Science.gov

Sample records for 7-day supplementation study

  1. Study on the necessary survey days for energy intake in school children assessed by 7 day survey.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Nobuko; Eguchi, Yoko; Kuno, Kazue; Wakikawa, Noriko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Fukinbara, Mina; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the longer the period of a nutrition survey, the more reliable the results. However, a long survey can impose a burden on subjects and cause the results to become inaccurate. For adults, a 3 non-consecutive day survey is usually recommended; however, for school children, at least in Japan, it has not been determined whether this is necessary. In this study we conducted a survey of 7 days and tried to find the minimum number of days necessary to determine the energy intake. The subjects were about 300 children aged from 6 to 7, 10 to 11 and 13 to 14 years old in a city in the western part of Japan. The weighing method was used for the school lunch and other meals were surveyed by 24-recalling method. For the 6-7 year-old school children, guardians were asked to keep dietary records. The final number of subjects who were able to complete the 7-day survey was 139. Energy intakes for each weekday were not statistically different (p>0.05) and those for each weekend did not differ (p>0.05). Average energy intakes on weekdays were higher than those on weekend days in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children. The average intakes of energy in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children were lower than Japanese estimated energy requirements (EER). However, body weight of more than 90% of subjects was within the normal range. The results suggest that a survey of one weekday is reliable for all weekdays and that of one week-end day is reliable for any weekend day and also indicate the necessity of further studies of EER in rapidly growing children. PMID:22449999

  2. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Stefan Sorin; Tiliscan, Catalin; Negoita, Cristina; Croitoru, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Pop, Florinel

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A) of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B). Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females) diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7%) patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3%) Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p < 0.01) was seen in Regimen B (44/52, 84.2% versus 11/26, 42.3%). Significant improvement in histological features was seen in regimen B. There has been significant overall reduction in endoscopic aspects of gastric and duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population. PMID:26858750

  3. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  4. Optimization of post ablative I-131 scintigraphy: Comparison of 2 day vs. 7 day post therapy study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Khfan, S.; Waxman, A.; Nagaraj, N.

    1994-05-01

    Whole body scintigraphy is recommended following ablative I-131 therapy to assess residual iodine-avid tissue, including metastasis in patients with DTC. Some controversy exists regarding the optimum time for performing the post-ablative study. A study performed as early as 2 days post-therapy would be desirable since patients could be scanned prior to discharge from the hospital.

  5. Media Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The 24 reviews in this article include textbooks on journalism and media studies; multimedia kits on advertising, TV news, reporting, and the "grammar" of media; resources on making ad interpreting films in the classroom; supplements on writing for both print and nonprint media; and professional references on improving visual literacy. (Editor)

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 7-Day Triple, 10-Day Sequential, and 7-Day Concomitant Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Wang, Huay-Min; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the failure rate of the standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is increasing. Sequential therapy and concomitant therapy have been recommended to replace standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this prospective, randomized, and controlled study was to simultaneously assess the efficacies of 10-day sequential and 7-day concomitant therapies versus a 7-day standard triple therapy for treating H. pylori infection. Consecutive H. pylori-infected subjects were randomly assigned to a 7-day standard triple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin for 7 days), a 10-day sequential therapy (pantoprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for a further 5 days), or a 7-day quadruple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 7 days). H. pylori status was confirmed 6 weeks after therapy. Three hundred seven H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive triple (n = 103), sequential (n = 102), or concomitant (n = 102) therapies. The eradication rates by an intention-to-treat analysis in the three treatment groups were 81.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.1% to 89.0%), 89.2% (95% CI, 83.2% to 95.2%), and 94.1% (95% CI, 89.5% to 98.7%). The seven-day concomitant therapy had a higher eradication rate than did the 7-day triple therapy (difference, 12.5%; 95% CI, 3.7% to 21.3%). There were no significant differences in the eradication rates between the sequential and standard triple therapies. All three treatments exhibited similar frequencies of adverse events (8.7%, 8.8%, and 13.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (99.0%, 98.0%, and 100.0%, respectively). In conclusion, the seven-day concomitant therapy is superior to the 7-day standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Additionally, it is less complex than the 10-day

  7. Depleted uranium disposition study -- Supplement, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Weapons and Materials Planning has requested a supplemental study to update the recent Depleted Uranium Disposition report. This supplemental study addresses new disposition alternatives and changes in status.

  8. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  9. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  10. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  11. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  12. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  13. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  14. An international study on dietary supplementation use in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the prevalence and motives of dietary supplement use amongst dancers from different cultures. Investigating supplement use, presumed effects, and other factors may be crucial for improving educational and nutritional advice provided for this cohort. Therefore, this study investigated the use of dietary supplements in 334 dancers from 53 countries, who completed a digitally based 35-question survey detailing demographic information and the use of dietary supplementation. Supplement use was prevalent amongst this international cohort, with 48% reporting regular supplement use. Major motives for supplement use were to improve health, boost immunity, and reduce fatigue. Forty-five percent believed that dancing increased the need for supplementation, whilst 30% recognized that there were risks associated with nutritional supplementation. The most frequently consumed supplements were vitamin C (60%), multivitamins (67%), and caffeine (72%). A smaller group of participants declared the use of whey protein (21%) or creatine (14%). Supplements were mainly obtained from pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Dancers recognized their lack of knowledge in dietary supplement use and relied on peer recommendations instead of sound evidence-based advice from acknowledged nutrition or health care professionals. This study demonstrates that dietary supplement use is internationally prevalent amongst dancers. Continued efforts are warranted with regard to information dissemination. PMID:25433260

  15. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities. PMID:20683232

  16. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Doug; Plaster, Kurtis; Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1996-11-01

    This work was the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Adult and jack chinook salmon escapement were indexed by redd counts and weir returns. Escapement in 1994 was low and in some cases approached the lowest on record. Although stream flow conditions and parr abundance were conducive to precise parr population estimates, some streams continued to exhibit wide confidence intervals. Different methods used to calculate the estimates yielded inconsistent results with regard to increasing or decreasing the population estimate and improving the precision of the estimates. No single method appeared definitively better for all streams. Emigrant traps captured 78,138 chinook salmon fry, parr, and smolts in 1994. Application of a weekly trap efficiency adjusted for stream flow produced emigration estimates that were up to 30% larger than when a seasonal trap efficiency was used. Detection rates for smolts tagged in some streams were similar to detection rates for parr tagged during the fall of the previous year. This was unexpected because overwinter mortality usually results in a lower detection rate for fall-tagged fish. Low escapement in 1994 severely hampered Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) broodstock development. The inability to develop local broodstocks for supplementation is the most important factor threatening the implementation of the ISS.

  17. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  18. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  19. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined. PMID:24990798

  20. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  1. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  2. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  3. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  4. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  5. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  6. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  8. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  9. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  10. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  11. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation during stressful military training: a randomized, controlled, double-blind field study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Padilla, Genieleah A; Stanfill, Katherine E; Markham, Amanda E; Khosravi, Jasmine Y; Ward, Michael D Dial; Koehler, Matthew M

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are anabolic prehormones involved in the synthesis of testosterone. Both have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects during stress. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind field study, we examined the effects of a 12-day DHEA regimen on stress indices in military men undergoing survival training. Forty-eight men were randomized to either a DHEA treatment group or placebo control group. The treatment group received 50 mg of oral DHEA supplementation daily for 5 days during classroom training followed by 7 days of 75 mg during stressful field operations. Control subjects received identical placebo pills. Salivary assays (DHEA[S], testosterone, and cortisol) were conducted at four time points: distal pre-stress (T1), proximal pre-stress (T2), mock-captivity stress (T3), and 24 h recovery (T4). Subjective distress was also assessed at T1, T3, and T4. As expected, DHEA treatment resulted in higher salivary concentrations of DHEA and DHEAS during daily living, mock-captivity stress, and recovery. Similar patterns were observed for salivary markers of anabolic balance: DHEA/cortisol, DHEAS/cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol concentration ratios. Despite notable time effects, no group differences emerged for subjective distress. A brief, low dose DHEA regimen yielded large increases in salivary DHEA(S) concentrations and enhanced anabolic balance throughout sustained military stress. These physiological changes did not extrapolate to subjective distress. PMID:21790446

  12. Supplement for Teaching Distributive Education II: Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater.

    This supplement is designed to provide motivational ideas for teaching the competencies in the curriculum guide, D.E. II--Course of Study (see note). Effort is made to provide ideas for teaching specific objectives for which there was not already a method recommended. Many of the suggested activities are ready to duplicate, trace, or implement…

  13. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  14. Changes of human serum proteome profile during 7-day “dry” immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, N. A.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes of serum proteome profile during 7-day "dry" immersion (DI). The experiment with DI consisted of three series: control group without countermeasures (10 men), with using mechanical stimulation (6 men) and low-frequency myostimulation (5 men) as preventive means. Serum samples were fractionated using ClinProt robot (Bruker Daltonics) on magnetic beads (weak cation exchange magnetic beads—MB WCX) prior to mass-spectral profiling. It was obtained 170 peaks after fractionation of serum samples in each group. On 7th immersion day peak areas of fibrinopeptide A ( m/ z=1206; 1464), angiotensin II ( m/ z=1051), high molecular mass kininogen fragment ( m/ z=2133 Da) and C3-fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=1350 Da) were significantly decreased comparing with pre-experimental values of all experimental series. Peak areas of apolipoprotein C III ( m/ z=9419) and C4a fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=3206 Da) were increased. On 7th day of the recovery peak areas of all changed peaks were not close to pre-experimental values. This fact provided evidence of incomplete recovery of an organism after DI. The depth of the alterations had considerable individual variability. Thereby the detected changes of serum proteome profile in the experiment. They indicated a reorganization of the hormonal, immune systems and lipid metabolism. The use of myostimulation and mechanical stimulation as countermeasures partly compensated adverse effects of 7-day dry immersion on the parameters of coagulation system (fibrinopeptide A) and lipid metabolism (apolipoprotein CIII).

  15. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  16. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Rahman; Mirzaei, Bahman; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Salehi, Zivar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE) to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16.13 kg, height 1.73 ± 6.49 m, body fat 16.37% ± 5.92%) were randomly assigned to CrM (4 × 5 g/day, n = 15) or placebo (PL: 4 × 5 g/day of maltodextrine powder; n = 16) to investigate the effect of 7 days CrM on serum p53 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration after acute incremental AE test to exhaustion. Subjects performed AE before (test 1) and after 7 days of supplementation (test 2). Results: Before supplementation, AE to exhaustion induced a significant increase in serum p53 and IGF-1 concentrations at both CrM and PL groups (P < 0.05). After supplementation, serum p53 concentrations were significantly lower in CrM than PL at post-AE (P < 0.05). There were no differences in IGF-1 concentrations between CrM and PL groups at post-AE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation with CrM prevents apoptosis, as measured by decreases in p53 concentration, induced by AE to exhaustion in young athletes. However, CrM had no effect on IGF-1 concentration after AE to exhaustion in young athletes. PMID:26664419

  17. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  18. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  19. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  20. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

    PubMed

    Lisi, A; Hasick, N; Kazlauskas, R; Goebel, C

    2011-01-01

    A number of supplements are now available which are sold as fat burners or pre-workout boosters and contain stimulants which are banned in sport. Many contain methylhexaneamine under one of many pseudonyms including Geranamine, geranium oil or extract, or a number of chemical names such as 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. This has resulted in many athletes returning an adverse finding and having sanctions imposed. Other stimulants such as caffeine, phenpromethamine, synefrine, and phenethylamines are also to be found in supplements. This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methylhexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material. Since the usual dose of methylhexaneamine is large, the drug is excreted at relatively high amounts for more than 29 h, the time for which the excretion was studied. PMID:22147493

  1. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  2. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Tuttle, S. L.; Kelly, G. M.; Paull, A.; Simmons, J. M.; Stalker, R. J.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Buttsworth, D.; Allen, G. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 7 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  3. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Hollis, P.; Allen, G. A.; Roberts, G. T.; Tuttle, S.; Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Brescianini, C.; Buttsworth, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Oueensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 8 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  4. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  5. A Prospective Study of Shortened Vitamin Supplementation Prior to Cisplatin–Pemetrexed Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Yukio; Sunami, Kuniko; Nakahara, Yoshiro; Okuma, Yusuke; Yomota, Makiko; Shimokawa, Tsuneo; Nagamata, Makoto; Iguchi, Mari; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Okamura, Tatsuru; Shibuya, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 is required to reduce pemetrexed therapy toxicity; the recommended lead-in time is at least 7 days. On the basis of previous pharmacokinetic and clinical studies, we hypothesized that the lead-in time could be shortened to 24 hours, enabling earlier commencement of standard chemotherapy; thus, we planned the first prospective trial of this regimen. Methods. Patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer who had not previously received cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. After measurement of homocysteine concentrations, the patients received 1,000 μg of vitamin B12 by intramuscular injection and began taking 350–500 μg of oral folic acid daily. Starting 24–48 hours after the vitamin B12 injection, the patients received intravenous 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin for 4 cycles at 3 weekly intervals. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who developed neutropenia grade ≥3. Results. Thirty patients received chemotherapy starting within 48 hours of the vitamin B12 injection. No treatment-related deaths or grade 4 toxicity occurred. Neutropenia grade ≥3, other laboratory toxicities grade ≥3, and nonlaboratory toxicities grade ≥3 occurred in 6.7%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The baseline homocysteine concentrations were not higher in patients with grade ≥3 toxicities than in the remainder of the cohort (mean values, 8.6 and 10.7 μmol/L, respectively). The response rate to chemotherapy was 43%. Conclusion. The shortened vitamin supplementation was well tolerated and retained antitumor efficacy. Analysis of baseline homocysteine concentrations confirmed the efficacy of short-term vitamin supplementation. PMID:25260366

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  7. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  8. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  9. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  10. Supplementing Oscat winds with Saral Altika observations for cyclone studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niharika, K.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Dadhwal, V. K.; Ali, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate prediction of life cycle of cyclone is very critical to the disaster management practices. Since the cyclones originate over the oceans where in situ observations are limited, we have to resort to the remote sensing techniques. Both optical and microwave sensors help studying the cyclones. While scatterometer provide wind vectors, altimeters can give only wind speed. In this paper we present how altimeter measurements can supplement the scatterometer observations in determining the radius of maximum winds (RMW). Sustained maximum winds, indicator for the intensity of the cyclone, are within the eye wall of a cyclone at a distance of RMW. This parameter is also useful in predicting right time of the storm surge. In this paper we used the wind speed estimations from AltiKa, an altimeter operating at Ka band.

  11. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  12. Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation and Exercise Performance in COPD: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomised Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Katrina J.; O’Brien, Katie A.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Polkey, Juliet I.; Minnion, Magdalena; Feelisch, Martin; Polkey, Michael I.; Edwards, Lindsay M.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance exercise performance in healthy people, but it is not clear if it is beneficial in COPD. We investigated the hypotheses that acute nitrate dosing would improve exercise performance and reduce the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise in people with COPD. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose study. Subjects were randomised to consume either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing 12.9mmoles nitrate) or placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice) 3 hours prior to endurance cycle ergometry, performed at 70% of maximal workload assessed by a prior incremental exercise test. After a minimum washout period of 7 days the protocol was repeated with the crossover beverage. Results 21 subjects successfully completed the study (age 68±7years; BMI 25.2±5.5kg/m2; FEV1 percentage predicted 50.1±21.6%; peak VO2 18.0±5.9ml/min/kg). Resting diastolic blood pressure fell significantly with nitrate supplementation compared to placebo (-7±8mmHg nitrate vs. -1±8mmHg placebo; p = 0.008). Median endurance time did not differ significantly; nitrate 5.65 (3.90–10.40) minutes vs. placebo 6.40 (4.01–9.67) minutes (p = 0.50). However, isotime oxygen consumption (VO2) was lower following nitrate supplementation (16.6±6.0ml/min/kg nitrate vs. 17.2±6.0ml/min/kg placebo; p = 0.043), and consequently nitrate supplementation caused a significant lowering of the amplitude of the VO2-percentage isotime curve. Conclusions Acute administration of oral nitrate did not enhance endurance exercise performance; however the observation that beetroot juice caused reduced oxygen consumption at isotime suggests that further investigation of this treatment approach is warranted, perhaps targeting a more hypoxic phenotype. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN66099139 PMID:26698120

  13. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  14. Probiotic Supplement Use among Young Children in Taiwan: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. Participants and Methods This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. Results Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. Conclusion The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children. PMID:22984450

  15. A Model Humanitarian Cleft Mission: 312 Cleft Surgeries in 7 Days

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Ishaq, Irfan; Ganatra, Muhammad Ashraf; Mahmood, Farrakh; Kashif, Muhammad; Alam, Iftikhar; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Laub, Donald Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are many countries in the world where patients with cleft lip and palate cannot get access to specialized cleft care units. Cleft missions play an important role in providing surgical care to the areas of the world with limited resources. This article presents a model of cleft missions that can be adopted in many countries where expertise is available but resources are limited. Through proper utilization of local human resource, this type of mission can be a cost-effective and robust way of treating patients with cleft in countries with approximately 52% of the world’s population. Methods: We present a case series of patients of one of our cleft missions carried out in Khairpur, Pakistan, in March 2014 over a period of 7 days. Specific details concerning the organization of mission, gathering of patients, preparation for surgery, and carrying out surgical procedures in a safe and swift manner are presented. Results: A total of 312 patients were operated on in 7 days. There were 145 patients with cleft lip and 167 patients with cleft palate. There were 187 male and 125 female patients with mean age of 7 years. Contemporary operative techniques were utilized to repair different types of cleft lip and palate. Of 167 patients, only 16 developed fistula. Conclusion: A locoregional cleft team can be more effective to care for the patients with cleft in countries where surgical and other expertise can be utilized by proper organization of cleft missions on a national level. PMID:25878924

  16. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  17. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Administrator, 2020 Company, LLC, 3110 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 950, Falls Church, VA 22042. 3. The...

  18. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... The Work Colleges Program The Work Colleges September 30, Report of 2010-2011 award Program Report...

  19. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  20. Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

    2010-12-01

    Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

  1. Skeletal muscle recovery after tenotomy and 7-day delayed muscle length restoration.

    PubMed

    Abrams, R A; Tsai, A M; Watson, B; Jamali, A; Lieber, R L

    2000-05-01

    Rabbit extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendons were cut with the muscle active (active tenotomy, AT) or with the EDL at rest (passive tenotomy, PT). One, 7, and 21 days after tenotomy, contractile testing was performed. A second experiment was performed in which EDL tendons underwent PT and, after a 7-day delay, muscle-tendon units were restored to their original length. Maximum isometric tension dropped precipitously 1 day after either AT or PT to approximately 50% of normal and continued to decline by day 7. In contrast to PT, where peak tension (P(0)) decreased further by 21 days, after AT, P(0) partially recovered. Differences in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, fiber type, and sarcomere number did not explain the differential response. One day after length restoration of muscles, P(0) rapidly increased by approximately 40%. These observations have implications for understanding the outcome of muscle-tendon unit injury and surgical repair. PMID:10797393

  2. The Diabetes Visual Function Supplement Study (DiVFuSS)

    PubMed Central

    Chous, A Paul; Richer, Stuart P; Gerson, Jeffry D; Kowluru, Renu A

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is known to affect visual function before onset of retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy (DR)). Protection of visual function may signal disruption of mechanisms underlying DR. Methods This was a 6-month randomised, controlled clinical trial of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with no retinopathy or mild to moderate non-proliferative retinopathy assigned to twice daily consumption of placebo or a novel, multi-component formula containing xanthophyll pigments, antioxidants and selected botanical extracts. Measurement of contrast sensitivity, macular pigment optical density, colour discrimination, 5-2 macular threshold perimetry, Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Symptoms, foveal and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, glycohaemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids, 25-OH-vitamin D, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were taken at baseline and 6 months. Outcomes were assessed by differences between and within groups at baseline and at study conclusion using meand ± SDs and t tests (p<0.05) for continuous variables. Results There were no significant intergroup differences at baseline. At 6 months, subjects on active supplement compared with placebo had significantly better visual function on all measures (p values ranging from 0.008 to <0.0001), significant improvements in most serum lipids (p values ranging from 0.01 to 0.0004), hsCRP (p=0.01) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (Fisher's exact test, p=0.0024) No significant changes in retinal thickness, HbA1c, total cholesterol or TNF-α were found between the groups. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence of clinically meaningful improvements in visual function, hsCRP and peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes, both with and without retinopathy, and without affecting glycaemic control. Trial registration number www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01646047 PMID:26089210

  3. Measuring vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements for nutrition studies in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article illustrates the importance of having analytical data on the vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplements in nutrition studies and describes efforts to develop an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) by a consortium of federal agencies in the USA. ...

  4. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia—A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE. PMID:26901463

  5. Evaluation of the 5-day versus a modified 7-day CIDR breeding program in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Mellieon, H I; Pulley, S L; Lamb, G C; Larson, J E; Stevenson, J S

    2012-12-01

    Dairy heifers were used to compared the effects of two timed AI + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols (5-day vs. a modified 7-day) on: (1) luteal regression to initiate a new ovarian follicular wave; (2) ovarian response to the initial GnRH injection; and (3) pregnancy outcomes. Holstein heifers (N = 543) were assigned randomly to two treatments: (1) 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) and a CIDR insert on Day -7 followed by 100 μg of GnRH (GnRH-1) on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR insert removal (7-day [7D]) on Day 0; or (2) 100 μg GnRH (GnRH-1) and insertion of a CIDR on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR removal (5-day [5D]) on Day 0. Insemination with frozen-thawed conventional or gender-biased semen occurred after detected estrus from Days 0 to 2 or by appointment at 72 h after PGF(2α) when a second 100-μg dose of GnRH was given. Blood was collected on Days -7, -5, 0, and 3 to determine concentrations of progesterone and incidence of luteolysis. Ovaries were scanned on Days -5 and 0. Luteolysis in the 7D treatment by 48 h after the initial PGF(2α) was greater (P < 0.01) than what occurred spontaneously in the 5D treatment (36.2% vs. 19.7%, respectively). Incidence of ovulation after GnRH-1 on Day -5 was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D than for 5D heifers, but the proportion of heifers with an induced CL on Day 0 did not differ between treatments. Heifers inseminated after detected estrus (166/543, 30.6%) on Days 0, 1, and 2 had greater (P < 0.05) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at 32 days post AI than after timed AI (38.2% vs. 28.3%) on Day 3. Pregnancy P/AI, however, was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D heifers inseminated at estrus (46.5%) than for 7D heifers receiving the timed AI (26.8%) and differed (P < 0.05) from all 5D heifers regardless of insemination time at estrus (30.5%) or at timed AI at 72 h (29.9%). At the Florida location in which conventional and sexed semen were used during two breeding clusters, P/AI using sexed semen (43.9%, N = 56) did not

  6. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  7. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  8. ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION UTILIZING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS A SUPPLEMENTAL SOURCE OF OXYGEN: A LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field scale studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide as a supplemental source of oxygen for bioremediation of an aviation gasoline fuel spill. Field samples of aviation gasoline contaminated aquifer material were artificially...

  9. Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of protein supplements among leisure time exercisers is growing. The present study aims to identify factors that motivate protein supplement consumption by comparing users' and non-users' underlying benefit beliefs about protein supplement. The study is based on an online survey of 813 Swiss adults (376 users of protein supplements and 437 non-users). Participants answered questions related to their benefit beliefs regarding protein supplement, their protein supplements consumption frequency, their activity level (GPAQ), and their reasons for taking protein supplement. In women, the most commonly cited reasons were to increase muscles (57.3%) and to regulate their weight (48.6%); and in men to increase muscles (83.7%) and to promote regeneration (53.7%). Furthermore, a principal component analysis revealed four benefit belief factors: (a) restore nutrients/avoid weakness; (b) fitness promotion; (c) health/well-being; (d) muscle modulation/competitive performance. The analysis showed that both users and non-users predominantly perceive protein supplements consumption as a strategy to modulate muscle mass, while beliefs in a health and well-being promoting effect was more prevalent among users (M = 3.2, SD = 1.3) than non-users (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3) (p < 0.001). Moreover, health and wellbeing-related beliefs were associated with an increased likelihood of a higher protein supplements intake frequency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), while physical activity level was not associated with protein supplements intake frequency. In addition, a negative correlation between physical activity level and beliefs in a fitness-promoting effect of protein supplements (r = -0.14, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that for a subgroup, protein supplements might license lower activity levels. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, consumers of varying activity levels consume protein supplements and believe in its' various positive features. Users should be

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  11. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  12. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  13. Health supplement consumption behavior in the older adult population: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397

  14. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

  15. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  16. Studies of LDL oxidation following alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienyl acetate supplementation of hypercholesterolemic humans.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, D; Grundy, S; Packer, L; Devaraj, S; Baldenius, K; Hoppe, P P; Kraemer, K; Jialal, I; Traber, M G

    2000-11-01

    In vitro tocotrienols (T3s) have potent vitamin E antioxidant activity, but unlike tocopherols can inhibit cholesterol synthesis by suppressing 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutarylCoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. Because hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may be involved in atherogenesis, we investigated whether daily supplements of placebo, or alpha-, gamma-, or delta- (alpha-, gamma-, or delta-) tocotrienyl acetates would alter serum cholesterol or LDL oxidative resistance in hypercholesterolemics in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 13), alpha- (n = 13), gamma- (n = 12), or delta- (n = 13) tocotrienyl acetate supplements (250 mg/d). All subjects followed a low-fat diet for 4 weeks, then took supplements with dinner for the following 8 weeks while still continuing diet restrictions. Plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherols were unchanged by supplementation. Plasma T3s were undetectable initially and always in the placebo group. Following supplementation in the respective groups plasma concentrations were: alpha-T3 0.98 +/- 0.80 micromol/l, gamma-T3 0.54 +/- 0.45 micromol/l, and delta-T3 0.09 +/- 0.07 micromol/l. Alpha-T3 increased in vitro LDL oxidative resistance (+22%, p <.001) and decreased its rate of oxidation (p <. 01). Neither serum or LDL cholesterol nor apolipoprotein B were significantly decreased by tocotrienyl acetate supplements. This study demonstrates that: (i) tocotrienyl acetate supplements are hydrolyzed, absorbed, and detectable in human plasma; (ii) tocotrienyl acetate supplements do not lower cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects on low-fat diets; and (iii) alpha-T3 may be potent in decreasing LDL oxidizability. PMID:11063909

  17. Dietary supplement use and nosebleeds in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia — an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chamali, Basel; Finnamore, Helen; Manning, Richard; Laffan, Michael A; Hickson, Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding potential provocations of haemorrhage is important in a range of clinical settings, and particularly for people with abnormal vasculature. Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) can report haemorrhage from nasal telangiectasia in real time, and suggested dietary factors may precipitate nosebleeds. To examine further, nosebleed severity, dietary supplement use, and blood indices were evaluated in an unselected group of 50 HHT patients recruited from a specialist UK service. Using the validated Epistaxis Severity Score, nosebleed severity ranged from 0 to 9.1 out of 10 (median 3.9). Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, 24/50 (48%) participants reported use of dietary supplements in the previous year. A third (18/50; 36%) had used self prescribed, non-iron containing dietary supplements, ingesting between 1 and 3 different supplements each day. Eight (16%) used fish oils. Despite having more severe epistaxis (p = 0.012), the 12 iron supplement users had higher serum iron concentrations, and were able to maintain their red blood cell indices. In contrast, there was no evident benefit for the participants using non iron supplements. Furthermore, platelet counts and serum fibrinogen tended to be lower in fish oil/supplement users, and one fish oil user demonstrated reduced in vitro platelet aggregation. In conclusion, in this small study, a third of HHT patients used non-iron dietary supplements, and one in six ingested fish oils, unaware of their known anti-platelet activity. The scale of use, and potential of these “natural health supplements” to exacerbate nosebleeds has not been appreciated previously in HHT. PMID:27195194

  18. Rural Self Development in India: Two Case Studies. A Curriculum Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Thomas N.

    Case studies of two, successful, rural, self-development programs in India are presented in this document, which is designed to supplement the study of India in the social studies curriculum. After a brief introduction to India's village system, the two projects are discussed. The first case study presents a water collection system in Bagrunda…

  19. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia. PMID:26695944

  20. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Lieke; Dower, James I; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Hollman, Peter C H; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2015-11-14

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95% CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. PMID:26343780

  1. Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients. PMID:25470614

  2. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development. INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Espada, Mercedes; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva-María; Forns, Joan; Aranbarri, Aritz; Llop, Sabrina; Julvez, Jordi; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-05-01

    Iodine supplementation during pregnancy is a common practice in developed countries. However, scant evidence is available regarding the safety and effectiveness of maternal iodine supplementation with regard to child neuropsychological development. We previously reported an inverse association between iodine supplementation and the psychomotor development of infants in a birth cohort from Valencia, Spain. In the present study, we assessed this association in a wider sample of mother and child pairs from 3 other regions in Spain. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 1,519 infants (median age, 16 months) between 2006 and 2009. In multivariate analyses, maternal consumption of 150 μg/day or more of iodine from supplements was related to a 1.5-fold increase in the odds of a psychomotor score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.9) and to a 1.7-fold increase in the odds of a mental score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.0). Findings previously reported in the Valencia cohort were only partially verified. The results of the present study suggest that, at least in these regions, iodine supplementation does not improve infant neuropsychological development at 1 year of age. Further research is needed on the risks and benefits of supplementary iodine for both maternal thyroid function and child neurodevelopment. PMID:23548753

  3. Predicting In-Hospital Treatment Failure (≤ 7 days) in Patients with COPD Exacerbation Using Antibiotics and Systemic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Guerrero, Mónica; Gabarrús, Albert; Gimeno, Alexandra; Martinez, Raquel; Soler, Néstor; Fernández, Laia; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Menéndez, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94). Measures of inflammatory serum biomarkers were recorded at admission and at day 3; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity, as well data on mortality and readmission, were also recorded. Patients with treatment failure had a worse lung function, with higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 8, and IL-10 at admission, and CRP and IL-8 at day 3. Longer length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, higher total doses of steroids and prevalence of deaths and readmitted were found in the treatment failure group. In the multivariate analysis, +1 mg/dL of CRP at admission (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.13) and use of penicillins or cephalosporins (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.26 to 25.07) were independent variables increasing risk of treatment failure, whereas cough at admission (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75) reduces risk of failure. In hospitalized COPDE patients CRP at admission and use of specific class of antibiotics predict in-hospital treatment failure, while presence of cough has a protective role. PMID:26451913

  4. A Study of Certain Characteristics of Students and Graduates of Occupation-Centered Curricula. Supplemental Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lawrence H.

    This document supplements ED 025 264, a study of 2,459 individuals enrolled in one of 43 occupation-centered curricula in 20 California junior colleges. The parent study compared students' questionnaire responses about home and educational backgrounds, and about attitudes presumably related to both vocational choice and choice of curricula leading…

  5. SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

    THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

  6. A Study of Recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits and Special Unemployment Assistance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter; And Others

    This is the final report of a study of approximately 12,000 recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits (FSB) and Special Unemployment Assistance (SUA) during 1975. (The study, involving interviews with recipients in 15 States and analysis of administrative records from each State's Unemployment Insurance Service, was conducted in response to the…

  7. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  8. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study... 22042-4548. 3. The Work Colleges Program Report of The Work Colleges Program October 1, 2012....

  9. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Suite 800, Falls Church, VA 22042- 4548. 3. The Work Colleges Program Report of The Work...

  10. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  11. Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids - results of an international study.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Parr, M K; Mareck, U; Reinhart, U; Schrader, Y; Schänzer, W

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies have shown evidence of some nutritional supplements containing prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids, so-called prohormones, which were not declared on the label. Therefore, a broad-based investigation of the international nutritional supplement market was initiated to clarify the extent of this problem. From October 2000 until November 2001, 634 non-hormonal nutritional supplements were purchased in 13 countries from 215 different suppliers. Most supplements were bought in shops in the respective countries (578 samples = 91.2 %) and on the internet (52 samples = 8.2 %). 289 supplements were from prohormone-selling companies and 345 supplements came from companies which do not offer prohormones. After isolation from the supplement matrix 11 different anabolic androgenic steroids, mainly prohormones of testosterone and nandrolone, were analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Out of the 634 samples analysed 94 (14.8 %) contained anabolic androgenic steroids not declared on the label ("positive supplements"). We could not obtain reliable data for 66 samples (10.4 %) due to matrix effects. In relation to the total number of products purchased per country, most of the positive supplements were bought in the Netherlands (25.8 %), in Austria (22.7 %), in the UK (18.8 %) and the USA (18.8 %). According to the label, all positive supplements were from companies located in only five countries: the USA, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and Germany. 21.1 % of the nutritional supplements from prohormone-selling companies contained anabolic androgenic steroids, whereas 9.6 % of the supplements from companies not selling prohormones were positive. The positive supplements showed anabolic androgenic steroid concentrations of 0.01 micro g/g up to 190 micro g/g. The administration of supplements containing nandrolone prohormones adding up to a total uptake of more than 1 micro g resulted in positive doping results for norandrosterone for several

  12. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix. PMID:25653232

  13. Effects of a nutritional supplement on coprophagia: a study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Bugle, C; Rubin, H B

    1993-01-01

    The cases of three individuals with profound mental retardation and long histories of coprophagia (ingestion of feces) were studied to determine if fecal material could be providing a nutrient that was unavailable from a standard institutional diet. In each case the individual was provided with a daily oral supplement of an "elemental diet," which, at twice the dose administered, would provide all the nutrients necessary for sustenance. The frequency of coprophagia was decreased in all three cases when they received the supplemental nutrients as compared to when they were maintained on a balanced institutional diet alone. PMID:8296025

  14. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  15. On the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A Systematic Review of Supplemental Instruction and Peer-Assisted Study Sessions Literature between 2001 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip; van der Meer, Jacques; Skalicky, Jane; Cowley, Kym

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI)--variously known as peer-assisted learning, peer-assisted study sessions, and other names--is a type of academic support intervention popular in higher education. In SI sessions, a senior student facilitates peer learning between undergraduates studying a high-risk course. This article presents a systematic review of…

  16. Supplemental Educational Services: A Descriptive Study of Parent Notification and Enrollment into Free Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyers, Darryl Lavell

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and describe the implementation practices being used by school districts to notify and enroll parents into Supplemental Educational Services under No Child Left Behind. Parents participating in choice programs in the school districts of Savannah, Atlanta and Detroit participated in a survey…

  17. A Supplement to Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. A College Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryn

    This case study was developed as a supplement to the U. S. Department of Education publication Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. Its purpose is to help readers get a feel for what is involved in setting up an evaluation of a college alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Although Understanding Evaluation…

  18. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Semionkin, V. A.; Dubiel, S. M.

    2010-07-13

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  19. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  20. Supplemental Reading Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: A Randomized Trial and Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the impact of a yearlong supplemental reading course involving daily instruction in the learning strategies curriculum on lower achieving adolescent students' reading achievement and motivation. Using a multiple-cohort randomized treatment-control group design over 4 years, they compared achievement and…

  1. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  2. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, R.; Stalker, R. J.; Brescianini, C. P.; Morgan, R. G.; Jacobs, P. A.; Wendt, M.; Ward, N. R.; Akman, N.; Allen, G. A.; Skinner, K.

    1990-01-01

    A series of reports are presented on SCRAMjet studies, shock tunnel studies, and expansion tube studies. The SCRAMjet studies include: (1) Investigation of a Supersonic Combustion Layer; (2) Wall Injected SCRAMjet Experiments; (3) Supersonic Combustion with Transvers, Circular, Wall Jets; (4) Dissociated Test Gas Effects on SCRAMjet Combustors; (5) Use of Silane as a Fuel Additive for Hypersonic Thrust Production, (6) Pressure-length Correlations in Supersonic Combustion; (7) Hot Hydrogen Injection Technique for Shock Tunnels; (8) Heat Release - Wave Interaction Phenomena in Hypersonic Flows; (9) A Study of the Wave Drag in Hypersonic SCRAMjets; (10) Parametric Study of Thrust Production in the Two Dimensional SCRAMjet; (11) The Design of a Mass Spectrometer for use in Hypersonic Impulse Facilities; and (12) Development of a Skin Friction Gauge for use in an Impulse Facility. The shock tunnel studies include: (1) Hypervelocity flow in Axisymmetric Nozzles; (2) Shock Tunnel Development; and (3) Real Gas Efects in Hypervelocity Flows over an Inclined Cone. The expansion tube studies include: (1) Investigation of Flow Characteristics in TQ Expansion Tube; and (2) Disturbances in the Driver Gas of a Shock Tube.

  3. Molasses supplementation of grazing dairy cows: summary of case study, continuous culture fermenter trials, and controlled research farm study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and a controlled research farm study) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy f...

  4. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, M.; Nettleton, M.; Morgan, R. G.; Skinner, K.; Casey, R.; Stalker, R.; Brescianini, C.; Paull, A.; Allen, G.; Smart, M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation.

  5. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1995. Supplement 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    1997-01-01

    Reports by the research staff and graduate students of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Queensland are collected and presented. These reports cover various studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology and the operation of advanced hypervelocity shock-expansion tubes. The report topics include the experimental studies of mixing and combustion in a scramjet flow path, the measurement of integrated thrust and skin friction, and the development of a free-piston-driven expansion tunnel capable delivering a test gas at super orbital velocities.

  6. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections. PMID:25273604

  7. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  8. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  9. Phylogenetic and Functional Alterations in Bacterial Community Compositions in Broiler Ceca as a Result of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  10. Phylogenetic and functional alterations in bacterial community compositions in broiler ceca as a result of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, A; de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R A

    2015-05-15

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  11. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  12. Cerebral energetic effects of creatine supplementation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Takahashi, K

    2007-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation to treat neurological disorders. However, in contrast to muscle physiology, there are relatively few studies of creatine supplementation in the brain. In this report, we use high-field MR (31)P and (1)H spectroscopic imaging of human brain with a 7-day protocol of oral Cr supplementation to examine its effects on cerebral energetics (phosphocreatine, PCr; ATP) and mitochondrial metabolism (N-acetyl aspartate, NAA; and Cr). We find an increased ratio of PCr/ATP (day 0, 0.80 +/- 0.10; day 7, 0.85 +/- 09), with this change largely due to decreased ATP, from 2.7 +/- 0.3 mM to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mM. The ratio of NAA/Cr also decreased (day 0, 1.32 +/- 0.17; day 7 1.18 +/- 0.13), primarily from increased Cr (9.6 +/- 1.9 to 10.1 +/- 2.0 mM). The Cr-induced changes significantly correlated with the basal state, with the fractional increase in PCr/ATP negatively correlating with the basal PCr/ATP value (R = -0.74, P < 0.001). As NAA is a measure of mitochondrial function, there was also a significant negative correlation between basal NAA concentrations with the fractional change in PCr and ATP. Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations. PMID:17185404

  13. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children’s health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002–03, and 2007–08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center. PMID:24706732

  14. Comparative study of two systems of delivering supplemental protein with standardized tube feedings.

    PubMed

    Luther, Heidi; Barco, Kathy; Chima, Cinda; Yowler, Charles J

    2003-01-01

    Burn patients often require protein supplementation for their nutritional support. Although these are often added to a commercial formula, published standards recommend a 4-hr hang time for manipulated open-system formulas in comparison with 24 hr for unopened closed systems. We hypothesized that use of standard closed-system formulas with the addition of protein flushes via the feeding tube twice daily would reduce nursing time and increase satisfaction. A pilot study included a time study comparing the two methods and a nursing satisfaction questionnaire. Management of an open system consistent with national standards took almost twice as much nursing time daily as the closed system with supplemental protein flushes (36.6 +/- 17.1 min vs 18.6 +/- 3.6 min; P =.051). Sixteen of 17 nurses preferred the closed system with protein flush. The results of this study were used to support expansion of the protocol change throughout the hospital. PMID:12792240

  15. Iron Supplementation and Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Florian; Neyer, Ulrich; Knoll, Florian; Lhotta, Karl; Weiss, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting. Methods In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study) we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (<0.5 mg/dL) and elevated CRP levels (≧0.5 mg/dL) was evaluated by using non-linear P-splines to allow flexible modeling of the association. Results One hundred and ninety-one (81.3%) patients received intravenous iron, 13 (5.5%) patients oral iron, whereas 31 (13.2%) patients were never supplemented with iron throughout the observation period. Eighty-two (35%) patients died during a median follow-up of 34 months, 38 patients due to cardiovascular events and 21 patients from sepsis. Baseline CRP levels were not different between patients with and without iron supplementation. However, baseline serum ferritin levels were lower in patients receiving iron during follow up (median 93 vs 251 ng/mL, p<0.001). Iron supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced all-cause mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.22 (0.08–0.58); p = 0.002] and a reduced cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.31 (0.09–1.04); p = 0.06]. Increasing ferritin concentrations in patients with normal CRP were associated with a decreasing mortality, whereas in patients with elevated CRP values ferritin levels>800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality. Conclusions Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels

  16. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  17. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  18. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  19. Clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Satoh, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-06-01

    To confirm the efficacy of the treatment regimen with oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), we evaluated the microbiological and clinical outcomes of the regimen in those patients. We finally evaluated 53 patients with symptomatic NGU and 5 patients with asymptomatic NGU. As a result of microbiological examinations, 19 of the symptomatic patients were diagnosed as having non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis (NGCU); 13 had non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU), and 21 had urethritis without any microbial detection. Five of the asymptomatic patients were diagnosed as having NGCU. Microbiological cure was achieved in 91% of the 32 patients with symptomatic NGU and in 80% of the 5 patients with asymptomatic NGCU. Clinical cure was obtained in 92% of the 53 patients with symptomatic NGU. The microbiological eradication rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was 92% in 24 patients. As for other organisms, the microbiological eradication rate for Mycoplasma genitalium was 60% in 5 patients and that for Ureaplasma urealyticum was 100% in 10. The microbiological and clinical efficacy of oral LVFX 500 mg once daily for 7 days for the patients with NGU was the same for the azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg single dose that we previously reported. The eradication rates of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum in the treatment regimen with LVFX 500 mg were high enough in the clinical setting; however, for M. genitalium, the rate was relatively inferior to that with AZM. PMID:21174140

  20. Effect of Intravenous Iron Supplementation on Acute Mountain Sickness: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xuewen; Zhang, Qiuying; Wang, Hao; Man, Chunyan; Hong, Heng; Chen, Li; Li, Tanshi; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the role of intravenous iron supplementation in the prevention of AMS. Material/Methods This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Forty-one (n=41) healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants living in Beijing, China (altitude of about 50 meters) were randomly assigned into intravenous iron supplementation (ISS group; n=21) and placebo (CON group; n=20) groups. Participants in the ISS group received iron sucrose supplement (200 mg) before flying to Lhasa, China (altitude of 4300 meters). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) severity was assessed with the Lake Louise scoring (LLS) system within 5 days after landing on the plateau (at high altitude). Routine check-ups, clinical biochemistry, and blood tests were performed before departure and 24 h after arrival. Results A total of 38 participants completed the study (ISS group: n=19; CON group: n=19). The rate of subjects with AMS (LLS>3) was lower in the ISS group compared with the CON group, but no significant differences were obtained (P>0.05). There were no differences in patients’ baseline characteristics. The physiological indices were similar in both groups except for serum iron concentrations (19.44±10.02 vs. 85.10±26.78 μmol/L) and transferrin saturation rates (28.20±12.14 vs. 68.34±33.12%), which were significantly higher in the ISS group (P<0.05). Finally, heart rate was identified as a contributing factor of LLS. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that intravenous iron supplementation has no significant protective effect on AMS in healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants. PMID:26175087

  1. Vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5 nmol/liter and <60 nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000 IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2 years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  2. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p<0.001) were found in the patients as compared to those in controls, and significant depletions were found in the levels of serum vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition as compared to those in controls. After supplementation of antioxidants for one month, the levels of malondialdehyde were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase capacity levels were increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, there was a non–significant (p>0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  3. An exploratory study evaluating the effects of macular carotenoid supplementation in various retinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Hykin, Philip; Peto, Tunde; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the impact of daily oral supplementation with Macushield (10 mg/d meso-zeaxanthin, 10 mg/d lutein, and 2 mg/d zeaxanthin) on eye health in patients with retinal diseases by assessing the macular pigment (MP) profile, the visual function, and the quality of life. Methods Fifty-one patients with various retinal diseases were supplemented daily and followed up for 6 months. The MP optical density was measured using the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and dual-wavelength autofluorescence. Visual function was evaluated by assessing the change in best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare sensitivity in mesopic and photopic conditions. Vision-related and general quality of life changes were determined using the National Eye Insititute- Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25) and EuroQoL-5 dimension questionnaires. Results A statistically significant increase in the MP optical density was observed using the dual-wavelength autofluorescence (P=0.04) but not with the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Statistically significant (P<0.05) improvements in glare sensitivity in low and medium spatial frequencies were observed at 3 months and 6 months. Ceiling effects confounded other visual function tests and quality of life changes. Conclusion Supplementation with the three carotenoids enhances certain aspects of visual performance in retinal diseases. PMID:27274188

  4. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  5. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  6. Dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on the composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements☆

    PubMed Central

    Roseland, Janet M.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen W.; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and other government agencies to design and populate a dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database will provide reliable estimates of vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplement (DS) products. The DSID will initially be populated with multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products because they are the most commonly consumed supplements. Challenges associated with the analysis of MVMs were identified and investigated. A pilot study addressing the identification of appropriate analytical methods, sample preparation protocols, and experienced laboratories for the analysis of 12 vitamins and 11 minerals in adult MVM supplement products was completed. Preliminary studies support the development of additional analytical studies with results that can be applied to the DSID. Total intakes from foods and supplements are needed to evaluate the associations between dietary components and health. The DSID will provide better estimates of actual nutrient intake from supplements than databases that rely on label values alone. PMID:24307755

  7. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  8. Adherence to 7-day primaquine treatment for the radical cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-06-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  9. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Heine-Bröring, Renate C; Winkels, Renate M; Renkema, Jacoba M S; Kragt, Lea; van Orten-Luiten, Anne-Claire B; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Chan, Doris S M; Norat, Teresa; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-05-15

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up to January 2013. Original and peer-reviewed papers on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer incidence were included. "Use-no use"(U-NU), "highest-lowest"(H-L) and "dose-response"(DR) meta-analyses were performed. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary estimates. In total, 24 papers were included in the meta-analyses. We observed inverse associations for colorectal cancer risk and multivitamin (U-NU: RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87,0.97) and calcium supplements (U-NU: RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79,0.95; H-L: RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.70,0.92; DR: for an increase of 100 mg/day, RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94,0.99). Inconsistent associations were found for colon cancer risk and supplemental vitamin A and vitamin C, and for colorectal cancer risk and supplemental vitamin D, vitamin E, garlic and folic acid. Meta-analyses of observational studies suggest a beneficial role for multivitamins and calcium supplements on colorectal cancer risk, while the association with other supplements and colorectal cancer risk is inconsistent. Residual confounding of lifestyle factors might be present. Before recommendations can be made, an extensive assessment of dietary supplement use and a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is needed. PMID:25335850

  11. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    PubMed

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  12. Natural Supplements for H1N1 Influenza: Retrospective Observational Infodemiology Study of Information and Search Activity on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun; Ungar, Lyle; Hennessy, Sean; Leonard, Charles E; Holmes, John

    2011-01-01

    Background As the incidence of H1N1 increases, the lay public may turn to the Internet for information about natural supplements for prevention and treatment. Objective Our objective was to identify and characterize websites that provide information about herbal and natural supplements with information about H1N1 and to examine trends in the public’s behavior in searching for information about supplement use in preventing or treating H1N1. Methods This was a retrospective observational infodemiology study of indexed websites and Internet search activity over the period January 1, 2009, through November 15, 2009. The setting is the Internet as indexed by Google with aggregated Internet user data. The main outcome measures were the frequency of “hits” or webpages containing terms relating to natural supplements co-occurring with H1N1/swine flu, terms relating to natural supplements co-occurring with H1N1/swine flu proportional to all terms relating to natural supplements, webpage rank, webpage entropy, and temporal trend in search activity. Results A large number of websites support information about supplements and H1N1. The supplement with the highest proportion of H1N1/swine flu information was a homeopathic remedy known as Oscillococcinum that has no known side effects; supplements with the next highest proportions have known side effects and interactions. Webpages with both supplement and H1N1/swine flu information were less likely to be medically curated or authoritative. Search activity for supplements was temporally related to H1N1/swine flu-related news reports and events. Conclusions The prevalence of nonauthoritative webpages with information about supplements in the context of H1N1/swine flu and the increasing number of searches for these pages suggest that the public is interested in alternatives to traditional prevention and treatment of H1N1. The quality of this information is often questionable and clinicians should be cognizant that patients

  13. Ganoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study.

    PubMed

    Wachtel-Galor, Sissi; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2004-02-01

    Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) is a woody mushroom highly regarded in traditional medicine and is widely consumed in the belief that it promotes health and longevity, lowers the risk of cancer and heart disease and boosts the immune system. However, objective scientific validation of the putative health benefits of Lingzhi in human subjects is lacking, and issues of possible toxicity must be addressed. The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study investigated the effects of 4 weeks Lingzhi supplementation on a range of biomarkers for antioxidant status, CHD risk, DNA damage, immune status, and inflammation, as well as markers of liver and renal toxicity. It was performed as a follow-up to a study that showed that antioxidant power in plasma increased after Lingzhi ingestion, and that 10 d supplementation was associated with a trend towards an improved CHD biomarker profile. In the present study, fasting blood and urine from healthy, consenting adults (n 18; aged 22-52 years) was collected before and after 4 weeks supplementation with a commercially available encapsulated Lingzhi preparation (1.44 g Lingzhi/d; equivalent to 13.2 g fresh mushroom/d) or placebo. No significant change in any of the variables was found, although a slight trend toward lower lipids was again seen, and antioxidant capacity in urine increased. The results showed no evidence of liver, renal or DNA toxicity with Lingzhi intake, and this is reassuring. The present study of the effects in healthy, well-nourished subjects provides useful, new scientific data that will support controlled intervention trials using at-risk subjects in order to assess the therapeutic effect of Lingzhi in the promotion of healthy ageing. PMID:14756912

  14. Determination of Total Soy Isoflavones in Dietary Supplements, Supplement Ingredients, and Soy Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Collison, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for determining total soy isoflavones in dietary supplements, dietary supplement ingredients, and soy foods. Isoflavones were extracted using aqueous acetonitrile containing a small amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and all 12 of the naturally occuring isoflavones in soy were determined by high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using apigenin as an internal standard. Fifteen samples (6 pairs of blind duplicates plus 3 additional samples) of soy isoflavone ingredients, soy isoflavone dietary supplements, soy flour, and soy protein products were successfully analyzed by 13 collaborating laboratories in 6 countries. For repeatability, the relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 1.07 for samples containing over 400 mg/g total isoflavones to 3.31 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones, and for reproducibility the RSDR values ranged from 2.29 for samples containing over 400 mg/g total isoflavones to 9.36 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones. HorRat values ranged from 1.00 to 1.62 for all samples containing at least 0.8 mg/g total isoflavones. One sample, containing very low total isoflavones (<0.05 mg/g), gave RSDR values of 175 and a HorRat value of 17.6. This sample was deemed to be below the usable range of the method. The method provides accurate and precise results for analysis of soy isoflavones in dietary supplements and soy foods. PMID:18567292

  15. "There is iron and iron…" Burkinabè women's perceptions of iron supplementation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Compaore, A; Gies, S; Brabin, B; Tinto, H; Brabin, L

    2014-10-01

    Most pregnant women in Burkina Faso are iron deficient and many are anemic. This study assessed women's understanding of anemia and the role of iron in preventing and treating this condition. A qualitative study was conducted within a randomized controlled trial of weekly iron supplementation in a rural malaria endemic area. Focus groups with women of similar age, parity, and marital status took place in 12 of 24 study villages. Two additional focus groups were conducted with female field workers. Tape-recorded transcripts were translated into French and analyzed using Framework analysis. Anemia, for which no Mooré term or traditional treatment for anemia was evident, was described in terms of blood volume. Moderate blood loss (diminished blood) could be easily replaced by eating well and was not considered serious. Massive blood loss (finished blood) was a rare, life-threatening illness. Iron tablets could increase blood volume and help women withstand massive blood loss at delivery, but for the latter, transfusion was indicated. Women had no knowledge of iron's role and did not readily concede that iron supplements contained elemental iron. Neither adolescents nor field workers were convinced of the benefits of supplementing non-pregnant adolescents, who were incorrectly considered to be at low risk of anemia. Young women's knowledge of anemia did not provide an adequate explanatory framework to motivate anemia prevention. Improving information on the role of iron is especially important for adolescent girls who may be incorrectly considered at low risk of anemia as they have not yet experienced pregnancy. PMID:25138626

  16. Ginger Supplementation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimlou, Mehran; Yari, Zahra; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Ginger can have hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and act as an insulinsensitizer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger supplementation in NAFLD management. Patients and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 patients with NAFLD were assigned to take either two grams per day of a ginger supplement or the identical placebo, for 12 weeks. In both groups, patients were advised to follow a modified diet and physical activity program. The metabolic parameters and indicators of liver damage were measured at study baseline and after the 12 week intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, inflammatory cytokines, as well as the insulin resistance index and hepatic steatosis grade in comparison to the placebo. We did not find any significant effect of taking ginger supplements on hepatic fibrosis and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of two grams of ginger supplementation showed beneficial effects on some NAFLD characteristics. Further studies are recommended to assess the long-term supplementation effects. PMID:27110262

  17. The Effect of Flaxseed Supplementation on Hormonal Levels Associated with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Debra A.; Snyder, Denise C.; Brown, Ann J.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of lignan and has been shown to reduce androgen levels in men with prostate cancer. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder among women in their reproductive years, also is associated with high levels of androgens and is frequently accompanied by hirsutism, amenorrhea and obesity. This clinical case study describes the impact of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) on hormonal levels in a 31-year old woman with PCOS. During a four month period, the patient consumed 83% of the flaxseed dose. Heights, weights, and fasting blood samples taken at baseline and 4-month follow-up indicated the following values: BMI (36.0 vs. 35.7m/kg2); insulin (5.1 vs. 7.0 uIU/ml); total serum testosterone (150 ng/dl vs. 45 ng/dl); free serum testosterone (4.7 ng/dl vs. 0.5 ng/dl); and % free testosterone (3.1% vs. 1.1%). The patient also reported a decrease in hirsutism at the completion of the study period. The clinically-significant decrease in androgen levels with a concomitant reduction in hirsutism reported in this case study demonstrates a need for further research of flaxseed supplementation on hormonal levels and clinical symptoms of PCOS. PMID:19789727

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  19. Vitamin supplement use during breast cancer treatment and survival: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Ying; Gu, Kai; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidants may protect normal cells from the oxidative damage that occurs during radiotherapy and certain chemotherapy regimens, however, the same mechanism could protect tumor cells and potentially reduce effectiveness of cancer treatments. We evaluated the association of vitamin supplement use in the first six-months after breast cancer diagnosis and during cancer treatment with total mortality and recurrence. Methods We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study of 4,877 women aged 20–75 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Shanghai, China between March 2002 and April 2006. Women were interviewed approximately six-months after diagnosis and followed-up by in-person interviews and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 444 deaths and 532 recurrences occurred. Vitamin use shortly after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality and recurrence risk, adjusted for multiple lifestyle factors, sociodemographics, and known clinical prognostic factors. Women who used antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, multivitamins) had 18% reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–1.02) and 22% reduced recurrence risk (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95). The inverse association was found regardless of whether vitamin use was concurrent or non-concurrent with chemotherapy, but was only present among patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusions Vitamin supplement use in the first six months after breast cancer diagnosis may be associated with reduced risk of mortality and recurrence. Impact Our results do not support the current recommendation that breast cancer patients should avoid use of vitamin supplements. PMID:21177425

  20. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients. PMID:27154364

  1. Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Brain Homocarnosine/Carnosine Signal and Cognitive Function: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Ruth M; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Otaduy, Maria C.; Roschel, Hamilton; Robertson, Jacques; Martin, Daniel; S. Painelli, Vitor; Harris, Roger C.; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1) and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men) and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation), with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task) being performed before and after exercise on each occasion. Results In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99) or omnivores (p = 0.27); nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19). Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27). In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P<0.05), although there was no effect (P>0.05) of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise. Conclusion 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4g d-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:25875297

  2. Probiotic Supplementation Promotes Calcification in Danio rerio Larvae: A Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Falcinelli, Silvia; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Olivotto, Ike; Carnevali, Oliana

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish). The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2), Sp7 transcription factor (sp7), matrix Gla protein (mgp), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (bglap) as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost), a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3), which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf) and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders. PMID:24358259

  3. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

  4. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  6. Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yari, Zahra; Rahimlou, Mehran; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Ebrahimi-Daryani, Naser; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-06-01

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management. PMID:26983396

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies three common variants associated with serologic response to vitamin E supplementation in men.

    PubMed

    Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Chung, Charles C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Snyder, Kirk; Wright, Margaret E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, prevents oxidative damage to DNA by scavenging free radicals, and reduces carcinogen production. No study to our knowledge, however, has examined the association between genetic variants and response to long-term vitamin E supplementation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common variants associated with circulating α-tocopherol concentrations following 3 y of controlled supplementation. The study population included 2112 middle-aged, male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort who received a trial supplementation of α-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and had fasting serum α-tocopherol concentrations measured after 3 y. Serum concentrations were log-transformed for statistical analysis and general linear models adjusted for age, BMI, serum total cholesterol, and cancer case status. Associations with serum response to α-tocopherol supplementation achieved genome-wide significance for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs964184 on 11q23.3 (P = 2.6 × 10(-12)) and rs2108622 on 19pter-p13.11 (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)), and approached genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs7834588 on 8q12.3 (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)). Combined, these SNP explain 3.4% of the residual variance in serum α-tocopherol concentrations during controlled vitamin E supplementation. A GWAS has identified 3 genetic variants at different loci that appear associated with serum concentrations after vitamin E supplementation in men. Identifying genetic variants that influence serum nutrient biochemical status (e.g., α-tocopherol) under supplementation conditions improves our understanding of the biological determinants of these nutritional exposures and their associations with cancer etiology. PMID:22437554

  8. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  9. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  10. 78 FR 78948 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... for the Route 460 Location Study From Prince George County to the City of Suffolk, VA AGENCY...), will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact ] Statement (SEIS) for the Route 460 Location Study... continue processing the permit application. An FEIS for the Route 460 Location Study was approved by...

  11. Advanced Placement (AP) Social Studies Teachers' Use of Academic Course Blogs as a Supplemental Resource for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) social studies teachers' utilization of academic course blogs and student achievement. Simultaneously, the study examined the participating teachers' perceptions on the use of course blogs and other social media as supplemental learning resources. The…

  12. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in botanicals and dietary supplements by HPLC-UV: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C

    2004-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and methylpseudoephedrine [MP]) alkaloids in selected dietary supplements representative of the commercially available products. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedrine-type alkaloid content in 8 blind replicate samples. Five products contained ephedra ground herb or ephedra extract. These 5 products included ground botanical raw material of Ephedra sinica, a common powdered extract of Ephedra sinica, a finished product containing only Ephedra sinica ground botanical raw material, a complex multicomponent dietary supplement containing Ma Huang, and a high-protein chocolate flavored drink mix containing Ma Huang extract. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with ephedrine alkaloids at high and low levels for recovery studies. Test extracts were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.64-3.0% for EP and 2.0-6.6% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 2.1-6.6% for EP and 9.0-11.4% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Recoveries ranged from 84.7-87.2% for EP and 84.6-98.2% for PS. The data developed for the minor alkaloids are more variable with generally unsatisfactory HORRATS (i.e., >2). However, since these alkaloids generally add little to the total alkaloid content of the products, the method gives satisfactory results in measuring total alkaloid content (RSDr 0.85-3.13%; RSDR 2.03-10.97%, HORRAT 0.69-3.23, exclusive of the results

  13. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  14. Supplemental Educational Services: An Action Science Research Study of Achieving State Standards for Provider Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Cynthia Collette

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental educational services are designed to contribute tremendous support to local school districts and communities through state-approved provider programs. The state, however, prior to approving supplemental educational services provider programs, must utilize all available resources to assist in the process of screening and approving…

  15. Nutritional supplementation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under natural grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Rodríguez, G; De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Scaramuzzi, R J; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting at the time when the males were introduced to the females. The ovulation rate at the second male-induced ovulation was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (2.0+/-0.1) than in non-supplemented (1.6+/-0.1) does. For Experiment 2, female goats were supplemented for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days, starting 9 days following buck introduction. The proportion of does that were pregnant in the group supplemented for 28 days was greater (P<0.05) than in the non-supplemented group, but did not differ from 14-day and the 7-day supplemented groups. The proportion of pregnant does was greater (P<0.05) in the group supplemented for 14 days compared to the group supplemented for 7 days and the non-supplemented group. These latter two groups did not differ (P>0.05). In conclusion, feed supplementation for 7 days, starting at the time when males were introduced increased ovulation rate and feed supplementation for 14 or 28 days starting 9 days after males were introduced improved pregnancy rates in goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to males. PMID:19231114

  16. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  17. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  18. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  19. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  20. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, L; Dower, J I; Mensink, M; Siebelink, E; Bakker, S J L; Geleijnse, J M

    2015-10-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium and potassium. After a 1-week run-in period, subjects received capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g d(-1), equals 7.6 g d(-1) of salt), supplemental potassium (3 g d(-1)) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. Fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks. Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. They had a mean pre-treatment BP of 145/81 mm Hg and 69% had systolic BP ⩾140 mm Hg. Sodium excretion was increased by 98 mmol per 24 h and potassium excretion by 63 mmol per 24 h during active interventions, compared with placebo. During sodium supplementation, office BP was significantly increased by 7.5/3.3 mm Hg, 24-h BP by 7.5/2.7 mm Hg and central BP by 8.5/3.6 mm Hg. During potassium supplementation, 24-h BP was significantly reduced by 3.9/1.6 mm Hg and central pulse pressure by 2.9 mm Hg. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were not significantly affected by sodium or potassium supplementation. In conclusion, increasing the intake of sodium caused a substantial increase in BP in subjects with untreated elevated BP. Increased potassium intake, on top of a relatively low-sodium diet, had a beneficial effect on BP. Arterial stiffness did not materially change during 4-week interventions with sodium or potassium. PMID:25673113

  1. Vitamin D supplementation and diabetes-related autoimmunity in the ABIS study.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Hilde K; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2007-02-01

    Supplementation with vitamin D during infancy, as well as intake of vitamin D during pregnancy, has been associated with decreased risk of type 1 diabetes or diabetes-related autoantibodies in children. The primary aim of this report was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with diabetes-related autoimmunity at 1 and 2.5 yr in the children. Second, we examined whether consumption of vitamin-D-containing supplements during pregnancy is related to risk of autoimmunity in the offspring. Screening questionnaires were completed for 16,070 infants after delivery, including a food-frequency questionnaire regarding the mother's use of dietary supplements during pregnancy. Parents of 11,081 and 8805 infants completed a follow-up questionnaire regarding the use of vitamin supplementation at 1 and 2.5 yr, respectively. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet antigen-2 (IA-2) were analyzed in whole blood from 8694 children at 1 yr and 7766 children at 2.5 yr. Supplementation with AD-drops was not associated with autoantibodies at 1 or 2.5 yr. Use of vitamin-D-containing supplements during pregnancy was associated with reduced diabetes-related autoimmunity at 1 yr (adjusted odds ratio: 0.707, confidence interval: 0.520-0.962, p = 0.028) but not at 2.5 yr. In conclusion, no association was found between an intermediate dose of vitamin D supplementation during infancy and development of diabetes-related autoantibodies at 1 and 2.5 yr. Use of vitamin-D-containing supplements during pregnancy was associated with reduced development of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies or IA-2A in the offspring at 1 yr, but not at 2.5 yr. PMID:17341286

  2. Dietary supplement users vary in attitudes and sources of dietary supplement information in East and West geographic regions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 50% of adults currently use dietary supplements (DS) but manufacturers do not have to prove the safety or efficacy of a DS before it is marketed. Therefore, consumers may be exposed to inaccurate DS information, may lack confidence in choosing appropriate DS and may seek advice for usage. The objective of this study was to examine trends in usage, attitudes, and sources of information regarding DS according to geographic location, demographic group, and lifestyle choices. Methods Eligible individuals completed a 10-item researcher-developed survey tool to determine DS use, sources of DS information, and DS-related knowledge and attitudes over the previous year. Healthy participants (637 individuals aged 21–75 years) from two population-based cohorts that had been recruited for lipoprotein assessment studies at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts and University of California at Davis. Outcome measures included participants’ use, beliefs regarding essentiality of DS, confidence in choosing appropriate DS, and sources of information on DS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to examine differences in survey responses between groups. Results Of the total population 72.7% reported taking dietary supplements in the previous year. Those living on the West Coast (80.3%) had greater use than those living on the East Coast (60.7%). Those on the East Coast were more likely to believe DS were essential to health (48.7%) and to feel confident in choosing DS that were appropriate for them (51.0%). Overall, physicians were the most frequent source of DS information for more than 50% of participants on both coasts. Conclusion Because DS usage is widespread, health care providers and nutrition educators must encourage patients to discuss their DS use and be equipped to provide information conducive to safe, efficacious consumption. Tailoring interventions for healthcare providers, media sources, industry, and the public may allow

  3. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  4. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education--Helping New Students to Adjust to and Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter…

  5. Cleveland Diocesan Social Science Program. Social Studies Unit in Formation: A Supplement to the Social Science Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catholic Board of Education, Diocese of Cleveland, OH.

    Historical and cultural world understandings are presented to secondary students in this social studies teaching supplement to guidelines described in documents SO 003 186 and SO 003 188. The objective of the activity units is to encourage the students to become inquirers into the values of the non-western and western world. Emphasis is upon…

  6. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Dubiel, S. M.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Mössbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  7. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Culture, Global Studies, and World Geography. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    These lessons were written by African social studies specialists for U.S. middle school students to stimulate interest in and develop a positive attitude toward Africans and their culture. Each lesson provides objectives, materials, teaching procedures, and is meant to be used as a textbook supplement. To promote understanding of young Africans,…

  8. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Cultures, Global Studies, and World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    Written by 25 African educators from 15 African nations that make up the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP), a Pan-African organization headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, this document is designed to supplement the sparse material on Africa available in the K-12 curriculum and textbooks in the United States, and these 11 lessons encourage U.S.…

  9. Should antioxidant vitamin supplementation be applied in patients with metabolic syndrome? A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Materek-Kuśmierkiewicz, Izabela; Moczulski, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Tokarski, Sławomir; Kowalski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction All cells in the human body are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which disturb the metabolic reactions in the organism. The antioxidant system in the human body consists of enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms, among which vitamins A, C, and E play a major role. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to evaluate the supply of vitamins A, C, and E from daily food rations (DFR) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS) in relation to current nutrition standards. Material and methods The study involved 184 women with MS, aged 45-68 years (mean 57.38 ±8.17 years). The control group comprised 90 women, aged 41-65 years (mean 57.48 ±5.79 years) without MS. The food intake was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Results The evaluation of intake of vitamins measured with daily food rations (DFR) demonstrated that the optimal level of 90-110% according to standards was achieved only in 3.62% of women with metabolic syndrome for vitamin A, in 8.88% for vitamin C, and in 11.41% for vitamin E, which was significantly less often found than in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Women with MS are characterised by diversified intake of vitamins A, C and E, and a subgroup of this patients present low level of antioxidant vitamins intake. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins should be prescribed individually to postmenopausal women with MS. PMID:27095956

  10. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--BORDER SUPPLEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Border Supplement Questionnaire data set provides information on the local environmental conditions. The information is from 203 Questionnaires for 91 households. In addition, the frequency of border crossing into Mexico and the characteristics of consumer purchases while t...

  11. Effects of a Nutritional Supplement on Coprophagia: A Study of Three Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugle, Charles; Rubin, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    The diets of three individuals with profound mental retardation and histories of coprophagia (ingestion of feces) were supplemented with a nutritionally complete elemental diet called Vivonex, resulting in decreases in the frequency of coprophagia in all three cases. (DB)

  12. Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Littman, Alyson; Slatore, Christopher G; Galanko, Joseph A; White, Emily

    2009-05-01

    Millions of Americans use dietary supplements with little knowledge about their benefits or risks. We examined associations of various herbal/specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk. Men and women, 50 to 76 years, in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort completed a 24-page baseline questionnaire that captured duration (years) and frequency (days per week) of use of commonly used herbal/specialty supplements. Dose was not assessed due to the lack of accurate potency information. Supplement exposure was categorized as "no use" or "any use" over the previous 10 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by multivariate Cox regression models. Incident lung (n = 665) and colorectal cancers (n = 428) were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Any use of glucosamine and chondroitin, which have anti-inflammatory properties, over the previous 10 years, was associated with significantly lower lung cancer risk: HR 0.74 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.58-0.94] and HR 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) and colorectal cancer risk: HR 0.73 (95% CI, 0.54-0.98) and HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45-0.93), respectively. There were also statistically significantly inverse associations of fish oil: HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-0.99), methylsulfonylmethane: HR 0.46 (95% CI, 0.23-0.93), and St. John's wort: HR 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.85) with colorectal cancer risk. In contrast, garlic pills were associated with a statistically significant 35% elevated colorectal cancer risk. These results suggest that some herbal/specialty supplements may be associated with lung and colorectal cancer risk; however, these products should be used with caution. Additional studies examining the effects of herbal/specialty supplements on risk for cancer and other diseases are needed. PMID:19423520

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  14. Differences by race/ethnicity in older adults' beliefs about the relative importance of dietary supplements vs prescription medications: results from the SURE Study.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications. PMID:22818730

  15. The impact of vitamin E supplementation on semen parameters and pregnancy rates after varicocelectomy: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ener, K; Aldemir, M; Işık, E; Okulu, E; Özcan, M F; Uğurlu, M; Tangal, S; Özayar, A

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin E supplementation on semen parameters and pregnancy after varicocelectomy. Forty-five infertile male patients who were diagnosed with varicocele and underwent subinguinal varicocelectomy were included in the study. After performing subinguinal varicocelectomy, the patients were randomised into two groups: 22 receiving vitamin E for 12 months, and 23 as the control group without receiving any supplementation. The pre-operative parameters of semen analyses and pregnancy rates of both groups were compared with those of post-operative parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of sperm count and motile sperm percentage, in pre-operative, post-operative 3rd month, post-operative 6th month and post-operative 12th month periods. Repeated-measures anova was performed, and sperm count, percentage of change in sperm count, motile sperm count and percentage of change in motile sperm count of the groups were compared. The administration of vitamin E increased all of these parameters; however, they were not found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation might improve the sperm parameters after varicocelectomy; however, further studies including larger number of samples are needed to make a proper decision on vitamin E supplementation after varicocelectomy. PMID:26780969

  16. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

  17. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived) dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65%) out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M) presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at the base of the observed

  18. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  19. Zinc supplementation in experimental liver cirrhosis: a morphological, structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, E.; Pannarale, L.; Franchitto, A.; Riggio, O.

    1993-01-01

    Zinc treatment in liver cirrhosis is known to prevent a number of clinical symptoms. Previous studies have also indicated that Zn has a protective effect on the development of the clinical, biochemical and morphological manifestations of hepatic injury if administered simultaneously with the noxious agent. In this study, the protective effects of zinc treatment against the development of liver cirrhosis have been tested in cirrhotic rats treated by intragastric administration of CCl4. The development of morphological lesions has been investigated by means of standardized and comparable techniques, LM, TEM, SEM, microvascular casts and measurements of liver collagen content by colorimetric determination in paraffin embedded sections. LM and EM observations showed typical morphological features of cirrhosis in all CCl4 treated rats. In the same group of animals, the microvascular casts showed the development of the typical 'perinodular' branching and the various anastomoses of pre and post-sinusoidal vessels. Colorimetric evaluation has shown a significant increase in collagen content after CCl4 treatment. Qualitative and quantitative data of livers of CCl4 treated rats supplemented or not with zinc were significantly similar. In conclusion, zinc treatment influences biochemical parameters, but not the morphology of liver cirrhosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8217781

  20. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  1. The use of Self-Reported Food Intakes to Formulate Hypotheses for Expected and Unexpected Findings in Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium Supplementation Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Determine whether food diary data provide possible explanations for results from supplementation studies that show limited relationships to blood and/or bone indicators of status. Materials and Methods: One two-year study assessed the daily supplementation with 600 mg calcium or 600 mg ca...

  2. Nutrient intake from multivitamin/mineral supplements is similar among users from five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Martin, Carrie L; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2008-03-01

    A multivitamin/mineral supplement is the most widely used type of dietary supplement among American adults. Therefore, accurate assessment of intake from this supplement is crucial when studying diet and chronic diseases. From 1999 to 2001, the Multiethnic Cohort Study collected detailed information on multivitamin/mineral use among five ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. Daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals were calculated using the nutrient composition specified on the product label. For reported supplements with insufficient detail to match to a specific product, default nutrient profiles were assigned. Multivitamin/mineral use was reported by 50% of the participants (38% for Native Hawaiians to 57% for whites). Default profiles were assigned for 38% of users. The median daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals among users (n=75,865) were well above the Recommended Daily Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and zinc. Although nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals varied widely among individuals, there was no substantial difference in the median intake across ethnic groups. To accurately estimate nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals, detailed information on the product consumed should be collected. When detailed information is not available, the same default nutrient profiles can be used when estimating intakes for these five ethnic groups. PMID:18313435

  3. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation. PMID:24311314

  4. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  5. The bioavailability of different zinc compounds used as human dietary supplements in rat prostate: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sapota, Andrzej; Daragó, Adam; Skrzypińska-Gawrysiak, Małgorzata; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Michał; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc (Zn) of any soft tissue in the body. The pool of zinc available to the body is known to significantly decrease with age. It is suggested that dietary Zn supplementation protects against oxidative damage and reduces the risk of cancer. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate were the most frequently mentioned in per os administration in studies on Zn supplementation. The major aim of the study was to compare the bioavailability of different Zn compounds (sulfate, gluconate and citrate) in the prostate after their daily administration to male rats at three different doses (3.0; 15.0; and 50.0 mg Zn/kg b.w.) for 30 days. The results show that bioavailability in the prostate differs significantly between individual zinc preparations. A significantly elevated Zn concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate, compared to controls, was found in the rats supplemented with two compounds only: zinc gluconate and zinc citrate. However, after administration of zinc gluconate, this effect occurred even at the lowest dose. The lowest zinc bioavailability in the prostate was found in the rats administered zinc sulfate: no significant Zn increase was seen in particular zones of the prostate. To sum up, the use of zinc gluconate is worth considering as a possible means of zinc supplementation in men. PMID:24619814

  6. Creatine Supplementation and Exercise Performance: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, the nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been gaining popularity exponentially. Introduced to the general public in the early 1990s, shortly after the Barcelona Olympic Games, creatine (Cr) has become one of the most widely used nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids, with loading doses as high as 20-30 g·day-1 for 5-7 days typical among athletes. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation (CrS) on exercise performance and training adaptations. Short-term CrS has been reported to improve maximal power/strength, work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions, single-effort sprint performance, and work performed during repetitive sprint performance. During training CrS has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and exercise performance primarily of high intensity tasks. However, not all studies demonstrate a beneficial effect on exercise performance, as CrS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. CrS appears to pose no serious health risks when taken at doses described in the literature and may enhance exercise performance in individuals that require maximal single effort and/or repetitive sprint bouts. PMID:24688272

  7. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

  8. A Pilot Study of Website Information Regarding Aromatase Inhibitors: Dietary Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Cara L.; Hsieh, Angela A.; Sweet, Erin S.; Tippens, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Patients who have hormone receptor–positive breast cancer and who are taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) should understand the benefits and risks of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) use. The International Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) encourages patients to discuss DS use with their health care practitioners. The objective was to conduct a pilot study rating Internet websites from the perspective of health care practitioners for information about AI–DS interactions. Design Five (5) Internet websites suggested by SIO were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument rating tool. The available AI–DS information on these websites was rated by 4 evaluators: 2 naturopathic doctors, 1 oncology pharmacy resident, and a pharmacy student. Results The overall rankings ranged from 1.6 to 3.9, with considerable variability in the type of information available from the websites. The interevaluator rankings of the websites ranged from 0.44 to 0.89. The evaluators consistently found the most reliable, unbiased, and comprehensive information on AI–DS interactions at the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center websites. However, more than one database was needed for provision of optimal patient information on AI–DS interactions. Conclusions In order to effectively advise patients regarding AI–DS interactions, more than one website should be evaluated to assess the potential efficacy and safety of DS in women whose breast cancer is being treated with an AI. PMID:22087614

  9. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty. PMID:26396423

  10. Effect of Probiotic Supplement on Cytokine Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Falasca, Katia; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Ucciferri, Claudio; Di Nicola, Marta; D’Angelo, Chiara; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation persists in patients infected with HIV. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and microbial translocation might be one way that this could be managed. Purpose: The anti-inflammatory properties of certain probiotic strains prompted us to investigate whether a probiotic could reduce the inflammatory index of HIV-infected patients. Methods: The study involved 30 HIV+ males on antiretroviral therapy, who were given one bottle of fermented milk Yakult Light® containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) twice a day for four weeks. Results: The probiotic LcS was associated with an increase of T lymphocytes and a significant increase of CD56+ cells (p = 0.04). There was also a significant decrease of mRNA levels of TGFβ, IL-10 and IL-12 (p < 0.001) and IL-1β expression (p < 0.001) and an increase of serum IL-23 (p = 0.03). In addition, decreased inflammation and cardiovascular risk were observed, as shown by a reduction of cystatin C (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These data provide preliminary evidence that probiotic supplementation may modulate certain immunological parameters and some of the cytokines that were analyzed. Thus, we propose that LcS may be an inexpensive and practical strategy to support the immune function of HIV+ patients. PMID:26426044

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  12. Review of dietary supplements for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs in studies from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Comblain, F; Serisier, S; Barthelemy, N; Balligand, M; Henrotin, Y

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints and leads finally to the loss of mobility. It is highly prevalent in dogs. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatment is limited to clinical signs alleviation. Some positive beneficial effects have been highlighted with dietary supplements in the course of dog OA. The goals of this narrative review are to summarize the scientific data available in the literature on dietary supplements assessed in dog OA and to discuss some trails about how to improve several aspects of research and issues with dietary supplements, such as bioavailability and dosage regimen. Chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, undenaturated type II collagen, avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables, curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied in dog OA and therefore discussed in the present review. Most of them showed anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning their pharmacokinetics. Their bioavailability is low, but new formulations are developed to enhance their gastrointestinal absorption. The clinical relevance of these new formulations compared to native forms should be demonstrated in good clinical trials. Even if further investigations are needed, dietary supplements should be considered in OA management. PMID:26205697

  13. “Test me and treat me”—attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Design Qualitative focus group study. Participants 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. Setting A large general practice in east London. Results Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of “doses”, “side effects” and “regular testing.” Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Conclusions Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. PMID:26173717

  14. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  15. A study of toxic effects of heavy metal contaminants from sludge-supplemented diets on male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bag, S; Vora, T; Ghatak, R; Nilufer, I; D'mello, D; Pereira, L; Pereira, J; Cutinho, C; Rao, V

    1999-02-01

    Activated sludge is a rich source of nitrogenous matter and has been recommended as cheap supplement in animal feed. It has been incorporated into cattle and poultry feed. It is well known that sewage of purely domestic origin is also contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides, and other organic pollutants. A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of heavy metal-contaminated domestic sewage sludge on young male Wistar rats by supplementing dehydrated activated sludge in their diet at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The sludge was found to be contaminated with 1.820 (zinc), 0.273 (nickel), 0.017 (lead), 0.053 (copper), 0.006 (chromium), and 0.005 (cadmium)mg/g of dry sludge, by analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The toxic effects of sludge-supplemented diets on individual groups of rats were assessed by assaying various enzyme activities in serum, liver, muscle, and brain. Levels of serum and liver alanine aminotransferase and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were significantly low in all the sludge-supplemented diet-fed (SSDF) rats. Similarly, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and muscle SDH activity were also significantly reduced in the SSDF rats. On the other hand, liver and muscle LDH, serum and liver aspartate aminotransferase, and serum and muscle alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in all the SSDF animals. Brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly high in all the SSDF groups. This study indicates that even though the sludge is a rich source of nitrogenous matter, its supplementation in poultry and animals feed should be done with caution. Otherwise, the contaminants found in the sludge will biomagnify in the food chain and lead to various toxicological hazards. PMID:10051366

  16. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0–8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological

  17. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency. All patients received rehabilitation treatment using Epley's maneuver one time per week for one month. Serum 25-OHD deficient patients were classified as treated and non-treated groups (rehabilitation with or without 50.000 IU cholecalciferol weekly for two months).The results of treatment were compared with vitamin D sufficient group as control. All patients were followed-up for 6 months. Results: After two months of treatment, in both vitamin D treated and non-treated groups the intensity of BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060

  18. Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described. Methods We prospectively examined changes in use of 17 vitamin/mineral supplements in the first six months following breast cancer diagnosis among 2,596 members (28% non-white) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of initiation and discontinuation. Results Most women used vitamin/mineral supplements before (84%) and after (82%) diagnosis, with average doses far in excess of Institute of Medicine reference intakes. Over half (60.2%) reported initiating a vitamin/mineral following diagnosis, 46.3% discontinuing a vitamin/mineral, 65.6% using a vitamin/mineral continuously, and only 7.2% not using any vitamin/mineral supplement before or after diagnosis. The most commonly initiated supplements were calcium (38.2%), vitamin D (32.01%), vitamin B6 (12.3%) and magnesium (11.31%); the most commonly discontinued supplements were multivitamins (17.14%), vitamin C (15.97%) and vitamin E (45.62%). Higher education, higher intake of fruits/vegetables, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with initiation (p-values <0.05). Younger age and breast-conserving surgery were associated with discontinuation (p-values <0.05). Conclusions In this large cohort of ethnically diverse breast cancer patients, high numbers of women used vitamin/mineral supplements in the 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis, often at high doses and in combination with other supplements. The immediate period after diagnosis is a critical time for clinicians to counsel women on supplement use. PMID:24884705

  19. Dietary supplement use among cancer survivors of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pouchieu, Camille; Fassier, Philippine; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Bairati, Isabelle; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-04-28

    Dietary supplements (DS) may influence cancer prognosis. Their use in cancer patients has been described in the United States, but data are largely lacking in Europe and notably in France. The present study's objectives were (1) to assess DS use and its sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary correlates in a large sample of French cancer survivors; (2) to evaluate the involvement of physicians in such DS use; and (3) to assess the extent of potentially harmful practices. Data were collected by self-administered web-based questionnaires among participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Data on DS use was available for 1081 cancer survivors. DS users were compared to non-users with unconditional logistic regressions. DS use was reported by 62% of women and 29% of men. Vitamins D, B6, C and Mg were the most frequently consumed nutrients. 14% of cancer survivors initiated DS use after diagnosis. For 35% of the DS consumed, subjects did not inform their attending physician. DS use was associated with a healthier lifestyle (normal weight, never smoking and better diet) and substantially contributed to nutrient intake. 18% of DS users had potentially harmful DS use practices, such as the simultaneous use of vitamin E and anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents, the use of β-carotene and smoking or the use of phyto-oestrogens in hormone-dependent cancer patients. The present study suggests that DS use is widespread among cancer survivors, a large amount of that use is performed without any medical supervision and a substantial proportion of that use involves potentially harmful practices. Physicians should be encouraged to more routinely discuss DS use with their cancer patients. PMID:25826598

  20. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  1. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  3. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  4. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  5. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  6. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  7. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims. PMID:19998572

  8. Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fercho, Kelene; Baugh, Lee A.; Hanson, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet…

  9. Spanish Books for Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced Studies: Elementary Schools, High Schools, Colleges, Libraries. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1968

    This bibliography, a supplement to the 1967 catalog of 2,400 items of Spanish culture and language, includes 4,165 listings and additional categories in: (1) Spanish and Latin American authors, (2) Spanish translations of international authors, (3) fiction-library selections, (4) anthologies-complete works, (5) individual author collections, (6)…

  10. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men. PMID:26888417

  11. Real-world experiences of folic acid supplementation (5 versus 30 mg/week) with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Koh, K T; Teh, C L; Cheah, C K; Ling, G R; Yong, M C; Hong, H C; Gun, S C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability of methotrexate in two different regimes of folic acid (FA) supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional observational cohort study on 240 RA patients with 120 patients each in 5 mg of FA weekly and 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation. There were no significant differences for side effects (14.2 versus 22.5%, P=0.523) and discontinuation of methotrexate (3.6 versus 13.3%, P=0.085). RA patients given 5 mg of FA weekly supplementation had a lower disease activity score 28 compared to 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation [3.44 (1.10) versus 3.85 (1.40), P=0.014]. FA supplementation of 5 mg per week and 30 mg per week was associated with similar tolerability of methotrexate in RA patients. PMID:27608797

  12. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  13. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  14. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  15. Significant changes in dietary intake and supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in a UK multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Keshtgar, Mohammed R; Woodside, Jayne V; Leathem, Anthony J; Titcomb, Ann; Perkins, Katherine Anne; Mazurowska, Monika; Anderson, Victoria; Wardell, Kayleigh; Cantwell, Marie M

    2011-07-01

    The diagnosis of cancer can motivate survivors to alter their lifestyle habits. Healthcare providers need to be aware of what changes patients are likely to make in order to derive more pertinent recommendations; however, few studies have reported pre- and post-diagnostic lifestyle behaviours. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) completed approximately 1 year after diagnosis were used to evaluate dietary intake and supplement use before and after diagnosis in a cohort of 1,560 breast cancer patients participating in the UK, prospective DietCompLyf study. Intake of fruit and vegetables, wholegrains and lean sources of protein increased significantly post-diagnosis (P < 0.05, each). Conversely, after diagnosis consumption of high-fat, high-sugar products, red meat, coffee, some alcoholic drinks and refined grains significantly decreased (P < 0.05, each). Post-diagnostic changes in diet were accompanied by changes in the intake of macronutrients and a number of vitamins and minerals. Supplement use was highly prevalent (56.1%) pre-diagnosis, increasing to 62.8% after diagnosis (P = 0.001). Fish oils, multivitamin and minerals, and evening primrose oil were most often used and the proportion of users significantly increased (P < 0.05, each) after diagnosis. The percentage of women using oestrogenic botanical supplements (OBSs) was small but more than doubled to 8.4% after diagnosis (P < 0.05). British women participating in the DietCompLyf study reported significant changes in dietary intake and supplement use after their breast cancer diagnosis. These findings contribute to our understanding of female cancer survivors' dietary behaviours which is crucial for developing and implementing recommendations. PMID:21221774

  16. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-08-15

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  17. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25847603

  18. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. PMID:26781281

  19. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin kinetics and cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Gunjan; Kachhawa, Garima; Ramot, Rekha; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Tandon, Nikhil; Sreenivas, V; Kriplani, Alka; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on parameters of insulin sensitivity/resistance (IS/IR) and insulin secretion in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A prospective double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of vitamin D on insulin kinetics in women with PCOS. The trial was conducted in a tertiary care research hospital. A total of 36 subjects with PCOS, aged 18–35 years, were included in this study. Vitamin D3 4000 IU/day versus placebo was given once a month for 6 months and both groups received metformin. IS (by whole-body IS index or Matsuda index), IR (by homeostasis model assessment IR (HOMA-IR)), and insulin secretion (by insulinogenic index; II30) were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcome included blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, disposition index (DI), and vascular stiffness. Out of 36 subjects who consented, 32 completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: group A (n=15; metformin and vitamin D 4000 IU/day) or group B (n=17; metformin and placebo). Oral glucose tolerance tests with 75 g glucose were carried out at baseline and 6 months after supplementation. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 93.8% of all subjects with mean serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level of 7.30±4.45 ng/ml. After 6 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was no significant difference in any of the parameters of IS/IR (area under curve (AUC)–glucose, AUC–insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, insulinogenic index, and DI), II30, and cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups. Supplementation of vitamin D, at a dose of 4000 IU/day for 6 months, did not have any significant effect on parameters of IS/IR and insulin secretion in subjects with PCOS. PMID:25921345

  20. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  1. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  2. Case Study: Symptomatic Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia in an Endurance Runner Despite Sodium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Myers, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2-10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer's). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH. PMID:26061675

  3. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  4. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might ... 504-5414 http://fnic.nal.usda.gov Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20580 ...

  6. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  7. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  8. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  9. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R.; Tripolt, Norbert J.; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13) or no LcS (n = 15). Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844 PMID:26509793

  10. Systematic review of the effects of iodised salt and iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal growth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Farebrother, Jessica; Naude, Celeste E; Nicol, Liesl; Sang, Zhongna; Yang, Zhenyu; Andersson, Maria; Jooste, Pieter L; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iodine is an essential micronutrient and component of the thyroid hormones. Sufficient ingestion of iodine is necessary for normal growth and development. If iodine requirements are not met, growth can be impaired. Salt iodisation and supplementation with iodine can prevent iodine deficiency disorders and stunted growth. No systematic review has yet collated the evidence linking iodine to growth. With an increased emphasis on stunting within the WHO Global Nutrition Targets for 2025, we propose a systematic review to address this question. Methods and analysis We will undertake a systematic review, and if appropriate, meta-analyses, evaluating the effects of iodised salt or iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal somatic growth, until age 18. We will search a number of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, including the CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials and also the WHO library and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), which includes the Clinicaltrials.gov repository. We will also search Wanfang Data and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. Included studies must have compared exposure to iodised salt, iodine supplements or iodised oil, to placebo, non-iodised salt or no intervention. Primary outcomes will be continuous and categorical markers of prenatal and postnatal somatic growth. Secondary outcomes will cover further measures of growth, including growth rates and indirect markers of growth such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and will be sent directly to the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund, International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and other stakeholders. The results generated from this systematic review will provide evidence to support future programme recommendations regarding iodine fortification or supplementation and

  11. A Randomized Control Study to Evaluate Effects of Short-term Oral Iron Supplementation in Regular Voluntary Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Dara, Ravi Chandrabhan; Marwaha, Neelam; Khetan, Dheeraj; Patidar, Gopal Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Early recognition and reversal of excessive iron loss by iron supplementation may avoid symptomatic iron store depletion in blood donors. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of iron supplementation in maintaining the iron stores of voluntary blood donors. A total of 200 regular volunteers who donated twice in previous year were randomly divided into two groups. Iron: oral iron supplementation tablets of elemental iron as ferrous fumarate. Placebo group: glucose containing capsules, to be taken once daily for 21 days after one unit of blood donation. Their hemogram, serum ferritin, red cell indices and red cell distribution width were determined at baseline and after 1 month and at the time of next blood donation. Out of 200 volunteers enrolled 98 were assigned to iron group and rest 102 into placebo group. Total of 37 % donors dropped out, yielding a dropout rate of 35 % in iron group and 39 % in the placebo group. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels showed significant improvement in iron group compared to placebo group (p < 0.05). Three weeks of oral iron therapy (98.6 mg elemental iron/day) was able to maintain iron stores at 1 month after donation but was not sufficient to sustain the iron stores over a period of 3 months. Thus there is need to evaluate increased dosage or duration of iron supplementation in maintaining the iron stores. PMID:27429522

  12. Trans-Atlantic Data Harmonization in the Classification of Medicines and Dietary Supplements: A Challenge for Epidemiologic Study and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyers, Susan; Richesson, Rachel; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Objectives As international scientific collaboration increases, there is a growing requirement for research data to be comparable among countries. Despite the importance of medication and dietary supplement data in research, there are no international standards for the collection and storage of these data. In the absence of such standards, we needed to adopt a strategy for classification and coding of medications and dietary supplements to meet demands of our multi-national study. Methods Given the inter-country variations in nomenclature that characterize prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, traditional herbal medicines, and dietary supplements, we adopted RxNorm as a data standard for medication data, and developed an independent system that extends this standard and allows for flexible and scalable data collection for dietary supplements. Results RxNorm was implemented in May 2005 and as of July 2006, coverage has been 99%, at the level of active ingredients, of all the medications reported in our study. Development of a dietary supplement database began in August 2005, and has thus far coded some 1200 dietary supplements and 650 infant formula products and forms from the four countries in our study. Conclusion The methods we have used to collect, store, and manage medication and dietary supplement data serve as interim solutions until international standards are developed. It is hoped that such standards will ultimately emerge, and that our strategy and data model will be of value in other research environments in the immediate future. PMID:17289429

  13. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  14. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity. PMID:2586059

  15. Avoiding the Perfect Storm: The Biologic and Clinical Case for Reevaluating the 7-Day Expectation for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Before Switching Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Kullar, Ravina; McKinnell, James A.; Sakoulas, George

    2014-01-01

    Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (MRSAB) is associated with poor outcomes and serious complications. The MRSA guidelines define treatment failure and persistent bacteremia as lasting ≥7 days; however, this definition requires reevaluation. Aggressively reducing the bacterial inoculum promptly is critical because factors already in place before clinical presentation are driving resistance to the few antibiotics that are available to treat MRSAB. Alternative approaches to treat MRSAB should be considered within 3–4 days of persistent MRSAB. With rapid molecular diagnostics emerging in clinical microbiology laboratories and biomarkers as a potential for early patient risk stratification, a future shorter threshold may become possible. PMID:25048852

  16. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes

  17. Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995).

    PubMed

    Shaw, D; Leon, C; Kolev, S; Murray, V

    1997-11-01

    Since 1991, the Medical Toxicology Unit (MTU) at Guys' Hospital, London, has been assessing the toxicological problems associated with the use of traditional and herbal remedies and dietary supplements. This assessment was carried out by evaluating reports to the National Poisons Information Service (London) [NPIS(L)] which provides emergency information to medical professionals. Relevant telephone enquiries to NPIS(L) were identified. Further case details were obtained by follow-up questionnaire, clinical consultation, toxicological analysis of samples from patients and/or products and botanical identification of plant material. Of 1297 symptomatic enquiries evaluated there was a possible/confirmed association in 785 cases. Case series have been identified which substantiate previous reports, including liver problems following the use of Chinese herbal medicine for skin disorders, allergic reactions to royal jelly and propolis and heavy metal poisoning caused by remedies from the Indian subcontinent. Although the overall risk to public health appears to be low, certain groups of traditional remedies have been associated with a number of potentially serious adverse effects. Considering the extent of use of herbal remedies and food supplements a comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring the adverse health effects of these products is essential. Surveillance of a large population is needed for the complex task of identifying the uncommon and unpredictable adverse effects which are potentially serious. In the UK, the Medicines Control Agency responded to the MTU report by recognising the need for vigilance and by incorporating adverse reactions reporting on unlicensed herbal remedies into their drug reaction monitoring function. As a further step to safeguard the patients/consumers an effective single regulatory system is required which would ensure the safety and quality of all herbal remedies and food supplements available in the UK. PMID:9391777

  18. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents. PMID:25744506

  19. Probiotic supplementation prevents high-fat, overfeeding-induced, insulin resistance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hulston, Carl J.; Churnside, Amelia A.; Venables, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus casei Shirota [LcS]) prevents diet-induced insulin resistance in humans. Seventeen healthy individuals were randomised to probiotic (n = 8) or control (n = 9) groups. The probiotic group consumed an LcS-fermented milk drink twice daily for 4 weeks whereas the control group received no supplementation. Subjects maintained their normal diet for the first 3 weeks of the study, after which they consumed a high-fat (65% energy) high-energy (+50% kcal) diet for 7 days. Whole body insulin sensitivity was assessed via an oral glucose tolerance test conducted before and after overfeeding. Body mass increased by 0.6 ± 0.2 kg in the control group (p < 0.05) and 0.3 ± 0.2 kg in the probiotic group (p > 0.05). Fasting plasma glucose concentrations increased following 7 days of overeating (control group only; 5.3 ± 0.1 vs. 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p < 0.05) whereas fasting serum insulin concentrations were maintained in both groups. Glucose AUC increased by 10% (from 817 ± 45 to 899 ± 39 mmol/L/120 min, p < 0.05) and whole body insulin sensitivity decreased by 27% (from 5.3 ± 1.4 to 3.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.05) in the control group, whereas normal insulin sensitivity was maintained in the probiotic group (4.4 ± 0.8 and 4.5 ± 0.9 before and after overeating, respectively, p > 0.05). These results suggest that probiotic supplementation may be useful in the prevention of diet-induced metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. PMID:25630516

  20. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  1. Intake of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Longitudinal Association with HbA1c Levels in the General Non-Diabetic Population—Results from the MONICA/KORA S3/F3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Sigrid; Zierer, Astrid; Heier, Margit; Fischer, Beate; Huth, Cornelia; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the association between the use of 11 vitamins and minerals (vitamins E, C, D, B1, folic acid, carotenoids, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium) and change in HbA1c levels over 10 years in non-diabetic individuals drawn from the general population. Methods Baseline data were available from 4447 subjects included in the population-based “Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases” (MONICA) Augsburg S3 survey (1994/95). Follow-up data were derived from 2774 participants in the follow-up survey named “Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg” (KORA) F3 (2004/05). Vitamin/mineral intake from supplements and medications was assessed in a personal interview, where participants were asked to bring product packages of preparations that had been ingested during the last 7 days prior to the examination. Associations between regular vitamin/mineral intake amounts and HbA1c levels measured at baseline and follow-up were investigated using generalized estimating equation models. For carotenoids, analyses were stratified by smoking status. Results None of the investigated nutrients except for carotenoids was significantly associated with changes in HbA1c levels after 10 years. Regular intake of carotenoids from supplements and medications in amounts > 6.8mg/d (upper tertile) was associated with an absolute –0.26% (95% CI: –0.43 to –0.08) lower increase in HbA1c levels compared with no intake of carotenoids. An inverse association was observed in those who never smoked but not in (former) smokers. Conclusion Larger prospective and intervention studies in non-diabetic/non-smoking individuals are needed to confirm the results and to assess whether the observed associations between carotenoid intake and change in

  2. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  3. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  5. Study of Glycine and Folic Acid Supplementation to Ameliorate Transfusion Dependence in Congenital SLC25A38 Mutated Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Marissa A; Bettle, Amanda; Berman, Jason N; Price, Victoria E; Pambrun, Chantale; Yu, Zhijie; Tiller, Marilyn; McMaster, Christopher R; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2016-07-01

    Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hematological disorder characterized by the presence of ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow erythroid precursors. Mutations in the erythroid-specific glycine mitochondrial transporter gene SLC25A38 have been found in a subset of patients with transfusion-dependent congenital CSA. Further studies in a zebrafish model identified a promising ameliorative strategy with combined supplementation with glycine and folate. We tested this combination in three individuals with SLC25A38 CSA, with a primary objective to decrease red blood cell transfusion requirements. No significant impact was observed on transfusion requirements or any hematologic parameters. PMID:27038157

  6. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  7. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Southon, Susan; Wright, Anthony J A; Blanco, Inmaculada; Gil-Martinez, Enrique; van den Berg, Henk; Thurnham, David; Corridan, Bernice; Chopra, Mridula; Hininger, Isabelle

    2002-04-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress have been implicated in tissue damage and the development of chronic diseases, and dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of oxidative tissue damage. As part of a European multicentre project, several studies were undertaken with the aim of testing whether the consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces oxidative damage to human tissue components. We describe here the serum response of carotenoids and tocopherols upon supplementation with carotenoids from natural extracts (alpha-carotene+beta-carotene, lutein or lycopene; 15 mg/day) and/or with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/day) in a multicentre, placebo-controlled intervention study in 400 healthy male and female volunteers, aged 25-45 years, from five European regions (France, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain). Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increased serum alpha-tocopherol levels, while producing a marked decrease in serum gamma-tocopherol. Supplementation with alpha- + beta-carotene (carotene-rich palm oil) resulted in 14-fold and 5-fold increases respectively in serum levels of these carotenoids. Supplementation with lutein (from marigold extracts) elevated serum lutein (approx. 5-fold), zeaxanthin (approx. doubled) and ketocarotenoids (although these were not present in the supplement), whereas lycopene supplementation (from tomato paste) resulted in a 2-fold increase in serum lycopene. The isomer distributions of beta-carotene and lycopene in serum remained constant regardless of the isomer composition in the capsules. In Spanish volunteers, additional data showed that the serum response to carotenoid supplementation reached a plateau after 4 weeks, and no significant side effects (except carotenodermia) or changes in biochemical or haematological indices were observed throughout the study. This part of the study describes dose-time responses, isomer distribution, subject variability and side effects during supplementation with the

  8. A preliminary study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an alternative nutrient supplement in the diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  9. A Preliminary Study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an Alternative Nutrient Supplement in the Diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes)

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K.; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  10. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain – a pilot study of gait analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Otsuka, Yuta; Izumo, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nagao, Hideyuki; Ogawara, Keita; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 μg of vitamin D (GCQID). The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5). To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase, and between changes in stride length and total JKOM score. Conclusion A GCQID supplement may increase walking speed through increased stride length and angle of kicking from the ground during steps, which might be mainly associated with alleviated knee pain. PMID:27382267