiber diffraction model. PMID:22903058

  20. Tuning the synthesis of platinum-copper nanoparticles with a hollow core and porous shell for the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuangshuang; Yang, Nating; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol.Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03894h

  1. Constructing Hierarchically Hollow Core-Shell MnO2 /C Hybrid Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Sun, Yuhan; Li, Debao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical MnO2 /C hybrid spheres (MCS@MnO2 ), consisting of numerous hollow core-shell MnO2 @C nanospheres, are developed via a facile deposition process. The well-defined inner voids and robust carbon framework endow MCS@MnO2 with excellent mechanical stability, efficient utilization of MnO2 , and enhanced reaction kinetics for Li-ion batteries, therefore leading to large specific capacities, superior rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. PMID:27275631

  2. Design theory, materials selection, and fabrication of hollow core waveguides for infrared to THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bradley F.

    Hollow core waveguides (HCWs) are comprised of a central hole surrounded by a highly reflective inner wall. The core can be filled with air, inert gas, or vacuum, allowing these waveguides to transmit a broad range of wavelengths with low attenuation. HCWs are of particular interest for the transmission of infrared (IR) to THz radiation, where it is otherwise difficult to find materials that have the optical, thermal, and mechanical properties required for use in solid core optical fibers. Ray optics calculations are used to predict the attenuation of the low-loss Gaussian-like HE11 mode propagating in two types of HCWs: hollow Bragg fibers (HBFs) and metal/dielectric hollow glass waveguides (HGWs). These calculations provide guidance on the materials selection and design of HCWs optimized for CO2 (10.6 mum) IR laser radiation and CO2 pumped CH3OH (119 mum) THz laser radiation. An all-chalcogenide glass HBF is proposed for the delivery of CO 2 laser radiation. Such a fiber would combine a high refractive index contrast (ratio of the high to low refractive index) with low materials absorption, characteristics that are critical to the design of a low loss HBF. Ge 20Se80 glass (nlambda=10.6 mum = 2.46 + i9.7e-7) is identified as an excellent candidate for the low refractive index composition due to its thermal stability and relatively low refractive index among chalcogenide glasses that transmit 10.6 mum radiation. To identify a high refractive index glass to combine with Ge20Se80, several glass compositions in the Ag-As-Se glass forming system are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, CO2 laser variable angle reflectometry, and CO2 laser calorimetry. Of the compositions investigated, Ag 25As40Se35 glass (nlambda=10.6 mum = 3.10 + i1.7e-6) has the best thermal and optical properties for this application. Ray optics calculations show that a HBF made from alternating layers of Ge20Se80 and Ag25As40Se 35 glass could have orders of magnitude lower loss than any IR

  3. Tuning the synthesis of platinum-copper nanoparticles with a hollow core and porous shell for the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangshuang; Yang, Nating; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol. PMID:27403580

  4. Hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Birks, T A; Loh, W H

    2011-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). A chemical surface treatment for making PCFs hydrophobic is introduced. This repels water from the holes of PCFs, so that their optical properties remain unchanged even when they are immersed in water. The combination of a hollow core and a water-repellent inner surface of the hydrophobic PCF provides an ultracompact dissolved-gas sensor element, which is demonstrated for the sensing of dissolved ammonia gas. PMID:22139276

  5. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber for micro-machining applications.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Maier, Robert R J; Wadsworth, William J; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P

    2013-09-23

    We present high average power picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery at 1030 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths respectively through a novel hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for high-precision micro-machining applications. Picosecond pulses with an average power above 36 W and energies of 92 µJ, corresponding to a peak power density of 1.5 TWcm⁻² have been transmitted through the fiber without introducing any damage to the input and output fiber end-faces. High-energy nanosecond pulses (>1 mJ), which are ideal for micro-machining have been successfully delivered through the NCF with a coupling efficiency of 92%. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery have been demonstrated in fiber-based laser micro-machining of fused silica, aluminum and titanium. PMID:24104161

  6. Broadband 7-fs diffractive-optic-based 2D electronic spectroscopy using hollow-core fiber compression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaonan; Dostál, Jakub; Brixner, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate noncollinear coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy for which broadband pulses are generated in an argon-filled hollow-core fiber pumped by a 1-kHz Ti:Sapphire laser. Compression is achieved to 7 fs duration (TG-FROG) using dispersive mirrors. The hollow fiber provides a clean spatial profile and smooth spectral shape in the 500-700 nm region. The diffractive-optic-based design of the 2D spectrometer avoids directional filtering distortions and temporal broadening from time smearing. For demonstration we record data of cresyl-violet perchlorate in ethanol and use phasing to obtain broadband absorptive 2D spectra. The resulting quantum beating as a function of population time is consistent with literature data. PMID:27607681

  7. Generation of few-cycle laser pulses: Comparison between atomic and molecular gases in a hollow-core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Yuan, Huang; Ye, Dai; Rui-Rui, Zhao; Ding, Wang; Yu-Xin, Leng

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the pulse compression approaches based on atomic or molecular gases in a hollow-core fiber. From the perspective of self-phase modulation (SPM), we give the extensive study of the SPM influence on a probe pulse with molecular phase modulation (MPM) effect. By comparing the two compression methods, we summarize their advantages and drawbacks to obtain the few-cycle pulses with micro- or millijoule energies. It is also shown that the double pump-probe approach can be used as a tunable dual-color source by adjusting the time delay between pump and probe pulses to proper values. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204328, 61221064, 61078037, 11127901, 11134010, and 61205208), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808101), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 13ZR1414800).

  8. Spectral broadening and temporal compression of ∼ 100 fs pulses in air-filled hollow core capillary fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Rishad, K P M; Horak, P; Matsuura, Y; Faccio, D

    2014-01-13

    We experimentally study the spectral broadening of intense, ∼ 100 femtosecond laser pulses at 785 nm coupled into different kinds of hollow core capillary fibers, all filled with air at ambient pressure. Differently from observations in other gases, the spectra are broadened with a strong red-shift due to highly efficient intrapulse Raman scattering. Numerical simulations show that such spectra can be explained only by increasing the Raman fraction of the third order nonlinearity close to 100%. Experimentally, these broadened and red-shifted pulses do not generally allow for straightforward compression using, for example, standard chirped mirrors. However, using special hollow fibers that are internally coated with silver and polymer we obtain pulse durations in the sub-20 fs regime with energies up to 300 μJ. PMID:24515074

  9. Low photon scattering rates and large optical depths of atoms in donut modes of hollow core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechkis, Joseph A.; Fatemi, Fredrik K.

    2012-06-01

    We have guided cold rubidium atoms in blue-detuned hollow optical modes of a hollow fiber. These higher order modes allow large optical depth, low scattering rates, and efficient use of guide laser power. Atoms are transported through a 3-cm-long hollow fiber with a 100 micron diameter using the first three optical modes of the fiber. We compare guiding properties in the red-detuned, fundamental HE11 mode with the blue-detuned TE01 (first order) and HE12 (second order) modes. Using guide laser powers below 50 mW and detunings below 1.5 nm, we have directly measured recoil scattering rates in the three different guides and found that atoms in the HE12 mode typically have a 10x lower recoil scattering rate compared to the red-detuned HE11 mode for equal guide peak intensity. Furthermore, we have observed optical depths of ˜20 for the blue-detuned guides with recoil scattering rates below 10 Hz. We will discuss our ongoing experiments using the atoms in these guides. This work supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  10. Analytic model for the complex effective index dispersion of metamaterial-cladding large-area hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Zeisberger, Matthias; Tuniz, Alessandro; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-09-01

    We present a mathematical model that allows interpreting the dispersion and attenuation of modes in hollow-core fibers (HCFs) on the basis of single interface reflection, giving rise to analytic and semi-analytic expressions for the complex effective indices in the case where the core diameter is large and the guiding is based on the reflection by a thin layer. Our model includes two core-size independent reflection parameters and shows the universal inverse-cubed core diameter dependence of the modal attenuation of HCFs. It substantially reduces simulation complexity and enables large scale parameter sweeps, which we demonstrate on the example of a HCF with a highly anisotropic metallic nanowire cladding, resembling an indefinite metamaterial at high metal filling fractions. We reveal design rules that allow engineering modal discrimination and show that metamaterial HCFs can principally have low losses at mid-IR wavelengths (< 1 dB/m at 10.6 µm). Our model can be applied to a great variety of HCFs with large core diameters and can be used for advanced HCF design and performance optimization, in particular with regard to dispersion engineering and modal discrimination. PMID:27607656

  11. Dual hollow core fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients of liquids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Ho, Hsuan-Yu; Gu, Jheng-Hong; Yeh, Tung-Yuan; Tseng, Chung-Hao

    2015-02-15

    A microcavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) that is based on dual hollow core fibers (HCFs) is developed for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients (TOCs) of liquids. The proposed MFFPI was fabricated by fusion-splicing a tiny segment of the main-HCF with a diameter D of 30 μm and another section of feeding-HCF with a diameter of 5 μm. Then, the main-HCF was filled with liquid by capillary action through the feeding-HCF by immersing the MFFPI in the liquid. The TOCs of the Cargille liquid (n(D)=1.3), deionized (DI) water, and ethanol were accurately determined from the shift of the interference wavelength, which was due to the temperature variation. Our experimental results were also compared with other published studies to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed sensing scheme. The major advantage is that the miniature MFFPI can achieve the measurement of the TOCs of the liquids with picoliter volume, and the measured liquids also can be sealed off and stored inside the HCF to prevent contamination. PMID:25680124

  12. Glass-NiP-CoFeP triplex-shell particles with hollow cores and tunable magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    An, Zhenguo; Zhang, Jingjie

    2013-02-01

    Low density (0.55-0.92g/mL, depending on the shell thickness and composition) glass-metal-metal triplex-shell hollow particles (TSHP) were prepared by a three-step route. First, micrometer-sized silicate glass particles with hollow cores, uniform shells, and high sphericity were prepared through spray drying and subsequent melting. NiP shell was uniformly assembled to the previously obtained glass hollow particles by silver seed induced chemical reduction of Ni(2+) by sodium hypophosphite, and glass-NiP double-shell hollow particles (DSHP) with compact and uniform shells were formed. The as-formed NiP particles further acted as the seeds for the directed formation and assembly of the CoFeP shell on the NiP shell to form the final glass-NiP-CoFeP triplex-shell hollow particles (TSHP). The influences of the component of the reaction system on the composition, structure, and magnetic properties of the hollow particles were studied. The multishell hollow particles thus obtained may have some promising applications in the fields of low-density magnetic materials, conduction, microwave absorbers, catalysis, etc. This work provides an additional strategy to fabricate multishell structured hollow particles with tailored shell composition and magnetic properties, which can be extended to the controlled preparation of multishell composite particles with the shells consisting of metal, oxides, or other compounds. PMID:23281871

  13. Picosecond pulses compression at 1053-nm center wavelength by using a gas-filled hollow-core fiber compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Ding; Leng, Yu-Xin; Dai, Ye

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the nonlinear compression of picosecond pulses with 10-mJ of input energy at the 1053-nm center wavelength by using a one-meter-long gas-filled hollow-core fiber (HCF) compressor and considering the third-order dispersion (TOD) effect. It is found that when the input pulse is about 1 ps/10 mJ, it can be compressed down to less than 20 fs with a high transmission efficiency. The gas for optimal compression is krypton gas which is filled in a HCF with a 400-μm inner diameter. When the input pulse duration is increased to 5 ps, it can also be compressed down to less than 100 fs efficiently under proper conditions. The results show that the TOD effect has little impact on picosecond pulse compression and the HCF compressor can be applied on compressing picosecond pulses efficiently with a high compression ratio, which will benefit the research of high-field laser physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204328, 61221064, 61078037, 11127901, and 11134010), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808101), the Commission of Science and Technology of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 12dz1100700), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 13ZR1414800), and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2011DFA11300).

  14. Calculation of Coupling Efficiencies for Laser-Driven Photonic Bandgap Structures

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.; Noble, R.; Spencer, J. E.

    2010-11-04

    We present a technique for calculating the power coupling efficiency for a laser-driven photonic bandgap structure using electromagnetic finite element simulations, and evaluate the efficiency of several coupling scenarios for the case of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber accelerator structure.

  15. Design of intense 1.5-cycle pulses generation at 3.6 µm through a pressure gradient hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Ding; Dai, Ye; Li, Yanyan; Guo, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenkai; Chen, Yun; Lu, Jun; Liu, Zhengzheng; Zhao, Ruirui; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically study the nonlinear compression of the 10-mJ, 62-fs, 3.6-µm laser pulses in an argon gas-filled hollow-core fiber with large diameter of 1000 µm. Using a pressure gradient to restrict undesirable nonlinear effect such as ionization, especially at the entrance, we obtain the intense 18.3-fs (~1.5 cycle) pulses at 3.6 µm only through compression with CaF2 crystal, which can be used as an ultrafast source for strong field driven experiments. In addition, we calculate and discuss the relation between optimal fiber length and coupling efficiency for a given bandwidth. These results are useful for the design of using hollow-core fiber to compress the high-energy pulses with long wavelength. PMID:27137543

  16. Hollow-core fiber based linear cavity ring-down spectroscopy for gaseous oxygen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzke, Dorit; Böhm, Michael; Reich, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic technique that combines the benefits of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a hollowcore photonic crystal fiber. The 10m fiber is placed inside an optical cavity and acts both as the sample cell (volume = 442 nL) and as a waveguide. Due to the high reflectivity of the cavity mirrors and rather small coupling losses, the effective optical path length can be increased up to 70m. Therefore, as a figure of merit the volume per optical interaction path length is calculated to 6.3 nL m-1. Oxygen detection is performed at 760 nm while scanning across an absorption line. The optical loss due to sample absorption is determined by measuring the ring-down time of light traveling inside the cavity. Results are compared to HITRAN database showing a discrepancy of only 2.5% of the absorption coefficient. This method is of interest for applications that require sensitive measurements on sample volumes of few nanoliters to microliters without the need of calibration.

  17. Generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ laser pulses via compression of circularly polarized pulses in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurélie; Malvache, Arnaud; Canova, Lorenzo; Borot, Antonin; Trisorio, Alexandre; Durfee, Charles G; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2009-05-15

    We report the generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ pulses at 1 kHz using a hollow-core fiber compressor seeded with circularly polarized laser pulses. We observe up to 30% more energy throughput compared to the case of linearly polarized laser input, together with significantly improved output spectral stability. Seeding with circularly polarized pulses proves to be an effective approach for high-energy operation of the hollow-fiber compression technique. PMID:19448830

  18. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A; El-Toni, Ahmed M; Almaary, Khalid S; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Elbadawi, Yahya B; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS-NH₂ nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher V(max), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:26840303

  19. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A.; El-Toni, Ahmed M.; Almaary, Khalid S.; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A.; Elbadawi, Yahya B.; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS–NH2 nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km, than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:26840303

  20. Production of cell-enclosing hollow-core agarose microcapsules via jetting in water-immiscible liquid paraffin and formation of embryoid body-like spherical tissues from mouse ES cells enclosed within these microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-01-01

    We developed agarose microcapsules with a single hollow core templated by alginate microparticles using a jet-technique. We extruded an agarose aqueous solution containing suspended alginate microparticles into a coflowing stream of liquid paraffin and controlled the diameter of the agarose microparticles by changing the flow rate of the liquid paraffin. Subsequent degradation of the inner alginate microparticles using alginate lyase resulted in the hollow-core structure. We successfully obtained agarose microcapsules with 20-50 microm of agarose gel layer thickness and hollow cores ranging in diameter from ca. 50 to 450 microm. Using alginate microparticles of ca. 150 microm in diameter and enclosing feline kidney cells, we were able to create cell-enclosing agarose microcapsules with a hollow core of ca. 150 microm in diameter. The cells in these microcapsules grew much faster than those in alginate microparticles. In addition, we enclosed mouse embryonic stem cells in agarose microcapsules. The embryonic stem cells began to self-aggregate in the core just after encapsulation, and subsequently grew and formed embryoid body-like spherical tissues in the hollow core of the microcapsules. These results show that our novel microcapsule production technique and the resultant microcapsules have potential for tissue engineering, cell therapy and biopharmaceutical applications. PMID:17705234

  1. Self-phase modulation of femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Bugar, I; Chorvat, D J; Beloglazov, V I; Skibina, N B; Shcherbakov, Andrei V; Chorvat, D; Mel'nikov, L A

    2004-01-31

    Self-phase modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres is experimentally studied. Photonic-crystal fibres allowing single-mode waveguide regimes of nonlinear-optical interactions to be implemented with maximum transmission for 800-nm femtosecond pulses are designed and fabricated. A radical enhancement of self-phase modulation is demonstrated for submicrojoule femtosecond pulses of Ti:sapphire-laser radiation propagating through hollow photonic-crystal fibres. (optical fibres)

  2. Efficient 1.9 μm emission in H2-filled hollow core fiber by pure stimulated vibrational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zefeng; Yu, Fei; Wadsworth, William J.; Knight, Jonathan C.

    2014-10-01

    We report here efficient 1.9 μm emission by pure stimulated vibrational Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled anti-resonant hollow-core fiber pumped with a 1064 nm microchip laser. A maximum quantum conversion efficiency ~48% was achieved by using a 6.5 m length of fiber filled with 23 bar hydrogen, with a maximum peak output power >2 kW. By properly designing the transmission bands of the fiber, selecting alternative pump sources and active gases, the emission wavelength could be extended into the mid-infrared. This provides a potential route for generating efficient, compact, broadly tunable, high power, and narrow linewidth mid-infrared fiber gas lasers with broad application in defense, environmental, and medical monitoring.

  3. Damage-free single-mode transmission of deep-UV light in hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Gebert, F; Frosz, M H; Weiss, T; Wan, Y; Ermolov, A; Joly, N Y; Schmidt, P O; Russell, P St J

    2014-06-30

    Transmission of UV light with high beam quality and pointing stability is desirable for many experiments in atomic, molecular and optical physics. In particular, laser cooling and coherent manipulation of trapped ions with transitions in the UV require stable, single-mode light delivery. Transmitting even ~2 mW CW light at 280 nm through silica solid-core fibers has previously been found to cause transmission degradation after just a few hours due to optical damage. We show that photonic crystal fiber of the kagomé type can be used for effectively single-mode transmission with acceptable loss and bending sensitivity. No transmission degradation was observed even after >100 hours of operation with 15 mW CW input power. In addition it is shown that implementation of the fiber in a trapped ion experiment increases the coherence time of the internal state transfer due to an increase in beam pointing stability. PMID:24977799

  4. Toward Generation of High Power Ultrafast White Light Laser Using Femtosecond Terawatt Laser in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Walid

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we could experimentally achieved the generation of white-light laser pulses of few-cycle fs pulses using a neon-filled hollow-core fiber. The observed pulses reached 6-fs at at repetition rate of 1 kHz using 2.5 mJ of 31 fs femtosecond pulses. The pulse compressing achieved by the supercontinuum produced in static neon-filled hollow fibers while the dispersion compensation is achieved by five pairs of chirped mirrors. We showed that gas pressure can be used to continuously vary the bandwidth from 350 nm to 900 nm. Furthermore, the applied technique allows for a straightforward tuning of the pulse duration via the gas pressure whilst maintaining near-transform-limited pulses with constant output energy, thereby reducing the complications introduced by chirped pulses. Through measurements of the transmission through the fiber as a function of gas pressure, a high throughput exceeding 60% was achieved. Adaptive pulse compression is achieved by using the spectral phase obtained from a spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement as feedback for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The spectral phase of these supercontinua is found to be extremely stable over several hours. This allowed us to demonstrate successful compression to pulses as short as 5.2 fs with controlled wide spectral bandwidth, which could be used to excite different states in complicated molecules at once.

  5. Liquid core photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Shi, Chao; Gu, Claire; Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z.

    2007-05-01

    This letter reports on a hollow core photonic crystal fiber that is modified to allow for filling of only the core with a liquid and its use for detection of surface enhanced Raman scattering from molecules in solution with silver nanoparticles. Both experimental demonstration and theoretical simulation are presented and discussed. The developed sensor is tested in the detection of rhodamine 6G, human insulin, and tryptophan with good sensitivity (10-4-10-5M) due to enhanced interaction volume.

  6. Pulsed erbium fiber laser with an acetylene-filled photonic crystal fiber for saturable absorption.

    PubMed

    Marty, Patrick Thomas; Morel, Jacques; Feurer, Thomas

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser that is equipped with an intracavity hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas cell. The cell is filled with acetylene as a saturable absorber. We observe cw operation at low pressures, Q switching at intermediate pressure levels, and mode locking at high pressures applied. Moreover, we show that the transition from the cw to the pulsed mode may be exploited for sensitive gas detection. PMID:21931393

  7. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons. PMID:27170160

  8. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons.

  9. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons. PMID:27170160

  10. Guidance in Kagome-like photonic crystal fibres I: analysis of an ideal fibre structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Pearce, Greg J; Birks, Timothy A; Bird, David M

    2011-03-28

    Propagation of light in a square-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre is analysed as a model of guidance in a class of photonic crystal fibres that exhibit broad-band guidance without photonic bandgaps. A scalar governing equation is used and analytic solutions based on transfer matrices are developed for the full set of modes. It is found that an exponentially localised fundamental mode exists for a wide range of frequencies. These analytic solutions of an idealised structure will form the basis for analysis of guidance in a realistic structure in a following paper. PMID:21451720

  11. Combined soliton pulse compression and plasma-related frequency upconversion in gas-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Chang, W; Hölzer, P; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2013-08-15

    We numerically investigate self-frequency blueshifting of a fundamental soliton in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Because of the changing underlying soliton parameters, the blueshift gives rise to adiabatic soliton compression. Based on these features, we propose a device that enables frequency shifting over an octave and pulse compression from 30 fs down to 2.3 fs. PMID:24104627

  12. Effects of structure parameters on the sensor performance of photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Rui; Rong, Zhen; Pang, Yuanfeng; Bo, Xiaochen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and compact sensor based on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for the in-situ detection of fluorescence signals with high sensitivity is demonstrated. Several different kinds of PCF probes are studied. The effect of PCF parameters on sensitivity and the guiding mechanisms are analyzed, and the performance of PCF probes is experimentally evaluated by measuring the fluorescence signal of Cy3 dye. In addition, the detection sensitivity of the hollow-core PCF probe and the flat-tippedmulti-mode fiber probe is compared. The experimental results show that the hollow-core PCF probe provides a greater than five-fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with direct measurements by a flat-tippedmulti-mode fiber probe, which shows its potential for wide applications to in-situ detection in the medical, forensic, biological, geological, and environmental fields with high sensitivity.

  13. Design of Topas photonic bandgap fiber with high birefringence and low confinement loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Doudou; Wang, Lili

    2010-09-01

    A highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber based on Topas cyclic olefin copolymer is designed. The rhombic hollow-core with rounded corners is formed by omitting four central air holes of the cladding structure. The guided modes, birefringence and confinement loss of the fiber are investigated by using the full-vector finite element method. A high phase birefringence of the order of 10 -3, a group birefringence of the order of 10 -2 and confinement loss less than 0.1 dB/km are obtained at the central wavelength (1.55 μm) range of the bandgap for fiber with seven rings of air holes in the cladding region.

  14. Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, M.; Chang, D. E.; Gritsev, V.; Demler, E. A.; Lukin, M. D.

    2011-06-01

    We theoretically study the transmission of few-photon quantum fields through a strongly nonlinear optical medium. We develop a general approach to investigate nonequilibrium quantum transport of bosonic fields through a finite-size nonlinear medium and apply it to a recently demonstrated experimental system where cold atoms are loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the system acts as a single-photon switch. In the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either antibunching or bunching, associated with the resonant excitation of bound states of photons by the input field. These effects can be observed by probing statistics of photons transmitted through the nonlinear fiber.

  15. Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Colby, E. R.; McGuinness, C. M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Siemann, R. H.; Spencer, J. E.; Walz, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Sears, C. M. S.

    2009-01-22

    An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50 pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. We will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.

  16. Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.J.; Colby, E.R.; Ischebeck, R.; McGuinness, C.M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Sears, C.M.S.; Siemann, R.H.; Spencer, J.E.; Walz, D.; /SLAC

    2011-11-21

    An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. They will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.

  17. Pressure-assisted low-loss fusion splicing between photonic crystal fiber and single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Xiao, Fufeng; Xu, Laicai; Liu, Min; Deng, Ming; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2012-10-22

    We demonstrate low-loss splicing between a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a single-mode fiber (SMF) with a conventional electric-arc fusion splicer, where nitrogen gas (N2) with a proper pressure is pumped into the air holes of the PCF to control the air-hole collapse ratio so as to optimize the mode-field match at the joint. The method is applicable to both solid-core and hollow-core PCFs. With this method, we achieve a splice loss (measured at 1550 nm) of ~0.40 dB for a solid-core PCF and ~1.05 dB for a hollow-core PCF. The method could find wide applications in the fabrication of PCF-based devices. PMID:23187209

  18. Photochemistry in photonic crystal fiber nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jocelyn S Y; Euser, Tijmen G; Farrer, Nicola J; Sadler, Peter J; Scharrer, Michael; Russell, Philip St J

    2010-05-17

    We report the use of a liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a highly controlled photochemical reactor. Hollow-core PCFs have several major advantages over conventional sample cells: the sample volume per optical path length is very small (2.8 nL cm(-1) in the fiber used), long optical path lengths are possible as a result of very low intrinsic waveguide loss, and furthermore the light travels in a diffractionless single mode with a constant transverse intensity profile. As a proof of principle, the (very low) quantum yield of the photochemical conversion of vitamin B(12), cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to hydroxocobalamin ([H(2)OCbl](+)) in aqueous solution was measured for several pH values from 2.5 to 7.5. The dynamics of the actively induced reaction were monitored in real-time by broadband absorption spectroscopy. The PCF nanoreactor required ten thousand times less sample volume compared to conventional techniques. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and optical pump intensity implied that even systems with very small quantum yields can be measured very quickly--in our experiments one thousand times faster than in a conventional cuvette. PMID:20391563

  19. Low-Loss Coupling of Quantum Cascade Lasers into Hollow-Core Waveguides with Single-Mode Output in the 3.7-7.6 μm Spectral Range.

    PubMed

    Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Mihai, Laura; Giglio, Marilena; Kriesel, Jason; Sporea, Dan; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated low-loss and single-mode laser beam delivery through hollow-core waveguides (HCWs) operating in the 3.7-7.6 μm spectral range. The employed HCWs have a circular cross section with a bore diameter of 200 μm and metallic/dielectric internal coatings deposited inside a glass capillary tube. The internal coatings have been produced to enhance the spectral response of the HCWs in the range 3.5-12 µm. We demonstrated Gaussian-like outputs throughout the 4.5-7.6 µm spectral range. A quasi single-mode output beam with only small beam distortions was achieved when the wavelength was reduced to 3.7 μm. With a 15-cm-long HCW and optimized coupling conditions, we measured coupling efficiencies of >88% and transmission losses of <1 dB in the investigated infrared spectral range. PMID:27089343

  20. Low-Loss Coupling of Quantum Cascade Lasers into Hollow-Core Waveguides with Single-Mode Output in the 3.7–7.6 μm Spectral Range

    PubMed Central

    Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Mihai, Laura; Giglio, Marilena; Kriesel, Jason; Sporea, Dan; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated low-loss and single-mode laser beam delivery through hollow-core waveguides (HCWs) operating in the 3.7–7.6 μm spectral range. The employed HCWs have a circular cross section with a bore diameter of 200 μm and metallic/dielectric internal coatings deposited inside a glass capillary tube. The internal coatings have been produced to enhance the spectral response of the HCWs in the range 3.5–12 µm. We demonstrated Gaussian-like outputs throughout the 4.5–7.6 µm spectral range. A quasi single-mode output beam with only small beam distortions was achieved when the wavelength was reduced to 3.7 μm. With a 15-cm-long HCW and optimized coupling conditions, we measured coupling efficiencies of >88% and transmission losses of <1 dB in the investigated infrared spectral range. PMID:27089343

  1. Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Vivek; Saha, Kasturi; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2013-02-01

    The ability of a few-photon light field to impart an appreciable phase shift on another light field is critical for many quantum information applications. A recently proposed paradigm for quantum computation utilizes weak nonlinearities, where a strong field mediates such cross-phase shifts between single photons. Such a protocol promises to be feasible in terms of scalability to many qubits if a cross-phase shift of 10-5 to 10-2 radians per photon can be achieved. A promising platform to achieve such cross-phase shifts is the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre, which can highly confine atomic vapours and light over distances much greater than the diffraction length. Here, we produce large cross-phase shifts of 0.3 mrad per photon with a fast response time (<5 ns) using rubidium atoms confined to a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre, which represents, to our knowledge, the largest such nonlinear phase shift induced in a single pass through a room-temperature medium.

  2. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

    2012-03-01

    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  3. Raman-Free, Noble-Gas-Filled Photonic-Crystal Fiber Source for Ultrafast, Very Bright Twin-Beam Squeezed Vacuum.

    PubMed

    Finger, Martin A; Iskhakov, Timur Sh; Joly, Nicolas Y; Chekhova, Maria V; Russell, Philip St J

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel source of twin beams based on modulational instability in high-pressure argon-filled hollow-core kagome-style photonic-crystal fiber. The source is Raman-free and manifests strong photon-number correlations for femtosecond pulses of squeezed vacuum with a record brightness of ∼2500 photons per mode. The ultra-broadband (∼50  THz) twin beams are frequency tunable and contain one spatial and less than 5 frequency modes. The presented source outperforms all previously reported squeezed-vacuum twin-beam sources in terms of brightness and low mode content. PMID:26551812

  4. Broadband dynamic phase matching of high-order harmonic generation by a high-peak-power soliton pump field in a gas-filled hollow photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Serebryannikov, Evgenii E; von der Linde, Dietrich; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2008-05-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to enable dynamically phase-matched high-order harmonic generation by a gigawatt soliton pump field. With a careful design of the waveguide structure and an appropriate choice of input-pulse and gas parameters, a remarkably broadband phase matching can be achieved for a soliton pump field and a large group of optical harmonics in the soft-x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. PMID:18451958

  5. Zero-group-velocity modes in chalcogenide holey photonic-crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Oskooi, Ardavan F; Joannopoulos, J D; Johnson, Steven G

    2009-06-01

    We demonstrate that a holey photonic-crystal fiber with chalcogenide-glass index contrast can be designed to have a complete gap at a propagation constant beta = 0 that also extends into the non-zero beta region. This type of bandgap (previously identified only at index contrasts unattainable in glasses) opens up a regime for guiding zero-group-velocity modes not possible in holey fibers with the more common finger-like gaps originating from beta-->infinity. Such modes could be used to enhance nonlinear and other material interactions, such as for hollow-core fibers in gas-sensor applications. PMID:19506660

  6. Strong Raman-induced noninstantaneous soliton interactions in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Armaroli, Andrea; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an analytical model based on the perturbation theory to study the optical propagation of two successive solitons in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with Raman-active gases. Based on the time delay between the two solitons, we have found that the trailing soliton dynamics can experience unusual nonlinear phenomena, such as spectral and temporal soliton oscillations and transport toward the leading soliton. The overall dynamics can lead to a spatiotemporal modulation of the refractive index with a uniform temporal period and a uniform or chirped spatial period. PMID:26368711

  7. Liquid-core, liquid-cladding photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    De Matos, Christiano J; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Dos Santos, Eliane M; Ong, Jackson S; Bozolan, Alexandre; Brito Cruz, Carlos H

    2007-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple and novel technique to simultaneously insert a liquid into the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a different liquid into its cladding. The result is a liquid-core, liquid-cladding waveguide in which the two liquids can be selected to yield specific guidance characteristics. As an example, we tuned the core-cladding index difference by proper choice of the inserted liquids to obtain control over the number of guided modes. Single-mode guidance was achieved for a particular choice of liquids. We also experimentally and theoretically investigated the nature of light confinement and observed the transition from photonic bandgap to total internal reflection guidance both with the core-cladding index contrast and with the PCF length. PMID:19547475

  8. Low concentration biomolecular detection using liquid core photonic crystal fiber (LCPCF) SERS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Claire; Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z.

    2008-02-01

    This work demonstrates the use of a highly sensitive Liquid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (LCPCF) Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) sensor in detecting biological and biochemical molecules. The Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) probe was prepared by carefully sealing the cladding holes using a fusion splicer while leaving the central hollow core open, which ensures that the liquid mixture of the analyte and silver nanoparticles only fills in the hollow core of the PCF, therefore preserving the photonic bandgap. The dependence of the SERS signal on the excitation power and sample concentration was fully characterized using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules. The result shows that the LCPCF sensor has significant advantages over flat surface SERS detections at lower concentrations. This is attributed to the lower absorption at lower concentration leading to a longer effective interaction length inside the LCPCF, which in turn, results in a stronger SERS signal. Several biomolecules, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and alpha-synuclein, which are indicators of prostate cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively, and fail to be detected directly, are successfully detected by the LCPCF sensor. Our results demonstrate the potential of the LCPCF SERS sensor for biomedical detection at low concentrations.

  9. Compressing μJ-level pulses from 250  fs to sub-10  fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages.

    PubMed

    Mak, K F; Seidel, M; Pronin, O; Frosz, M H; Abdolvand, A; Pervak, V; Apolonski, A; Krausz, F; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-04-01

    Compression of 250-fs, 1-μJ pulses from a KLM Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator down to 9.1 fs is demonstrated. A kagomé-PCF with a 36-μm core-diameter is used with a pressure gradient from 0 to 40 bar of krypton. Compression to 22 fs is achieved by 1200  fs2 group-delay-dispersion provided by chirped mirrors. By coupling the output into a second kagomé-PCF with a pressure gradient from 0 to 25 bar of argon, octave spanning spectral broadening via the soliton-effect is observed at 18-W average output power. Self-compression to 9.1 fs is measured, with compressibility to 5 fs predicted. Also observed is strong emission in the visible via dispersive wave generation, amounting to 4% of the total output power. PMID:25831302

  10. Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Joly, N Y; Nold, J; Chang, W; Hölzer, P; Nazarkin, A; Wong, G K L; Biancalana, F; Russell, P St J

    2011-05-20

    We report on the spectral broadening of ~1 μJ 30 fs pulses propagating in an Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In contrast with supercontinuum generation in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber, the absence of Raman and unique pressure-controlled dispersion results in efficient emission of dispersive waves in the deep-UV region. The UV light emerges in the single-lobed fundamental mode and is tunable from 200 to 320 nm by varying the pulse energy and gas pressure. The setup is extremely simple, involving <1 m of a gas-filled photonic crystal fiber, and the UV signal is stable and bright, with experimental IR to deep-UV conversion efficiencies as high as 8%. The source is of immediate interest in applications demanding high spatial coherence, such as laser lithography or confocal microscopy. PMID:21668228

  11. Design of a compact mode and polarization converter in three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Minghao

    2012-08-27

    A mode and polarization converter is proposed and optimized for 3D photonic integrated circuits based on photonic crystals (PhCs). The device converts the index-guided TE mode of a W1 solid-core (SC) waveguide to the band-gap-guided TM mode of a W1 hollow-core (HC) waveguide in 3D PhCs, and vice versa. The conversion is achieved based on contra-directional mode coupling. For a 25 μm-long device, simulations show that the power conversion efficiency is over 98% across a wavelength range of 16 nm centered at 1550 nm, whereas the reflection remains below -20 dB. The polarization extinction ratio of the conversion is in principle infinitely high because both W1 waveguides operate in the single-mode regimes in this wavelength range. PMID:23037086

  12. Guidance in Kagome-like photonic crystal fibres II: perturbation theory for a realistic fibre structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Bird, David M

    2011-03-28

    A perturbation theory is developed that treats a localised mode embedded within a continuum of states. The method is applied to a model rectangular hollow-core photonic crystal fibre structure, where the basic modes are derived from an ideal, scalar model and the perturbation terms include vector effects and structural difference between the ideal and realistic structures. An expression for the attenuation of the fundamental mode due to interactions with cladding modes is derived, and results are presented for a rectangular photonic crystal fibre structure. Attenuations calculated in this way are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The origin of the guidance in our model structure is explained through this quantitative analysis. Further perspectives are obtained through investigating the influence of fibre parameters on the attenuation. PMID:21451721

  13. Accuracy of the capillary approximation for gas-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Finger, M A; Joly, N Y; Weiss, T; Russell, P St J

    2014-02-15

    Precise knowledge of the group velocity dispersion in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is essential for accurate modeling of ultrafast nonlinear dynamics. Here we study the validity of the capillary approximation commonly used to calculate the modal refractive index in kagomé-style photonic crystal fibers. For area-preserving core radius a(AP) and core wall thickness t, measurements and finite element simulations show that the approximation has an error greater than 15% for wavelengths longer than 0.56√(a(AP)t), independently of the gas-filling pressure. By introducing an empirical wavelength-dependent core radius, the range of validity of the capillary approximation is extended out to a wavelength of at least 0.98√(a(AP)t). PMID:24562215

  14. Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Couny, F; Benabid, F; Roberts, P J; Light, P S; Raymer, M G

    2007-11-16

    Ultrabroad coherent comb-like optical spectra spanning several octaves are a chief ingredient in the emerging field of attoscience. We demonstrate generation and guidance of a three-octave spectral comb, spanning wavelengths from 325 to 2300 nanometers, in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The waveguidance results not from a photonic band gap but from the inhibited coupling between the core and cladding modes. The spectrum consists of up to 45 high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines and is generated by driving the confined gas with a single, moderately powerful (10-kilowatt) infrared laser, producing 12-nanosecond-duration pulses. This represents a reduction by six orders of magnitude in the required laser powers over previous equivalent techniques and opens up a robust and much simplified route to synthesizing attosecond pulses. PMID:18006741

  15. Two-octave supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Bethge, J; Husakou, A; Mitschke, F; Noack, F; Griebner, U; Steinmeyer, G; Herrmann, J

    2010-03-15

    Supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber is reported. By only filling the central hollow core of this fiber with water, the fiber properties are changed such that the air cladding provides broadband guiding. Using a pump wavelength of 1200 nm and few-microjoule pump pulses, the generation of supercontinua with two-octave spectral coverage from 410 to 1640 nm is experimentally demonstrated. Numerical simulations confirm these results, revealing a transition from a soliton-induced mechanism to self-phase modulation dominated spectral broadening with increasing pump power. Compared to supercontinua generated in glass core photonic fibers, the liquid core supercontinua show a higher degree of coherence, and the larger mode field area and the higher damage threshold of the water core enable significantly higher pulse energies of the white light pulses, ranging up to 0.39microJ. PMID:20389646

  16. Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Teipel, Jörn; Giessen, Harald

    2006-07-24

    We have numerically studied a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, with its core filled with highly nonlinear liquids such as carbon disulfide and nitrobenzene. Calculations show that the fiber has an extremely high nonlinear parameter gamma on the order of 2.4/W/m at 1.55 mum. The group velocity dispersion of this fiber exhibits an anomalous region in the near-infrared, and its zero-dispersion wavelength is around 1.55 mum. This leads to potentially significant improvements and a large bandwidth in supercontinuum generation. The spectral properties of the supercontinuum generation in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers are simulated by solving the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results demonstrate that the liquid-core PCF is capable to generate dramatically broadened supercontinua in a range from 700 nm to more than 2500 nm when pumping at 1.55 mum with subpicosecond pulses. PMID:19516862

  17. Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Teipel, Jörn; Giessen, Harald

    2006-07-01

    We have numerically studied a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, with its core filled with highly nonlinear liquids such as carbon disulfide and nitrobenzene. Calculations show that the fiber has an extremely high nonlinear parameter γ on the order of 2.4/W/m at 1.55 μm. The group velocity dispersion of this fiber exhibits an anomalous region in the near-infrared, and its zero-dispersion wavelength is around 1.55 μm. This leads to potentially significant improvements and a large bandwidth in supercontinuum generation. The spectral properties of the supercontinuum generation in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers are simulated by solving the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results demonstrate that the liquid-core PCF is capable to generate dramatically broadened supercontinua in a range from 700 nm to more than 2500 nm when pumping at 1.55 μm with subpicosecond pulses.

  18. Transmission and Propagation of an Accelerating Mode in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-K.; England, R.J.; Lee, L.-Q.; Noble, R.; Rawat, V.; Spencer, J.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    A hollow core photonic bandgap (PBG) lattice in a dielectric fiber can provide high gradient acceleration in the optical regime, where the accelerating mode resulting from a defect in the PBG fiber can be excited by high-power lasers. Efficient methods of coupling laser power into the PBG fiber are an area of active research. In this paper, we develop a simulation method using the parallel finite-element electromagnetic suite ACE3P to study the propagation of the accelerating mode in the PBG fiber and determine the radiation pattern into free space at the end of the PBG fiber. The far-field radiation will be calculated and the mechanism of coupling power from an experimental laser setup will be discussed.

  19. Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Unterkofler, S; McQuitty, R J; Euser, T G; Farrer, N J; Sadler, P J; Russell, P St J

    2012-06-01

    Liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) are perfect optofluidic channels, uniquely providing low-loss optical guidance in a liquid medium. As a result, the overlap of the dissolved specimen and the intense light field in the micronsized core is increased manyfold compared to conventional bioanalytical techniques, facilitating highly-efficient photoactivation processes. Here we introduce a novel integrated analytical technology for photochemistry by microfluidic coupling of a HC-PCF nanoflow reactor to supplementary detection devices. Applying a continuous flow through the fiber, we deliver photochemical reaction products to a mass spectrometer in an online and hence rapid fashion, which is highly advantageous over conventional cuvette-based approaches. PMID:22660084

  20. Enhanced spontaneous Raman scattering and gas composition analysis using a photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Michael P. Buric; Kevin P. Chen; Joel Falk; Steven D. Woodruff1

    2008-09-10

    Spontaneous gas-phase Raman scattering using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) for both the gas cell and the Stokes light collector is reported. It was predicted that the HC-PBF configuration would yield several hundred times signal enhancement in Stokes power over a traditional free-space configuration because of increased interaction lengths and large collection angles. Predictions were verified by using nitrogen Stokes signals. The utility of this system was demonstrated by measuring the Raman signals as functions of concentration for major species in natural gas. This allowed photomultiplier-based measurements of natural gas species in relatively short integration times, measurements that were previously difficult with other systems.

  1. Enhanced spontaneous Raman scattering and gas composition analysis using a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Buric, Michael P; Chen, Kevin P; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D

    2008-08-10

    Spontaneous gas-phase Raman scattering using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) for both the gas cell and the Stokes light collector is reported. It was predicted that the HC-PBF configuration would yield several hundred times signal enhancement in Stokes power over a traditional free-space configuration because of increased interaction lengths and large collection angles. Predictions were verified by using nitrogen Stokes signals. The utility of this system was demonstrated by measuring the Raman signals as functions of concentration for major species in natural gas. This allowed photomultiplier-based measurements of natural gas species in relatively short integration times, measurements that were previously difficult with other systems. PMID:18690267

  2. Solitary pulse generation by backward Raman scattering in H2-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Abdolvand, A; Nazarkin, A; Chugreev, A V; Kaminski, C F; Russell, P St J

    2009-10-30

    Using a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber as a nonlinear optical gas cell, we study amplification of ns-laser pulses by backward rotational Raman scattering. We find that the amplification process has two characteristic stages. Initially, the pulse energy grows and its duration shortens due to gain saturation at the trailing edge of the pulse. This phase is followed by formation of a symmetric pulse with a duration significantly shorter than the phase relaxation time of the Raman transition. Stabilization of the Stokes pulse profile to a solitonlike hyperbolic secant shape occurs as a result of nonlinear amplification at its front edge and nonlinear absorption at its trailing edge (caused by energy conversion back to the pump field), leading to a reshaped pulse envelope that travels at superluminal velocity. PMID:19905807

  3. Generation and confinement of microwave gas-plasma in photonic dielectric microstructure.

    PubMed

    Debord, B; Jamier, R; Gérôme, F; Leroy, O; Boisse-Laporte, C; Leprince, P; Alves, L L; Benabid, F

    2013-10-21

    We report on a self-guided microwave surface-wave induced generation of ~60 μm diameter and 6 cm-long column of argon-plasma confined in the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. At gas pressure of 1 mbar, the micro-confined plasma exhibits a stable transverse profile with a maximum gas-temperature as high as 1300 ± 200 K, and a wall-temperature as low as 500 K, and an electron density level of 10¹⁴ cm⁻³. The fiber guided fluorescence emission presents strong Ar⁺ spectral lines in the visible and near UV. Theory shows that the observed combination of relatively low wall-temperature and high ionisation rate in this strongly confined configuration is due to an unprecedentedly wide electrostatic space-charge field and the subsequent ion acceleration dominance in the plasma-to-gas power transfer. PMID:24150390

  4. Raman-induced temporal condensed matter physics in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Armaroli, Andrea; Tran, Truong X; Marini, Andrea; Belli, Federico; Abdolvand, Amir; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Raman effect in gases can generate an extremely long-living wave of coherence that can lead to the establishment of an almost perfect temporal periodic variation of the medium refractive index. We show theoretically and numerically that the equations, regulate the pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by Raman-active gas, are exactly identical to a classical problem in quantum condensed matter physics - but with the role of space and time reversed - namely an electron in a periodic potential subject to a constant electric field. We are therefore able to infer the existence of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch oscillations, and Zener tunneling, phenomena that are normally associated with condensed matter physics, using purely optical means. PMID:25969278

  5. Detection of analyte refractive index and concentration using liquid-core photonic Bragg fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate detection of liquid analyte refractive index by using a hollow-core photonic Bragg fiber. We apply this fiber sensor to monitor concentrations of commercial cooling oil. The sensor operates on a spectral modality. Variation in the analyte refractive index modifies the bandgap guidance of a fiber, leading to spectral shifts in the fiber transmission spectrum. The sensitivity of the sensor to changes in the analyte refractive index filling in the fiber core is found to be 1460nm/Refractive index unit (RIU). By using the spectral modality and effective medium theory, we determine the concentrations of commercial fluid from the measured refractive indices with an accuracy of ~0.42%. The presented fiber sensor can be used for on-line monitoring of concentration of many industrial fluids and dilutions with sub-1%v accuracy.

  6. Coherent propagation of a single photon in a lossless medium: 0π pulse formation, storage, and retrieval in multiple temporal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, Sh.; Malakyan, Yu.

    2013-12-01

    Single-photon coherent optics represents a fundamental importance for the investigation of quantum light-matter interactions. While most work has considered the interaction in the steady-state regime, here we demonstrate that a single-photon pulse shorter than any relaxation time in a medium propagates without energy loss and is consistently transformed into a zero-area pulse. A general analytical solution is found for photon passage through a cold ensemble of Λ-type atoms confined inside a hollow core of a single-mode photonic-crystal fiber. We use the robust far-off-resonant Raman scheme to control the pulse reshaping by an intense control laser beam and show that in the case of cw control field, for exact two-photon resonance, the outgoing photon displays an oscillating temporal distribution, which is the quantum counterpart of a classical field ringing, while for nonzero two-photon detuning a slow photon is produced. We demonstrate also that a train of readout control pulses coherently recalls the stored photon in many well-separated temporal modes, thus producing time-bin entangled single-photon states. Such states, which allow sharing quantum information among many users, are highly demanded for applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  7. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  8. Quantum transport of strongly interacting photons in a one-dimensional nonlinear waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, Mohammad; Chang, Darrick E.; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical technique for solving the quantum transport problem of a few photons through a one-dimensional, strongly nonlinear waveguide. We specifically consider the situation where the evolution of the optical field is governed by the quantum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although this kind of nonlinearity is quite general, we focus on a realistic implementation involving cold atoms loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber, where the atomic system provides a tunable nonlinearity that can be large even at a single-photon level. In particular, we show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the transmission of multiphoton components of the field is suppressed. This leads to antibunching of the transmitted light and indicates that the system acts as a single-photon switch. On the other hand, in the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either antibunching or bunching, which is in stark contrast to semiclassical calculations. We show that the bunching behavior is related to the resonant excitation of bound states of photons inside the system.

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Precise balancing of viscous and radiation forces on a particle in liquid-filled photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    Euser, T G; Garbos, M K; Chen, J S Y; Russell, P St J

    2009-12-01

    A great challenge in microfluidics is the precise control of laser radiation forces acting on single particles or cells, while allowing monitoring of their optical and chemical properties. We show that, in the liquid-filled hollow core of a single-mode photonic crystal fiber, a micrometer-sized particle can be held stably against a fluidic counterflow using radiation pressure and can be moved to and fro (over tens of centimeters) by ramping the laser power up and down. Accurate studies of the microfluidic drag forces become possible, because the particle is trapped in the center of the single guided optical mode, resulting in highly reproducible radiation forces. The counterflowing liquid can be loaded with sequences of chemicals in precisely controlled concentrations and doses, making possible studies of single particles, vesicles, or cells. PMID:19953158

  11. Raman-resonance-enhanced composite nonlinearity of air-guided modes in hollow photonic-crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, Il'ya V; Fedotov, Andrei B; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2006-09-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to measure relations between the resonant (Raman) and nonresonant (Kerr-type) optical nonlinearities of air-guided modes in a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). We demonstrate that, due to its interference nature, CARS provides a convenient tool for measuring the contribution of the fiber cladding to the total nonlinearity sensed by air-guided modes in hollow PCFs. On a Raman resonance with molecular vibrations in the gas that fills the fiber core, a two-color laser field is shown to induce optical nonlinearities that are several orders of magnitude higher than the nonresonant Kerr-type nonlinearities typical of air-guided PCF modes. PMID:16902633

  12. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  13. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm-a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  14. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm--a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra.

  15. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm—a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  16. Phase-matched four-wave mixing of sub-100-TW/ cm2 femtosecond laser pulses in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Akimov, D A; Ivanov, A A; Alfimov, M V; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow propagation and nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses in the regime of isolated guided modes confined in the hollow gas-filled fiber core. With a specially designed dispersion of such modes, the 3omega=2omega+2omega-omega four-wave mixing of fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) sub-100- TW/ cm(2) femtosecond pulses of a Cr:forsterite laser can be phase matched in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber within a spectral band of more than 10 nm, resulting in the efficient generation of femtosecond pulses in a well-resolved higher-order air-guided mode of 417-nm radiation. PMID:15697544

  17. Large-core photonic microcells for coherent optics and laser metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, N. V.; Grogan, M. D. W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Murphy, D. F.; Birks, T. A.; Benabid, F.

    2011-03-01

    A photonic microcell (PMC) is a length of gas-filled hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which is hermetically sealed at both ends by splicing to standard single mode fiber. We describe advances in the fabrication technique of PMCs which enable large core Kagome-lattice HC-PCFs to be integrated into PMC form. The modified fabrication technique uses fiber-tapering to accommodate the large dimensions of the fiber and enables low loss splices with single mode fiber by reducing mode field mismatch. Splice losses as low as 0.6 dB are achieved between 1-cell defect Kagome HC-PCF and single mode fiber. Relative to the previously reported PMCs, which were based on photonic bandgap HC-PCF, the present Kagome HC-PCF based PMC provides broad optical transmission, surface mode-free guidance and larger core at the cost of slightly increased fiber attenuation (~0.2 dB/m). Therefore, the integration of this fiber into PMC form opens up new applications for PMC-based devices. The advantage of the large core dimensions and surface mode free guidance for quantum optics in gas-filled HC-PCF are demonstrated by generation of narrow sub-Doppler features in an acetylenefilled large core PMC.

  18. Ionization-induced effects in the soliton dynamics of high-peak-power femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-07-15

    Ionization phenomena are shown to modify the soliton propagation dynamics of high-peak-power laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Based on the numerical solution of the pulse-evolution equation for a high-peak-power laser field in an ionizing gas medium in a hollow PCF, we demonstrate that hollow PCFs filled with gases having high ionization potentials I{sub p} can support soliton transmission regimes for gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses. In hollow PCFs filled with low-I{sub p} gases, on the other hand, the ionization-induced change in the refractive index of the gas leads to a blueshifting of soliton transients, pushing their spectrum beyond the point of zero group-velocity dispersion, thus preventing the formation of stable high-peak-power solitons.

  19. Turkish propolis supresses MCF-7 cell death induced by homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Tartik, Musa; Darendelioglu, Ekrem; Aykutoglu, Gurkan; Baydas, Giyasettin

    2016-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is a most important risk factor for various vascular diseases including coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial and venous thrombosis. Propolis is produced by honeybee from various oils, pollens and wax materials. Therefore, it has various biological properties including antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities. This study investigated the effects of propolis and Hcy on apoptosis in cancer cells. According to our findings, Hcy induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells by regulating numerous genes and proteins involved in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. In contrast, treatment with propolis inhibited caspase- 3 and -9 induced by Hcy in MCF-7 cells. It can be concluded that Hcy may augment the activity of anticancer agents that induce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in their target cells. In contrast to the previous studies herein we found that propolis in low doses protected cancer cells inhibiting cellular apoptosis mediated by intracellular ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27470414

  20. A hollow waveguide Bragg reflector: A tunable platform for integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Hollow waveguides are promising candidates for applications in sensing and high-power transmission. Flexible design and cost effective fabrication of hollow waveguides make it possible to realize integrated devices with small temperature dependence, tight control on optical confinement and tailorable characteristics. One of the potential applications of hollow waveguide is a tunable Bragg reflector, which can be used as building block for integrated photonics. In this review, integrated tunable Bragg reflector based on hollow-core optical waveguide is reviewed and presented; this Bragg reflector offers variable characteristics and design flexibility for applications in reconfigurable integrated photonic devices and circuits. Variety of tunable optical functions can be realized with on-chip Bragg reflector based on hollow waveguide, few of them are discussed in this review. Ultra-wide tuning in Bragg wavelength and on-chip polarization control can be realized using 3D hollow waveguide. A tapered 3D hollow waveguide Bragg reflector for an adjustable compensation of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is then discussed. The utilization of a high-index contrast grating in hollow waveguide is demonstrated to reduce the polarization dependence and reflection-bandwidth. The polarization- and bandwidth control may be useful for realizing polarization insensitive devices and semiconductor lasers with ultra-wide tuning.

  1. Modification of inner surface of photonic crystal fibers with self-assembled polyaniline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidenko, Sergei A.; Pidenko, Pavel S.; Bondarenko, Sergei D.; Shuvalov, Andrei A.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a hollow core are one of the most promising solid support of fiber-optic sensors. The main advantages of PCF as sensor elements in clinical analysis are minimization of optical interactions from the sample and the ability to analyze small volume of samples. At the same time, low sorption capacity of glass which is the basic material for the fabrication of the PCF, limits their use in the development of biosensors. Modification of the inner surface of the PCF can be the solution of the problem. In this work the synthesis of self-assembled films of polyaniline (PANI) on the inner surface of the PCFs was carried out. The modified PCFs were studied by spectroscopy and electron microscopy. It was found that the covering of the inner surface of the PCFs with PANI leads to a shift of the local maximums of the transmission spectrum PCFs up to 25 nm. These makes possible to design the method of varying of photonic bandgaps location.

  2. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  3. Photon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J

    2002-10-07

    A photon collider interaction region has the possibility of expanding the physics reach of a future TeV scale electron-positron collider. A survey of ongoing efforts to design the required lasers and optics to create a photon collider is presented in this paper.

  4. Long-distance laser propulsion and deformation- monitoring of cells in optofluidic photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Unterkofler, Sarah; Garbos, Martin K; Euser, Tijmen G; St J Russell, Philip

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a unique method for laser-propelling individual cells over distances of 10s of cm through stationary liquid in a microfluidic channel. This is achieved by using liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). HC-PCF provides low-loss light guidance in a well-defined single mode, resulting in highly uniform optical trapping and propulsive forces in the core which at the same time acts as a microfluidic channel. Cells are trapped laterally at the center of the core, typically several microns away from the glass interface, which eliminates adherence effects and external perturbations. During propagation, the velocity of the cells is conveniently monitored using a non-imaging Doppler velocimetry technique. Dynamic changes in velocity at constant optical powers up to 350 mW indicate stress-induced changes in the shape of the cells, which is confirmed by bright-field microscopy. Our results suggest that HC-PCF will be useful as a new tool for the study of single-cell biomechanics. PMID:23281270

  5. Mid-infrared gas filled photonic crystal fiber laser based on population inversion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M; Nampoothiri, A V Vasudevan; Ratanavis, Amarin; Fiedler, Tobias; Wheeler, Natalie V; Couny, François; Kadel, Rajesh; Benabid, Fetah; Washburn, Brian R; Corwin, Kristan L; Rudolph, Wolfgang

    2011-01-31

    We demonstrate for the first time an optically pumped gas laser based on population inversion using a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The HC-PCF filled with 12C2H2 gas is pumped with ~5 ns pulses at 1.52 μm and lases at 3.12 μm and 3.16 μm in the mid-infrared spectral region. The maximum measured laser pulse energy of ~6 nJ was obtained at a gas pressure of 7 torr with a fiber with 20 dB/m loss near the lasing wavelengths. While the measured slope efficiencies of this prototype did not exceed a few percent due mainly to linear losses of the fiber at the laser wavelengths, 25% slope efficiency and pulse energies of a few mJ are the predicted limits of this laser. Simulations of the laser's behavior agree qualitatively with experimental observations. PMID:21369049

  6. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  7. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  8. Photons Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Han, Min Cheol; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Han Sung; Grazia Pia, Maria; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review of methods and data for the Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions is in progress: it concerns a wide set of theoretical modeling approaches and data libraries available for this purpose. Models and data libraries are assessed quantitatively with respect to an extensive collection of experimental measurements documented in the literature to determine their accuracy; this evaluation exploits rigorous statistical analysis methods. The computational performance of the associated modeling algorithms is evaluated as well. An overview of the assessment of photon interaction models and results of the experimental validation are presented.

  9. Pulse-shaping based two-photon FRET stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Daniel C.; Bhagwat, Amar R.; Brenner, Meredith H.; Núñez, Marcos F.; Mork, Briana E.; Cai, Dawen; Swanson, Joel A.; Ogilvie, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based measurements that calculate the stoichiometry of intermolecular interactions in living cells have recently been demonstrated, where the technique utilizes selective one-photon excitation of donor and acceptor fluorophores to isolate the pure FRET signal. Here, we present work towards extending this FRET stoichiometry method to employ two-photon excitation using a pulse-shaping methodology. In pulse-shaping, frequency-dependent phases are applied to a broadband femtosecond laser pulse to tailor the two-photon excitation conditions to preferentially excite donor and acceptor fluorophores. We have also generalized the existing stoichiometry theory to account for additional cross-talk terms that are non-vanishing under two-photon excitation conditions. Using the generalized theory we demonstrate two-photon FRET stoichiometry in live COS-7 cells expressing fluorescent proteins mAmetrine as the donor and tdTomato as the acceptor. PMID:25836193

  10. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  11. Integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondarenko, Alexander A.

    In 1958 the first integrated circuit was demonstrated to combine transistors, resistors, and capacitors [36]. To this date fabrication technology has been driven by the growing demand for monolithically constructed, densely packed electronic components. The exponentially shrinking device size decreased the feature dimensions from 10 microns to 32 nm and grew transistor count from 2,300 to over 2,000,000,000 in Intel's 4004 and Intel Kentsfield XE microprocessors. The benefits of micro- and nano-fabrication was not limited to just computer chips. MEMs, spintronic, microfluidics, and integrated photonics were all made possible by the ever expanding ability to form complex geometries, on a wide variety of materials, on a micron and submicron scale. This dissertation is part of an effort to design and fabricate novel integrated photonic devices compatible with standard electron beam and photo lithography and utilize a readily available material base. We aim to create devices with a decreased footprint on a chip and operate in the infrared, visible, and UV spectra. We present two general sections, the first is a theoretical effort to find the fundamental design geometries for a variety of optical problems. The second section is an experimental demonstration of techniques and devices for novel optical phenomena in an integrated package. In the theoretical section we develop and apply computational evolutionary algorithms to explore problems of light confinement, coupling, and guiding in two and three dimensional device geometries. Our general aim is to find a global limit to optimal device geometry and performance given a set of constrains. Experimentally, we demonstrate an efficient design and a fabrication process for a short development cycle of photonic devices. For the design part of the workflow, we develop a computational approach to explore device geometries with minimum initial assumptions for a variety of photonic problems. For the fabrication part of the

  12. Photonic Nanojets

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter dν perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as dν3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the dν6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000th the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage. PMID:19946614

  13. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  14. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  15. AMID Mediates Adenosine-Induced Caspase-Independent HuH-7 Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongqin; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Gotoh, Akinobu; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The mechanism underlying extracellular adenosine-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in HuH-7 human hepatoma cells is not fully understood. The present study investigated the role for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death (AMID) in the pathway. Methods: To see the implication of AMID in adenosine-induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescent cytochemistry, time-laps GFP monitoring, cell cycle analysis, flow cytometry, Western blotting, cell viability assay, and TUNEL staining were carried out. Results: Adenosine upregulated AMID expression in HuH-7 cells, and translocated AMID from the cytosol into the nucleus. Adenosine induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, and the effect was further enhanced by overexpressing AMID. Adenosine-induced HuH-7 cell apoptosis, alternatively, was inhibited by knocking-down AMID. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide evidence for AMID as a critical factor for adenosine-induced caspase-independent HuH-7 cell apoptosis. PMID:21325820

  16. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Makene, Vedastus W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked immunoassay. All samples had no toxicity effects to RAW264.7 cells, however they significantly (P < 0.001) induced NO and IL‐6 production. The highest NO (12.5 ± 0.38 μM) and IL‐6 (25383.84 ± 2327 pg/mL) production was induced by postbiofiltration sample. Final effluent induced the lowest inflammatory response, which indicates effective sewage treatment. In conclusion, wastewater samples can induce inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 cells. The RAW264.7 cells, therefore, can be used as a model for monitoring the quality of treated sewage. PMID:26900395

  17. Pathway of cytotoxicity induced by folic acid modified selenium nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Liu, Ruiying; Song, Bing; Wu, Qing; Liu, Li; Jiang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fen; Cai, Huaihong; Cai, Jiye

    2013-02-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have been recognized as promising materials for biomedical applications. To prepare Se NPs which contained cancer targeting methods and to clarify the cellular localization and cytotoxicity mechanisms of these Se NPs against cancer cells, folic acid protected/modified selenium nanoparticles (FA-Se NPs) were first prepared by a one-step method. Some morphologic and spectroscopic methods were obtained to prove the successfully formation of FA-Se NPs while free folate competitive inhibition assay, microscope, and several biological methods were used to determine the in vitro uptake, subcellular localization, and cytotoxicity mechanism of FA-Se NPs in MCF-7 cells. The results indicated that the 70-nm FA-Se NPs were internalized by MCF-7 cells through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and targeted to mitochondria located regions through endocytic vesicles transporting. Then, the FA-Se NPs entered into mitochondria; triggered the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 cells which involved oxidative stress, Ca(2)+ stress changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and finally caused the damage of mitochondria. FA-Se NPs released from broken mitochondria were transported into nucleus and further into nucleolus which then induced MCF-7 cell cycle arrest. In addition, FA-Se NPs could induce cytoskeleton disorganization and induce MCF-7 cell membrane morphology alterations. These results collectively suggested that FA-Se NPs could be served as potential therapeutic agents and organelle-targeted drug carriers in cancer therapy. PMID:22945264

  18. Tevatron direct photon results.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.

    1999-09-21

    Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.

  19. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  1. Baicalein Inhibits MCF-7 Cell Proliferation In Vitro, Induces Radiosensitivity, and Inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor.

    PubMed

    Gade, Shruti; Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a key transcription factor responsible for imparting adaptability to the cancer cells growing in tumors. HIF induces the modulation of glucose metabolism, angiogenesis, and prosurvival signaling. Therefore, HIF is one of the attractive targets to treat solid tumors. Results presented in this study indicate that Baicalein (BA) inhibits HIF stabilization and also reduces its transcription activity in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Furthermore, BA was found to have antiproliferative ability as determined by the MTT assay and clonogenic survival. BA also induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 50 µM. We also report the radiosensitization of MCF-7 cells when they are treated with BA, resulting in higher γ-radiation-induced DNA damage. BA is extensively used in Chinese medicine and is known to be nontoxic at pharmacological doses. Our studies indicate that BA is one of the attractive natural compounds suitable for further evaluation as an adjuvant therapy. PMID:26756423

  2. Exclusive photon-photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    Exclusive gamma gamma right arrow hadron pairs are among the most fundamental processes in QCD, providing a detailed examination of Compton scattering in the crossed channel. In the high momentum transfer domain (s, t, large, Theta cm for t/s fixed), these processes can be computed from first principles in QCD, yielding important information on the nature of the QCD coupling data and the form of hadron distribution amplitudes. Similarly, the transition form factors gamma star gamma, gamma star gamma right arrow pi(o), Eta (0), Eta`, Eta(c)... provide rigorous tests of QCD and definitive determinations of the meson distribution amplitudes Phi H(x,Q). We show that the assumption of a frozen coupling at low momentum transfers can explain the observed scaling of two-photon exclusive processes.

  3. Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Otterbach, Johannes; Fleischhauer, Michael; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2011-09-23

    We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We show that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.

  4. Sensitive multiplex detection of serological liver cancer biomarkers using SERS-active photonic crystal fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Dinish, U S; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Chang, Young Tae; Olivo, Malini

    2014-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy possesses the most promising advantage of multiplex detection for biosensing applications, which is achieved due to the narrow 'fingerprint' Raman spectra from the analyte molecules. We developed an ultrasensitive platform for the multiplex detection of cancer biomarkers by combining the SERS technique with a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF). Axially aligned air channels inside the HCPCF provide an excellent platform for optical sensing using SERS. In addition to the flexibility of optical fibers, HCPCF provides better light confinement and a larger interaction length for the guided light and the analyte, resulting in an improvement in sensitivity to detect low concentrations of bioanalytes in extremely low sample volumes. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate the sensitive multiplex detection of biomarkers immobilized inside the HCPCF using antibody-conjugated SERS-active nanoparticles (SERS nanotags). As a proof-of-concept for targeted multiplex detection, initially we carried out the sensing of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarker in oral squamous carcinoma cell lysate using three different SERS nanotags. Subsequently, we also achieved simultaneous detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarkers-alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) secreted in the supernatant from Hep3b cancer cell line. Using a SERS-HCPCF sensing platform, we could successfully demonstrate the multiplex detection in an extremely low sample volume of ∼20 nL. In future, this study may lead to sensitive biosensing platform for the low concentration detection of biomarkers in an extremely low sample volume of body fluids to achieve early diagnosis of multiple diseases. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23963680

  5. Efficient and short-range light coupling to index-matched liquid-filled hole in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Rodrigo M; Spadoti, Danilo H; de Matos, Christiano J S; Menezes, Leonardo de S; Franco, Marcos A R

    2011-11-21

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a section of one of the holes next to the solid core filled with an index-matched liquid is studied. Liquid filling alters the core geometry, which locally comprises the original silica core, the liquid channel and the silica around it. It is demonstrated that when light reaches the filled section, it periodically and efficiently couples to the liquid, via the excitation of a number of modes of the composite core, with coupling lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. The resulting modal-interference-modulated spectrum shows temperature sensitivity as high as 5.35 nm/°C. The proposed waveguide geometry presents itself as an interesting way to pump and/or to probe liquid media within the fiber, combining advantages usually found separately in liquid-filled hollow-core PCFs (high light-liquid overlap) and in solid-core PCFs (low insertion losses). Therefore, pumping and luminescence guiding with a PCF filled with a Rhodamine solution is also demonstrated. PMID:22109496

  6. 10 kHz accuracy of an optical frequency reference based on (12)C2H2-filled large-core kagome photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Kevin; Wu, Shun; Lim, Jinkang; Tillman, Karl A; Light, Philip S; Couny, Francois; Wheeler, Natalie; Thapa, Rajesh; Jones, Andrew M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2009-08-31

    Saturated absorption spectroscopy reveals the narrowest features so far in molecular gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The 48-68 mum core diameter of the kagome-structured fiber used here allows for 8 MHz full-width half-maximum sub-Doppler features, and its wavelength-insensitive transmission is suitable for high-accuracy frequency measurements. A fiber laser is locked to the (12)C2H2 nu(1); + nu(3) P(13) transition inside kagome fiber, and compared with frequency combs based on both a carbon nanotube fiber laser and a Cr:forsterite laser, each of which are referenced to a GPS-disciplined Rb oscillator. The absolute frequency of the measured line center agrees with those measured in power build-up cavities to within 9.3 kHz (1 sigma error), and the fractional frequency instability is less than 1.2 x 10(-11) at 1 s averaging time. PMID:19724600

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN.
    Harland and Liburdy (1) reported that 1.2-uT, 60-Hz magnetic fields could significantly block the inhibitory action of pharmacological levels of tamoxifen (10-7 M) on the growth of MCF-7 human br...

  8. Inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of tetrahydrocurcumin against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Deng, Shan; Wang, Ning; Liu, Yafei; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an active metabolite of curcumin, has been reported to have similar biological effects to curcumin, but the mechanism of the antitumor activity of THC is still unclear. Methods The present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and mechanism of THC in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using the methods of MTT assay, LDH assay, flow cytometry analysis, and western blot assay. Results THC was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 107.8 μM. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that THC mediated the cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and 32.8% of MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis at 100 μM for 24 h. THC also dose-dependently led to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, the elevation of intracellular ROS, a decrease in Bcl-2 and PARP expression, and an increase in Bax expression. Meanwhile, cytochrome C was released to cytosol and the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm) was observed after THC treatment. Conclusion THC is an excellent source of chemopreventive agents in the treatment of breast cancer and has excellent potential to be explored as antitumor precursor compound. PMID:26899573

  9. Electrochemical estrogen screen method based on the electrochemical behavior of MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlian; Song, Jia; Bi, Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cui, Jiwen; Liu, Jiguang; Wu, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    It was an urgent task to develop quick, cheap and accurate estrogen screen method for evaluating the estrogen effect of the booming chemicals. In this study, the voltammetric behavior between the estrogen-free and normal fragmented MCF-7 cell suspensions were compared, and the electrochemical signal (about 0.68V attributed by xanthine and guanine) of the estrogen-free fragmented MCF-7 cell suspension was obviously lower than that of the normal one. The electrochemistry detection of ex-secretion purines showed that the ability of ex-secretion purines of cells sharp decreased due to the removing of endogenous estrogen. The results indicated that the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells was related to the level of intracellular estrogen. When the level of intracellular estrogen was down-regulated, the concentrations of the xanthine and hypoxanthine decreased, which led to the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells fall. Based on the electrochemical signal, the electrochemical estrogen screen method was established. The estrogen effect of estradiol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was evaluated with the electrochemical method, and the result was accordant with that of MTT assay. The electrochemical estrogen screen method was simple, quickly, cheap, objective, and it exploits a new way for the evaluation of estrogenic effects of chemicals. PMID:27108272

  10. Recombinant adenovirus of human p66Shc inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoshan; Xu, Rong; Lin, Yajun; Zhen, Yongzhan; Wei, Jie; Hu, Gang; Sun, Hongfan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a human recombinant p66Shc adenovirus and to investigate the inhibition of recombinant p66Shc adenovirus on MCF-7 cells. The recombinant adenovirus expression vector was constructed using the Adeno-X Adenoviral System 3. Inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Intracellular ROS was measured by DCFH-DA fluorescent probes, and 8-OHdG was detected by ELISA. Cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were assayed by flow cytometry. Western blot were used to observe protein expression. p66Shc expression was upregulated in 4 cell lines after infection. The inhibitory effect of p66Shc recombinant adenovirus on MCF-7 cells was accompanied by enhanced ROS and 8-OHdG. However, no significant differences were observed in the cell apoptosis rate. The ratio of the cell cycle G2/M phase showed a significant increase. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the expressions of p53, p-p53, cyclin B1 and CDK1 were upregulated with the overexpression of p66Shc. The Adeno-X Adenoviral System 3 can be used to efficiently construct recombinant adenovirus containing p66Shc gene, and the Adeno-X can inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. These results suggested that p66Shc may be a key target for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27530145

  11. Recombinant adenovirus of human p66Shc inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoshan; Xu, Rong; Lin, Yajun; Zhen, Yongzhan; Wei, Jie; Hu, Gang; Sun, Hongfan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a human recombinant p66Shc adenovirus and to investigate the inhibition of recombinant p66Shc adenovirus on MCF-7 cells. The recombinant adenovirus expression vector was constructed using the Adeno-X Adenoviral System 3. Inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Intracellular ROS was measured by DCFH-DA fluorescent probes, and 8-OHdG was detected by ELISA. Cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were assayed by flow cytometry. Western blot were used to observe protein expression. p66Shc expression was upregulated in 4 cell lines after infection. The inhibitory effect of p66Shc recombinant adenovirus on MCF-7 cells was accompanied by enhanced ROS and 8-OHdG. However, no significant differences were observed in the cell apoptosis rate. The ratio of the cell cycle G2/M phase showed a significant increase. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the expressions of p53, p-p53, cyclin B1 and CDK1 were upregulated with the overexpression of p66Shc. The Adeno-X Adenoviral System 3 can be used to efficiently construct recombinant adenovirus containing p66Shc gene, and the Adeno-X can inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. These results suggested that p66Shc may be a key target for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27530145

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticancer Activity of New Quinazoline Derivatives against MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Fadhil Lafta; Zahedifard, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Ahmad, Noraini; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Two new synthesized and characterized quinazoline Schiff bases 1 and 2 were investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 6.246 × 10−6 mol/L and 5.910 × 10−6 mol/L, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with 1 and 2 subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS formation. We also found activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9 in compounds 1 and 2. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells treated by compound 1 significantly exhibited the association of extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed significant activity towards MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway and are potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies. PMID:25548779

  13. Three-dimensional Huh7 cell culture system for the study of Hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Bruno; TenCate, Veronica; Uprichard, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to elucidate how Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) interacts with polarized hepatocytes in vivo and how HCV-induced alterations in cellular function contribute to HCV-associated liver disease, a more physiologically relevant hepatocyte culture model is needed. As such, NASA-engineered three-dimensional (3-D) rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors were used in effort to promote differentiation of HCV-permissive Huh7 hepatoma cells. Results When cultured in the RWV, Huh7 cells became morphologically and transcriptionally distinct from more standard Huh7 two-dimensional (2-D) monolayers. Specifically, RWV-cultured Huh7 cells formed complex, multilayered 3-D aggregates in which Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic drug metabolism genes, as well as hepatocyte-specific transcripts (HNF4α, Albumin, TTR and α1AT), were upregulated compared to 2-D cultured Huh7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that these HCV-permissive 3-D cultured Huh7 cells were more polarized than their 2D counterparts with the expression of HCV receptors, cell adhesion and tight junction markers (CD81, scavenger receptor class B member 1, claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1, β-Catenin and E-Cadherin) significantly increased and exhibiting apical, lateral and/or basolateral localization. Conclusion These findings show that when cultured in 3-D, Huh7 cells acquire a more differentiated hepatocyte-like phenotype. Importantly, we show that these 3D cultures are highly permissive for HCV infection, thus providing an opportunity to study HCV entry and the effects of HCV infection on host cell function in a more physiologically relevant cell culture system. PMID:19604376

  14. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  15. Quantum Computing using Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawany, Ahmed; Leuenberger, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we propose a theoretical model of two-quantum bit gates for quantum computation using the polarization states of two photons in a microcavity. By letting the two photons interact non-resonantly with four quantum dots inside the cavity, we obtain an effective photon-photon interaction which we exploit for the implementation of an universal XOR gate. The two-photon Hamiltonian is written in terms of the photons' total angular momentum operators and their states are written using the Schwinger representation of the total angular momentum.

  16. Silibinin induces protective superoxide generation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Jun; Jiang, Yuan-Yuan; Wei, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Huai; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of polyphenolic silibinin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is primarily due to its antioxidant property. However, this study found that silibinin promoted sustained superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production that was specifically scavenged by exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) in MCF-7 cells, while the activity of endogenous SOD was not changed by silibinin. Previous work proved that silibinin induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway and this study further proved that O(2)(.-) generation induced by silibinin was also related to mitochondria. It was found that respiratory chain complexes I, II and III were all involved in silibinin-induced O(2)(.-) generation. Moreover, it was found that silibinin-induced O(2)(.-) had protective effect, as exogenous SOD markedly enhanced silibinin-induced apoptosis. PMID:19968587

  17. Detection of apoptosis caused by anticancer drug paclitaxel in MCF-7 cells by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Middendorp, E.; Végh, A.-G.; Ramakrishnan, S.-K.; Gergely, C.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2013-02-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy, a non-invasive, label free imaging technique is used to study apoptosis in living MCF-7 cells. The images are based on Raman spectra of cells components. K-mean clustering was used to determine mitochondria position in cells and cytochrome c distribution inside the cells was based on correlation analysis. Cell apoptosis is defined as cytochrome c diffusion in cytoplasm. Co-localization of cytochrome c is found within mitochondria after three hours of incubation with 10 μM paclitaxel. Our results demonstrate that the presence of paclitaxel at this concentration in the culture media for 3 hours does not induce apoptosis of MCF7 cells via a caspase independent pathway.

  18. Confocal Raman data analysis enables identifying apoptosis of MCF-7 cells caused by anticancer drug paclitaxel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Middendorp, Elodie; Panayotov, Ivan; Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves Collard; Vegh, Attila-Gergely; Ramakrishnan, Sathish; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy is a noninvasive, label-free imaging technique used to study apoptosis of live MCF-7 cells. The images are based on Raman spectra of cells components, and their apoptosis is monitored through diffusion of cytochrome c in cytoplasm. K-mean clustering is used to identify mitochondria in cells, and correlation analysis provides the cytochrome c distribution inside the cells. Our results demonstrate that incubation of cells for 3 h with 10 μM of paclitaxel does not induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. On the contrary, incubation for 30 min at a higher concentration (100 μM) of paclitaxel induces gradual release of the cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, indicating cell apoptosis via a caspase independent pathway.

  19. Controllable photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszetzky, Dániel; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár

    2006-10-01

    We have developed our pervious experimental setup using correlated photon pairs (to the calibration of photo detectors) to realize a controllable photon source. For the generation of such photon pairs we use the non-linear process of parametric down conversion. When a photon of the pump beam is incident to a nonlinear crystal with phase matching condition, a pair of photons (signal and idler) is created at the same time with certain probability. We detect the photons in the signal beam with a single photon counting module (SPCM), while delaying those in the idler beam. Recently we have developed a fast electronic unit to control an optical shutter (a Pockels cell) placed to the optical output of the idler beam. When we detect a signal photon with the controlling electronic unit we are also able to open or close the fast optical shutter. Thus we can control which idler photons can propagate through the Pockels cell. So with this photon source we are able to program the number of photons in a certain time window. This controllable photon source that is able to generate a known number of photons with specified wavelength, direction, and polarization could be useful for applications in high-accuracy optical characterisation of photometric devices at the ultra-low intensities. This light source can also serve as a standard in testing of optical image intensifiers, night vision devices, and in the accurate measurement of spectral distribution of transmission and absorption in optical materials.

  20. Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Tran, Van H.; Li, Yi-Ming; Duke, Colin C.; Heather, Alison K.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NFκB activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca2+]i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NFκB activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NFκB activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NFκB activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NFκB-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:23956783

  1. Troglitazone enhances tamoxifen-induced growth inhibitory activity of MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hong-Nu; Noh, Eun-Mi; Lee, Young-Rae; Roh, Si-Gyun; Song, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung-Kwan; Lee, Yong-Chul; Shim, In Kyong; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Jong-Suk Youn, Hyun Jo

    2008-12-05

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligands have been identified as a potential source of therapy for human cancers. However, PPAR{gamma} ligands have a limitation for breast cancer therapy, since estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{sub {alpha}}) negatively interferes with PPAR{gamma} signaling in breast cancer cells. Here we show that ER{sub {alpha}} inhihits PPAR{gamma} transactivity and ER{sub {alpha}}-mediated inhibition of PPAR{gamma} transactivity is blocked by tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor blocker. The activation of ER{sub {alpha}} with 17-{beta}-estradiol blocked PPRE transactivity induced by troglitazone, a PPAR{gamma} ligand, indicating the resistance of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive breast cancer cells to troglitazone. Indeed, troglitazone inhibited the growth of ER{sub {alpha}}-negative MDA-MB-231 cells more than that of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells. Combination of troglitazone with tamoxifen led to a marked increase in growth inhibition of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells compared to either agent alone. Our data indicates that troglitazone enhances the growth inhibitory activity of tamoxifen in ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells.

  2. Downregulation of SOK1 promotes the migration of MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xu-Dong; Cho, Chien-Yu

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} SOK1 is a member of GCK-III subfamily. It is activated by oxidative stress or chemical anoxia. {yields} Barr's group have found that autophosphorylation of SOK1 is triggered by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130 and made the cells migration through dimeric adaptor protein 14-3-3. {yields} But what we found is that downregulation of SOK1 promotes cell migration and leads to the upregulation of GM130 and Tyr861 of FAK in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: SOK1 is a member of the germinal center kinase (GCK-III) subfamily but little is known about it, particularly with respect to its role in signal transduction pathways relative to tumor metastasis. By stably transfecting SOK1 siRNA into the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line we found that SOK1 promotes the migration of MCF-7 cells, as determined using wound-healing and Boyden chamber assays. However, cell proliferation assays revealed that silencing SOK1 had no effect on cell growth relative to the normal cells. Silencing SOK1 also had an effect on the expression and phosphorylation status of a number of proteins in MCF-7 cells, including FAK and GM130, whereby a decrease in SOK1 led to an increase in the expression of these proteins.

  3. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in MCF7 cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) in MCF7 cell modules (comprised of MCF7 cells and collagen) and based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with an OCT swept source wavelength sweep imaging system. Acoustic radiation force was applied to the MCF7 cell constructs. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the acoustic radiation force, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these modules. The OCT phase maps are acquired with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. We also calculated the tissue mechanical properties based on the propagating shear waves in the MCF7 + collagen phantoms using the Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) of an ultrasound transducer, and measured the shear wave speed with the OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future studies of mechanical property measurements of breast cancer structures, with applications in the study of breast cancer pathologies.

  4. High energy photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  5. Photonic crystal and photonic wire device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Rue, Richard; Sorel, Marc; Johnson, Nigel; Rahman, Faiz; Ironside, Charles; Cronin, Lee; Watson, Ian; Martin, Robert; Jin, Chongjun; Pottier, Pierre; Chong, Harold; Gnan, Marco; Jugessur, Aju; Camargo, Edilson; Erwin, Grant; Md Zain, Ahmad; Ntakis, Iraklis; Hobbs, Lois; Zhang, Hua; Armenise, Mario; Ciminelli, Caterina; Coquillat, Dominique

    2005-09-01

    Photonic devices that exploit photonic crystal (PhC) principles in a planar environment continue to provide a fertile field of research. 2D PhC based channel waveguides can provide both strong confinement and controlled dispersion behaviour. In conjunction with, for instance, various electro-optic, thermo-optic and other effects, a range of device functionality is accessible in very compact PhC channel-guide devices that offer the potential for high-density integration. Low enough propagation losses are now being obtained with photonic crystal channel-guide structures that their use in real applications has become plausible. Photonic wires (PhWs) can also provide strong confinement and low propagation losses. Bragg-gratings imposed on photonic wires can provide dispersion and frequency selection in device structures that are intrinsically simpler than 2D PhC channel guides--and can compete with them under realistic conditions.

  6. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  7. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  8. Modeling loss and backscattering in a photonic-bandgap fiber using strong perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani Aghaie, Kiarash; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-02-01

    We use coupled-mode theory with strong perturbation to model the loss and backscattering coefficients of a commercial hollow-core fiber (NKT Photonics' HC-1550-02 fiber) induced by the frozen-in longitudinal perturbations of the fiber cross section. Strong perturbation is used, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, because the large difference between the refractive indices of the two fiber materials (silica and air) makes conventional weak-perturbation less accurate. We first study the loss and backscattering using the mathematical description of conventional surface-capillary waves (SCWs). This model implicitly assumes that the mechanical waves on the core wall of a PBF have the same power spectral density (PSD) as the waves that develop on an infinitely thick cylindrical tube with the same diameter as the PBF core. The loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thick-wall SCW roughness are 0.5 dB/km and 1.1×10-10 mm-1, respectively. These values are more than one order of magnitude smaller than the measured values (20-30 dB/km and ~1.5×10-9 mm-1, respectively). This result suggests that the thick-wall SCW PSD is not representative of the roughness of our fiber. We found that this discrepancy occurs at least in part because the effect of the finite thickness of the silica membranes (only ~120 nm) is neglected. We present a new expression for the PSD that takes into account this finite thickness and demonstrates that the finite thickness substantially increases the roughness. The predicted loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thin-film SCW PSD are 30 dB/km and 1.3×10-9 mm-1, which are both close to the measured values. We also show that the thin-film SCW PSD accurately predicts the roughness PSD measured by others in a solid-core photonic-crystal fiber.

  9. Copper ferrite nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-06-01

    Copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are important magnetic materials currently under research due to their applicability in nanomedicine. However, information concerning the biological interaction of copper ferrite NPs is largely lacking. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of copper ferrite NPs in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Copper ferrite NPs were prepared by co-precipitation technique with the thermal effect. Prepared NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data showed that copper ferrite NPs were crystalline, spherical with smooth surfaces and average diameter of 15nm. Biochemical studies showed that copper ferrite NPs induce cell viability reduction and membrane damage in MCF-7 cells and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. High SubG1 cell population during cell cycle progression and MMP loss with a concomitant up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes suggested that copper ferrite NP-induced cell death through mitochondrial pathway. Copper ferrite NP was also found to induce oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells as indicated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glutathione depletion. Cytotoxicity due to copper ferrite NPs exposure was effectively abrogated by N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) suggesting that oxidative stress could be the plausible mechanism of copper ferrite NPs toxicity. Further studies are underway to explore the toxicity mechanisms of copper ferrite NPs in different types of human cells. This study warrants further generation of extensive biointeraction data before their application in nanomedicine. PMID:26925725

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Phenotypically Distinct Huh7 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Bruno; Barretto, Naina; Uprichard, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the first robust hepatitis C virus (HCV) infectious cell culture system was developed based on the HCV genotype 2a JFH-1 molecular clone and the human-derived hepatoma cell line Huh7. Although much effort has been made to dissect and expand the repertoire of JFH-1-derived clones, less attention has been given to the host cell despite the intriguing facts that thus far only Huh7 cells have been found to be highly permissive for HCV infection and furthermore only a limited number of Huh7 cell lines/stocks appear to be fully permissive. As such, we compiled a panel of Huh7 lines from disparate sources and evaluated their permissiveness for HCV infection. We found that although Huh7 lines from different laboratories do vary in morphology and cell growth, the majority (8 out of 9) were highly permissive for infection, as demonstrated by robust HCV RNA and de novo infectious virion production following infection. While HCV RNA levels achieved in the 8 permissive cell lines were relatively equivalent, three Huh7 lines demonstrated higher infectious virion production suggesting these cell lines more efficiently support post-replication event(s) in the viral life cycle. Consistent with previous studies, the single Huh7 line found to be relatively resistant to infection demonstrated a block in HCV entry. These studies not only suggest that the majority of Huh7 cell lines in different laboratories are in fact highly permissive for HCV infection, but also identify phenotypically distinct Huh7 lines, which may facilitate studies investigating the cellular determinants of HCV infection. PMID:19668344

  11. Study Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibition and Hepatotoxicity Using DMSO-Differentiated HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically competent, inexpensive, and robust in vitro cell models are needed for studying liver drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatotoxicity. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells develop into a differentiated in vitro model resembling primary human hepatocytes after a 2-week dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells express elevated cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme gene expression and activity compared to untreated HuH-7 cells. This cell model could be used to study CYP3A4 inhibition by reversible and time-dependent inhibitors, including drugs, food-related substances, and environmental chemicals. The DMSO-treated HuH-7 model is also a suitable tool for investigating hepatotoxicity. This chapter describes a detailed methodology for developing DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, which are subsequently used for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity studies. PMID:27518624

  12. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by β-1,3-xylooligosaccharides prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Reiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2012-01-01

    β-1,3-Xylan was prepared from the green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, and hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides by a mild acid treatment. The average degree of polymerization was about 5. The oligosaccharides reduced the number of viable human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and induced chromatin condensation and degradation of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating that they induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. PMID:22738982

  13. The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 inhibits hepatitis A virus replication in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Saito, Kengo; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Sakamoto, Naoya; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-03-20

    The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 has been reported to inhibit La protein expression. We previously demonstrated that the inhibition of La expression could inhibit hepatitis A virus (HAV) internal ribosomal entry-site (IRES)-mediated translation and HAV replication in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effects of AZD1480 on HAV IRES-mediated translation and replication. HAV IRES-mediated translation in COS7-HAV-IRES cells was inhibited by 0.1-1 μM AZD1480, a dosage that did not affect cell viability. Results showed a significant reduction in intracellular HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA RNA levels in Huh7 cells treated with AZD1480. Furthermore, AZD1480 inhibited the expression of phosphorylated-(Tyr-705)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and La in Huh7 cells. Therefore, we propose that AZD1480 can inhibit HAV IRES activity and HAV replication through the inhibition of the La protein. PMID:25704089

  14. MUC5B Leads to Aggressive Behavior of Breast Cancer MCF7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Valque, Hélène; Gouyer, Valérie; Gottrand, Frédéric; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The mucin MUC5B has a critical protective function in the normal lung, salivary glands, esophagus, and gallbladder, and has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. To understand better the implication of MUC5B in cancer pathogenesis, the luminal human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was transfected with a vector encoding a recombinant mini-mucin MUC5B and was then infected with a virus to deliver a short hairpin RNA to knock down the mini-mucin. The proliferative and invasive properties in Matrigel of MCF7 subclones and subpopulations were evaluated in vitro. A xenograft model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of MCF7 clones and subpopulations in SCID mice. Tumor growth was measured, and the tumors and metastases were assessed by histological and immunological analysis. The mini-mucin MUC5B promoted MCF7 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. The xenograft experiments demonstrated that the mini-mucin promoted tumor growth and MCF7 cell dissemination. In conclusion, MUC5B expression is associated with aggressive behavior of MCF7 breast cancer cells. This study suggests that MUC5B may represent a good target for slowing tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:23056409

  15. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy measurements of MCF7 cells adhesion in confined micro-environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Malara, Natalia; Perozziello, Gerardo; Dattola, Elisabetta; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly cells can perceive the external environment, not only from a biochemical point of view with the related signalling pathways, but also from a physical and topographical perspective. In this sense controlled three dimensional micro-structures as well as patterns at the nano-scale can affect and guide the cell evolution and proliferation, due to the fact that the surrounding environment is no longer isotropic (like the flat surfaces of standard cell culturing) but possesses well defined symmetries and anisotropies. In this work regular arrays of silicon micro-pillars with hexagonal arrangement are used as culturing substrates for MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The characteristic size and spacing of the pillars are tens of microns, comparable with MCF-7 cell dimensions and then well suited to induce acceptable external stimuli. It is shown that these cells strongly modify their morphology for adapting themselves to the micro-structured landscape, by means of protrusions from the main body of the cell. Scanning electron microscopy along with both Raman micro-spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy are used for topographical and biochemical studies of the new cell arrangement. We have revealed that single MCF-7 cells exploit their capability to produce invadopodia, usually generated to invade the neighboring tissue in metastatic activity, for spanning and growing across separate pillars.

  17. Photosensitization by Diaziquone: Correlation Between Diaziquone Cytotoxicity and Photoinduced Free Radicals in MCF-7 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nabulsi, Isaf

    The ability of visible light to enhance the activity of diaziquone (AZQ) was evaluated in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Exponentially growing monolayers of MCF -7 cells were incubated for 1 hr with AZQ (IC_ {90}, 0.05 muM, IC50, 0.3 muM, or various concentrations of AZQ) prior to variable time intervals of visible light irradiation. Irradiations were performed using a 100W quartz-halogen lamp or 100W mercury arc lamp with a dose rate of 30 or 170 mW/m ^2, respectively. The effect of visible light and/or AZQ on cellular growth was determined by clonogenic assay. The results show that MCF-7 cells were sensitive to growth inhibition by AZQ. Without AZQ, visible light irradiation had no effect on cell survival, while with AZQ, visible light potentiated its cytotoxicity by a factor of 1.6 at 10% survival. This potentiation of AZQ activity is correlated with the formation of free radicals (hydroxyl radicals and AZQ semiquinone) and with the production of DNA strand breaks as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance and gel electrophoresis, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that free radical formation is part of the mechanism of action of AZQ. Moreover, they indicate that visible light irradiation can increase the activity of AZQ and may allow its use in the treatment of tumor in human patients.

  18. Function photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals (PCs), whose refractive index is a function of space position. Conventional PCs structure grows from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants εA and εB. Based on Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we give the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals, and we find the following: (1) For the vertical and non-vertical incidence light of function photonic crystals, there are band gap structures, and for only the vertical incidence light, the conventional PCs have band gap structures. (2) By choosing various refractive index distribution functions n( z), we can obtain more wider or more narrower band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  19. Cytokine-mediated induction of metallothionein in Hepa-1c1c7 cells by oleanolic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Dong Hee; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Eung Seok; Choi, Young Muk; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2004-12-17

    Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid, has been reported to possess inducing activity of hepatic metallothionein (MT). However, the mechanism underlying its effects is unknown. This study investigated the effects of OA on the regulation of MT expression in an in vitro model. OA that was added directly to Hepa-1c1c7 cells had no effect on MT induction. However, MT and its mRNA levels increased markedly when the Hepa-1c1c7 cells were cultured with the OA-treated conditioned media from the RAW 264.7 cells. Co-treating the RAW 264.7 cells with OA and pentoxifylline, a TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor, resulted in a decrease in the effects of OA on the MT induction. In the OA-exposed RAW 264.7 cell cultures, production and mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were increased. However, the MT induction activity was inhibited when antibodies to TNF-alpha and/or IL-6 were added to the OA-treated conditioned media from the RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the up-regulation of MT expression by OA was mediated by the TNF-alpha and IL-6 released from UA-activated macrophages. PMID:15541359

  20. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  1. Photonically engineered incandescent emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  2. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast

  4. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  5. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  6. Photonic layered media

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  7. Identifying critical differentiation state of MCF-7 cells for breast cancer by dynamical network biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Chen, Luonan; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the pre-transition state just before a critical transition during a complex biological process is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show neither apparent changes nor clear phenomena before this critical transition during the biological process. By exploring rich correlation information provided by high-throughput data, the dynamical network biomarker (DNB) can identify the pre-transition state. In this work, we apply DNB to detect an early-warning signal of breast cancer on the basis of gene expression data of MCF-7 cell differentiation. We find a number of the related modules and pathways in the samples, which can be used not only as the biomarkers of cancer cells but also as the drug targets. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the results. PMID:26284108

  8. The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Güney, G; Kutlu, H M; Işcan, A

    2013-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras 5RP7 cell line by analyzing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and caspase-3 dependent activity. We have also shown structural and ultrastructural changes in these cell using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has significant inhibitory effects on cell growth and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with escin, and the micrographs confirmed that escin damaged these cells and induced apoptosis. PMID:22911540

  9. ent-Atisane diterpenoids from Euphorbia fischeriana inhibit mammosphere formation in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Wei; Kanno, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Naoya; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Asada, Yoshihisa; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a critical approach to overcome the major difficulties of the metastasis, chemotherapeutic resistance and recurrence for successful cancer therapy. Chemical investigation of the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana resulted in the isolation of eight ent-atisane diterpenoids (1-8), including two new compounds: 19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (7) and 19-O-(6-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (8). The structures were elucidated on extensive spectroscopic analyses, as well as chemical transformations. ent-3β-Hydroxyatis-16-ene-2,14-dione (5), 7 and its aglycon, ent-19-hydroxy-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (7a), showed significant inhibitory activity on mammosphere formation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells at a final concentration of 10 μM. PMID:26411465

  10. Citral inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chaouki, Wahid; Leger, David Y; Liagre, Bertrand; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Hmamouchi, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Many natural components of plants extract are studied for their beneficial effects on health and particularly on carcinogenesis chemoprevention. In this study, we investigated the effect of citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a key component of essential oils extracted from several herbal plants, on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The effects of this compound were also tested on cyclo-oxygenase activity. Citral treatment caused inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth (IC(50)-48 h: 18 x 10(-5)m), with a cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we observed a decrease in prostaglandin E(2) synthesis 48 h after citral treatment. These findings suggest that citral has a potential chemopreventive effect. PMID:19656204

  11. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Na; Jeong, Si-Yeon; Bae, Gyu-Un; Chang, Minsun; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Xiyuan; Pei, Yihua; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Yun Seon

    2014-01-01

    Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for hERα and hERβ with IC50 values of 1.20 ×10−7 g/ml and 1.00×10−7 g/ml, respectively. LNE induced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on hER α and β than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for hERβ than hERα, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause. PMID:25143815

  12. Diamagnetic levitation promotes osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Yin, Chong; Li, Di-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-03-01

    The superconducting magnet with a high magnetic force field can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study, a specially designed superconducting magnet with large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF), which provides three apparent gravity levels (μg, 1 g, and 2 g), was used to study its influence on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from preosteoclast cell line RAW264.7. The effects of LGHMF on the viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, morphology in RAW264.7 cells were detected by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the Griess method, and the immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The changes induced by LGHMF in osteoclast formation, mRNA expression, and bone resorption were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, semiquantity PCR, and bone resorption test, respectively. The results showed that: 1) LGHMF had no lethal effect on osteoclast precursors but attenuated NO release in RAW264.7 cells. 2) Diamagnetic levitation (μg) enhanced both the formation and bone resorption capacity of osteoclast. Moreover, diamagnetic levitation up-regulated mRNA expression of RANK, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, and NFATc1, while down-regulated RunX2 in comparison with controls. Furthermore, diamagnetic levitation induced obvious morphological alterations in osteoclast, including active cytoplasmic peripheral pseudopodial expansion, formation of pedosome belt, and aggregation of actin ring. 3) Magnetic field produced by LGHMF attenuated osteoclast resorption activity. Collectively, LGHMF with combined effects has multiple effects on osteoclast, which attenuated osteoclast resorption with magnetic field, whereas promoted osteoclast differentiation with diamagnetic levitation. Therefore, these findings indicate that diamagnetic levitation could be used as a novel ground-based microgravity simulator, which facilitates bone cell research of weightlessness condition

  13. Aqueous Vernomia amygdalina Extracts Alter MCF-7 Cell Membrane Permeability and Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Opata, Michael M.; Izevbigie, Ernest B.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths of women in the United States. Several treatment strategies have been developed over the past decade to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality rates. While mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence continues to grow. Hence, chemotherapeutic agents are needed to improve cancer treatment outcome. Previous studies show that low concentrations (microgram/ml) of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA), potently retard the proliferative activities of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7) cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. The anti-proliferative activities of VA are extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERKs 1/2)-dependent. Cell culture and animal model studies, conducted by other investigators using other plant extracts, have also revealed that plant extract components called thionins may be responsible for their anticancer activities. These thionins are believed to interact with the cells in ways that compromise membrane potential/permeability resulting in the alteration of efflux, cytosolic activities, and subsequent cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA exposure may compromise cell membrane as another mode of action to elicit its anticancer activities in MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cells to VA decreased [3H]thymidine uptake in a concentration-dependent (0, 30, and 100 μg/ml VA) manner (p < 0.05) but increased [3H]thymidine release, expressed as percent of [3H]thymidine incorporated, into the medium (p < 0.05). The amount of [3H]thymidine released into the medium was 1.7, 7.4, and 11.0 % for 0, 30, and 100 μg/ml VA respectively. Thus suggesting the membranes in VA-treated cells were compromised in a concentration-dependent fashion. PMID:16823089

  14. Transport of Aflatoxin M1 in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; De Angelis, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM1, data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity, and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM1 and possible damage to tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports. These inserts allowed for the separation of the apical and basolateral compartments which correspond to the in vivo lumen and the interstitial space/vascular systems of intestinal mucosa respectively. In this study, the Caco-2/TC7 cells were treated with different AFM1 concentrations (10–10,000 ng/kg) for short (40 min) and long periods of time (48 h). The AFM1 influx/efflux transport and effects on TJ were evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance and observing TJ protein (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin) localization. The results showed that: (i) when introduced to the apical and basolateral compartments, AFM1 was poorly absorbed by the Caco-2/TC7 cells but its transport across the cell monolayer occurred very quickly (Papp value of 105.10 ± 7.98 cm/s × 10−6). (ii) The integrity of TJ was not permanently compromised after exposure to the mycotoxin. Viability impairment or barrier damage did not occur either. The present results contribute to the evaluation of human risk exposure to AFM1, although the AFM1 transport mechanism need to be clarified. PMID:22701428

  15. A novel photonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.

  16. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  17. The Hollow Core: Failure of the General Education Curriculum. A Fifty College Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This report provides empirical proof of a disturbing trend in higher education. Over the last several decades colleges and universities have substituted so-called "distribution requirements" for a solid core curriculum. Distribution requirements enable students freely to choose their general education courses, the courses outside their…

  18. Non-hollow-core Cybister trabeculae and compressive properties of two biomimetic models of beetle forewings.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wanyong; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, the forewing trabeculae of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier (i.e., Cybister) beetles were reported to be hollow, and a biomimetic structural model (i.e., Song's model) was reported to exhibit better compressive mechanical properties than a solid-core trabecula-honeycomb model (i.e., Chen's model). To test these assertions, the current study first observed the trabecular microstructure of the Cybister beetle and confirmed that the trabeculae are solid. Second, the finite element method (FEM) was used to perform a contrast analysis of the compressive mechanical properties of Song's and Chen's biomimetic models. The results indicated that Chen's model exhibited better compressive mechanical properties. These findings, which are completely opposite of Song's findings, were obtained because the comparison models designed for use in Song's study were not comparable to that of Chen's model in terms of the core volumes. This study will benefit the development of beetle forewing biomimetic research. PMID:27612788

  19. Hollow core and other infrared waveguides for instrumentation in intense radiation environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to study the effect of steady-state neutron and gamma irradiation on the transmission of waveguides designed to operate well in the near- or mid-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this context, near-IR refers to the region between 1.3 {mu}m and about 2.4 {mu}m, and mid-IR between 3.0 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m. Such radiation environments could exist in nuclear power plants or nuclear weapons. Pulsed and steady-state radiation effects had been extensively studied on silica-based optical fibers because they have been the most readily available, most widely used in communications and sensing, and the least expensive. However, silica-based fibers do not transmit well beyond about 1.8 {mu}m and they are virtually opaque in the mid-IR. The mid-IR, as defined above, and beyond, is where vibrational spectroscopy is carried out. This type of sensing is one important application of infrared optical fibers.

  20. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au+ ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  1. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures. PMID:26563266

  2. Fiber optic direct Raman imaging system based on a hollow-core fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, S.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A Raman imaging system which combined a hollow fiber bundle and a direct imaging technique was constructed for high-speed endoscopic Raman imaging. The hollow fiber bundle is fabricated by depositing a silver thin film on the inner surface of pre-drawn glass capillary bundle. It performs as a fiber optic probe which transmits a Raman image with high signal-to-noise ratio because the propagating light is confined into the air core inducing little light scattering. The field of view on the sample is uniformly irradiated by the excitation laser light via the probe. The back-scattered image is collected by the probe and captured directly by an image sensor. A pair of thin film tunable filters is used to select target Raman band. This imaging system enables flexible and high-speed Raman imaging of biological tissues.

  3. Roadmap on silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O’Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with

  4. Pretreatment of BMSCs with TZD solution decreases the proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells by reducing FGF4 protein expression

    PubMed Central

    KHOO, BOON-YIN; NADARAJAN, KALPANAH; SHIM, SIANG-YIAN; MISWAN, NOORIZAN; ZANG, CHUAN-BING; POSSINGER, KURT; ELSTNER, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that had been pretreated with pioglitazone and/or rosiglitazone on the growth and proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells. The adhesive interaction between the BMSCs and the MCF-7 cancer cells revealed that the pretreatment of BMSCs with a combination of two types of thiazolidinedione drug reduced the growth and proliferation rate of the MCF-7 cells. The proliferation rate of the MCF-7 cells could also be reduced by the non-adhesive interaction of the cancer cells with BMSCs pretreated with pioglitazone and/or rosiglitazone. The growth and proliferation rate reduction effects on the MCF-7 cells may be attributed to the reduction in the protein level of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) in the conditioned medium of the pretreated BMSCs. The evidence that the low protein level of FGF4 in the conditioned medium of the pretreated BMSCs perturbed the proliferation rate of the MCF-7 cells by reducing the levels of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen transcripts in the cancer cells was also demonstrated in the present study using a FGF4-neutralizing antibody. All the above findings demonstrate that future studies on the correlation between FGF4 and pretreated BMSCs would be beneficial. PMID:26934829

  5. Indistinguishability of independent single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F. W.; Wong, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform-limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform-limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform-limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down-conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.

  6. Direct Photons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-07-29

    Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

  7. Photonics: Technology project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  8. Photonic Maxwell's Demon.

    PubMed

    Vidrighin, Mihai D; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics. PMID:26894692

  9. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  10. Photonic Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidrighin, Mihai D.; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M. S.; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics.

  11. Photon collider Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  12. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J.; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Ferguson, Martine S.

    2016-01-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 >> HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC50 within 2.5 fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity. PMID:26377104

  13. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    SciTech Connect

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter E-mail: javier.redondo@desy.de

    2009-03-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} for hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained.

  14. Cardamonin, inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in activated RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syahida; Israf, Daud A; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah; Mohamed, Habsah; Wahab, Afiza A; Ariffin, Khaizurin T; Hoo, Wei Yee; Aziz, Nasaruddin A; Kadir, Arifah A; Sulaiman, Mohamad R; Somchit, Muhammad N

    2006-05-24

    Some chalcones, such as hydroxychalcones have been reported previously to inhibit major pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and reactive oxygen species production by suppressing inducible enzyme expression via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear translocation of critical transcription factors. In this report, the effects of cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone), a chalcone that we have previously isolated from Alpinia rafflesiana, was evaluated upon two cellular systems that are repeatedly used in the analysis of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds namely RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood. Cardamonin inhibited NO and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-induced RAW cells and whole blood with IC(50) values of 11.4 microM and 26.8 microM, respectively. Analysis of thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) secretion from whole blood either stimulated via the COX-1 or COX-2 pathway revealed that cardamonin inhibits the generation of TxB(2) via both pathways with IC(50) values of 2.9 and 1.1 microM, respectively. Analysis of IC(50) ratios determined that cardamonin was more COX-2 selective in its inhibition of TxB(2) with a ratio of 0.39. Cardamonin also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and secretion of TNF-alpha from RAW 264.7 cells in a dose responsive manner with IC(50) values of 12.8 microM and 4.6 microM, respectively. However, cardamonin was a moderate inhibitor of lipoxygenase activity when tested in an enzymatic assay system, in which not a single concentration tested was able to cause an inhibition of more than 50%. Our results suggest that cardamonin acts upon major pro-inflammatory mediators in a similar fashion as described by previous work on other closely related synthetic hydroxychalcones and strengthens the conclusion of the importance of the methoxyl moiety substitution on

  15. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  16. Biophotonics: Circadian photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Mark S.

    2011-05-01

    A growing body of medical evidence suggests that disrupting the body's biological clock can have adverse effects on health. Researchers are now creating the photonic tools to monitor, predict and influence the circadian rhythm.

  17. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  18. Photonics Explorer: revolutionizing photonics in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Fischer, Robert; Vlekken, Johan; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    The `Photonics Explorer' is a unique intra-curricular optics kit designed to engage, excite and educate secondary school students about the fascination of working with light - hands-on, in their own classrooms. Developed with a pan European collaboration of experts, the kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental material provided within a supporting didactic framework, distributed in conjunction with teacher training courses. The material has been specifically designed to integrate into European science curricula. Each kit contains robust and versatile components sufficient for a class of 25-30 students to work in groups of 2-3. The didactic content is based on guided inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques with a strong emphasis on hands-on experiments, team work and relating abstract concepts to real world applications. The content has been developed in conjunction with over 30 teachers and experts in pedagogy to ensure high quality and ease of integration. It is currently available in 7 European languages. The Photonics Explorer allows students not only to hone their essential scientific skills but also to really work as scientists and engineers in the classroom. Thus, it aims to encourage more young people to pursue scientific careers and avert the imminent lack of scientific workforce in Europe. 50 Photonics Explorer kits have been successfully tested in 7 European countries with over 1500 secondary school students. The positive impact of the kit in the classroom has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. A non-profit organisation, EYESTvzw [Excite Youth for Engineering Science and Technology], is responsible for the large scale distribution of the Photonics Explorer.

  19. Dispersion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2005-11-01

    Investigations on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, modified scattering in ring-resonators, monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and advanced data processing techniques for the finite-difference time-domain method are presented. Photonic crystals are periodic mesoscopic arrays of scatterers that modify the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as "natural" crystals modify the properties of electrons in solid-state physics. In this thesis photonic crystals are implemented as planar photonic crystals, i.e., optically thin semiconductor films with periodic arrays of holes etched into them, with a hole-to-hole spacing of the order of the wavelength of light in the dielectric media. Photonic crystals can feature forbidden frequency ranges (the band-gaps) in which light cannot propagate. Even though most work on photonic crystals has focused on these band-gaps for application such as confinement and guiding of light, this thesis focuses on the allowed frequency regions (the photonic bands) and investigates how the propagation of light is modified by the crystal lattice. In particular the guiding of light in bulk photonic crystals in the absence of lattice defects (the self-collimation effect) and the angular steering of light in photonic crystals (the superprism effect) are investigated. The latter is used to design a planar lightwave circuit for frequency domain demultiplexion. Difficulties such as efficient insertion of light into the crystal are resolved and previously predicted limitations on the resolution are circumvented. The demultiplexer is also fabricated and characterized. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by means of resonantly enhanced grating couplers is investigated. The grating coupler is designed to bend light through a ninety-degree angle and is characterized with the finite-difference time-domain method. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are

  20. Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.

  1. Photonic quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Of the approaches to quantum computing, photons are appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation, and relevance to other quantum technologies, including communication, metrology and measurement. We report an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability [6-10]. We address the challenges of scaling up quantum circuits using new insights into how controlled operations can be efficiently realised, demonstrating Shor's algorithm with consecutive CNOT gates and the iterative phase estimation algorithm. We have shown how quantum circuits can be reconfigured, using thermo-optic phase shifters to realise a highly reconfigurable quantum circuit, and electro-optic phase shifters in lithium niobate to rapidly manipulate the path and polarisation of telecomm wavelength single photons. We have addressed miniaturisation using multimode interference architectures to directly implement NxN Hadamard operations, and by using high refractive index contrast materials such as SiOxNy, in which we have implemented quantum walks of correlated photons, and Si, in which we have demonstrated generation of orbital angular momentum states of light. We have incorporated microfluidic channels for the delivery of samples to measure the concentration of a blood protein with entangled states of light. We have begun to address the integration of superconducting single photon detectors and diamond and non-linear single photon sources. Finally, we give an overview of recent work on fundamental aspects of quantum measurement, including a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment.

  2. Photonic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. In this talk I will present a series of experiments in the field of photonic quantum computing. The first experiment is in the field of photonic state engineering and realizes the generation of heralded polarization-entangled photon pairs. It overcomes the limited applicability of photon-based schemes for quantum information processing tasks, which arises from the probabilistic nature of photon generation. The second experiment uses polarization-entangled photonic qubits to implement ``blind quantum computing,'' a new concept in quantum computing. Blind quantum computing enables a nearly-classical client to access the resources of a more computationally-powerful quantum server without divulging the content of the requested computation. Finally, the concept of blind quantum computing is applied to the field of verification. A new method is developed and experimentally demonstrated, which verifies the entangling capabilities of a quantum computer based on a blind Bell test.

  3. Virtual and real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew, Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Maxwell did not believe in photons. However, his equations lead to electro-magnetic field structures that are considered to be photonic by Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED). They are complete, relativistically correct, and unchallenged after nearly 150 years. However, even though his far-field solution has been considered as the basis for photons, as they stand and are interpreted, they are better fitted to the concept of virtual rather than to real photons. Comparison between staticcharge fields, near-field coupling, and photonic radiation will be made and the distinctions identified. The question of similarities in, and differences between, the two will be addressed. Implied assumptions in Feynman's "Lectures" could lead one to believe that he had provided a general classical electrodynamics proof that an orbital electron must radiate. While his derivation is correct, two of the conditions defined do not always apply in this case. As a result, the potential for misinterpretation of his proof (as he himself did earlier) for this particular case has some interesting implications. He did not make the distinction between radiation from a bound electron driven by an external alternating field and one falling in a nuclear potential. Similar failures lead to misinterpreting the differences between virtual and real photons.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Polydatin on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ting; Jiang, Wenjiao; Xu, Danhua; Chen, Tong; Fu, Yeliu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of polydatin (PD) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions at protein and transcriptional levels, as well as the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for these symptoms, we investigated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression. NO was analyzed with the Griess method. PGE2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). iNOS and COX-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) were identified by qPCR assay. iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 protein expressions were detected with Western blot. The results revealed that PD effectively inhibited NO and PGE2 production, and it is not surprising that PD reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression at protein and transcriptional levels. Additionally, PD significantly ameliorated the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. These findings suggested that PD exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. PMID:25567371

  5. Upregulation of survivin by leptin/STAT3 signaling in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Haiping; Yu Jinming Guo Hongbo; Song Hao; Chen Shaoqing

    2008-03-28

    Leptin and its receptors are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and correlate with poor prognosis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) gene family, is generally upregulated in tumor tissues and prevents tumor cells from apoptosis. Here we showed that leptin upregulated survivin mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, leptin suppressed docetaxel-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase activity. Knockdown of signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked leptin-induced upregulation of survivin. TransAM ELISA showed that leptin increased nuclear translocation of active STAT3. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay detected an enhanced binding of STAT3 to survivin promoter in MCF-7 cells after treatment by leptin. Further studies showed that leptin enhanced the transcriptional activity of survivin promoter. Collectively, our findings identify leptin/STAT3 signaling as a novel pathway for survivin expression in breast cancer cells.

  6. Anti-tumor activity evaluation of novel chrysin-organotin compound in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hong-Zhuan; Zhang, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yue-Hua; Fu, Chong-Luo; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxylflavone, Chry) is a natural flavonoid extracted from plants and propolis. In this work, a novel chrysin-organotin (Chry-Sn) compound with enhanced anticancer activities was synthesized by the reaction of chrysin and triphenyltin chloride, and its potential anticancer effects against cancer cells were measured using various methods. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) results showed that chrysin and Chry-Sn had significant inhibition effects on the proliferation of MCF-7, A549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines in a dose- and time- dependent manner. These results suggested that Chry-Sn possessed enhanced anticancer effects. Hoechst 33258 staining and acridine orange staining results showed apoptosis and nuclei fragments significantly increased after being treated with chrysin and Chry-Sn respectively. Moreover, chrysin and Chry-Sn significantly increased ROS levels in MCF-7 cells. Western blot results showed that chrysin and Chry-Sn activated caspase 3 and induced autophagy by increasing LC3-II level. All results showed collectively that Chry-Sn could be a more promising drug than chrysin in anticancer treatment. PMID:26670842

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum L67 glycoprotein protects against cadmium chloride toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Oh, Sejong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-03-01

    The food and water we consume may be contaminated with a range of chemicals and heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and mercury by accumulation through the food chain. Cadmium is known to be one of the major components in cigarette smoke and can cause lesions in many organs. Some lactobacilli can bind and remove heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. However, the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and inhibition by probiotics are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that glycoprotein (18 kDa) isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 protected RAW 264.7 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (100 µM). Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of cadmium using the MTT assay and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, and assessed activities of activator protein kinase C (PKC-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases using immunoblot. Our results indicated that glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It also significantly suppressed inflammatory factors such as AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our findings suggest that the 24-kDa glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 might be used as a food component for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion. PMID:26774722

  8. INOSITOL HEXAKISPHOSPHATE MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST ADENOCARCINOMA MCF-7 CELL LINE VIA INTRINSIC PATHWAY

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-12

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsP{sub s}) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}) is the most abundant among all InsP{sub s} and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsP{sub s} also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsP{sub s} have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP{sub 6} dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsP{sub s} tested (InsP{sub 3}, InsP{sub 4}, InsP{sub 5}, and InsP{sub 6}), InsP{sub 6} was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP{sub 6} were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP{sub 6} induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  9. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-01

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  10. Functional Characterization of Human CYP2C9 Allelic Variants in COS-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Wei, Zhiyun; Yan, Yucai; Xiong, Yuyu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Shen, Lu; Ruan, Yunfeng; Wu, Xi; Xu, Qingqing; He, Lin; Qin, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    Variability in activity of CYP2C9, which is involved in the metabolism of approximately 15% of current therapeutic drugs, is an important contributor to interindividual differences in drug response. To evaluate the functional alternations of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 and CYP2C9*31, identified in our previous study in Chinese Han population, allelic variants as well as the wild-type CYP2C9 were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax, and Clint) for S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation by these recombinant CYP2C9s were determined. Relative to CYP2C9.1, recombinant CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.11 exhibited significantly higher Km values, and all allelic variants showed significantly decreased Vmax and Clint values. Among all allelic variants, catalytic activity of CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.11 reduced the most (8.2% and 9.8% of Clint ratio, respectively; P < 0.001). These findings should be useful for predicting the phenotype profiles of CYP2C9 in Chinese Han population, comparing the functional results of these alleles accurately, and finally optimizing pharmacotherapy of drug treatment. PMID:27199745

  11. In vitro evaluation of anticancer potentials of lupeol isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. on MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Pitchai, Daisy; Roy, Anita; Ignatius, Cybil

    2014-01-01

    Lupeol is a triterpenoid, present in most of the medicinally effective plants and possess a wide range of biological activity against human diseases. The present study aims at evaluating the anticancer potentials of lupeol, isolated from the leaves of Elephantopus scaber L. and thereby explores its action on key cancer marker, Bcl-2. The effect of lupeol on the cell viability of MCF-7 was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays at different concentrations. The efficacy of the compound to induce cell death was analyzed using AO/EtBr staining. Phase contrast microscopic analysis provided the changes in cell morphology of the compound treated normal breast cells (MCF-10A) and MCF-7 cells. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins in the normal, cancer and lupeol treated cancer cell was analyzed by western blotting. Lupeol induced an effective change in the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 concentration as 80 μM. Induction of cell death, change in cell morphology and population of the cancer cells was observed in the lupeol treated cells, but the normal cells were not affected. The compound effectively downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expressions, which directly contribute for the induction of MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Thus, lupeol acts as an anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells and is a potent phytodrug to be explored further for its cytotoxic mechanism. PMID:25364696

  12. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    PubMed Central

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  13. Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon-phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov-Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon-phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790

  14. Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, Immo; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Hansen, Sofie Lindskov; Midolo, Leonardo; Javadi, Alisa; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Pregnolato, Tommaso; El-Ella, Haitham; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Jin Dong; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Engineering photon emission and scattering is central to modern photonics applications ranging from light harvesting to quantum-information processing. To this end, nanophotonic waveguides are well suited as they confine photons to a one-dimensional geometry and thereby increase the light-matter interaction. In a regular waveguide, a quantum emitter interacts equally with photons in either of the two propagation directions. This symmetry is violated in nanophotonic structures in which non-transversal local electric-field components imply that photon emission and scattering may become directional. Here we show that the helicity of the optical transition of a quantum emitter determines the direction of single-photon emission in a specially engineered photonic-crystal waveguide. We observe single-photon emission into the waveguide with a directionality that exceeds 90% under conditions in which practically all the emitted photons are coupled to the waveguide. The chiral light-matter interaction enables deterministic and highly directional photon emission for experimentally achievable on-chip non-reciprocal photonic elements. These may serve as key building blocks for single-photon optical diodes, transistors and deterministic quantum gates. Furthermore, chiral photonic circuits allow the dissipative preparation of entangled states of multiple emitters for experimentally achievable parameters, may lead to novel topological photon states and could be applied for directional steering of light.

  15. Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Hansen, Sofie Lindskov; Midolo, Leonardo; Javadi, Alisa; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Pregnolato, Tommaso; El-Ella, Haitham; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Jin Dong; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Engineering photon emission and scattering is central to modern photonics applications ranging from light harvesting to quantum-information processing. To this end, nanophotonic waveguides are well suited as they confine photons to a one-dimensional geometry and thereby increase the light-matter interaction. In a regular waveguide, a quantum emitter interacts equally with photons in either of the two propagation directions. This symmetry is violated in nanophotonic structures in which non-transversal local electric-field components imply that photon emission and scattering may become directional. Here we show that the helicity of the optical transition of a quantum emitter determines the direction of single-photon emission in a specially engineered photonic-crystal waveguide. We observe single-photon emission into the waveguide with a directionality that exceeds 90% under conditions in which practically all the emitted photons are coupled to the waveguide. The chiral light-matter interaction enables deterministic and highly directional photon emission for experimentally achievable on-chip non-reciprocal photonic elements. These may serve as key building blocks for single-photon optical diodes, transistors and deterministic quantum gates. Furthermore, chiral photonic circuits allow the dissipative preparation of entangled states of multiple emitters for experimentally achievable parameters, may lead to novel topological photon states and could be applied for directional steering of light. PMID:26214251

  16. Effects of low dose treatment of tributyltin on the regulation of estrogen receptor functions in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are the natural/synthetic compounds which mimic or inhibit the actions of endogenous hormones. Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. The present study evaluates the estrogenic potential of this compound in vitro in ER (+) breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cell line. Our data showed that tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) had agonistic activities for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α). Its estrogenic potential was checked using cell proliferation assay, aromatase assay, transactivation assay, and protein expression analysis. Low dose treatment of TBTCl had a proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and resulted in up-regulation of aromatase enzyme activity and enhanced estradiol production in MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed translocation of ER-α from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression of ER-α, 3β-HSD and aromatase on treatment with increasing doses of TBTCl. Further, to decipher the probable signaling pathways involved in its action, the MCF-7 cells were transfected with different pathway dependent luciferase reporter plasmids (CRE, SRE, NF-κB and AP1). A significant increase in CRE and SRE and decrease in NF-κB regulated pathway were observed (p < 0.05). Our results thus showed that the activation of SRE by TBTCl may be due to ligand dependent ER-α activation of the MAPK pathway and increased phosphorylation of ERK. In summary, the present data suggests that low dose of tributyltin genomically and non-genomically augmented estrogen dependent signaling by targeting various pathways. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride is agonistic to ER-α in MCF-7 cell line at low doses. • Tributyltin chloride up regulated aromatase activity and estradiol production. • Tributyltin chloride also activates MAPK pathway inducing ERK activation.

  17. Antiproliferative activity and apoptosis-inducing mechanism of L-securinine on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Maidong; Han, Shuwen; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ying; Ji, Zhaoning

    2014-03-01

    Natural products have been discovered to be valuable sources of antitumor drugs. L-Securinine is a natural product extracted from the leaves or roots of Securinega suffruticosa Pall Rehd. The current study was done to investigate the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of L-securinine. The inhibitory activities of L-securinine on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were studied in vitro by a Cell Counting Kit-8(cck8) assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptotic ratio and cell cycle distribution of control and treated MCF-7 cells with L-Securinine. Real-time quantitative PCR was conducted to evaluate expression levels of apoptosis related genes P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Mtor, P70s6k. L-Securinine exhibited remarkable antiproliferation activities on MCF-7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner (24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). A 48 h exposure to L-securinine at a concentration ranging from 0 to 40 microM resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic ratio. At both low and high concentrations, L-securinine preferably perturbed the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by arrest of G1 phase. These results were further confirmed by the increased expression of bax, p53 and the decreased expression of bcl-2, mtor, p70s6k in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, these findings suggest that L-securinine has an anti-tumor effect against MCF-7 cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in antitumor drug development. PMID:24716413

  18. MicroRNA-155 induces differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into dendritic-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-Lan; Ma, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Min; Liao, Meng-Yang; Yao, Rui; Liao, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA, miR)-155 is the most promising pro-inflammatory miRNA molecule. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are the most well-known foreign antigens, initiating immune responses against infection and the development of atherosclerosis (AS), respectively. To explore whether miR-155 is involved in regulating LPS- and oxLDL-initiated inflammations, we investigated the level of miR-155 in both LPS- and oxLDL-treated RAW264.7 cells, assessed whether miR-155 induce morphologic changes of the cells and how did it regulate the production of surface markers and cytokines. The results showed that the level of miR-155 was significantly increased by LPS and was modestly increased by oxLDL. Moreover, RAW264.7 cells displayed morphological transformations from macrophage-like cells into DC-like cells when miR-155 was over-expressed. Furthermore, the gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that miR-155 induced the expression of the surface markers (including MHC-II, MHC-I, CD86, and CD83) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, and IL-1b) in both LPS- and oxLDL-treated RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, miR-155 induced the expression of CD36 in oxLDL-treated RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, up-regulated miR-155 is able to induce morphological and phenotypic changes, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both LPS- and oxLDL-treated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, our study suggests that miR-155 is one important regulator involved in enhancing both LPS- and oxLDL-initiated inflammations, which is critical for the progression of immune responses as well as for the development of AS. PMID:26823719

  19. Two-photon interference with non-identical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    Two-photon interference with non-identical photons is studied based on the superposition principle in Feynman's path integral theory. The second-order temporal interference pattern is observed by superposing laser and pseudothermal light beams with different spectra. The reason why there is two-photon interference for photons of different spectra is that non-identical photons can be indistinguishable for the detection system when Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is taken into account. These studies are helpful to understand the second-order interference of light in the language of photons.

  20. Antigravity Acts on Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2002-04-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity assumes that photons don't change frequency as they move from Sun to Earth. This assumption is correct in classical physics. All experiments proving the general relativity are in the domain of classical physics. This include the tests by Pound et al. of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo solar redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr's correspondence principle assures that quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein's classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. When we treat photons as quantum mechanical particles; we find that gravitational force on photons is reversed (antigravity). This modified theory contradicts the equivalence principle, but is consistent with all experiments. Solar lines and distant stars are redshifted in accordance with author's plasma redshift theory. These changes result in a beautiful consistent cosmology.

  1. The irreducible photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.

    2009-08-01

    In recent years it has become evident that the primary concept of the photon has multiple interpretations, with widely differing secondary connotations. Despite the all-pervasive nature of this concept in science, some of the ancillary properties with which the photon is attributed in certain areas of application sit uneasily alongside those invoked in other areas. Certainly the range of applications extends far beyond what was envisaged in the original conception, now entering subjects extending from elementary particle physics and cosmology through to spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and photochemistry. Addressing this diverse context invites the question: What is there, that it is possible to assert as incontrovertibly true about the photon? Which properties are non-controversial, if others are the subject of debate? This paper describes an attempt to answer these questions, establishing as far as possible an irreducible core of what can rightly be asserted about the photon, and setting aside some of what often is, but should never be so asserted. Some of the more bewildering difficulties and differences of interpretation owe their origin to careless descriptions, highlighting a need to guard semantic precision; although simplifications are frequently and naturally expedient for didactic purposes, they carry the risk of becoming indelible. Focusing on such issues, the aim is to identify how much or how little about the photon can be regarded as truly non-controversial.

  2. The role of Six1 signaling in paclitaxel-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Armat, Marzieh; Bakhshaiesh, Taiebeh Oghabi; Sabzichi, Mehdi; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Sharifi, Simin; Molavi, Ommoleila; Mohammadian, Jamal; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid; Samadi, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents represents the main problem in cancer treatment. Despite intensive research, mechanisms of resistance have not yet been fully elucidated. Six1 signaling has an important role in the expansion of progenitor cell populations during early embryogenesis. Six1 gene overexpression has been strongly associated with aggressiveness, invasiveness, and poor prognosis of different cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of Six1 signaling in resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to taxanes. We first established in vitro paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Morphological modifications in paclitaxel-resistant cells were examined via light microscopic images and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Applying quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we measured Six1, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia(BCL-2), BAX, and P53 mRNA expression levels in both non-resistant and resistant cells. Resistant cells were developed from the parent MCF-7 cells by applying increasing concentrations of paclitaxel up to 64 nM. The inhibitory concentration 50% value in resistant cells increased from 3.5 ± 0.03 to 511 ± 10.22 nM (p = 0.015). In paclitaxel-resistant cells, there was a significant increase in Six1 and BCL-2 mRNA levels (p = 0.0007) with a marked decrease in pro-apoptotic Bax mRNA expression level (p = 0.03); however, there was no significant change in P53 expression (p = 0.025). Our results suggest that identifying cancer patients with high Six1 expression and then inhibition of Six1 signaling can improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents in the induction of apoptosis. PMID:26773176

  3. Muscarinic receptor subtype determines vulnerability to oxidative stress in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Fisher, D R; Strain, J

    2002-01-15

    Research has suggested that there may be increased brain-region selective vulnerability to oxidative stress in aging and that Vulnerability to oxidative stress may be important in determining regional differences in neuronal aging. We assessed whether one factor determining vulnerability to oxidative stress might involve qualitative/quantitative differences in receptor subtypes in various neuronal populations. COS-7 cells were transfected with one of five muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5 AChR) to DA (1 mM for 4 h) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were examined via fluorescent imaging analysis prior to and following 750 microM oxotremorine (oxo). Results indicated that the ability of the cells to clear excess Ca2+ (i.e., Ca2+ Recovery) following oxo stimulation varied as a function of transfected mAChR subtype, with DA-treated M1, M2, or M4 cells showing greater decrements in Recovery than those transfected with M3 or M5 AChR. A similar pattern of results in M1- or M3-transfected DA-exposed cells was seen with respect to Viability. Viability of the untransfected cells was unaffected by DA. Pretreatment with Trolox (a Vitamin E analog) or PBN (a nitrone trapping agent) did not alter the DA effects on cell Recovery in the M1-transfected cells, but were effective in preventing the decrements in Viability. The calcium channel antagonists (L and N, respectively), Nifedipine and Conotoxin prevented both the DA-induced deficits in Recovery and Viability. Results are discussed in terms of receptor involvement in the regional differences in Vulnerability to oxidative stress with age, and that loss of neuronal function may not inevitably lead to cell death. PMID:11796204

  4. Lipogenesis in Huh7 cells is promoted by increasing the fructose: Glucose molar ratio

    PubMed Central

    Windemuller, Fernando; Xu, Jiliu; Rabinowitz, Simon S; Hussain, M Mahmood; Schwarz, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether hepatocyte lipogenesis, in an in vitro cell culture model, is modulated by adjusting culture media monosaccharide content and concentration. METHODS: Hepatocytes (Huh7), demonstrating glucose and fructose uptake and lipid biosynthesis, were incubated in culture media containing either glucose alone (0.65-0.72 mmol/L) or isosmolar monosaccharide (0.72 mmol/L) comprising fructose:glucose (F:G) molar ratios ranging from 0.58-0.67. Following a 24-h incubation, cells were harvested and analyzed for total protein, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (C) content. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among groups were determined using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: After a 24 h incubation period, Huh7 cell mass and viability among all experimental groups were not different. Hepatocytes cultured with increasing concentrations of glucose alone did not demonstrate a significant change either in C or in TG content. However, when the culture media contained increasing F:G molar ratios, at a constant total monosaccharide concentration, synthesis both of C and of TG increased significantly [F:G ratio = 0.58, C/protein (μg/μg) = 0.13; F:G = 0.67, C/protein = 0.18, P < 0.01; F:G ratio = 0.58, TG/protein (μg/μg) = 0.06; F:G ratio = 0.67, TG/protein = 0.11, P < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: In an in vitro hepatocyte model, glucose or fructose plus glucose support total cell mass and lipogenic activity. Increasing the fructose:glucose molar ratio (but not glucose alone) enhances triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis. These investigations demonstrate fructose promotes hepatocellular lipogenesis, and they provide evidence supporting future, in vivo studies of fructose’s role in the development of hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27458503

  5. Photon physics with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.

    1995-07-15

    In this Paper the author discusses briefly the physics motivation for extending measurements of particle production with high granularity and particle id capabilities to neutrals in PHENIX. The author then discusses the technique of direct photon measurement in the presence of copious background photons from {pi}{sup o} decays. The experiment will measure relatively low p{sub t} photons near y=0 in the lab frame. This new experimental environment of high multiplicity and low {gamma} momenta will affect both the techniques used and the type of analysis which can be performed. The Phenix Electromagnetic calorimeter is described and its capabilities illustrated with results from simulation and beam tests of the first production array.

  6. Photon Dynamics in Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnkvist, O.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk, I present a recent calculation of one-loop vacuum polarization in a de-Sitter inflationary background. This provides possibly the first example of an analytical result from a calculation by hand of radiative corrections in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The model considered is massless, minimally coupled scalar QED. Gauge invariance remains manifest, but as a result of the photon coupling to the scalar, the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is broken. An effective photon field equation is obtained which, to leading order in the number of inflationary e-folds, is consistent with the existence of a dynamically generated photon mass. This work has been done in collaboration with Tomislav Prokopec at Heidelberg University and Richard Woodard at the University of Florida.

  7. Photon physics with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.

    1995-07-01

    In this Paper the author discusses briefly the physics motivation for extending measurements of particle production with high granularity and particle id capabilities to neutrals in PHENIX. He then discusses the technique of direct photon measurement in the presence of copious background photons from {pi}{sup o} decays. Relatively low p{sub t} photons will be measured near y=O in the lab frame. This new experimental environment of high multiplicity and low {gamma} momenta will affect both the techniques used and the type of analysis which can be performed. The Phenix Electromagnetic calorimeter is described and its capabilities illustrated with results from simulation and beam tests of the first production array.

  8. Photonic hydrogel sensors.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider; Volpatti, Lisa R; Pavlichenko, Ida; Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J J; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Ki Su; Naydenova, Izabela; Khademhosseini, Ali; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Analyte-sensitive hydrogels that incorporate optical structures have emerged as sensing platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. The optical properties of the hydrogel sensors can be rationally designed and fabricated through self-assembly, microfabrication or laser writing. The advantages of photonic hydrogel sensors over conventional assay formats include label-free, quantitative, reusable, and continuous measurement capability that can be integrated with equipment-free text or image display. This Review explains the operation principles of photonic hydrogel sensors, presents syntheses of stimuli-responsive polymers, and provides an overview of qualitative and quantitative readout technologies. Applications in clinical samples are discussed, and potential future directions are identified. PMID:26485407

  9. Photon storage cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    A general analysis is presented of a photon storage cavity, coupled to free-electron laser (FEL) cavity. It is shown that if the coupling between the FEL cavity and the storage cavity is unidirectional (for example, a ring resonator storage cavity) then storage is possible, but that if the coupling is bi-directional then storage is not possible. Parameters are presented for an infra-red FEL storage cavity giving an order of magnitude increase in the instantaneous photon power within the storage cavity. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Acetylene frequency references in gas-filled hollow optical fiber and photonic microcells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Wheeler, Natalie V; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Grogan, Michael; Bradley, Thomas D; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2013-08-01

    Gas-filled hollow optical fiber references based on the P(13) transition of the ν1+ν3 band of 12C2H2 promise portability with moderate accuracy and stability. Previous realizations are corrected (<1σ) by using proper modeling of a shift due to line-shape. To improve portability, a sealed photonic microcell is characterized on the 12C2H2 ν1+ν3 P(23) transition with somewhat reduced accuracy and stability. Effects of the photonic crystal fiber, including surface modes, are explored. Both polarization-maintaining (PM) and non-PM 7-cell photonic bandgap fiber are shown to be unsuitable for kilohertz-level frequency references. PMID:23913062

  11. Aminothiazoles inhibit RANKL- and LPS-mediated osteoclastogenesis and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kats, Anna; Norgård, Maria; Wondimu, Zenebech; Koro, Catalin; Concha Quezada, Hernán; Andersson, Göran; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by chronic inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone loss regulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aminothiazoles targeting prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) on RANKL- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated osteoclastogenesis and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in vitro using the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with RANKL or LPS alone or in combination with the aminothiazoles 4-([4-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino)phenol (TH-848) or 4-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-amine (TH-644). Aminothiazoles significantly decreased the number of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells in cultures of RANKL- and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as well as reduced the production of PGE2 in culture supernatants. LPS-treatment induced mPGES-1 mRNA expression at 16 hrs and the subsequent PGE2 production at 72 hrs. Conversely, RANKL did not affect PGE2 secretion but markedly reduced mPGES-1 at mRNA level. Furthermore, mRNA expression of TRAP and cathepsin K (CTSK) was reduced by aminothiazoles in RAW 264.7 cells activated by LPS, whereas RANK, OPG or tumour necrosis factor α mRNA expression was not significantly affected. In RANKL-activated RAW 264.7 cells, TH-848 and TH-644 down-regulated CTSK but not TRAP mRNA expression. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of aminothiazoles on PGE2 production was also confirmed in LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. In conclusion, the aminothiazoles reduced both LPS- and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting these compounds as potential inhibitors for treatment of chronic inflammatory bone resorption, such as periodontitis. PMID:26987561

  12. Electron-Photon Coincidence Calibration Of Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute and relative detector efficiencies measured. Apparatus uses coincidence-counting techniques to measure efficiency of ultraviolet or vacuum ultraviolet detector at very low radiation intensity. Crossed electron and atomic beams generate photons used to calibrate photon detector. Pulses from electron counter and photon detector(s) processed by standard coincidence-counting techniques. Used to calibrate other detectors or make absolute measurements of incident photon fluxes.

  13. Recent developments in the theory of photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky. S.J.

    1984-09-01

    Over the past few years the field of photon-photon collisions has emerged as one of the best testing grounds for QCD, particularly in the area of exclusive and inclusive hard scattering processes, exotic resonance production, and detailed tests of the coupling of real and virtual photons to the quark current. In this summary of contributed papers, I will briefly review recent theoretical progress in the analysis of two-photon reactions and possible directions for future work. 29 references.

  14. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Axel

    2001-03-01

    Two- and three-dimensional microfabricated mirrors are generally referred to as photonic bandgap (PBG) crystals, and can be lithographically constructed to match a given frequency to confine light to very small volumes.1 For mirrors matching light emission at 1550nm, the lattice parameter a should correspond to 500nm, and the radius of the holes should be 180nm. By combining the slab waveguide design from microdisk lasers with the concept of microfabricating Bragg reflectors around a 2-D Fabry-Perot structure, we arrive at the design for ultra-small sub-3 optical nanocavity photonic crystal lasers. The mode volume in these laser cavities can be as small as 2.5 cubic half wavelengths or 0.03m3, and spontaneous emission in the cavity can be very efficiently coupled into the lasing mode. This efficient coupling in turn results in significant advantages of these nanocavity lasers over devices with larger mode volumes, as high modulation speed and very low threshold power light emission are expected. If the photonic crystal is designed appropriately and is not too porous, it is also possible to efficiently guide light within the perforated slab and to minimize diffraction losses. This waveguiding within a photonic crystal provides us with an opportunity to couple light from one cavity to another, or into connecting waveguides. By creating two-dimensional photonic crystals, which are microfabricated into InGaAsP slabs, we have recently defined the smallest lasers to date. When combined with high index contrast slabs in which light can be efficiently guided, microfabricated two-dimensional photonic bandgap mirrors provide the geometries needed to confine light into extremely small volumes with high Q.1,2,3,4 Two-dimensional Fabry-Perot resonators with microfabricated mirrors are formed when defects are introduced into the periodic photonic bandgap structure. It is then possible to tune these cavities lithographically by changing the precise geometry of the microstructures

  15. Optical coupling system for photon-photon coincidence experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, K. D.

    1973-01-01

    An efficient optical coupling system is presented that promises to be useful in experiments where it is necessary to collect a large fraction of emitted photons, as in photon-photon coincidence experiments. Narrow bandpass interference filters are an integral part of the proposed system.

  16. Generation of MCF-7 cells with aggressive metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Elke; Hansen, Marie-Therese; Haase, Maike; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2014-11-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular development program characterized by loss of cell adhesion and increased cell mobility. It is essential for numerous processes including metastasis. In this study we have generated "aggressive" MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7-EMT), which show significantly increased invasion in contrast to wild type MCF-7 (MCF-7 WT) cells. In addition, we have analyzed, whether these cell lines differ in their metastatic behavior in vivo and in expression of invasion and/or EMT-relevant genes. Invasive behavior of different human breast cancer cell lines was tested. "Aggressive" MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-EMT) were generated using coculture and mammosphere culture techniques. To analyze whether or not MCF-7-EMT cells in contrast to MCF-7 WT cells form metastases in vivo, we assessed metastases in a nude mouse model. mRNA expression profiles of MCF-7 WT cells and MCF-7-EMT cells were compared using the Affymetrix micro array technique. Expression of selected genes was validated using real-time PCR. In addition, protein expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin (CDH1) and mesenchymal markers N-cadherin (CDH2), Vimentin (VIM), and TWIST was compared. The breast cancer cell lines showed different invasive behavior from hardly any invasion to a stronger cell movement. Coculture with osteoblast-like MG63 cells led to significantly increased cell invasion rates. The highest increase was shown using MCF-7 WT cells. Generated MCF-7-EMT cells showed significantly increased invasion as compared to MCF-7 WT cells. In 8 of 10 mice bearing orthotopically growing MCF-7-EMT tumors, we could detect metastases in liver and lung. In mice bearing MCF-7 WT tumors (n = 10), no metastases were found. MCF-7 WT cells and MCF-7-EMT cells were different in expression of 325 genes. Forty-four of the most regulated 50 invasion and/or EMT-related genes were upregulated and 6 genes were downregulated in MCF-7-EMT cells. Protein expression of mesenchymal markers

  17. Biocompatibility of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daozhen; Tang, Qiusha; Li, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zang, Jia; Xue, Wen-qun; Xiang, Jing-ying; Guo, Cai-qin

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis and biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and investigate their therapeutic effects when combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on cultured MCF-7 cancer cells. Methods Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared using a coprecipitation method. The appearance, structure, phase composition, functional groups, surface charge, magnetic susceptibility, and release in vitro were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Blood toxicity, in vitro toxicity, and genotoxicity were investigated. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] and flow cytometry assays. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were approximately spherical, with diameters of about 26.1 ± 5.2 nm. Only the spinel phase was indicated in a comparison of the x-ray diffraction data with Joint Corporation of Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) X-ray powder diffraction files. The O-to-Fe ratio of the Fe3O4 was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis, and approximated pure Fe3O4. The vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loop suggested that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature. MTT experiments showed that the toxicity of the material in mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines was between Grade 0 to Grade 1, and that the material lacked hemolysis activity. The acute toxicity (LD50) was 8.39 g/kg. Micronucleus testing showed no genotoxic effects. Pathomorphology and blood biochemistry testing demonstrated that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles had no effect on the main organs and blood biochemistry in a rabbit model. MTT and flow cytometry assays revealed that Fe3O4 nano magnetofluid thermotherapy inhibited MCF-7

  18. Comparison of photon-photon and photon-magnetic field pair production rates. [in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. L.; Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron stars were proposed as the site of gamma-ray burst activity and the copious supply of MeV photons admits the possibility of electron-positron pair production. If the neutron star magnetic field is sufficiently intense (10 to the 12th power G), both photon-photon (2 gamma) and photon-magnetic field (gamma) pair production should be important mechanisms. Rates for the two processes were calculated using a Maxwellian distribution for the photons. The ratio of 1 gamma to 2 gamma pair production rates was obtained as a function of photon temperature and magnetic field strength.

  19. Comparison of Photon-photon and Photon-magnetic Field Pair Production Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. L.; Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron stars were proposed as the site of gamma-ray burst activity and the copious supply of MeV photons admits the possibility of electron-positron pair production. If the neutron star magnetic field is sufficiently intense ( 10 to the 12th power G), both photon-photon (2 gamma) and photon-magnetic field ( gamma) pair production should be important mechanisms. Rates for the two processes were calculated using a Maxwellian distribution for the photons. The ratio of 1 gamma to 2 gamma pair production rates was obtained as a function of photon temperature and magnetic field strength.

  20. Studying 750 GeV di-photon resonance at photon-photon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hayato; Moroi, Takeo; Takaesu, Yoshitaro

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the recent LHC discovery of the di-photon excess at the invariant mass of ∼ 750 GeV, we study the prospect of investigating the scalar resonance at a future photon-photon collider. We show that, if the di-photon excess observed at the LHC is due to a new scalar boson coupled to the standard-model gauge bosons, such a scalar boson can be observed and studied at the photon-photon collider with the center-of-mass energy of ∼ 1 TeV in large fraction of parameter space.

  1. Why photonic systems for space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Norman P.; Brost, George A.; Hayduk, Michael J.; Hunter, James R.; Nichter, James E.; Payson, Paul M.; Repak, Paul L.

    2000-09-01

    Future space-based platforms can and will benefit from the implementation of photonics in both analog and digital subsystems. This paper will discuss potential applications and advantages to the platforms through the use of photonics.

  2. Nanosilicon for Photonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, S. K.; Mohan, Devendra; Kassa, Tadesse Tenaw; Sharma, Sunita

    This presentation is a short review of some scientific insights on the possibilities of photonic applications of nanostructured silicon (NS-Si), porous Si (p-Si) and Si nanocrystals (NC-Si), one of the most interesting problems in nano-crystallite physics. The emission mechanism of a very bright photo-luminescence (PL) band and relatively weak electro-luminescence (EL) are presently the main issue. The basic question lies in whether the emission is an extrinsic or intrinsic property of nanocrystals. It is important from a fundamental physics viewpoint because of the potential application of Si wires and quantum dots in optoelectronic devices and information technology. Nanostructuring silicon is an effective way to turn silicon into a photonic material. It is observed that low-dimensional (one and two dimensions) silicon shows light amplification, photon confinement, photon trapping as well as non-linear optical effects. There is strong evidence of light localization and gas sensing properties of such nanostructures. Future nano-technology would replace electrical with optical interconnects, which has appealing potential for higher-speed performance and immunity to signal cross talk.

  3. Photon collider at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-10-01

    High energy photon colliders ( γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

  4. Photonic Data Recording Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, J.; Chang, J.; Davis, P.; Holmgren, D.; Bruns, D.; Watson, D.; Lechner, M.; Graham, R.; Kemme, S.

    1989-02-01

    Steady advancement has been made in bringing photonic recorder technologies from a pure research and development stage to the practical laboratory and fielding environment. Streak camera-based systems have been incorporated into large data recording systems and have shown significant improvement in channel density and single-shot bandwidth. In particular, remote photonic sensing using fiber optic cables to transmit the information to the recorder has shown advantages over conventional coax cable methods. One streak camera-based recorder system has been designed into the underground test (UGT) data acquisition system. The design allowed for video rate readout, redundant digitized image storage, UGT system compatibility, and full real time system diagnostics. Another stand-alone streak camera-based recorder has been designed that incorporates an IEEE-488 interface and a unique software package. Operation of this photonic recorder system (PRS-1000), as either a streak imaging recorder or as a high-speed multi-channel data recorder (HSMCDR), has been greatly simplified through use of the icon-driven, window-based custom software. An overview of photonic recording methods will be presented along with the details of the PRS-1000 and the associated system software.

  5. PTEN enhances G2/M arrest in etoposide-treated MCF‑7 cells through activation of the ATM pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Anli; Li, Zhengwei; Xu, Yijuan; He, Pei; Wu, Maoqing; Wei, Fengxiang; Wang, Chenhong

    2016-05-01

    As an effective tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has attracted the increased attention of scientists. Recent studies have shown that PTEN plays unique roles in the DNA damage response (DDR) and can interact with the Chk1 pathway. However, little is known about how PTEN contributes to DDR through the ATM-Chk2 pathway. It is well-known that etoposide induces G2/M arrest in a variety of cell lines, including MCF-7 cells. The DNA damage-induced G2/M arrest results from the activation of protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), followed by the activation of Chk2 that subsequently inactivates CDC25C, resulting in G2/M arrest. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of PTEN to the etoposide-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. PTEN was knocked down in MCF-7 cells by specific shRNA, and the effects of PTEN on the ATM-Chk2 pathway were investigated through various approaches. The results showed that knockdown of PTEN strongly antagonized ATM activation in response to etoposide treatment, and thereby reduced the phosphorylation level of ATM substrates, including H2AX, P53 and Chk2. Furthermore, depletion of PTEN reduced the etoposide-induced phosphorylation of CDC25C and strikingly compromised etoposide-induced G2/M arrest in the MCF-7 cells. Altogether, we demonstrated that PTEN plays a unique role in etoposide-induced G2/M arrest by facilitating the activation of the ATM pathway, and PTEN was required for the proper activation of checkpoints in response to DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. PMID:26986476

  6. Curcumin suppresses the dynamic instability of microtubules, activates the mitotic checkpoint and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mithu; Singh, Parminder; Panda, Dulal

    2010-08-01

    In this study, curcumin, a potential anticancer agent, was found to dampen the dynamic instability of individual microtubules in living MCF-7 cells. It strongly reduced the rate and extent of shortening states, and modestly reduced the rate and extent of growing states. In addition, curcumin decreased the fraction of time microtubules spent in the growing state and strongly increased the time microtubules spent in the pause state. Brief treatment with curcumin depolymerized mitotic microtubules, perturbed microtubule-kinetochore attachment and disturbed the mitotic spindle structure. Curcumin also perturbed the localization of the kinesin protein Eg5 and induced monopolar spindle formation. Further, curcumin increased the accumulation of Mad2 and BubR1 at the kinetochores, indicating that it activated the mitotic checkpoint. In addition, curcumin treatment increased the metaphase/anaphase ratio, indicating that it can delay mitotic progression from the metaphase to anaphase. We provide evidence suggesting that the affected cells underwent apoptosis via the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results support the idea that kinetic stabilization of microtubule dynamics assists in the nuclear translocation of p53. Curcumin exerted additive effects when combined with vinblastine, a microtubule depolymerizing drug, whereas the combination of curcumin with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, produced an antagonistic effect on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation. The results together suggested that curcumin inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by inhibiting the assembly dynamics of microtubules. PMID:20646066

  7. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Lee, Dae-Young; Park, Seung Cheol; Ban, Myeong Soon; Choi, Jehun; Park, Chun Geon; Ahn, Young-Sup; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism. PMID:27058537

  8. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  9. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  10. Nonlinearity in MCF7 Cell Survival Following Exposure to Modulated 6 MV Radiation Fields

    PubMed Central

    Castiella, Marion; Franceries, Xavier; Cassol, Emmanuelle; Vieillevigne, Laure; Pereda, Veronica; Bardies, Manuel; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 × 2.4 cm2 square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a clonogenic assay for different radiation doses at the isocenter. Increased cell survival was observed inside the irradiation area for doses of 2, 10, and 20 Gy when nonirradiated cells were present at the periphery, while the cells at the periphery showed decreased survival compared to controls. Increased survival was also observed at the edge of the dose gradient zone for cells receiving 0.02 to 0.01 Gy when compared with cells at the periphery of the same flask, whatever the isocenter dose. These data are the first to report cell survival in the dose gradient zone. Radiotherapists must be aware of this nonlinearity in dose response. PMID:26740805

  11. Stimulative Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture Solution Combined with Zinc-oxide Nanoparticles on RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae-Keun; Kim, Jeehye; Woo, Juyoun; Ha, Ki-Tae; Joo, Myungsoo; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Jeong, Han-Sol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine whether Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture solution (HPPS) combined with zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) activates RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: We soaked ZnO nanoparticles in the Hominis Placenta pharmacopuncture solution, thereby making a combined form (ZnO NP HPPS). The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on NF-κ B was measured by using a luciferase assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the cytokine expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cellular uptake of ZnO NP HPPS was measured by using a flow cytometric analysis, and cellular structural alterations were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Neither the HPPS nor the ZnO NPs induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells. Neither of the materials activated NF-κ B or it’s dependent genes, such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. However, ZnO NP HPPS, the combined form of ZnO NPs and HPPS, did induce the intracellular ROS production, as well as prominently activating NF-κ B and it’s dependent genes. Also, compared to ZnO NPs, it effectively increased the uptake by RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, cellular structural alterations were observed in groups treated with ZnO NP HPPS. Conclusions: Neither ZnO NP nor HPPS activated RAW 264.7 cells, which is likely due to a low cellular uptake. The ZnO NP HPPS, however, significantly activated NF-κ B and up-regulated its dependent genes such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. ZnO NP HPPS was also more easily taken into the RAW 264.7 cells than either ZnO NP or HPPS. PMID:25780643

  12. Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Teramachi, Junpei; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Ryoko; Doi, Yoshiaki; Hirashima, Kanji; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in antiviral defence of the host cells. PKR is also involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We previously reported that PKR is required for differentiation and calcification of osteoblasts. However, it is unknown about the role of PKR in osteoclast differentiation. A dominant-negative PKR mutant cDNA, in which the amino acid lysine at 296 was replaced with arginine, was transfected into RAW264.7 cells. We have established the cell line that stably expresses the PKR mutant gene (PKR-K/R). Phosphorylation of PKR and {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 was not stimulated by polyinosic-polycytidylic acid in the PKR-K/R cells. RANKL stimulated the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in RAW264.7 cells. However, TRAP-positive multinuclear cells were not formed in the PKR-K/R cells even when the cells were stimulated with higher doses of RANKL. A specific inhibitor of PKR, 2-aminopurine, also suppressed the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of macrophage fusion receptor and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein significantly decreased in the PKR-K/R cells by real time PCR analysis. The results of RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast markers (cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor) was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and RAW264.7 cells treated with 2-aminopurine. Expression of NF-{kappa}B protein was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and 2-aminopurine-treated RAW264.7 cells. The level of STAT1 protein expression was elevated in the PKR-K/R cells compared with that of the wild-type cells. Immunohistochemical study showed that PKR was localized in osteoclasts of metatarsal bone of newborn mouse. The finding that the PKR-positive multinuclear cells should be osteoclasts was confirmed by TRAP-staining. Our present study indicates that PKR plays important

  13. Photon + jets at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Lars; /RWTH Aachen U.

    2009-06-01

    Photon plus jet production has been studied by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavour jet cross sections and double parton interactions in photon plus three jet events are presented. They are based on integrated luminosities between 0.4 fb{sup -1} and 1.0 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

  14. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  15. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  16. MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. PHOTON: A user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.

    1988-01-01

    PHOTON has proven very useful in the development of the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline. Its use has determined the shielding required from the wiggler device to the very end of the beamline in the hutches and angiography section. Doses calculated by this program have been compared with experimental results from conventional bending magnet beamline with great success. In each case the program consistently overestimated the dose by factors ranging from 2 to 10. The reason for this overestimation is understood and was not refined further in the program in order to maintain some level of safety in the shielding calculations. PHOTON should prove useful in the design of any beamline. Its ability to calculate power deposited and spectra transmitted through nearly arbitrary beamline configurations as well as the scattered radiation doses through shielding walls make it a very powerful tool.

  18. Photonics meet digital art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curticapean, Dan; Israel, Kai

    2014-09-01

    The paper focuses on the work of an interdisciplinary project between photonics and digital art. The result is a poster collection dedicated to the International Year of Light 2015. In addition, an internet platform was created that presents the project. It can be accessed at http://www.magic-of-light.org/iyl2015/index.htm. From the idea to the final realization, milestones with tasks and steps will be presented in the paper. As an interdisciplinary project, students from technological degree programs were involved as well as art program students. The 2015 Anniversaries: Alhazen (1015), De Caus (1615), Fresnel (1815), Maxwell (1865), Einstein (1905), Penzias Wilson, Kao (1965) and their milestone contributions in optics and photonics will be highlighted.

  19. Optics of photonic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Nahata, Ajay; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The physics of periodic systems are of fundamental importance and result in various phenomena that govern wave transport and interference. However, deviations from periodicity may result in higher complexity and give rise to a number of surprising effects. One such deviation can be found in the field of optics in the realization of photonic quasicrystals, a class of structures made from building blocks that are arranged using well-designed patterns but lack translational symmetry. Nevertheless, these structures, which lie between periodic and disordered structures, still show sharp diffraction patterns that confirm the existence of wave interference resulting from their long-range order. In this Review, we discuss the beautiful physics unravelled in photonic quasicrystals of one, two and three dimensions, and describe how they can influence optical transmission and reflectivity, photoluminescence, light transport, plasmonics and laser action.

  20. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  1. Tunable electrochromic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Su-Lan; Bader, Georges; Ashrit, P. V.

    2005-05-01

    Photonic crystals based on the electrochromic phenomenon have been fabricated and proposed for band gap tuning. Electrochromic tungsten trioxide (WO3) inverse opals have been fabricated by polystyrene colloidal crystal templating. The WO3 matrix was obtained through a dip-infiltrating sol-gel process, with subsequent removal of the polymer microspheres by calcination. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the ordering of the hexagonal macroporous structure. The reflection spectra show two pronounced Bragg diffraction peaks. By inserting lithium into the crystals, the first reflection peak shifts gradually toward shorter wavelength for 36 nm, while the second reflection peak shifts toward longer wavelength for about 28 nm. This should be of great interest for photonic device applications.

  2. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  3. Charmonium production in photon-photon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R. E.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A. R.; Barnett, B. A.; Bauer, D. A.; Bay, A.; Bengtsson, H.-U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Buchanan, C. D.; Buijs, A.; Caldwell, D. O.; Chao, H.-Y.; Chun, S.-B.; Clark, A. R.; Cowan, G. D.; Crane, D. A.; Dahl, O. I.; Daoudi, M.; Derby, K. A.; Eastman, J. J.; Eberhard, P. H.; Edberg, T. K.; Eisner, A. M.; Enomoto, R.; Erné, F. C.; Fairfield, K. H.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hofmann, W.; Hylen, J.; Kamae, T.; Kaye, H. S.; Kenney, R. W.; Khacheryan, S.; Kofler, R. R.; Langeveld, W. G.; Layter, J. G.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Loken, S. C.; Lu, A.; Lynch, G. R.; Madaras, R. J.; Magnuson, B. D.; Masek, G. E.; Mathis, L. G.; Matthews, J. A.; Maxfield, S. J.; Miller, E. S.; Moses, W.; Nygren, D. R.; Oddone, P. J.; Paar, H. P.; Park, S. K.; Pellett, D. E.; Pripstein, M.; Ronan, M. T.; Ross, R. R.; Rouse, F. R.; Schwitkis, K. A.; Sens, J. C.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B. C.; Slater, W. E.; Smith, J. R.; Steinman, J. S.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stork, D. H.; Strauss, M. G.; Sullivan, M. K.; Takahashi, T.; Toutounchi, S.; van Tyen, R.; Vandalen, G. J.; Vernon, W.; Wagner, W.; Wang, E. M.; Wang, Y.-X.; Wenzel, W. A.; Wolf, Z. R.; Yamamoto, H.; Yellin, S. J.; Zeitlin, C.

    1988-06-01

    We have searched for the two-photon production of the ηc, χ0, and χ2 charmonium states at the SLAC e+e- collider PEP in the channels γγ-->K+/-K0Sπ-/+, γγ-->K+K-π+π-, γγ-->π+π-π+π-, and γγ-->K+K-K+K-. We identify four ηc candidates in the K+K-K+K- channel on a negligible background; the one φφ event among them implies a 95%-confidence-level lower limit for Γγγ(ηc) of 1.7 keV. In the other channels we find no evidence for any of the three states. We establish 95%-C.L. upper limits Γγγ(ηc)<15.5 keV, Γγγ(χ0)<17.0 keV, and Γγγ(χ2)<4.2 keV. From all channels combined, we obtain the value Γγγ(ηc)<6.4+/-5.03.4 keV.

  4. Photon-activation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable /sup 127/I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors. (ERB)

  5. Super Photon Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John

    1999-01-01

    The perfect photon detector would measure the arrival time, the energy, the polarization, and the position of every arriving quantum, but that is easier said than done. Two groups have now succeeded in doing time-resolved spectroscopy on the Crab Nebula pulsar, measuring everything but the polarization, with reports from Romani et al. at Stanford and from Perryman et al. at ESTEC. Both groups use superconducting detectors to gain the necessary speed and sensitivity. The photon can heat the electrons in a superconductor biased in the middle of its resistive transition, or break bound superconducting electron-hole pairs, which can then be collected. Three years ago, Peacock et al. reported that they had detected single optical photons with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ), and Paresce wrote a News and Views article. A tunnel junction uses two pieces of conductive material, separated by a tiny gap of insulating material or even vacuum. If the gap is thin enough, electrons can tunnel across anyway, and if the conductors are superconductors, the junction displays very useful quantum mechanical properties and electrical nonlinearities. Amplifiers, detectors, oscillators, and computer circuits can all be made from them. Their special advantage is that they operate at very low temperatures, dissipate very little power, operate very fast, and are very small.

  6. Slotted photonic crystal sensors.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Mark G; Krauss, Thomas F; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  7. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  8. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  9. Micromechanical uncooled photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.

    2000-04-01

    Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of uncooled IR detectors operate as micromechanical thermal detectors or micromechanical quantum detectors. We report on a new method for photon detection using electronic stresses in semiconductor microstructures. Photo-induced stress in semiconductor microstructures, is caused by changes in the charge carrier density in the conduction band and photon detection results from the measurement of the photon-induced bending of semiconductor microstructures. Small changes in position of microstructures are routinely measured in atomic force microscopy where atomic imaging of surfaces relies on the measurement of small changes in the bending of microcantilevers. Changes in the conduction band charge carrier density can result either from direct photo- generation of free charge carriers or from photoelectrons emitted from thin metal film surface in contact with a semiconductor microstructure which forms a Schottky barrier. In our studies we investigated three systems: (i) Si microstructures, (ii) InSb microstructures and (iii) Si microstructures coated with a thin excess electron-hole- pairs while for InSb photo-induced stress causes the crystal lattice to expand. We will present our results and discuss our findings.

  10. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  11. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  12. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    PubMed

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons. PMID:27281214

  13. Photonic Crystal Laser Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2003-05-21

    Photonic crystals have great potential for use as laser-driven accelerator structures. A photonic crystal is a dielectric structure arranged in a periodic geometry. Like a crystalline solid with its electronic band structure, the modes of a photonic crystal lie in a set of allowed photonic bands. Similarly, it is possible for a photonic crystal to exhibit one or more photonic band gaps, with frequencies in the gap unable to propagate in the crystal. Thus photonic crystals can confine an optical mode in an all-dielectric structure, eliminating the need for metals and their characteristic losses at optical frequencies. We discuss several geometries of photonic crystal accelerator structures. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are optical fibers which can confine a speed-of-light optical mode in vacuum. Planar structures, both two- and three-dimensional, can also confine such a mode, and have the additional advantage that they can be manufactured using common microfabrication techniques such as those used for integrated circuits. This allows for a variety of possible materials, so that dielectrics with desirable optical and radiation-hardness properties can be chosen. We discuss examples of simulated photonic crystal structures to demonstrate the scaling laws and trade-offs involved, and touch on potential fabrication processes.

  14. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  15. Charmonium production in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R.E.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A.R.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, D.A.; Bengtsson, H.U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bolognese, T.S.; Bross, A.D.; Buchanan, C.D.; Buijs, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chao, H.Y.; Chun, S.B.; Clark, A.R.; Cowan, G.D.; Crane, D.A.; Dahl, O.I.; Daoudi, M.; Derby, K.A.; Eastman, J.J.; Eberhard, P.H.; Edberg, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Enomoto, R.; Erne, F.C.; Fujii, T.; Gary, J.W.; Gorn, W.; Hauptman, J.M.; Hofmann, W.; Hylen, J.; Kamae, T.; Kaye, H.S.; Kees, K.H.; Kenney, R.W.; Winston, K.; Kofler, R.R.; Lander, R.L.; Langeveld, W.G.J.; Layter, J.G.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Loken, S.C.; Lu, A.; Lu, X.Q.; Lynch, G.R.; Madaras, R.J.; Maeshima, K.; Magnuson, B.D.; Masek, G.E.; Mathis, L.G.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Miller, E.S.; Moses, W.; McNeil, R.R.; Nygren, D.R.; Oddone, P.R.; Paar, H.P.; Park, S.K.; Pellett, D.E.; Pripstein, M.; Ronan, M.T.; Ross, R.R.; Rouse, F.R.; Schwitkis, K.A.; Sens, J.C.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.C.; Slater, W.E.; Smit

    1987-01-01

    We have searched for the two-photon production of the /eta//sub c/, /chi//sub 0/ and /chi//sub 2/ charmonium states at the e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider PEP in the channels /gamma//gamma/ /yields/ K/sup +-/K/sub S//sup 0//pi//sup -+/, /gamma//gamma/ /yields/ K/sup +/K/sup -//pi//sup +//pi//sup -/, /gamma//gamma/ /yields/ /pi//sup +//pi//sup -//pi//sup +//pi//sup -/ and /gamma//gamma/ /yields/ K/sup +/K/sup -/K/sup +/K/sup -/. We identify four /eta//sub c/ candidates in the K/sup +/K/sup -/K/sup +/K/sup -/ channel, on a negligible background; this leads to a preliminary 95% C.L. lower limit for /Gamma//sub /gamma//gamma//(/eta//sup c/) of 1.6 keV. In the other channels we find no evidence for any of the three states and establish preliminary 95% C.L. upper limits /Gamma//sub /gamma//gamma//(/eta//sub c/) < 15 keV, /Gamma//sub /gamma//gamma//(/chi//sub 0/)< 14 keV and /Gamma//sub /gamma//gamma//(/chi//sub 2/) < 4.0 keV. Combining the results on the /eta//sub c/ from all channels we obtain the value /Gamma//sub /gamma//gamma//(/eta//sub c/) = 4.5/sub -3.6///sup -5.5 keV. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Flavokawain derivative FLS induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Akhtar, M Nadeem; Ky, Huynh; Lim, Kian Lam; Abu, Nadiah; Zareen, Seema; Ho, Wan Yong; Alan-Ong, Han Kiat; Tan, Sheau Wei; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ismail, Jamil bin; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    Known as naturally occurring biologically active compounds, flavokawain A and B are the leading chalcones that possess anticancer properties. Another flavokawain derivative, (E)-1-(2′-Hydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-methylthio)phenyl)prop-2-ene-1-one (FLS) was characterized with 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron-impact mas spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (1H NMR, EI-MS, IR, and UV) spectroscopic techniques. FLS cytotoxic efficacy against human cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A) resulted in the reduction of IC50 values in a time- and dose-dependent mode with high specificity on MCF-7 (IC50 of 36 μM at 48 hours) against normal breast cell MCF-10A (no IC50 detected up to 180 μM at 72 hours). Light, scanning electron, and fluorescent microscopic analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with 36 μM of FLS displayed cell shrinkage, apoptotic body, and DNA fragmentation. Additionally, induction of G2/M cell arrest within 24 hours and apoptosis at subsequent time points was discovered via flow cytometry analysis. The roles of PLK-1, Wee-1, and phosphorylation of CDC-2 in G2/M arrest and proapoptotic factors (Bax, caspase 9, and p53) in promotion of apoptosis of FLS against MCF-7 cells were discovered using fluorometric, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, the presence of SCH3 (thiomethyl group) on ring B structure contributed to the selective cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells compared to other chalcones, flavokawain A and B. Overall, our data suggest potential therapeutic value for flavokawain derivative FLS to be further developed as a new anticancer drug. PMID:27358555

  17. JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediates asperphenamate derivative BBP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanchun; Luo, Qiyu; Yuan, Lei; Miao, Caixia; Mu, Xiaoshuo; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jianchun; Sun, Tiemin; Ma, Enlong

    2012-08-15

    N-Benzoyl-O-(N′-(1-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-piperidiylcarbonyl) -D-phenylalanyl)-D-phenylalaninol (BBP), a novel synthesized asperphenamate derivative with the increased solubility, showed growth inhibitory effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy, which was demonstrated by the development of acidic vesicular organelles, cleavage of LC3 and upregulation of Atg4 in BBP-treated MCF-7 cells. Since the application of Atg4 siRNA totally blocked the cleavage of LC3, we demonstrated a central role of Atg4 in BBP-induced autophagy. The further studies showed that BBP increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with NAC effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS, autophagy and growth inhibition triggered by BBP. Moreover, BBP induced the activation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed autophagy, the increase of Atg4 levels, conversion of LC3 and growth inhibition induced by BBP. Knockdown of JNK by siRNA efficiently inhibited ROS production and autophagy, but antioxidant NAC failed to block JNK activation induced by BBP, indicating that JNK activation may be a upstream signaling of ROS and should be a core component in BBP-induced autophagic signaling pathway. These results suggest that BBP produces its growth inhibitory effect through induction of the autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells, which is modulated by a JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation involving ROS production. -- Highlights: ► Asperphenamate derivative BBP with increased solubility was synthesized. ► BBP selectively inhibited the growth of human breast tumor cells. ► The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy. ► JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated BBP-induced autophagy.

  18. Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Do, Minh Truong; Choi, Jae Ho; Won, Seong Su; Kang, Wonku; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-05-15

    Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • Leptin activated ERK and Akt kinases related to ERα phosphorylation. • Leptin induces phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167. • Leptin induces ERE-luciferase activity.

  19. Protective effect of Porphyra yezoensis glycoprotein on D-galactosamine‑induced cytotoxicity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the signaling pathways and enzyme activity associated with the protective effect of Porphyra yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) on D‑galactosamine (D‑GaIN)‑induced cytotoxicity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. D‑GaIN is commonly used to induce hepatic injury models in vivo as well as in vitro. PYGP was extracted from Porphyra yezoensis, a red algae distributed along the coasts of Republic of Korea, China and Japan. In the present study, Hepa 1c1c7 cells were pre‑treated with PYGP (20 and 40 µg/ml) for 24 h and then the media was replaced with D‑GaIN (20 mM) and PYGP (20 and 40 µg/ml). The results demonstrated that D‑GaIN induced Hepa 1c1c7 cell death and pretreatment with PYGP was found to attenuate D‑GaIN toxicity. In addition, D‑GaIN decreased the antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation processes; however, pre‑treatment with PYGP reduced the generation of lipid peroxidation products, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as well as increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione‑s‑transferase (GST). PYGP was shown to suppress the overexpression of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase, c‑jun N‑terminal kinase and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation induced by D‑GaIN. Furthermore, PYGP increased the protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), quinine oxidoreductase 1, GST and heme oxygenase 1 protein expression. These results suggested that PYGP had cytoprotective effects against D‑GaIN‑induced cell damage, which may be associated with MAPKs and the Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:25626067

  20. Investigation of the genotoxicity of dibenzo[c,p]chrysene in human carcinoma MCF-7 cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Luch, Andreas; Atkin, Jennifer; Nguyen, Tuan; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Baird., William M.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that have been linked to certain human cancers. The fjord region PAH dibenzo[a,l]pyrene exhibits the highest levels of carcinogenic activity of all PAH as yet tested in rodent tumor models. Another hexacyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dibenzo[c,p]chrysene (DBC), is a unique PAH that possesses one bay region and two fjord regions within the same molecule. Due to its structure, which is a merger of the fjord region PAHs benzo[c]phenanthrene, benzo[c]chrysene, and benzo[g]chrysene, DBC is of considerable research interest. In order to investigate the pathway of regioselective metabolism we have studied the cytotoxicity, metabolic activation and DNA adduct formation of DBC in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells in culture. The cytotoxicity assay indicated undisturbed cell proliferation even at concentrations as high as 4.5 μM (1.5 μg/ml) DBC. Concurrently, DNA adducts were detected in MCF-7 cells treated with DBC only in low amounts (0.6 pmol adducts/mg DNA). On the contrary, exposure to anti-DBC-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide and anti-DBC-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide, two putatively genotoxic metabolites of DBC, resulted in high levels of DNA adducts (33 and 51 pmol adducts/mg DNA, respectively). Although DBC was not efficiently transformed into DNA-reactive metabolites in MCF-7 cells in culture, the results from our study indicate that the two fjord region diol-epoxide derivatives of DBC may serve as ultimate genotoxic metabolites once they are enzymatically generated under certain circumstances in vitro or in vivo. PMID:17094953

  1. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Nurul Islam, Md; Kim, Yeong Shik; Choi, Ran Joo; Sohn, Hee Sook; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    Angelica decursiva has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as an antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, and cough remedy. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of 9 coumarin derivatives isolated from a 90 % methanol fraction was evaluated via inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested compounds, edulisin II (1) exhibited the most potent NO production inhibitory activity, followed by decursidin (2), Pd-C-III (3), 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (4), Pd-C-I (5), and Pd-C-II (6). In contrast, (+)-trans-decursidinol (7) did not exhibit NO suppressive effects on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Structure-activity relationships revealed that esterification of the hydroxyl at C-3' or C-4' of 7 with an angeloyl/senecioyl/acetyl group is essential for its inhibitory activity against NO production, while the number of angeloyl or senecioyl groups, and their positions greatly affect the potency of these coumarins. Coumarins 1-6 also inhibited TNF-α production and iNOS protein expression, while compounds 1-4 inhibited COX-2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that coumarins isolated from A. decursiva might be used as potential leads for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:26474585

  2. Differential expression of several drug transporter genes in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Louisa, Melva; Suyatna, Frans D.; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell culture techniques have many advantages for investigation of drug transport to target organ like liver. HepG2 and Huh-7 are two cell lines available from hepatoma that can be used as a model for hepatic drug transport. The present study is aimed to analyze the expression level of several drug transporter genes in two hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7 and their response to inhibitors. Materials and Methods: This is an in vitro study using HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. The expression level of the following drug transporter genes was quantified: P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance protein 1, Organic Anionic Transporter Protein 1B1 (OATP1B1) and Organic Cationic Transporter-1 (OCT1). Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells using Tripure isolation reagent, then gene expression level of the transporters is quantified using Applied Biosystems quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Verapamil (P-glycoprotein inhibitor), nelfinavir (OATP1B1 inhibitor), quinidine (OCT1 inhibitor) were used to differentiate the inhibitory properties of these agents to the transporter expressions in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Results: Huh-7 shows a higher level of P-glycoprotein, OATP1B1 and OCT1 expressions compared with those of HepG2. Verapamil reduces the expressions of P-glycoprotein in HepG2 and Huh-7; nelfinavir reduces the expression of OATP1B1 in HepG2 and Huh-7; while quinidine reduces the OCT1 gene expressions in HepG2, but not in Huh-7 cells. Conclusion: This study indicates that HepG2 might be a more suitable in vitro model than Huh-7 to study drug transport in hepatocytes involving drug transporters. PMID:27376043

  3. Emodin suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Feng, She-jun; Yu, Hua-peng

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a defense and protective response to multiple harmful stimuli. Over and uncontrolled inflammation can lead to local tissues or even systemic damages and injuries. Actually, uncontrolled and self-amplified inflammation is the fundament of the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory diseases, including sepsis shock, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Our recent study showed that emodin, the main active component of Radix rhizoma Rhei, could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in mice. However, its underlying signal pathway was not still very clear. Then, the aim of current study was to explore whether emodin could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells, and its involved potential mechanism. The mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and PPARγ were measured by qRCR and western blotting, the production of TNF-α was evaluated by ELISA. Then, the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was also detected by western blotting. And NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by ELISA as well. Meanwhile, siRNA-PPARγ transfection was performed to knockdown PPARγ expression in cells. Our data revealed that LPS-induced the up-regulation of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TNF-α, LPS-induced the down-regulation of PPARγ, and LPS-enhanced NF-κB p65 activation and DNA binding activity were substantially suppressed by emdoin in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, our data also figured out that these effects of emdoin were largely abrogated by siRNA-PPARγ transfection. Taken together, our results indicated that LPS-induced inflammation were potently compromised by emodin very likely through the PPARγ-dependent inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26910236

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bee-Piao; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Ching; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2014-08-01

    Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy. mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and quantitative (q) RT‑PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS‑induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS‑induced mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS. PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression and protein production of pro‑inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF‑κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. PMID:24898576

  5. The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor modulates the Hepa 1c1c7 cell cycle and differentiated state independently of dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Q; Whitlock, J P

    1996-01-01

    The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been defined and characterized according to its ability to mediate biological responses to exogenous ligands, such as the synthetic environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The natural ligand(s) for AhR is unknown, and we know relatively little about AhR function in the absence of TCDD. Here, we have exploited the availability of AhR-defective (AhR-D) mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells to analyze AhR's effects under conditions in which TCDD is not present. Our results reveal that AhR-D cells exhibit a different morphology, decreased albumin synthesis, and a prolonged doubling time compared with wild-type cells. Introduction of AhR cDNA into AhR-D cells by stable transfection alters these characteristics such that the cells resemble wild-type cells. Conversely, introduction of antisense AhR cDNA into wild-type cells changes their phenotype such that they resemble AhR-D cells. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that AhR-D cells do not exhibit an increased rate of death. Flow cytometric and biochemical analyses imply that the slowed growth rate of AhR-D cells reflects prolongation of G1. Our findings reveal a potential link between AhR and the G1 phase of the Hepa 1c1c7 cell cycle. These effects of AhR occur in the absence of TCDD. We speculate that they represent responses to an endogenous AhR ligand in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. PMID:8628281

  6. Flavokawain derivative FLS induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Akhtar, M Nadeem; Ky, Huynh; Lim, Kian Lam; Abu, Nadiah; Zareen, Seema; Ho, Wan Yong; Alan-Ong, Han Kiat; Tan, Sheau Wei; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ismail, Jamil Bin; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    Known as naturally occurring biologically active compounds, flavokawain A and B are the leading chalcones that possess anticancer properties. Another flavokawain derivative, (E)-1-(2'-Hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-methylthio)phenyl)prop-2-ene-1-one (FLS) was characterized with (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron-impact mas spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet ((1)H NMR, EI-MS, IR, and UV) spectroscopic techniques. FLS cytotoxic efficacy against human cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A) resulted in the reduction of IC50 values in a time- and dose-dependent mode with high specificity on MCF-7 (IC50 of 36 μM at 48 hours) against normal breast cell MCF-10A (no IC50 detected up to 180 μM at 72 hours). Light, scanning electron, and fluorescent microscopic analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with 36 μM of FLS displayed cell shrinkage, apoptotic body, and DNA fragmentation. Additionally, induction of G2/M cell arrest within 24 hours and apoptosis at subsequent time points was discovered via flow cytometry analysis. The roles of PLK-1, Wee-1, and phosphorylation of CDC-2 in G2/M arrest and proapoptotic factors (Bax, caspase 9, and p53) in promotion of apoptosis of FLS against MCF-7 cells were discovered using fluorometric, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, the presence of SCH3 (thiomethyl group) on ring B structure contributed to the selective cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells compared to other chalcones, flavokawain A and B. Overall, our data suggest potential therapeutic value for flavokawain derivative FLS to be further developed as a new anticancer drug. PMID:27358555

  7. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  8. Possibility to measure elastic photon-photon scattering in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Daniel; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart; Marklund, Mattias

    2004-07-01

    Photon-photon scattering in vacuum due to the interaction with virtual electron-positron pairs is a consequence of quantum electrodynamics. A way for detecting this phenomenon has been devised based on interacting modes generated in microwave wave guides or cavities [G. Brodin, M. Marklund, and L. Stenflo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 171801 (2001)]. Here we materialize these ideas, suggest a concrete cavity geometry, make quantitative estimates and propose experimental details. It is found that detection of photon-photon scattering can be within the reach of present day technology.

  9. Topological photonics: an observation of Landau levels for optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported by DOE, DARPA, and AFOSR.

  10. Photon-photon collisions at the next linear collider: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    The collisions of photons at a high energy electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions, and extensions of the standard model. It is expected that by using back-scattered laser beams that the effective luminosity and energy of photon-photon collisions will be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this talk, I will focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs boson, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkable background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. I also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  11. Sesquiterpenes from Inula japonica with Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qinghao; Lee, Jin Woo; Jang, Hari; Choi, Ji Eun; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2016-06-24

    Eight new sesquiterpenes (1-8), along with seven known sesquiterpenes (9-15), were isolated from a methanol extract of the flowers of Inula japonica. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All of isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, with their IC50 values ranging from 1.9 to 15.4 μM. PMID:27276091

  12. Estrogen induced {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo; Youn, BuHyun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-{alpha} to ERE in MCF-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose {beta}-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-{alpha}-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering

  13. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  14. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  15. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  16. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-04-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. Nonlinear interaction between single photons.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T

    2014-10-24

    Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution. PMID:25379916

  19. Silicon applications in photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenski, A. M.; Gawlik, G.; Wesolowski, M.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon technology enabled the miniaturization of computers and other electronic system for information storage, transmission and transformation allowing the development of the Knowledge Based Information Society. Despite the fact that silicon roadmap indicates possibilities for further improvement, already now the speed of electrons and the bandwidth of electronic circuits are not sufficient and photons are commonly utilized for signal transmission through optical fibers and purely photonic circuits promise further improvements. However materials used for these purposes II/V semiconductor compounds, glasses make integration of optoelectronic circuits with silicon complex an expensive. Therefore research on light generation, transformation and transmission in silicon is very active and recently, due to nanotechnology some spectacular results were achieved despite the fact that mechanisms of light generation are still discussed. Three topics will be discussed. Porous silicon was actively investigated due to its relatively efficient electroluminescence enabling its use in light sources. Its index of refraction, differs considerably from the index of silicon, and this allows its utilization for Bragg mirrors, wave guides and photonic crystals. The enormous surface enables several applications on medicine and biotechnology and in particular due to the effective chemo-modulation of its refracting index the design of optical chemosensors. An effective luminescence of doped and undoped nanocrystalline silicon opened another way for the construction of silicon light sources. Optical amplification was already discovered opening perspectives for the construction of nanosilicon lasers. Luminescences was observed at red, green and blue wavelengths. The used technology of silica and ion implantation are compatible with commonly used CMOS technology. Finally the recently developed and proved idea of optically pumped silicon Raman lasers, using nonlinearity and vibrations in the

  20. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions. PMID:26368763

  1. Robust Photon Locking

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Baumert, T.

    2009-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a strong-field coherent control mechanism that combines the advantages of photon locking (PL) and rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Unlike earlier implementations of PL and RAP by pulse sequences or chirped pulses, we use shaped pulses generated by phase modulation of the spectrum of a femtosecond laser pulse with a generalized phase discontinuity. The novel control scenario is characterized by a high degree of robustness achieved via adiabatic preparation of a state of maximum coherence. Subsequent phase control allows for efficient switching among different target states. We investigate both properties by photoelectron spectroscopy on potassium atoms interacting with the intense shaped light field.

  2. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  3. Photonic crystal microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokhov, A. A.; Masalov, V. M.; Sukhinina, N. S.; Matveev, D. V.; Dolganov, P. V.; Dolganov, V. K.; Emelchenko, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spherical samples of photonic crystals formed by colloidal SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. Synthesis of microspheres from 160 nm, 200 nm and 430 nm diameter colloidal nanoparticles was performed over a wide size range, from 5 μm to 50 μm. The mechanism of formation of void microparticles exceeding 50 μm is discussed. The spectral measurements verified the association of the spectra with the peaks of selective reflection from the cubic lattice planes. The microparticle morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  5. The Photon Collider at Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelek, B.; Blöchinger, C.; Blümlein, J.; Boos, E.; Brinkmann, R.; Burkhardt, H.; Bussey, P.; Carimalo, C.; Chyla, J.; Çiftçi, A. K.; Decking, W.; de Roeck, A.; Fadin, V.; Ferrario, M.; Finch, A.; Fraas, H.; Franke, F.; Galynskii, M.; Gamp, A.; Ginzburg, I.; Godbole, R.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Gounaris, G.; Hagiwara, K.; Han, L.; Heuer, R.-D.; Heusch, C.; Illana, J.; Ilyin, V.; Jankowski, P.; Jiang, Y.; Jikia, G.; Jönsson, L.; Kalachnikow, M.; Kapusta, F.; Klanner, R.; Klassen, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Kon, T.; Kotkin, G.; Krämer, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Kuang, Y. P.; Kuraev, E.; Kwiecinski, J.; Leenen, M.; Levchuk, M.; Ma, W. F.; Martyn, H.; Mayer, T.; Melles, M.; Miller, D. J.; Mtingwa, S.; Mühlleitner, M.; Muryn, B.; Nickles, P. V.; Orava, R.; Pancheri, G.; Penin, A.; Potylitsyn, A.; Poulose, P.; Quast, T.; Raimondi, P.; Redlin, H.; Richard, F.; Rindani, S. D.; Rizzo, T.; Saldin, E.; Sandner, W.; Schönnagel, H.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schreiber, H. J.; Schreiber, S.; Schüler, K. P.; Serbo, V.; Seryi, A.; Shanidze, R.; da Silva, W.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Spira, M.; Stasto, A. M.; Sultansoy, S.; Takahashi, T.; Telnov, V.; Tkabladze, A.; Trines, D.; Undrus, A.; Wagner, A.; Walker, N.; Watanabe, I.; Wengler, T.; Will, I.; Wipf, S.; Yavaş, Ö.; Yokoya, K.; Yurkov, M.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zerwas, P.; Zomer, F.

    High energy photon colliders (γγ,γe) are based on e-e- linear colliders where high energy photons are produced using Compton scattering of laser light on high energy electrons just before the interaction point. This paper is a part of the Technical Design Report of the linear collider TESLA.1 Physics program, possible parameters and some technical aspects of the photon collider at TESLA are discussed.

  6. Photonic crystals--a step towards integrated circuits for photonics.

    PubMed

    Thylén, Lars; Qiu, Min; Anand, Srinivasan

    2004-09-20

    The field of photonic crystals has, over the past few years, received dramatically increased attention. Photonic crystals are artificially engineered structures that exhibit a periodic variation in one, two, or three dimensions of the dielectric constant, with a period of the order of the pertinent light wavelength. Such structures in three dimensions should exhibit properties similar to solid-state electronic crystals, such as bandgaps, in other words wavelength regions where light cannot propagate in any direction. By introducing defects into the periodic arrangement, the photonic crystals exhibit properties analogous to those of solid-state crystals. The basic feature of a photonic bandgap was indeed experimentally demonstrated in the beginning of the 1990s, and sparked a large interest in, and in many ways revitalized, photonics research. There are several reasons for this attention. One is that photonic crystals, in their own right, offer a proliferation of challenging research tasks, involving a multitude of disciplines, such as electromagnetic theory, nanofabrication, semi-conductor technology, materials science, biotechnology, to name a few. Another reason is given by the somewhat more down-to-earth expectations that photonics crystals will create unique opportunities for novel devices and applications, and contribute to solving some of the issues that have plagued photonics such as large physical sizes, comparatively low functionality, and high costs. Herein, we will treat some basics of photonic crystal structures and discuss the state-of-the-art in fabrication as well give some examples of devices with unique properties, due to the use of photonic crystals. We will also point out some of the problems that still remain to be solved, and give a view on where photonic crystals currently stand. PMID:15499844

  7. Synthesis of an anthraquinone derivative (DHAQC) and its effect on induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, SweeKeong; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lim, Kian Lam; Abu, Nadiah; Ho, Wan Yong; Zareen, Seema; Roohani, Kiarash; Ky, Huynh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Lajis, Nordin; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel–Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. PMID:25733816

  8. Inhibition of ERK attenuates autophagy and potentiates tumour necrosis factor-α-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, U; Basu, A

    2008-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cell death is under considerable debate. The process of autophagy has been shown to lead to either cell survival or cell death depending on cell type and stimulus. In the present study, we determined the contribution of ERK1/2 signalling to autophagy and cell death induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with TNF caused a time-dependent increase in ERK1/2 activity. There was an induction of autophagy and cleavage of caspase-7, -8, -9 and PARP. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a decrease in TNF-induced autophagy that was accompanied by an increase in cleavage of caspase-7, -8, -9 and PARP Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling resulted in decreased clonogenic capacity of MCF-7 cells. These data suggest that TNF-induces autophagy through ERK1/2 and that inhibition of autophagy increases cellular sensitivity to TNF. PMID:18266953

  9. Implication of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in MCF-7 cell proliferation and resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Blanquart, Christophe; Karouri, Salah-Eddine; Issad, Tarik

    2009-10-02

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) were initially thought to be mainly anti-oncogenic. However, overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP has been observed in human tumors, and recent studies have demonstrated that PTP1B contributes to the appearance of breast tumors by modulating ERK pathway. In the present work, we observed that decreasing the expression of TC-PTP or PTP1B in MCF-7 cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation without affecting cell death. This reduction in proliferation was associated with decreased ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, selection of tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells, by long-term culture in presence of 4-OH tamoxifen, resulted in cells that display overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP, and concomitant increase in ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. siRNA experiments showed that PTP1B, but not TC-PTP, is necessary for resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen. Therefore, our work indicates that PTP1B could be a relevant therapeutic target for treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers.

  10. Growth inhibition and apoptotic effects of total flavonoids from Trollius chinensis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhua; Tian, Qingqing; An, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Dried flowers of Trollius chinensis have long been used as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to reduce the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The present study further investigated the influence of T. chinensis flavonoids on the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells and observed clear inhibitory effects within the concentration range of 0.0991–1.5856 mg/ml. Apoptosis was triggered by T. chinensis flavonoids treatment that was evaluated by differential interference contrast software, the Hoechst 33258 method, scanning electron microscopy, hematoxylin/eosin staining and laser confocal light microscopy. Cells treated with T. chinensis flavonoids selectively reduced bcl-2 and NF-κB expression and increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicating that the inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred through activation of a mitochondrial pathway. Taken together, the results confirmed the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to inhibit cell proliferation. PMID:27602105

  11. Nickel nanoparticle-induced dose-dependent cyto-genotoxicity in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread application of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) in industrial, commercial, and biomedical fields, their response to human cells has not been clearly elucidated. In the study reported here, Ni NPs with a 28 nm diameter were used to study their interaction with human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. Dose-dependent decreased cell viability and damaged cell membrane integrity showed the cytotoxic potential of the Ni NPs. We further found that Ni NPs induce oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Comet assay indicated the dose-dependent induction of DNA damage due to Ni NP exposure. The level of messenger RNA, as well as activity of caspase-3 enzyme, was higher in MCF-7 cells exposed to Ni NPs than in control cells. Moreover, we observed statistically significant correlations of ROS with cell viability (R2=0.984), DNA damage (% tail DNA) (R2=0.982), and caspase-3 enzyme activity (R2=0.991). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human breast cancer cells to have shown the cyto-genotoxicity of Ni NPs, which seems to be mediated through ROS. PMID:24627639

  12. Actin disruption agents induce phosphorylation of histone H2AX in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ik Jae; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yongkuk; Kim, Jong-Myoung; An, Won G

    2011-05-01

    Modified actin dynamics are a unique feature of transformed cancer cells and thereby promising targets for cancer chemotherapy. While latrunculin B (LB) and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), both derived from natural sources, inhibit actin polymerization, jasplakinolide (JSP) prevents actin depolymerization. The purpose of this study was to examine the detailed molecular action of actin disruption inducing apoptosis via double strand breaks (DSBs). Actin disruption induced phosphorylation of H2AX, a well known DSB marker leading to G2 arrest and consequently resulted in apoptosis on MCF-7 cancer cells. Cells impaired by actin disruption activated Erk (extracellular signal-related kinase) and p53 protein was involved in DNA damage responses, but did not change the levels of p21Cip1/WAF1 protein in MCF-7 cells. To overcome the DSBs by actin disruption, MCF-7 cells set the repair system through the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. These results indicate that actin is involved in the signaling inducing DSBs and HR repair as well as G2 cell cycle arrest in human cancer. Therefore, the results suggest that actin disruption might be a potential candidate for developing anti-cancer therapies in human breast cancer. PMID:21399880

  13. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effect of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Davari, Atiyeh-Sadat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: 7-prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites that are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae families. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7, a breast carcinoma cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Bax protein expression was detected by western blot to investigate the underlying mechanism. Results: Doses which induced 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) against MCF-7 cells with auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin were calculated (59.7, 207.6, 476.3, and 73.4 µM), respectively. Auraptene induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that auraptene significantly up-regulated Bax expression in MCF-7 cells compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Auraptene exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in breast carcinoma cell line and can be considered for further mechanistic evaluations in human cancer cells. These results candidate auraptene for further studies to evaluate its biosafety and anti-cancer effects. PMID:26693409

  14. Suppression of CYP1A1 expression by naringenin in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Han, Eun Hee; Shin, Dong Weon; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Eung Seok; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2004-08-01

    Naringenin, dietary flavonoid, is antioxidant constituents of many citrus fruits. In the present study, we investigated the effect of naringenin on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible CYP1A1 gene expression in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Naringenin alone did not affect CYP1A1-specific 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. In contrast, the TCDD-inducible EROD activities were markedly reduced upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and naringenin in a dose dependent manner. TCDD-induced CYP1A1 mRNA level was also markedly suppressed by naringenin. A transient transfection assay using dioxin-response element (DRE)-linked luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that naringenin reduced transformation of the aryl hydrocarbons receptor(AhR) to a form capable of specifically binding to the DRE sequence in the promoter of the CYP1A1 gene. These results suggest the down regulation of the CYP1A1 gene expression by either naringenin in Hepa-1c1c7 cells might be antagonism of the DRE binding potential of nuclear AhR. PMID:15460448

  15. Suppression of CYP1A1 expression by 4-nonylphenol in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H G; Kim, J Y; Choi, C Y; You, H J; Hahm, K

    2001-04-10

    This study investigated the effects that 4-nonylphenol (NP) has on CYP1A1 expression in Hepa-1c1c7 cell cultures. NP alone did not affect CYP1A1-specific 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. In contrast, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible EROD activities were markedly reduced upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and NP in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen that acts through the estrogen receptor, did not affect the suppressive effects that NP has on TCDD-inducible EROD activity. The TCDD-inducible CYP1A1 mRNA levels were markedly suppressed upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and NP that is consistent with their effects on EROD activity. A transient transfection assay using dioxin-response element (DRE)-linked luciferase and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that NP reduced the transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor to a form capable of binding specifically to the DRE sequence of the CYP1A1 gene promoter. These results suggest that the down-regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression by NP in Hepa-1c1c7 cells might be an antagonism of the DRE-binding potential of the nuclear Ah receptor, but is not mediated through the estradiol receptor. PMID:11248424

  16. Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2010-04-09

    Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3{beta}. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  17. PKC{eta} confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-09-10

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKC{eta}, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKC{eta} in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKC{eta}. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKC{eta} expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKC{eta} is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKC{eta} could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced CYP1B1 activity is suppressed by perillyl alcohol in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Nelson L.S.; Wang Huan; Wang Yun; Leung, H.Y.; Leung, Lai K. . E-mail: laikleung@yahoo.com

    2006-06-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene with potential applications in chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Although clinical trials are under way, POH's physiological and pharmacological properties are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of POH on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced genotoxicity, and the related expression were examined in MCF-7 cells. Exposure to environmental toxicant increases the risk of cancer. Many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A1 and 1B1 are enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Our data revealed that 0.5 {mu}M of POH was effective in blocking DMBA-DNA binding. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay indicated that the administration of POH inhibited the DMBA-induced enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that POH inhibited CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also demonstrated that the monoterpene reduced CYP1B1 mRNA abundance induced by DMBA. The present study illustrated that POH might inhibit and downregulate CYP1B1, which could protect against PAH-induced carcinogenesis.

  19. Alginate Hydrogel Protects Encapsulated Hepatic HuH-7 Cells against Hepatitis C Virus and Other Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhu-Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Helle, François; Hoffmann, Thomas Walter; François, Catherine; Brochot, Etienne; Paullier, Patrick; Legallais, Cécile; Duverlie, Gilles; Castelain, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation in alginate hydrogel has shown interesting applications in regenerative medicine and the biomedical field through implantation of encapsulated tissue or for bioartificial organ development. Although alginate solution is known to have low antiviral activity, the same property regarding alginate gel has not yet been studied. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential protective effect of alginate encapsulation against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for a hepatic cell line (HuH-7) normally permissive to the virus. Our results showed that alginate hydrogel protects HuH-7 cells against HCV when the supernatant was loaded with HCV. In addition, alginate hydrogel blocked HCV particle release out of the beads when the HuH-7 cells were previously infected and encapsulated. There was evidence of interaction between the molecules of alginate hydrogel and HCV, which was dose- and incubation time-dependent. The protective efficiency of alginate hydrogel towards HCV infection was confirmed against a variety of viruses, whether or not they were enveloped. This promising interaction between an alginate matrix and viruses, whose chemical mechanisms are discussed, is of great interest for further medical therapeutic applications based on tissue engineering. PMID:25310111

  20. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  1. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its longitudinal spin angular momentum (AM) density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding transverse spin AM density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed ‘photonic wheels’. It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves propagating along a well defined direction, and carrying transverse spin AM density. We show that depending on the shape of these waves, the spin density may be either perpendicular to the mean linear momentum (globally transverse spin) or to the linear momentum density (locally transverse spin). We find that the latter case generically occurs only for non-diffracting beams, such as the Bessel beams. Moreover, we introduce the concept of meridional Stokes parameters to operationally quantify the transverse spin density. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to the exemplary cases of Bessel beams and evanescent waves. These results open a new and accessible route to the understanding, generation and manipulation of optical beams with transverse spin AM density.

  2. A photon thermal diode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an 'inelastic thermal collimator' element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9 ± 0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%). PMID:25399761

  3. Smart photonic carbon brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.

    2016-03-01

    Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.

  4. Photon Molecules in Atomic Gases Trapped Near Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, James S.; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2016-07-01

    Realizing systems that support robust, controlled interactions between individual photons is an exciting frontier of nonlinear optics. To this end, one approach that has emerged recently is to leverage atomic interactions to create strong and spatially nonlocal interactions between photons. In particular, effective photonic interactions have been successfully created via interactions between atoms excited to Rydberg levels. Here, we investigate an alternative approach, in which atomic interactions arise via their common coupling to photonic crystal waveguides. This technique takes advantage of the ability to separately tailor the strength and range of interactions via the dispersion engineering of the structure itself, which can lead to qualitatively new types of phenomena. For example, much of the work on photon-photon interactions relies on the linear optical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, in combination with the use of interactions to shift optical pulses into or out of the associated transparency window. Here, we identify a large new class of "correlated transparency windows," in which photonic states of a certain number and shape selectively propagate through the system. Through this technique, we show that molecular bound states of photon pairs can be created.

  5. Photonic module: An on-demand resource for photonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Ionicioiu, Radu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Munro, William J.

    2007-11-15

    Photonic entanglement has a wide range of applications in quantum computation and communication. Here we introduce a device: the photonic module, which allows for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled photon states. The module is an application independent, ''plug and play'' device, with sufficient flexibility to prepare entanglement for all major quantum computation and communication applications in a completely deterministic fashion without number-discriminated photon detection. We present two alternative constructions for the module, one using free-space components and one in a photonic band-gap structure. The natural operation of the module is to generate states within the stabilizer formalism and we present an analysis on the cavity requirements to experimentally realize this device.

  6. Detecting photon-photon interactions in a superconducting circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Li-Jing; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Baranger, Harold U.; Hekking, Frank W. J.

    2015-10-01

    A local interaction between photons can be engineered by coupling a nonlinear system to a transmission line. The required transmission line can be conveniently formed from a chain of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity is generated by side-coupling this chain to a Cooper pair box. We propose to probe the resulting photon-photon interactions via their effect on the current-voltage characteristic of a voltage-biased Josephson junction connected to the transmission line. Considering the Cooper pair box to be in the weakly anharmonic regime, we find that the dc current through the probe junction yields features around the voltages 2 e V =n ℏ ωs , where ωs is the plasma frequency of the superconducting circuit. The features at n ≥2 are a direct signature of the photon-photon interaction in the system.

  7. Analysis of photon recycling using metallic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Chang, Allan S. P.; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2007-09-01

    We investigate a photon recycling scheme using two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals made of silver to improve the energy efficiency of an incandescent light source. A theoretical framework is presented to analyze the resultant photon-recycled lighting system. Calculation results show that the system can reach a maximum luminous efficiency of 125 lm/W, which is 8 times higher than that of a bare blackbody radiation at 2800 K. The color temperature of the system is calculated to be around 3500 K or below, while the color rendering index is between 68 and 90. These results suggest that a photon-recycled incandescent light source using metallic photonic crystals can be a viable alternative future lighting solution.

  8. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  9. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, when reading newspapers and journals or watching TV, one has been able to find feature presentations dealing with the prospects of terahertz (THz) technology and its potential impact on market applications. THz technology aims to fill the THz gap in the electro-magnetic spectrum in order to make the THz frequency regime, which spans the two orders of magnitude from 100 GHz to 10 THz, accessible for applications. From the lower-frequency side, electronics keeps pushing upwards, while photonic approaches gradually improve our technological options at higher frequencies. The popular interest reflects the considerable advances in research in the THz field, and it is mainly advances in the photonic branch, with the highlight being the development of the THz quantum cascade laser, which in recent years have caught the imagination of the public, and of potential users and investors. This special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides an overview of key scientific developments which currently represent the cutting edge of THz photonic technology. In order to be clear about the implications, we should define exactly what we mean by 'THz photonic technology', or synonymously 'THz photonics'. It is characterized by the way in which THz radiation (or a guided THz wave) is generated, namely by the use of lasers. This may be done in one of two fundamentally different schemes: (i) by laser action in the terahertz frequency range itself (THz lasers), or (ii) by down-conversion processes (photomixing) involving the radiation of lasers which operate in the visible, near-infrared or infrared spectral ranges, either in pulsed or continuous-wave mode. The field of THz photonics has grown so considerably that it is out of the question to cover all its aspects in a single special issue of a journal. We have elected, instead, to focus our attention on two types of development with a potentially strong impact on the THz field: first, on significant advances

  10. The SIAM Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-19

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Collimator-free photon tomography

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Barbour, R.L.

    1998-10-06

    A method of uncollimated single photon emission computed tomography includes administering a radioisotope to a patient for producing gamma ray photons from a source inside the patient. Emissivity of the photons is measured externally of the patient with an uncollimated gamma camera at a plurality of measurement positions surrounding the patient for obtaining corresponding energy spectrums thereat. Photon emissivity at the plurality of measurement positions is predicted using an initial prediction of an image of the source. The predicted and measured photon emissivities are compared to obtain differences therebetween. Prediction and comparison is iterated by updating the image prediction until the differences are below a threshold for obtaining a final prediction of the source image. 6 figs.

  14. Collimator-free photon tomography

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Barbour, Randall L.

    1998-10-06

    A method of uncollimated single photon emission computed tomography includes administering a radioisotope to a patient for producing gamma ray photons from a source inside the patient. Emissivity of the photons is measured externally of the patient with an uncollimated gamma camera at a plurality of measurement positions surrounding the patient for obtaining corresponding energy spectrums thereat. Photon emissivity at the plurality of measurement positions is predicted using an initial prediction of an image of the source. The predicted and measured photon emissivities are compared to obtain differences therebetween. Prediction and comparison is iterated by updating the image prediction until the differences are below a threshold for obtaining a final prediction of the source image.

  15. Imaging by terahertz photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Komiyama, Susumu

    2010-08-01

    Photon counting method is indispensable in visible/near-infrared optical measurements for detecting extremely weak radiation. The method, however, has been inaccessible in terahertz region, where the photon energies are more than 100 times smaller and catching individual photons is difficult. Here we review photon counting measurements of terahertz waves, by incorporating a semiconductor quantum-dot terahertz-photon detector into a scanning terahertz microscope. By using a quantum Hall effect detector as well, measurements cover the intensity dynamic range more than six orders of magnitude. Applying the measurement system to the study of semiconductor quantum Hall effect devices, we image extremely weak cyclotron radiation emitted by nonequilibrium electrons. Owing to the unprecedented sensitivity, a variety of new features of electron kinetics are unveiled. Besides semiconductor electric devices studied here, the experimental method will find application in diverse areas of molecular dynamics, microthermography, and cell activities.

  16. (Anti)estrogenic effects of phytochemicals on human primary mammary fibroblasts, MCF-7 cells and their co-culture

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van . E-mail: J.A.vanMeeuwen@iras.uu.nl; Korthagen, N.; Jong, P.C. de; Piersma, A.H.; Berg, M. van den

    2007-06-15

    In the public opinion, phytochemicals (PCs) present in the human diet are often considered beneficial (e.g. by preventing breast cancer). Two possible mechanisms that could modulate tumor growth are via interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19). Multiple in vitro studies confirmed that these compounds act estrogenic, thus potentially induce tumor growth, as well as aromatase inhibitory, thus potentially reduce tumor growth. It is thought that in the in vivo situation breast epithelial (tumor) cells communicate with surrounding connective tissue by means of cytokines, prostaglandins and estradiol forming a complex feedback mechanism. Recently our laboratory developed an in vitro co-culture model of healthy mammary fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells that (at least partly) simulated this feedback mechanism (M. Heneweer et al., TAAP vol. 202(1): 50-58, 2005). In the present study biochanin A, chrysin, naringenin, apigenin, genistein and quercetin were studied for their estrogenic properties (cell proliferation, pS2 mRNA) and aromatase inhibition in MCF-7 breast tumor cells, healthy mammary fibroblasts and their co-culture. The proliferative potency of these compounds in the MCF-7 cells derived from their EC{sub 50}s decreased in the following order: estadiol (4*10{sup -3} nM) > biochanin A (9 nM) > genistein (32 nM) > testosterone (46 nM) > naringenin (287 nM) > apigenin (440 nM) > chrysin (4 {mu}M). The potency to inhibit aromatase derived from their IC{sub 50}s decreased in the following order: chrysin (1.5 {mu}M) > naringenin (2.2 {mu}M) > genistein (3.6 {mu}M) > apigenin (4.1 {mu}M) > biochanin A (25 {mu}M) > quercetin (30 {mu}M). The results of these studies show that these PCs can induce cell proliferation or inhibit aromatase in the same concentration range (1-10 {mu}M). Results from co-cultures did not elucidate the dominant effect of these compounds. MCF-7 cell proliferation occurs at concentrations that are not uncommon in blood

  17. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  18. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  19. Ferrofluid Photonic Dipole Contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Michael; Frederick, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Understanding magnetic fields is important to facilitate magnetic applications in diverse fields in industry, commerce, and space exploration to name a few. Large electromagnets can move heavy loads of metal. Magnetic materials attached to credit cards allow for fast, accurate business transactions. And the Earth's magnetic field gives us the colorful auroras observed near the north and south poles. Magnetic fields are not visible, and therefore often hard to understand or characterize. This investigation describes and demonstrates a novel technique for the visualization of magnetic fields. Two ferrofluid Hele-Shaw cells have been constructed to facilitate the imaging of magnetic field lines [1,2,3,4]. We deduce that magnetically induced photonic band gap arrays similar to electrostatic liquid crystal operation are responsible for the photographed images and seek to mathematically prove the images are of exact dipole nature. We also note by comparison that our photographs are very similar to solar magnetic Heliosphere photographs.

  20. Perovskite photonic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-05-01

    The field of solution-processed semiconductors has made great strides; however, it has yet to enable electrically driven lasers. To achieve this goal, improved materials are required that combine efficient (>50% quantum yield) radiative recombination under high injection, large and balanced charge-carrier mobilities in excess of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, free-carrier densities greater than 1017 cm-3 and gain coefficients exceeding 104 cm-1. Solid-state perovskites are -- in addition to galvanizing the field of solar electricity -- showing great promise in photonic sources, and may be the answer to realizing solution-cast laser diodes. Here, we discuss the properties of perovskites that benefit light emission, review recent progress in perovskite electroluminescent diodes and optically pumped lasers, and examine the remaining challenges in achieving continuous-wave and electrically driven lasing.