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Sample records for 7-year wilkinson microwave

  1. A SEARCH FOR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES IN THE 7 YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE TEMPERATURE SKY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    In this Letter, we search for concentric circles with low variance in cosmic microwave background sky maps. The detection of such circles would hint at new physics beyond the current cosmological concordance model, which states that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous, and filled with Gaussian fluctuations. We first describe a set of methods designed to detect such circles, based on matched filters and {chi}{sup 2} statistics, and then apply these methods to the best current publicly available data, the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature sky maps. We compare the observations with an ensemble of 1000 Gaussian {Lambda}CDM simulations. Based on these tests, we conclude that the WMAP sky maps are fully compatible with the Gaussian and isotropic hypothesis as measured by low-variance ring statistics.

  2. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, E.; Bennett, Charles L.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These full-sky maps were used to obtain measurements of temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with the unprecedented accuracy and precision. The analysis of two-point correlation functions of temperature and polarization data gives determinations of the fundamental cosmological parameters such as the age and composition of the universe, as well as the key parameters describing the physics of inflation, which is further constrained by three-point correlation functions. WMAP observations alone reduced the flat ? cold dark matter (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model (six) parameter volume by a factor of > 68, 000 compared with pre-WMAP measurements. The WMAP observations (sometimes in combination with other astrophysical probes) convincingly show the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, the cosmic neutrino background, flatness of spatial geometry of the universe, a deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum of initial scalar fluctuations, and that the current universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The WMAP observations provide the strongest ever support for inflation; namely, the structures we see in the universe originate from quantum fluctuations generated during inflation.

  3. Galactic Emission in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in five microwave frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz with sub-degree angular resolution. While the primary goal of the mission is to measure the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the data also provide a wealth of information about microwave emission from the Milky Way. We present full sky maps of the synchrotron, free-free, and dust emission obtained from the first-year data and comment on how these maps inform our understanding of the interstellar medium.

  4. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the curvature of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Kirchner, Ulrich; Ellis, George F. R.

    2003-10-01

    Inter alia, the high-precision Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data on cosmic background radiation marginally indicate that the Universe has positively curved (and hence spherical) spatial sections. In this Letter, we take this data seriously and consider some of the consequences for the background dynamics. In particular, we show that this implies a limit to the number of e-foldings that could have taken place in the inflationary epoch; however, this limit is consistent with some inflationary models that solve all the usual cosmological problems and that are consistent with standard structure formation theory.

  5. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Attitude Estimation Filter Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.

    2005-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft was launched in June of 2001. The sensor complement of WMAP consists of two Autonomous Star Trackers (ASTs), two Fine Sun Sensors (FSSs), and a gyro package which contains redundancy about one of the WMAP body axes. The onboard attitude estimation filter consists of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) solving for attitude and gyro bias errors which are then resolved into a spacecraft attitude quaternion and gyro bias. A pseudo-linear Kalman filter has been developed which directly estimates the spacecraft attitude quaternion, rate, and gyro bias. In this paper, the performance of the two filters is compared for the two major control modes of WMAP: inertial mode and observation mode.

  6. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Eiichiro; Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Science Team

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the fossil light of the Big Bang, is the oldest light that one can ever hope to observe in our Universe. The CMB provides us with a direct image of the Universe when it was still an "infant" - 380,000 years old. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the microwave sky in five frequency bands for nine years since 2001, creating a full-sky CMB map with the unprecedented precision. The WMAP data have enabled us to obtain a wealth of cosmological information, such as the composition, age, geometry, and history of the Universe. Yet, can we go further and learn about the primordial universe, when it was much younger than 380,000 years old, perhaps as young as a tiny fraction of a second? If so, this gives us a hope to test competing theories about the origin of the Universe at ultra high energies. In this talk, we will review the physics of CMB and the WMAP mission, present the basic results from nine years of observations, and discuss their cosmological implications.

  7. The Attitude Control System for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission produces a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an inertial reference unit, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, twelve coarse sun sensors, three reaction wheel assemblies, and a propulsion system. Sufficient attitude knowledge is provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation (l sigma) of 1.3 arc-minutes per axis. In addition, the spacecraft acquires and holds the sunline at initial acquisition and in the event of a failure, and slews to the proper orbit adjust orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. This paper presents an overview of the design of the attitude control system to carry out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  8. Restoring Redundancy to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Attitude control system engineers discovered sixteen months before launch that configuration changes after the critical design review had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch-axis thruster. A tiger team was formed and identified potential solutions to this problem, such as adding thruster-plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding or removing mass from the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thruster nozzles or propellant tubing, or accepting the loss of redundancy. The project considered the impacts on mass, cost, fuel budget, and schedule for each solution, and decided to bend the propellant tubing of the two roll-control thrusters to allow the pair to be used for backup control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes and verification performed. Flight data are presented to show the on-orbit performance of the propulsion system and lessons learned are described.

  9. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) First Year Observations: TE Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Spergel, D. N.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WAMP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales (theta less than 5 deg), the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic perturbations in the temperature power spectrum. The data for l greater than 20 agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. We detect excess power on large angular scales (theta greater than 10 deg) compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift 11 is less than z(sub r) is less than 30 at 95% confidence, depending on the ionization history. A model-independent fit to reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit ACDM model, with best fit value t = 0.17 +/- 0.04 at 68% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This value is larger than expected given the detection of a Gunn-Peterson trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history: WMAP has detected the signal from an early epoch of reionization.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM ACROSS WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA RELEASES: A NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: mihir@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2012-02-01

    Using a nonparametric function estimation methodology, we present a comparative analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year data releases for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum with respect to the following key questions. (1) How well is the power spectrum determined by the data alone? (2) How well is the {Lambda}CDM model supported by a model-independent, data-driven analysis? (3) What are the realistic uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights? Our results show that the height of the power spectrum is well determined by data alone for multipole l approximately less than 546 (1-year), 667 (3-year), 804 (5-year), and 842 (7-year data). We show that parametric fits based on the {Lambda}CDM model are remarkably close to our nonparametric fits in l-regions where data are sufficiently precise. In contrast, the power spectrum for an H{Lambda}CDM model is progressively pushed away from our nonparametric fit as data quality improves with successive data realizations, suggesting incompatibility of this particular cosmological model with respect to the WMAP data sets. We present uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% (2{sigma}) level of confidence and show how these uncertainties translate into hyperbolic 'bands' on the acoustic scale (l{sub A} ) and peak shift ({phi}{sub m}) parameters. Based on the confidence set for the 7-year data, we argue that the low-l upturn in the CMB power spectrum cannot be ruled out at any confidence level in excess of about 10% ( Almost-Equal-To 0.12{sigma}). Additional outcomes of this work are a numerical formulation for minimization of a noise-weighted risk function subject to monotonicity constraints, a prescription for obtaining nonparametric fits that are closer to cosmological expectations on smoothness, and a method for sampling cosmologically meaningful power spectrum variations from the confidence set of a nonparametric fit.

  11. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo

    2007-12-15

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  12. Temperature of the inflaton and duration of inflation from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2006-03-31

    If the initial state of the inflaton field is taken to have a thermal distribution instead of the conventional zero particle vacuum state then the curvature power spectrum gets modified by a temperature dependent factor such that the fluctuation spectrum of the microwave background radiation is enhanced at larger angles. We compare this modified cosmic microwave background spectrum with Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data to obtain an upper bound on the temperature of the inflaton at the time our current horizon crossed the horizon during inflation. We further conclude that there must be additional -foldings of inflation beyond what is needed to solve the horizon problem. PMID:16605893

  13. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Battery Operations Problem Resolution Team (PRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Technical Discipline Fellow for Electrical Power, was requested to form a Problem Resolution Team (PRT) to help assess the health of the flight battery that is currently operating aboard NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and provide recommendations for battery operations to mitigate the risk of impacting science operations for the rest of the mission. This report contains the outcome of the PRT's assessment.

  14. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral

  15. Cosmological Implications of the First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team has recently analyzed and released the first-year data. We will review the implications for cosmology of these results. The highlight is that cosmology now has a standard cosmological model. With only 6 parameters the model fits not only WMAP data remarkably well, but also a host of other astronomical observations. We also present the results on neutrino mass limits and on dark energy properties from a joint likelihood analysis of WMAP data with small-scale CMB experiments and large-scale structure surveys. The data and supplementary information are publicly available and can be found on the experiment web site at .

  16. ANOMALOUS PARITY ASYMMETRY OF THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE POWER SPECTRUM DATA AT LOW MULTIPOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-05-10

    We have investigated non-Gaussianity of our early universe by comparing the parity asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) power spectrum with simulations. We find that odd-parity preference of the WMAP data (2 {<=} l {<=} 18) is anomalous at 4-in-1000 level. We find it likely that low quadrupole power is part of this parity asymmetry rather than an isolated anomaly. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of this anomaly is a cosmological or a systematic effect. The data from Planck Surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will help us to resolve the origin of the anomalous odd-parity preference.

  17. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Moseley, Harvey; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < I < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  18. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: CALIBRATION WITH THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE USING CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Bond, John R.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Amiri, Mandana; Battistelli, Elia S.; Burger, Bryce; Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Brown, Ben; Chervenak, Jay; Doriese, W. Bertrand

    2011-10-20

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and map-making procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < l < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  19. Cosmological Implications of the First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.

    2004-02-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team has recently analyzed and released the first-year data. We will review the implications for cosmology of these results. The highlight is that cosmology now has a standard cosmological model. With only 6 parameters the model fits not only WMAP data remarkably well, but also a host of other astronomical observations. We also present the results on neutrino mass limits and on dark energy properties from a joint likelihood analysis of WMAP data with small-scale CMB experiments and large-scale structure surveys. The data and supplementary information are publicly available and can be found on the experiment web site at .

  20. Multiresolution internal template cleaning: an application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-yr polarization data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Cobos, R.; Vielva, P.; Barreiro, R. B.; Martínez-González, E.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation data obtained by different experiments contain, besides the desired signal, a superposition of microwave sky contributions. Using a wavelet decomposition on the sphere, we present a fast and robust method to recover the CMB signal from microwave maps. We present an application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data, which shows its good performance, particularly in very polluted regions of the sky. The applied wavelet has the advantages that it requires little computational time in its calculations, it is adapted to the HEALPIX pixelization scheme and it offers the possibility of multiresolution analysis. The decomposition is implemented as part of a fully internal template fitting method, minimizing the variance of the resulting map at each scale. Using a χ2 characterization of the noise, we find that the residuals of the cleaned maps are compatible with those expected from the instrumental noise. The maps are also comparable to those obtained from the WMAP team, but in our case we do not make use of external data sets. In addition, at low resolution, our cleaned maps present a lower level of noise. The E-mode power spectrum ? is computed at high and low resolutions, and a cross-power spectrum ? is also calculated from the foreground reduced maps of temperature given by WMAP and our cleaned maps of polarization at high resolution. These spectra are consistent with the power spectra supplied by the WMAP team. We detect the E-mode acoustic peak at ℓ˜ 400, as predicted by the standard ΛCDM model. The B-mode power spectrum ? is compatible with zero.

  1. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it

    2008-06-15

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c{sub vis}, we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c{sub vis}{sup 2}>0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c{sub vis}{sup 2}>0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state.

  2. Inflation model constraints from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio; /CERN

    2006-05-01

    We extract parameters relevant for distinguishing among single-field inflation models from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year data set, and also from WMAP in combination with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy power spectrum. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (1) the Harrison-Zel'dovich model is consistent with both data sets at a 95% confidence level; (2) there is no strong evidence for running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations; (3) Potentials of the form V {infinity} {phi}{sup P} are consistent with the data for p = 2, and are marginally consistent with the WMAP data considered alone for p = 4, but ruled out by WMAP combined with SDSS. We perform a ''Monte Carlo reconstruction'' of the inflationary potential, and find that: (1) there is no evidence to support an observational lower bound on the amplitude of gravitational waves produced during inflation; (2) models such as simple hybrid potentials which evolve toward an inflationary late-time attractor in the space of flow parameters are strongly disfavored by the data, (3) models selected with even a weak slow-roll prior strongly cluster in the region favoring a ''red'' power spectrum and no running of the spectral index, consistent with simple single-field inflation models.

  3. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP) Observations: Data Processing Methods and Systematic Errors Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the calibration and data processing methods used to generate full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Detailed limits on residual systematic errors are assigned based largely on analyses of the flight data supplemented, where necessary, with results from ground tests. The data are calibrated in flight using the dipole modulation of the CMB due to the observatory's motion around the Sun. This constitutes a full-beam calibration source. An iterative algorithm simultaneously fits the time-ordered data to obtain calibration parameters and pixelized sky map temperatures. The noise properties are determined by analyzing the time-ordered data with this sky signal estimate subtracted. Based on this, we apply a pre-whitening filter to the time-ordered data to remove a low level of l/f noise. We infer and correct for a small (approx. 1 %) transmission imbalance between the two sky inputs to each differential radiometer, and we subtract a small sidelobe correction from the 23 GHz (K band) map prior to further analysis. No other systematic error corrections are applied to the data. Calibration and baseline artifacts, including the response to environmental perturbations, are negligible. Systematic uncertainties are comparable to statistical uncertainties in the characterization of the beam response. Both are accounted for in the covariance matrix of the window function and are propagated to uncertainties in the final power spectrum. We characterize the combined upper limits to residual systematic uncertainties through the pixel covariance matrix.

  4. Foundations of observing dark energy dynamics with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Corasaniti, P.S.; Kunz, M.; Parkinson, D.; Copeland, E.J.; Bassett, B.A.

    2004-10-15

    Detecting dark energy dynamics is the main quest of current dark energy research. Addressing the issue demands a fully consistent analysis of cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure and SN-Ia data with multiparameter freedom valid for all redshifts. Here we undertake a ten parameter analysis of general dark energy confronted with the first year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2dF galaxy survey and latest SN-Ia data. Despite the huge freedom in dark energy dynamics there are no new degeneracies with standard cosmic parameters apart from a mild degeneracy between reionization and the redshift of acceleration, both of which effectively suppress small scale power. Breaking this degeneracy will help significantly in detecting dynamics, if it exists. Our best-fit model to the data has significant late-time evolution at z<1.5. Phantom models are also considered and we find that the best-fit crosses w=-1 which, if confirmed, would be a clear signal for radically new physics. Treatment of such rapidly varying models requires careful integration of the dark energy density usually not implemented in standard codes, leading to crucial errors of up to 5%. Nevertheless cosmic variance means that standard {lambda} cold dark matter models are still a very good fit to the data and evidence for dynamics is currently very weak. Independent tests of reionization or the epoch of acceleration (e.g., integrated Sachs-Wolfe-large scale structure correlations) or reduction of cosmic variance at large scales (e.g., cluster polarization at high redshift) may prove key in the hunt for dynamics.

  5. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.

  6. IMPROVED CONSTRAINTS ON PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY FOR THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Curto, A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Barreiro, R. B.

    2009-11-20

    We present constraints on the nonlinear coupling parameter f{sub nl} with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We use an updated method based on the spherical Mexican hat wavelet (SMHW) which provides improved constraints on the f{sub nl} parameter. This paper is a continuation of a previous work by Curto et al., where several third-order statistics based on the SMHW were considered. In this paper, we use all the possible third-order statistics computed from the wavelet coefficient maps evaluated at 12 angular scales. The scales are logarithmically distributed from 6.9 arcmin to 500 arcmin. Our analysis indicates that f{sub nl} is constrained to -18 < f{sub nl} < +80 at 95% confidence level (CL) for the combined V+W WMAP map. This value has been corrected by the presence of undetected point sources, which adds a positive contribution of DELTAf{sub nl} = 6 +- 5. Our result excludes at approx99% CL the best-fitting value f{sub nl} = 87 reported by Yadav and Wandelt. We have also constrained f{sub nl} for the Q, V, and W frequency bands separately, finding compatibility with zero at 95% CL for the Q and V bands but not for the W band. We have performed some further tests to understand the cause of this deviation which indicate that systematics associated with the W radiometers could be responsible for this result. Finally, we have performed a Galactic north-south analysis for f{sub nl}. We have not found any asymmetry, i.e., the best-fitting f{sub nl} for the northern pixels is compatible with the best-fitting f{sub nl} for the southern pixels.

  7. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  8. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental

  9. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Are There Cosmic Microwave Background Anomalies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Smith, K. M.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    A simple six-parameter ΛCDM model provides a successful fit to WMAP data. This holds both when the WMAP data are analyzed alone or in combination with other cosmological data. Even so, it is appropriate to examine the data carefully to search for hints of deviations from the now standard model of cosmology, which includes inflation, dark energy, dark matter, baryons, and neutrinos. The cosmological community has subjected the WMAP data to extensive and varied analyses. While there is widespread agreement as to the overall success of the six-parameter ΛCDM model, various "anomalies" have been reported relative to that model. In this paper we examine potential anomalies and present analyses and assessments of their significance. In most cases we find that claimed anomalies depend on posterior selection of some aspect or subset of the data. Compared with sky simulations based on the best-fit model, one can select for low probability features of the WMAP data. Low probability features are expected, but it is not usually straightforward to determine whether any particular low probability feature is the result of the a posteriori selection or non-standard cosmology. Hypothesis testing could, of course, always reveal an alternative model that is statistically favored, but there is currently no model that is more compelling. We find that two cold spots in the map are statistically consistent with random cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations. We also find that the amplitude of the quadrupole is well within the expected 95% confidence range and therefore is not anomalously low. We find no significant anomaly with a lack of large angular scale CMB power for the best-fit ΛCDM model. We examine in detail the properties of the power spectrum data with respect to the ΛCDM model and find no significant anomalies. The quadrupole and octupole components of the CMB sky are remarkably aligned, but we find that this is not due to any single map feature; it results from the

  10. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters from the WMAP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkey, J.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Spergel, D.N.; Larson, D.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C.L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R.S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), launched in 2001, has mapped out the Cosmic Microwave Background with unprecedented accuracy over the whole sky. Its observations have led to the establishment of a simple concordance cosmological model for the contents and evolution of the universe, consistent with virtually all other astronomical measurements. The WMAP first-year and three-year data have allowed us to place strong constraints on the parameters describing the ACDM model. a flat universe filled with baryons, cold dark matter, neutrinos. and a cosmological constant. with initial fluctuations described by nearly scale-invariant power law fluctuations, as well as placing limits on extensions to this simple model (Spergel et al. 2003. 2007). With all-sky measurements of the polarization anisotropy (Kogut et al. 2003; Page et al. 2007), two orders of magnitude smaller than the intensity fluctuations. WMAP has not only given us an additional picture of the universe as it transitioned from ionized to neutral at redshift z approx.1100. but also an observation of the later reionization of the universe by the first stars. In this paper we present cosmological constraints from WMAP alone. for both the ACDM model and a set of possible extensions. We also consider tlle consistency of WMAP constraints with other recent astronomical observations. This is one of seven five-year WMAP papers. Hinshaw et al. (2008) describe the data processing and basic results. Hill et al. (2008) present new beam models arid window functions, Gold et al. (2008) describe the emission from Galactic foregrounds, and Wright et al. (2008) the emission from extra-Galactic point sources. The angular power spectra are described in Nolta et al. (2008), and Komatsu et al. (2008) present and interpret cosmological constraints based on combining WMAP with other data. WMAP observations are used to produce full-sky maps of the CMB in five frequency bands centered at 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz

  11. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between

  12. Real space tests of the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz

    2008-08-15

    We introduce and analyze a method for testing statistical isotropy and Gaussianity and apply it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground reduced temperature maps. We also test cross-channel difference maps to constrain levels of residual foreground contamination and systematic uncertainties. We divide the sky into regions of varying size and shape and measure the first four moments of the one-point distribution within these regions, and using their simulated spatial distributions we test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity hypotheses. By randomly varying orientations of these regions, we sample the underlying CMB field in a new manner, that offers a richer exploration of the data content, and avoids possible biasing due to a single choice of sky division. In our analysis we account for all two-point correlations between different regions and also show the impact on the results when these correlations are neglected. The statistical significance is assessed via comparison with realistic Monte Carlo simulations. We find the three-year WMAP maps to agree well with the isotropic, Gaussian random field simulations as probed by regions corresponding to the angular scales ranging from 6 Degree-Sign to 30 Degree-Sign at 68% confidence level (CL). We report a strong, anomalous (99.8% CL) dipole 'excess' in the V band of the three-year WMAP data and also in the V band of the WMAP five-year data (99.3% CL). Using our statistics, we notice large scale hemispherical power asymmetry, and find that it is not highly statistically significant in the WMAP three-year data ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 97%) at scales l{<=}40. The significance is even smaller if multipoles up to l=1024 are considered ({approx}90% CL). We give constraints on the amplitude of the previously proposed CMB dipole modulation field parameter. We find some hints of foreground contamination in the form of a locally strong, anomalous kurtosis excess in

  13. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  14. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus

  15. SPINNING DUST EMISSION: EFFECTS OF IRREGULAR GRAIN SHAPE, TRANSIENT HEATING, AND COMPARISON WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    2011-11-10

    Planck is expected to answer crucial questions on the early universe, but it also provides further understanding on anomalous microwave emission. Electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains continues to be the favored interpretation of anomalous microwave emission. In this paper, we present a method to calculate the rotational emission from small grains of irregular shape with moments of inertia I{sub 1} {>=} I{sub 2} {>=} I{sub 3}. We show that a torque-free rotating irregular grain with a given angular momentum radiates at multiple frequency modes. The resulting spinning dust spectrum has peak frequency and emissivity increasing with the degree of grain shape irregularity, which is defined by I{sub 1}:I{sub 2}:I{sub 3}. We discuss how the orientation of the dipole moment {mu} in body coordinates affects the spinning dust spectrum for different regimes of internal thermal fluctuations. We show that the spinning dust emissivity for the case of strong thermal fluctuations is less sensitive to the orientation of {mu} than in the case of weak thermal fluctuations. We calculate spinning dust spectra for a range of gas density and dipole moment. The effect of compressible turbulence on spinning dust emission is investigated. We show that the emission in a turbulent medium increases by a factor from 1.2 to 1.4 relative to that in a uniform medium, as the sonic Mach number M{sub s} increases from 2 to 7. Finally, spinning dust parameters are constrained by fitting our improved model to five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cross-correlation foreground spectra, for both the H{alpha}-correlated and 100-{mu}m-correlated emission spectra.

  16. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present full sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23 to 94 GHz) from the WMAP first year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5% and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7 in. full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58 less than f(sub NL) less than 134 (95% CL). The 2 less than or = l less than or = 900 anisotropy power spectrum is cosmic variance limited for l less than 354 with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1 per mode to l = 658. The temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum reveals both acoustic features and a large angle correlation from reionization. The optical depth of reionization is tau = 0.17 +/- 0.04, which implies a reionization epoch of t(sub r) = 180(sup +220, sub -80) Myr (95% CL) after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub r) = 20(sup +10, sub -9) (95% CL) for a range of ionization scenarios. This early reionization is incompatible with the presence of a significant warm dark matter density. A best-fit cosmological model to the CMB and other measures of large scale structure works remarkably well with only a few parameters. The age of the best-fit universe is t(sub 0) = 13.7 +/- 0.2 Gyr old. Decoupling was t(sub dec) = 379(sup +8, sub -7)kyr after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub dec) = 1089 +/- 1. The thickness of the decoupling surface was Delta(sub z(sub dec)) = 195 +/- 2. The matter density of the universe is Omega(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.135(sup +0.008, sub -0.009) the baryon density is Omega(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.0224 +/- 0.0009, and the total mass-energy of the universe is Omega(sub tot) = 1.02 +/- 0.02. There is progressively less fluctuation power on smaller scales, from WMAP to fine scale CMB measurements to galaxies

  17. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1{sigma} of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% {+-} 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 {mu}m, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within {approx}2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at {approx}30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a

  18. Analysis of non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps based on the N-pdf. Application to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielva, P.; Sanz, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    We present a new method based on the N-point probability distribution function (N-pdf) to study non-Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background maps. Likelihood and Bayesian estimation are applied to a local non-linear perturbed model up to third order, characterized by a linear term which is described by a Gaussian N-pdf, and a second- and third-order terms which are proportional to the square and the cube of the linear one. We also explore a set of model selection techniques (the Akaike and the Bayesian information criteria, the minimum description length, the Bayesian evidence and the generalized likelihood ratio test) and their application to decide whether a given data set is better described by the proposed local non-Gaussian model, rather than by the standard Gaussian temperature distribution. As an application, we consider the analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year data at a resolution of ~2°. At this angular scale (the Sachs-Wolfe regime), the non-Gaussian description proposed in this work defaults (under certain conditions) to an approximative local form of the weak non-linear coupling inflationary model previously addressed in the literature. For this particular case, we obtain an estimation for the non-linear coupling parameter of -94 < fNL < 154 at 95 per cent confidence level. Equally, model selection criteria also indicate that the Gaussian hypothesis is favoured against the particular local non-Gaussian model proposed in this work. This result is in agreement with previous findings obtained for equivalent non-Gaussian models and with different non-Gaussian estimators. However, our estimator based on the N-pdf is more efficient than previous estimators and, therefore, provides tighter constraints on the coupling parameter at degree scale.

  19. MICROWAVE EMISSION FROM THE EDGEWORTH-KUIPER BELT AND THE ASTEROID BELT CONSTRAINED FROM THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Fukugita, Masataka

    2011-08-01

    Objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt and the main asteroid belt should emit microwaves that may give rise to extra anisotropy signals in the multipole of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment. Constraints are derived from the absence of positive detection of such anisotropies for l {approx}< 50, meaning the total mass of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects is smaller than 0.2 M{sub +}. This limit is consistent with the mass extrapolated from the observable population with the size of a {approx}> 15 km, assuming that the small-object population follows the power law in size dN/da {approx} a{sup -q} with the canonical index expected for collisional equilibrium, q {approx_equal} 3.5, with which 23% of the mass is ascribed to objects smaller than are observationally accessible down to grains. A similar argument applied to the main asteroid belt indicates that the grain population should not increase more quickly than q {approx_equal} 3.6 toward smaller radii, if the grain population follows the power law that continues to observed asteroids with larger radii. Both cases are at or only slightly above the limit that can be physically significant, implying the importance of further tightening the CMB anisotropy limit, which may be attained with observation at higher radio frequencies.

  20. SIGNIFICANT FOREGROUND UNRELATED NON-ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY ON THE 1 DEGREE SCALE IN WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bizhu; Zhang Shuangnan; Lieu, Richard; Wakker, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The spectral variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by WMAP was tested using foreground reduced WMAP5 data, by producing subtraction maps at the 1 deg. angular resolution between the two cosmological bands of V and W, for masked sky areas that avoid the Galactic disk. The resulting V - W map revealed a non-acoustic signal over and above the WMAP5 pixel noise, with two main properties. First, it possesses quadrupole power at the approx1 muK level which may be attributed to foreground residuals. Second, it fluctuates also at all values of l> 2, especially on the 1 deg. scale (200 approx< l approx< 300). The behavior is random and symmetrical about zero temperature with an rms approx7 muK, or 10% of the maximum CMB anisotropy, which would require a 'cosmic conspiracy' among the foreground components if it is a consequence of their existence. Both anomalies must be properly diagnosed and corrected if 'precision' cosmology is the claim. The second anomaly is, however, more interesting because it opens the question on whether the CMB anisotropy genuinely represents primordial density seeds.

  1. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-15

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  2. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 023002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.023002] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles ℓ. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles ℓ and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various “optimistic,” “pessimistic,” and “dream case” scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  3. DETECTION OF NEW POINT SOURCES IN WMAP 7 YEAR DATA USING INTERNAL TEMPLATES AND NEEDLETS

    SciTech Connect

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K.; Marinucci, Domenico E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new needlet-based method to detect point sources in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps and have applied it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data. We use both the individual frequency channels as well as internal templates, the latter being the difference between pairs of frequency channels and hence having the advantage that the CMB component is eliminated. Using the area of the sky outside the Kq85 galactic mask, we detect a total of 2102 point sources at the 5{sigma} level in either the frequency maps or the internal templates. Of these, 1116 are detected either at 5{sigma} directly in the frequency channels or at 5{sigma} in the internal templates and {>=}3{sigma} at the corresponding position in the frequency channels. Of the 1116 sources, 603 are detections that have not been reported so far in WMAP data. We have made a catalog of these sources available with position and flux estimated in the WMAP channels where they are seen. In total, we identified 1029 of the 1116 sources with counterparts at 5 GHz and 69 at other frequencies.

  4. Miniaturized Wilkinson Power Dividers Utilizing Capacitive Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Weller, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    This letter reports the miniaturization of a planar Wilkinson power divider by capacitive loading of the quarter wave transmission lines employed in conventional Wilkinson power dividers. Reduction of the transmission line segments from lambda/4 to between lambda/5 and lambda/12 are reported here. The input and output lines at the three ports and the lines comprising the divider itself are coplanar waveguide (CPW) and asymmetric coplanar stripline (ACPS), respectively. The 10 GHZ power dividers are fabricated on high resistivity silicon (HRS) and alumina wafers. These miniaturized dividers are 74% smaller than conventional Wilkinson power dividers, and have a return loss better than +30 dB and an insertion loss less than 0.55 dB. Design equations and a discussion about the effect of parasitic reactance on the isolation are presented for the first time.

  5. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Source Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E.L.; Chen, X.; Odegard, N.; Bennett, C.L.; Hill, R.S.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Weiland, J.L.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.; Tucker, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the list of point sources found in the WMAP 5-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analysis now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR greater than 4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the CMB anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:l range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  6. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Banday, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose. We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10° have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance Λ cold dark matter model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is caused by the multipoles up to order ℓ = 7. Therefore, the deficit of power for concentric rings with larger radii is yet another manifestation of the well-known anomalous CMB distribution on large angular scales. Furthermore, low-variance rings can be easily found centred on other points in the sky. In addition, we show also the results of a search for extremely high-variance rings. As for the low-variance rings, some anomalies seem to be related to the anomalous distribution of the low-order multipoles of the WMAP CMB maps. As such our results are not consistent with the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario.

  7. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-20

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

  8. On Strategic Management: A Conversation with George Wilkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1991-01-01

    George Wilkinson, who has managed planning for United Way of America since 1980, observes that local planners using strategic planning raise more money and solve more community problems than those without such a process. Marketing is identical to strategic planning; both involve looking at an organization, doing and analysis, examining the future,…

  9. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS OF DECAYING DARK MATTER PARTICLE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, S.; Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C.

    2012-08-20

    If a component of cosmological dark matter is made up of massive particles-such as sterile neutrinos-that decay with cosmological lifetime to emit photons, the reionization history of the universe would be affected, and cosmic microwave background anisotropies can be used to constrain such a decaying particle model of dark matter. The optical depth depends rather sensitively on the decaying dark matter particle mass m{sub dm}, lifetime {tau}{sub dm}, and the mass fraction of cold dark matter f that they account for in this model. Assuming that there are no other sources of reionization and using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year data, we find that 250 eV {approx}< m{sub dm} {approx}< 1 MeV, whereas 2.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr {approx}< {tau}{sub dm}/f {approx}< 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} yr. The best-fit values for m{sub dm} and {tau}{sub dm}/f are 17.3 keV and 2.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} yr, respectively.

  10. Wilkinson Basin area water masses: a revisit with EOFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warn-Varnas, Alex; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Hawkins, J. A.; Robinson, Allan R.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrographic data sets from the Brooks (J. Geophys. Res. 90 (1985) 4687) survey are used for the initial study of water mass characteristics and distributions of the Wilkinson Basin area in the northwest corner of the Gulf of Maine. Parameters of Maine Surface, Intermediate, Bottom, and Slope waters are derived from the available conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and developed using cluster analysis with a distribution function for cluster point differences in temperature, salinity and depth. The cluster analysis yields two distinct surface water masses, one of which is warmer and less salty. This warmer water mass could be a result of the transport of fresher water into the western Wilkinson basin area by a branch of the Maine Coastal Current and subsequent solar heating. A variance-based empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis associated with water masses in the Wilkinson Basin area is simultaneously undertaken for the advancement of feature models. The cloud of points representing each water mass in terms of temperature, salinity, and depth are derived through cluster analysis and identified as matrix elements in the singular-value-decomposition (SVD) and covariance analysis. Covariance and correlation statistics of the water masses are analyzed. The vertical temperature and salinity is reconstructed through an EOF decomposition of each water mass cloud of points and a summation of all of them for the resultant vertical distribution. This constitutes the basis for a water mass-based feature model with latest-measurement update capability. The percentage of the water volume occupied by each of the five water masses is derived and expressed as a function of depth and CTD cast location. The means, standard deviations, and ranges of the water masses are extracted in the temperature-salinity-depth space. The origin and formation of the water masses is considered together with the controlling physical processes. The prevalent dynamics is related to the

  11. Q.A.: Improving Kentucky Schools: A Conversation with Governor Wallace G. Wilkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Office of the Governor, Frankfort.

    This document answers the questions Kentuckians asked Governor Wallace G. Wilkinson (Kentucky) about his proposals for educational reform. Governor Wilkinson claims that the traditional school structure leaves the educational needs of many children unmet because it is not flexible enough to meet their different learning needs. The Governor…

  12. Living by the Principles of Adult Education: What We Can Learn from Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet's philosophy of adult education and the role of the adult educator to contribute a positive, stabilizing influence to the creation of order, rationality, and opportunity. (JOW)

  13. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    PubMed Central

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  14. Income inequality, social cohesion, and class relations: a critique of Wilkinson's neo-Durkheimian research program.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, C; Lynch, J

    1999-01-01

    Wilkinson's "income inequality and social cohesion" model has emerged as a leading research program in social epidemiology. Public health scholars and activists working toward the elimination of social inequalities in health can find several appealing features in Wilkinson's research. In particular, it provides a sociological alternative to former models that emphasize poverty, health behaviors, or the cultural aspects of social relations as determinants of population health. Wilkinson's model calls for social explanations, avoids the subjectivist legacy of U.S. functionalist sociology that is evident in "status" approaches to understanding social inequalities in health, and calls for broad policies of income redistribution. Nevertheless, Wilkinson's research program has characteristics that limit its explanatory power and its ability to inform social policies directed toward reducing social inequalities in health. The model ignores class relations, an approach that might help explain how income inequalities are generated and account for both relative and absolute deprivation. Furthermore, Wilkinson's model implies that social cohesion rather than political change is the major determinant of population health. Historical evidence suggests that class formation could determine both reductions in social inequalities and increases in social cohesion. Drawing on recent examples, the authors argue that an emphasis on social cohesion can be used to render communities responsible for their mortality and morbidity rates: a community-level version of "blaming the victim." Such use of social cohesion is related to current policy initiatives in the United States and Britain under the New Democrat and New Labor governments. PMID:10079398

  15. ANALYSIS OF WMAP 7 YEAR TEMPERATURE DATA: ASTROPHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC HAZE

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobon, Davide; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Bartlett, James; Colombo, Loris P. L.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Pagano, Luca; Rocha, Graca; Lawrence, Charles R.; Banday, A. J.; Dobler, Gregory; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Saha, Rajib

    2012-08-10

    We perform a joint analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Galactic emission from the WMAP 7 year temperature data. Using the Commander code, based on Gibbs sampling, we simultaneously derive the CMB and Galactic components on scales larger than 1 Degree-Sign with improved sensitivity over previous work. We conduct a detailed study of the low-frequency Galactic foreground, focusing on the 'microwave haze' emission around the Galactic center. We demonstrate improved performance in quantifying the diffuse Galactic emission when including Haslam 408 MHz data and when jointly modeling the spinning and thermal dust emission. We examine whether the hypothetical Galactic haze can be explained by a spatial variation of the synchrotron spectral index, and find that the excess of emission around the Galactic center is stable with respect to variations of the foreground model. Our results demonstrate that the new Galactic foreground component-the microwave haze-is indeed present.

  16. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.S.; Weiland, J.L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, D.N.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M.R.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the WMAP mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of approximately 1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly. errors in the measured disk temperature are approximately 0.5%.

  17. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP1) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C.L.; Larson, D.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, N.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Meyer, S.S.; Nolta, M.R.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new estimate of foreground emission in the WMAP data, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The new technique delivers maps of each foreground component for a variety of foreground models, error estimates of the uncertainty of each foreground component, and provides an overall goodness-of-fit measurement. The resulting foreground maps are in broad agreement with those from previous techniques used both within the collaboration and by other authors. We find that for WMAP data, a simple model with power-law synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust components fits 90% of the sky with a reduced X(sup 2) (sub v) of 1.14. However, the model does not work well inside the Galactic plane. The addition of either synchrotron steepening or a modified spinning dust model improves the fit. This component may account for up to 14% of the total flux at Ka-band (33 GHz). We find no evidence for foreground contamination of the CMB temperature map in the 85% of the sky used for cosmological analysis.

  18. Three-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Implications for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, D. N.; Bean, R.; Doré, O.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Page, L.; Peiris, H. V.; Verde, L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Odegard, N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2007-06-01

    A simple cosmological model with only six parameters (matter density, Ωmh2, baryon density, Ωbh2, Hubble constant, H0, amplitude of fluctuations, σ8, optical depth, τ, and a slope for the scalar perturbation spectrum, ns) fits not only the 3 year WMAP temperature and polarization data, but also small-scale CMB data, light element abundances, large-scale structure observations, and the supernova luminosity/distance relationship. Using WMAP data only, the best-fit values for cosmological parameters for the power-law flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model are (Ωmh2,Ωbh2,h,ns,τ,σ8)=(0.1277+0.0080-0.0079,0.02229+/-0.00073,0.732+0.031-0.032,0.958+/-0.016,0.089+/-0.030,0.761+0.049-0.048). The 3 year data dramatically shrink the allowed volume in this six-dimensional parameter space. Assuming that the primordial fluctuations are adiabatic with a power-law spectrum, the WMAP data alone require dark matter and favor a spectral index that is significantly less than the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles scale-invariant spectrum (ns=1, r=0). Adding additional data sets improves the constraints on these components and the spectral slope. For power-law models, WMAP data alone puts an improved upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r0.002<0.65 (95% CL) and the combination of WMAP and the lensing-normalized SDSS galaxy survey implies r0.002<0.30 (95% CL). Models that suppress large-scale power through a running spectral index or a large-scale cutoff in the power spectrum are a better fit to the WMAP and small-scale CMB data than the power-law ΛCDM model; however, the improvement in the fit to the WMAP data is only Δχ2=3 for 1 extra degree of freedom. Models with a running-spectral index are consistent with a higher amplitude of gravity waves. In a flat universe, the combination of WMAP and the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) data yields a significant constraint on the equation of state of the dark energy, w=-0.967+0.073-0.072. If we assume w=-1, then the deviations from the critical density, ΩK, are small: the combination of WMAP and the SNLS data implies Ωk=-0.011+/-0.012. The combination of WMAP 3 year data plus the HST Key Project constraint on H0 implies Ωk=-0.014+/-0.017 and ΩΛ=0.716+/-0.055. Even if we do not include the prior that the universe is flat, by combining WMAP, large-scale structure, and supernova data, we can still put a strong constraint on the dark energy equation of state, w=-1.08+/-0.12. For a flat universe, the combination of WMAP and other astronomical data yield a constraint on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σmν<0.66 eV (95%CL). Consistent with the predictions of simple inflationary theories, we detect no significant deviations from Gaussianity in the CMB maps using Minkowski functionals, the bispectrum, trispectrum, and a new statistic designed to detect large-scale anisotropies in the fluctuations.

  19. Applications of the Wilkinson Model of Writing Maturity to College Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternglass, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Examines the four-category model developed by Andrew Wilkinson at the University of Essex (England) to assess growth in writing maturity. The four measures of development are stylistic, affective, cognitive, and moral. Each has several subcategories. Includes college student essays to illustrate the model. (HTH)

  20. Correlation between galactic HI and the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Kate; Slosar, Anze

    2007-10-15

    We revisit the issue of a correlation between the atomic hydrogen gas in our local galaxy and the cosmic microwave background, a detection of which has been claimed in some literature. We cross correlate the 21-cm emission of galactic atomic hydrogen as traced by the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic Hi survey with the 3-year cosmic microwave background data from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe. We consider a number of angular scales, masks, and Hi velocity slices and find no statistically significant correlation.

  1. Cross-correlation of WISE galaxies with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Szapudi, István.; Granett, Benjamin R.

    2012-05-01

    We estimated the cross-power spectra of a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey with the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature anisotropy maps. A conservatively selected galaxy sample covers ˜13 000 deg2 with a median redshift of z= 0.15. Cross-power spectra show correlations between the two data sets with no discernible dependence on the WMAPQ, V and W frequency bands. We interpret these results in terms of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect: for the |b| > 20° sample at l= 6-87, we measure the amplitude (normalized to be 1 for vanilla Λ cold dark matter expectation) of the signal to be 3.4 ± 1.1, i.e. 3.1σ detection. We discuss other possibilities, but at face value the detection of the linear ISW effect in a flat universe is caused by large-scale decaying potentials, a sign of accelerated expansion driven by dark energy.

  2. "Generalist Genes" and Mathematics in 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Y.; Harlaar, N.; Petrill, S. A.; Plomin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics performance at 7 years as assessed by teachers using UK national curriculum criteria has been found to be highly heritable. For almost 3000 pairs of 7-year-old same-sex twins, we used multivariate genetic analysis to investigate the extent to which these genetic effects on mathematics performance overlap with genetic effects on reading…

  3. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy. PMID:17026023

  4. "When to My Eyes I Saw the One I Loved": Applying the Wilkinson Scales to Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulst, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the Wilkinson Scales for writing assessment and shows how one eighth grade student's essay, using the scales, can be evaluated for grammatical and mechanical problems without devaluing the emotion that went into its composition. (JC)

  5. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution. PMID:21928945

  6. Early reionization by decaying particles and cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, S.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-11-15

    We study the reionization scenario in which ionizing UV photons emitted from decaying particle, in addition to usual contributions from stars and quasars, ionize the universe. It is found that the scenario is consistent with both the first year data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the fact that the universe is not fully ionized until z{approx}6 as observed by Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Likelihood analysis revealed that rather broad parameter space can be chosen. This scenario will be discriminated by future observations, especially by the EE polarization power spectrum of cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  8. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years. 3.212 Section 3.212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the continued and unexplained absence of any individual from his or her home and family for a period of 7...

  9. Diverting Hydrogenations with Wilkinson's Catalyst towards Highly Reactive Rhodium(I) Species.

    PubMed

    Perea-Buceta, Jesus E; Fernández, Israel; Heikkinen, Sami; Axenov, Kirill; King, Alistair W T; Niemi, Teemu; Nieger, Martin; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2015-11-23

    The addition of Barton's base has a dramatic effect on the classic rhodium(III)-mediated hydrogenations promoted by Wilkinson's catalyst. Following the initial oxidative addition, a barrierless reductive elimination of HCl from the traditional rhodium(III) intermediates instantly produces a rhodium(I) monohydride species, which is remarkably reactive in the hydrogenation of several internal alkynes and functionalized trisubstituted alkenes. The direct formation of this species is unprecedented upon addition of molecular hydrogen and its catalytic potential has been hitherto barely explored. PMID:26437764

  10. Sneddon-Wilkinson disease induced by sorafenib in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Nakajima, Takahiko; Kawai, Kengo; Minemura, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although it is known to cause a variety of dermatologic adverse events. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare skin eruption that accompanies various systemic disorders and may become chronically progressive. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed SCPD after sorafenib administration. The dermatologic reaction was improved by the cessation of sorafenib and worsened by its readministration. Clinicians treating HCC patients with sorafenib should be aware of the possibility of SCPD. PMID:25786448

  11. Persistence of histoplasma in adrenals 7 years after antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Deepak; Chopra, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Ajmani, Ajay K.; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal histoplasmosis is an uncommon cause for adrenal insufficiency. The duration of treatment for adrenal histoplasmosis is not clear. Existing treatment regimens advocate antifungals given for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. We report here a rare case who showed persistence of histoplasma in adrenal biopsy 7 years after being initially treated with itraconazole for 9 months. This calls for a prolonged therapy with regular review of adrenal morphology and histology in these patients. PMID:23869317

  12. A Comparison of Equity Outcomes in Kentucky: Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson Plaintiff & Non-Plaintiff School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselton, W. Blake; Wells, William

    This report compares plaintiff and nonplaintiff school districts in "Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson" and "Rose v. Council for Better Education" as regards the equity and adequacy outcomes resulting from rulings of the Kentucky Supreme Court and subsequent implementation of the Kentucky Reform Act (KERA) of 1990. Descriptive statistics…

  13. Case Study: Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School [and] Orangeburg Consolidated Five Technology Center, Orangeburg, S.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When the new superintendent of Orangeburg School District Five was appointed in 1992, he found that Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School graduates did not have the skills to enter the workplace and postsecondary institutions that require high-level academic skills. He identified these three things that Orangeburg would need to do to improve academic…

  14. Object exploration in 3- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sniegulska, Magdalena; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze free exploration of an unfamiliar, novel object in a semi-natural environment in 189 preschool children aged 3 to 7 years. The study used a purpose-built, novel, and complex stimulus object. Each child was shown the complex object lying on the floor and asked to explore it for 15 minutes. The child's behavior was video recorded. Age-dependent differences were found in the children's exploratory activity. No sex differences were found. Cluster analysis showed four main behavioral patterns that differed in their qualitative and quantitative parameters. Cluster membership was mainly age-dependent and not sex-specific. The results showed individual and developmental differences among the preschoolers with respect to their exploratory activity. This should be taken into account by school psychologists and teachers when designing the educational tasks and play situations. PMID:24597446

  15. Global universe anisotropy probed by the alignment of structures in the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Wiaux, Y; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Vandergheynst, P

    2006-04-21

    We question the global universe isotropy by probing the alignment of local structures in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The original method proposed relies on a steerable wavelet decomposition of the CMB signal on the sphere. The analysis of the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data identifies a mean preferred plane with a normal direction close to the CMB dipole axis, and a mean preferred direction in this plane, very close to the ecliptic poles axis. Previous statistical anisotropy results are thereby synthesized, but further analyses are still required to establish their origin. PMID:16712146

  16. Enhanced polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation from thermal gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2006-12-22

    If inflation was preceded by a radiation era, then at the time of inflation there will exist a decoupled thermal distribution of gravitons. Gravitational waves generated during inflation will be amplified by the process of stimulated emission into the existing thermal distribution of gravitons. Consequently, the usual zero temperature scale invariant tensor spectrum is modified by a temperature dependent factor. This thermal correction factor amplifies the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation by an order of magnitude at large angles, which may now be in the range of observability of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. PMID:17280339

  17. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  18. Optical scattering simulation of ice particles with surface roughness modeled using the Edwards-Wilkinson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianing; Bi, Lei; Liu, Jianping; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    Constructing an appropriate particle morphology model is essential for realistic simulation of optical properties of atmospheric particles. This paper presents a model for generating surface roughness based on a combination of methods from discrete differential geometry combined with a stochastic partial differential equation for surface evolution introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson. Scattering of light by roughened particles is simulated using the Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix (II-TM) method. The effects of surface roughness on the single-scattering properties, namely, the phase matrix, asymmetry factor, and extinction efficiency, are investigated for a single wavelength in the visible range and for a range of size parameters up to x=50. Three different smooth shapes are considered: spherical, spheroidal, and hexagonal, the latter two in just the "compact particle" case of unit aspect ratio. It is shown that roughness has negligible effects on the optical scattering properties for size parameters less than 20. For size parameters ranging from 20 to 50, the phase matrix elements are more sensitive to the surface roughness than are two important integral optical properties, the extinction efficiency and asymmetry factor. As has been seen in studies using other forms of roughening, the phase function is progressively smoothed as roughness increases. The effect on extinction efficiency is to increase it, and on asymmetry factor is to decrease it. Each of these effects is relatively modest in the size range considered, but the trend of results suggests that greater effects will be seen for size parameters larger than ones considered here.

  19. IDENTIFYING THE RADIO BUBBLE NATURE OF THE MICROWAVE HAZE

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory

    2012-11-20

    Using seven-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, I identify a sharp 'edge' in the microwave haze at high southern Galactic latitude (-55 Degree-Sign < b < -35 Degree-Sign ) that is spatially coincident with the southern edge of the 'Fermi haze/bubbles'. This finding proves conclusively that the edge in the gamma rays is real (and not a processing artifact), demonstrates explicitly that the microwave haze and the gamma-ray bubbles are indeed the same structure observed at multiple wavelengths, and strongly supports the interpretation of the microwave haze as a separate component of Galactic synchrotron (likely generated by a transient event) as opposed to a simple variation of the spectral index of disk synchrotron. In addition, combining these data sets allows for the first determination of the magnetic field within a radio bubble using microwaves and gamma rays by taking advantage of the fact that the inverse Compton gamma rays are primarily generated by scattering of cosmic microwave background photons at these latitudes, thus minimizing uncertainty in the target radiation field. Assuming uniform volume emissivity, I find that the magnetic field within the southern Galactic microwave/gamma-ray bubble is {approx}5 {mu}G above 6 kpc off of the Galactic plane.

  20. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  1. Imprints of spherical nontrivial topologies on the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Niarchou, Anastasia; Jaffe, Andrew

    2007-08-24

    The apparent low power in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy power spectrum derived from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe motivated us to consider the possibility of a nontrivial topology. We focus on simple spherical multiconnected manifolds and discuss their implications for the CMB in terms of the power spectrum, maps, and the correlation matrix. We perform a Bayesian model comparison against the fiducial best-fit cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant based both on the power spectrum and the correlation matrix to assess their statistical significance. We find that the first-year power spectrum shows a slight preference for the truncated cube space, but the three-year data show no evidence for any of these spaces. PMID:17930937

  2. Searching for Faraday rotation in cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Battaner, E.; Florido, E.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 9th-year foreground reduced data at 33, 41 and 61 GHz to derive a Faraday rotation at map and at angular power spectrum levels taking into account their observational errors. A processing mask provided by WMAP is used to avoid contamination from the disc of our Galaxy and local spurs. We have found a Faraday rotation component at both, map and power spectrum levels. The lack of correlation of the Faraday rotation with Galactic Faraday rotation, synchrotron and dust polarization from our Galaxy or with cosmic microwave background anisotropies or lensing suggests that it could be originated at reionization (ℓ ≲ 12). Even if the detected Faraday rotation signal is weak, the present study could contribute to establish magnetic fields strengths of B0 ˜ 10-8 G at reionization.

  3. Evidence for Dark Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background Alone Using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Lensing Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  4. FW: An R Package for Finlay–Wilkinson Regression that Incorporates Genomic/Pedigree Information and Covariance Structures Between Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Lian; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The Finlay–Wilkinson regression (FW) is a popular method among plant breeders to describe genotype by environment interaction. The standard implementation is a two-step procedure that uses environment (sample) means as covariates in a within-line ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. This procedure can be suboptimal for at least four reasons: (1) in the first step environmental means are typically estimated without considering genetic-by-environment interactions, (2) in the second step uncertainty about the environmental means is ignored, (3) estimation is performed regarding lines and environment as fixed effects, and (4) the procedure does not incorporate genetic (either pedigree-derived or marker-derived) relationships. Su et al. proposed to address these problems using a Bayesian method that allows simultaneous estimation of environmental and genotype parameters, and allows incorporation of pedigree information. In this article we: (1) extend the model presented by Su et al. to allow integration of genomic information [e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and covariance between environments, (2) present an R package (FW) that implements these methods, and (3) illustrate the use of the package using examples based on real data. The FW R package implements both the two-step OLS method and a full Bayesian approach for Finlay–Wilkinson regression with a very simple interface. Using a real wheat data set we demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of the Bayesian approach is consistently higher than the one achieved by the two-step OLS method. PMID:26715095

  5. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  6. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  7. A novel microwave cancellation circuit for measuring nonlinear dielectric changes of polar solution under microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao-Ran; Huang, Ka-Ma

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an experimental set-up based on a novel microstrip cancellation circuit is presented for investigating the effects of external microwave fields on the dielectric properties of polar solution. The circuit consists of a 3 dB Wilkinson power combiner, a conventional 20 dB backward coupler, and a specially designed 20 dB single-sectioned forward coupler. Besides, in order to realize a uniform electric field in the tested solution, a nicked microstrip ring is designed in the circuit. An improvement of measurement sensitivity in the proposed circuit was obtained when compared to the conventional transmission lines method. We exploit interference cancellation processes to suppress the probing signal at the output port under the principle that two identical amplitude signals with 180° phase difference will completely cancel each other. The measurements are carried out at the frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the temperature effects caused by microwave heating are excluded by the flowing fluid. Experimental results show that the dielectric properties of DMSO-methanol/ethanol mixtures change at the electric field intensity of 105 V m  -  1 and present a distinctly nonlinear dielectric change with the electric fields. The study of the microwave-material interaction has expanded our insights into the high-power microwave’s industry application.

  8. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  9. Cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure constraints on a simple quintessential inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Rogerio; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2006-11-01

    We derive constraints on a simple quintessential inflation model, based on a spontaneously broken {Phi}{sup 4} theory, imposed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three-year data (WMAP3) and by galaxy clustering results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the scale of symmetry breaking must be larger than about 3 Planck masses in order for inflation to generate acceptable values of the scalar spectral index and of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We also show that the resulting quintessence equation-of-state can evolve rapidly at recent times and hence can potentially be distinguished from a simple cosmological constant in this parameter regime.

  10. Correlating anomalies of the microwave sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Aleksandar; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2007-05-01

    At the largest angular scales the presence of a number of unexpected features has been confirmed by the latest measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Among them are the anomalous alignment of the quadrupole and octopole with each other as well as the stubborn lack of angular correlation on scales >60°. We search for correlations between these two phenomena and demonstrate their absence. A Monte Carlo likelihood analysis confirms previous studies and shows that the joint likelihood of both anomalies is incompatible with the best-fit Λ cold dark matter model at >99.95% C.L. Extending also to higher multipoles, a common special direction (the “Axis of Evil”) has been identified. In the search for an explanation of the anomalies, several studies invoke effects that exhibit an axial symmetry. We find that this interpretation of the “Axis of Evil” is inconsistent with three-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The data require a preferred plane, whereupon the axis is just the normal direction. Rotational symmetry within that plane is ruled out at high confidence.

  11. Correlating anomalies of the microwave sky

    SciTech Connect

    Rakic, Aleksandar; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2007-05-15

    At the largest angular scales the presence of a number of unexpected features has been confirmed by the latest measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Among them are the anomalous alignment of the quadrupole and octopole with each other as well as the stubborn lack of angular correlation on scales >60 deg. We search for correlations between these two phenomena and demonstrate their absence. A Monte Carlo likelihood analysis confirms previous studies and shows that the joint likelihood of both anomalies is incompatible with the best-fit {lambda} cold dark matter model at >99.95% C.L. Extending also to higher multipoles, a common special direction (the 'Axis of Evil') has been identified. In the search for an explanation of the anomalies, several studies invoke effects that exhibit an axial symmetry. We find that this interpretation of the 'Axis of Evil' is inconsistent with three-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The data require a preferred plane, whereupon the axis is just the normal direction. Rotational symmetry within that plane is ruled out at high confidence.

  12. Microwave generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  13. Cosmic microwave background and first molecules in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, Monique; Puy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Besides the Hubble expansion of the universe, the main evidence in favor of the big-bang theory was the discovery, by Penzias and Wilson, of the cosmic microwave background (hereafter CMB) radiation. In 1990, the COBE satellite (Cosmic Background Explorer) revealed an accurate black-body behavior with a temperature around 2.7 K. Although the microwave background is very smooth, the COBE satellite did detect small variations—at the level of one part in 100 000—in the temperature of the CMB from place to place in the sky. These ripples are caused by acoustic oscillations in the primordial plasma. While COBE was only sensitive to long-wavelength waves, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)—with its much higher resolution—reveals that the CMB temperature variations follow the distinctive pattern predicted by cosmological theory. Moreover, the existence of the microwave background allows cosmologists to deduce the conditions present in the early stages of the big bang and, in particular, helps to account for the chemistry of the universe. This report summarizes the latest measurements and studies of the CMB with the new calculations about the formation of primordial molecules. The PLANCK mission—planned to be launched in 2009—is also presented.

  14. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-15

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[{Phi}(k)]|<<|Im[{Phi}(k)]| for k < or approx. 22/{eta}{sub 0}, where {eta}{sub 0} is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4 Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  15. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  16. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  17. Improved dark energy detection through the polarization-assisted cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background with radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li

    2011-03-15

    Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.

  18. Giant left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient: natural history over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Gani; Emini, Merita; Berisha, Venera; Gashi, Fitnete; Beqiri, Arton; Zahiti, Bedri; Selmani, Hamza; Shatri, Faik; Manaj, Rexhep

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with a 7-year history of a giant left atrial myxoma. The myxoma was attached to the atrial septum and occupied almost the entire left atrial cavity. The patient was hospitalized 4 times because of dyspnea on exertion, palpitations, fatigue, general asthenia, and weight loss. During prior hospitalizations, the patient had refused cardiac surgery. She developed several complications, including atrial fibrillation, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, mesenteric embolism, pulmonary edema, and thrombotic stroke. We herein describe the natural history of left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient over a 7-year period. PMID:17024671

  19. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  20. Cosmic microwave background and supernova constraints on quintessence: Concordance regions and target models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Robert R.; Doran, Michael

    2004-05-01

    We perform a detailed comparison of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy with the predictions of quintessence cosmological models of dark energy. We consider a wide range of quintessence models, including a constant equation of state, a simply parametrized, time-evolving equation of state, a class of models of early quintessence, and scalar fields with an inverse-power law potential. We also provide a joint fit to the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) and Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (ACBAR) CMB data, and the type 1a supernovae. Using these select constraints we identify viable, target models which should prove useful for numerical studies of large scale structure formation, and to rapidly estimate the impact to the concordance region when new or improved observations become available.

  1. ISOTROPY IN THE TWO-POINT ANGULAR CORRELATION FUNCTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We study the directional dependence of the angular two-point correlation function in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose two new statistics: one which measures the correlation of each point in the sky with a ring of points separated an angle {theta} away, and a second one that measures the missing angular correlation above 60 deg as a function of direction. Using these statistics, we find that most of the low power in cut-sky maps measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment comes from unusually low contributions from the directions of the lobes of the quadrupole and the octupole. These findings may aid a future explanation of why the CMB exhibits low power at large angular scales.

  2. A Study of Direct Digital Manufactured RF/Microwave Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, John W. I.

    Various facets of direct digital manufactured (DDM) microwave packages are studied. The rippled surface inherent in fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated geometries is modeled in Ansoft HFSS, and its effect on the performance of microstrip transmission lines is assessed via simulation and measurement. The thermal response of DDM microstrip transmission lines is analyzed over a range of RF input powers, and linearity is confirmed over that range. Two IC packages are embedded into DDM printed circuit boards, and their performance is analyzed. The first is a low power RF switch, and the second is an RF front end device that includes a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a power amplifier (PA). The RF switch is shown to perform well, as compared to a layout designed for a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate substrate. The LNA performs within datasheet specifications. The power amplifier generates substantial heat, so a thermal management attempt is described. Finally, a capacitively loaded 6dB Wilkinson power divider is designed and fabricated using DDM techniques and materials. Its performance is analyzed and compared to simulation. The device is shown to compare favorably to a similar device fabricated on a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate using traditional printed circuit board techniques.

  3. Duodenal intussusception secondary to web presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tu, Long H; Villalona, Gustavo A; Cowles, Robert A; Silva, Cicero T

    2016-03-01

    Duodenal intussusception is a rare entity in children, with 32 cases reported in the English literature to our knowledge. Most reported cases are associated with endoluminal tubes or polyps, and the presenting symptoms are chronic and nonspecific. We report a case of duodenal intussusception in a 7-year-old girl secondary to a duodenal web and review the imaging findings. PMID:26553449

  4. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  5. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  6. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  7. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  8. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  9. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  10. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  11. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7 year olds with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Coppes, L; Kenemans, J L; Schutter, D J L G; Matthys, W

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old children with ASD and twenty-seven typically developing children. Even though results did not show differences in facial mimicry between children with ASD and typically developing children, impairment in social responsiveness was significantly associated with reduced fear mimicry in children with ASD. These findings demonstrate normal mimicry in children with ASD as compared to healthy controls, but that in children with ASD the degree of impairments in social responsiveness may be associated with reduced sensitivity to distress signals. PMID:23888357

  12. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  13. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  14. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  15. Stent thrombosis with an aneurysm 7 years after a drug eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pritam; Sethi, Arvind; Kaul, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of very late stent thrombosis 7 years post sirolimus eluting stent implantation presenting as ST elevation MI while on dual antiplatelet therapy. Angiography revealed an aneurysm at the proximal end of the stent. The patient was managed successfully by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with adjunct thrombus aspiration and intracoronary abciximab administration followed by deploying a mesh-covered stent MGuard. This very late complication is a rare presentation after a drug illuting stent (DES). PMID:24814120

  16. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  17. Lead exposure and intelligence in 7-year-old children: the Yugoslavia Prospective Study.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Lolacono, N J; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J K; Popovac, D; Morina, N; Musabegovic, A; Vrenezi, N; Capuni-Paracka, S; Lekic, V; Preteni-Redjepi, E; Hadzialjevic, S; Slavkovich, V; Graziano, J H

    1997-01-01

    For a prospective study of lead exposure and early development, we recruited pregnant women from a lead smelter town and from an unexposed town in Yugoslavia and followed their children through 7 years of age. In this paper we consider associations between lifetime lead exposure, estimated by the area under the blood lead (BPb) versus time curve (AUC7), and intelligence, with particular concern for identifying lead's behavioral signature. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Version III (WISC-III) was administered to 309 7-year-old children, 261 of whom had complete data on intelligence, blood lead, and relevant sociodemographic covariates (i.e., Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME), birth weight, gender, sibship size, and maternal age, ethnicity, intelligence, and education). These showed anticipated associations with 7-year intelligence, explaining 41-4% of the variance in Full Scale, Performance, and Verbal IQ. Before covariate adjustment, AUC7 was unrelated to intelligence; after adjustment, AUC7 explained a significant 2.8%-4.2% of the variance in IQ. After adjustment, a change in lifetime BPb from 10 to 30 micro/dl related to an estimated decrease of 4.3 Full Scale IQ points; estimated decreases for Verbal and Performance IQ were 3.4 and 4.5 points, respectively. AUC7 was significantly and negatively related to three WISC-III factor scores: Freedom from Distractibility, Perceptual Organization, and Verbal Comprehension; the association with Perceptual Organization was the strongest. Consistent with previous studies, the IQ/lead association is small relative to more powerful social factors. Findings offer support for lead's behavioral signature; perceptual-motor skills are significantly more sensitive to lead exposure than are the language-related aspects of intelligence. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. PMID:9410739

  18. Dementia and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease from India: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Jaya; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2014-11-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are frequent manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although a few longitudinal studies have reported on depression and dementia in PD, there is a yet a lack of such studies in India. This 7-year longitudinal study is a hospital-based prospective case (n = 250)-control (n = 280) study. In all, 36.8% had PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-Normal), 27.2% of the patients with PD were affected by dementia (PDD), and 36% of the remaining patients with PD had mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) at baseline. After 7 years of evaluation, 32 new patients, 12 patients from the PD-MCI group and 9 patients from the PD-Normal group, were diagnosed with dementia. The 7-year prevalence rate for dementia was estimated to be 49.28%. In the Indian population, an early onset of dementia is noted among patients with PD, with the age of onset being less than 55 years. Patients with early-onset PDD showed depression symptoms that differed significantly from the controls of the same age-group. There was a major difference in verbal fluency, word list recall, constructional praxis and recall, word list recognition, abridged Boston Naming Test, word list memory with repetition, and Mini-Mental State Examination between PD-MCI and PDD groups. Hallucinations before baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 4.427, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.122-9.373), akinetic/tremor dominancy (OR = 0.380, 95%CI = 0.149-0.953), and asymmetrical disease onset (OR = 0.3285, 95%CI = 0.1576-0.685) can be considered as risk factors for patients with dementia. Patients with early-onset PD might be more prone to complex depression and dementia. As the disease progresses, akinetic-dominant PD, early hallucinations, and asymmetrical disease onset are the potential risk factors for the development of dementia in patients with PD. PMID:24771763

  19. Darier's disease - Oral, general and histopathological features in a 7 year old child.

    PubMed

    Dharman, Sreedevi; Arvind, Muthukrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Darier's disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting clinically as hyperkeratotic, firm papule that predominates in the seborrheic areas and flexures with accompanying nail abnormalities. Heat, sweating, sunlight, and stress are exacerbating factors of the lesion. The oral lesions are asymptomatic and comprise multiple white papules in the buccal mucosa and hard palate, giving a cobblestone appearance, and it is characterized histologically by loss of desmosomal adhesion and abnormal keratinization resulting in mucocutaneous abnormalities. Pruritus, recurrent infections, and malodor can decrease the quality of life. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with clinical and histological features of Darier's disease. PMID:27080970

  20. A 7-year-old boy with acute onset of breathing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Salas, Ariel A

    2010-02-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major bacterial pathogen affecting children globally. Approximately 15% of school-age children experience a symptomatic episode of GAS culture-positive pharyngitis each year. Although the incidence of invasive GAS disease under these circumstances is low (0.5%-2%), an increasing number of invasive GAS cases have been reported over the last 2 decades. This report describes a 7-year-old boy who, after being treated for GAS pharyngitis, developed a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. PMID:20145509

  1. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. Coskun; Ozgul, Nejat; Yuce, Kunter

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. PMID:25918655

  2. Hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old thumbsucker: a case study.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David N

    2012-01-01

    Thumbsucking is a common habit among younger children. Usually, the child outgrows this habit by age 6. When a child over the age of 6 continues to suck his or her thumb, it can be a cause of potential harm due to peer pressure, ridicule, and shunning. It can also lead to malocclusions requiring eventual orthodontic interventions. In this case study, the author demonstrates a hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old girl. Validation of her habit and imaging a role model sucking her thumb were employed in trance. Using this approach, the child was able to end her dependence on thumbsucking in 1 session. PMID:22443022

  3. OBSERVATIONAL SCAN-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hao; Li Tipei E-mail: litp@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2011-05-10

    Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.

  4. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LIKELIHOOD APPROXIMATION FOR BANDED PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gjerløw, E.; Mikkelsen, K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Seljebotn, D. S.; Górski, K. M.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J. B.; Rocha, G.; Wehus, I. K.

    2013-11-10

    We investigate sets of random variables that can be arranged sequentially such that a given variable only depends conditionally on its immediate predecessor. For such sets, we show that the full joint probability distribution may be expressed exclusively in terms of uni- and bivariate marginals. Under the assumption that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum likelihood only exhibits correlations within a banded multipole range, Δl{sub C}, we apply this expression to two outstanding problems in CMB likelihood analysis. First, we derive a statistically well-defined hybrid likelihood estimator, merging two independent (e.g., low- and high-l) likelihoods into a single expression that properly accounts for correlations between the two. Applying this expression to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood, we verify that the effect of correlations on cosmological parameters in the transition region is negligible in terms of cosmological parameters for WMAP; the largest relative shift seen for any parameter is 0.06σ. However, because this may not hold for other experimental setups (e.g., for different instrumental noise properties or analysis masks), but must rather be verified on a case-by-case basis, we recommend our new hybridization scheme for future experiments for statistical self-consistency reasons. Second, we use the same expression to improve the convergence rate of the Blackwell-Rao likelihood estimator, reducing the required number of Monte Carlo samples by several orders of magnitude, and thereby extend it to high-l applications.

  5. Testing cosmic microwave background polarization data using position angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Michael; Battye, Richard A.

    2014-10-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NRAO-VLA Sky Survey point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple √{N_{pix}} law. However, this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance as the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then, we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in a realistic context, and make a preliminary analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 data, finding evidence of a systematic error in the Q- and W- band data, consistent with a constant offset in Q and U.

  6. Latest inflation model constraints from cosmic microwave background measurements: Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio

    2008-10-15

    In this addendum to Phys. Rev. D 74, 023502 (2006), we present an update of cosmological constraints on single-field inflation in light of the Wilkinson Microwave Ansiotropy Probe satellite mission five-year results (WMAP5). We find that the cosmic microwave background data are quite consistent with a Harrison-Zel'dovich primordial spectrum with no running and zero tensor amplitude. We find that the three main conclusions of our analysis of the WMAP three-year data (WMAP3) are consistent with the WMAP5 data: (1) the Harrison-Zel'dovich model is within the 95% confidence level contours; (2) there is no evidence for running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations; (3) from the WMAP 5 data alone, potentials of the form V{proportional_to}{phi}{sup p} are consistent with the data for p=2 and are ruled out for p=4. Furthermore, consistent with our WMAP3 analysis, we find no evidence for primordial tensor perturbations, this time with a 95% confidence upper limit of r<0.4 for the WMAP5 data alone, and r<0.35 for the WMAP5 data taken in combination with the Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array (ACBAR)

  7. Evidence for dark energy from the cosmic microwave background alone using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope lensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Blake D; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Ω(Λ) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters, and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool. PMID:21797591

  8. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPIES IN THE WMAP DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2012-05-20

    The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is one of the most important characteristics in cosmology that can shed light on the properties of the universe such as its geometry and total density. Using flat sky approximation and Fourier analysis, we estimate the angular power spectrum from an ensemble of the least foreground-contaminated square patches from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe W and V frequency band map. This method circumvents the issue of foreground cleaning and that of breaking orthogonality in spherical harmonic analysis because we are able to mask out the bright Galactic plane region, thereby rendering a direct measurement of the angular power spectrum. We test and confirm the Gaussian statistical characteristic of the selected patches, from which the first and second acoustic peaks of the power spectrum are reproduced, and the third peak is clearly visible, albeit with some noise residual at the tail.

  9. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  10. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  11. Femoral Perforation after Hemiarthroplasty – Life goes on for 7 years!

    PubMed Central

    josm, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Femoral perforation after hemiarthroplasty is a known complication. In cases with cemented hemiarthroplasty the recommendation is to leave the implant till it requires revision while for uncemented hemiarthroplasty early revision is recommended. Case Report: We present a case of perforation of lateral femoral cortex after Autin Moore hemiarthroplasty.. The patient reported a swelling at lateral aspect of thigh immediately after hemiarthroplasty surgery done for failed osteosysnthesis 7 years back. However he was able to continue his activities of daily living for 7 years. He visited us with complains of some pain around the swelling since last 3 months. Radiograph revealed a malposiitioned Austin Moore prosthesis with lateral perforation of the femur. An implant removal and revision total hip arthropllassty is advised but patient declined it and went along with his ‘functioning’ Hip. Conclusion: This is a case of lateral perforation of Austin Moore prosthesis where the patient was able to carry out his daily activities for seven years. Although revision is advised, patient is reluctant and is quite comfortable with his situation.

  12. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  13. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  14. Rhabdoid Myomelanocytic Tumor (PEComa) of the Ovary: A Clinically Benign Case Followed for 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Rampisela, Debby; Grossmann, Petr; Donner, Ludvik R

    2016-08-01

    A 3.0 × 2.5 cm rhabdoid myomelanocytic tumor was incidentally found in the left ovary of a 43-year-old black woman. The tumor cells were cytologically bland with minimal proliferation rate, multifocally weakly or moderately expressed TFE3, strongly expressed smooth muscle markers and SMARCB1/INI1, and focally expressed HMB45. They contained numerous paranuclear whorls of intermediate filaments that were verified by ultrastructure. No other lines of differentiation were detected within the tumor. Neither translocation nor increased number of copies of the TFE3 gene at Xp11.22 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patient remains well, free of tumor, 7 years after surgery. A rhabdoid variant of myomelanocytic tumor is a rarity, with only a single case described previously. PMID:26944064

  15. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  16. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  17. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  18. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  19. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-05-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  20. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  1. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  2. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Cristina; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children’s language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children’s language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children’s relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children’s language scores and rate of progress. Methods Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. Results A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Conclusions Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child’s home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family’s material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the

  3. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  4. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  5. Gait strategy in genetically obese patients: a 7-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, V; Vismara, L; Galli, M; Grugni, G; Cau, N; Capodaglio, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the change in gait and body weight in the long term in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Eight adults with PWS were evaluated at baseline and after 7 years. During this period patient participated an in- and out-patient rehabilitation programs including nutritional and adapted physical activity interventions. Two different control groups were included: the first group included 14 non-genetically obese patients (OCG: obese control group) and the second group included 10 age-matched healthy individuals (HCG: healthy control group). All groups were quantitatively assessed during walking with 3D-GA. The results at the 7-year follow-up revealed significant weight loss in the PWS group and spatial-temporal changes in gait parameters (velocity, step length and cadence). With regard to the hip joint, there were significant changes in terms of hip position, which is less flexed. Knee flexion-extension showed a reduction of flexion in swing phase and of its excursion. No changes of the ankle position were evident. As for ankle kinetics, we observed in the second session higher values for the peak of ankle power in terminal stance in comparison to the first session. No changes were found in terms of ankle kinetics. The findings demonstrated improvements associated to long-term weight loss, especially in terms of spatial-temporal parameters and at hip level. Our results back the call for early weight loss interventions during childhood, which would allow the development of motor patterns under normal body weight conditions. PMID:24763375

  6. Subalpine grassland carbon balance during 7 years of increased atmospheric N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Enderle, Jan; Bassin, Seraina

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution agents interact when affecting biological sinks for atmospheric CO2, e.g., the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of grassland ecosystems. Factors favoring plant productivity, like atmospheric N deposition, are usually considered to favor SOC storage. In a 7-year experiment in subalpine grassland under N- and O3-deposition treatment, we examined C fluxes and pools. Total N deposition was 4, 9, 14, 29 and 54 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N4, N9, etc.); annual mean phytotoxic O3 dose was 49, 65 and 89 mmol m-2 projected leaf area. We hypothesized that between years SOC of this mature ecosystem would not change in control treatments and that effects of air pollutants are similar for plant yield, net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and SOC content, leading to SOC content increasing with N deposition. Cumulative plant yield showed a significant N and N × N effect (+38 % in N54) but no O3 effect. In the control treatment SOC increased significantly by 9 % in 7 years. Cumulative NEP did show a strong, hump-shaped response pattern to N deposition with a +62 % increase in N14 and only +39 % increase in N54 (N effect statistically not significant, N × N interaction not testable). SOC had a similar but not significant response to N, with highest C gains at intermediate N deposition rates, suggesting a unimodal response with a marginal (P = 0.09) N × N interaction. We assume the strong, pollutant-independent soil C sink developed as a consequence of the management change from grazing to cutting. The non-parallel response of SOC and NEP compared to plant yield under N deposition is likely the result of increased respiratory SOC losses, following mitigated microbial N-limitation or priming effects, and a shift in plant C allocation leading to smaller C input from roots.

  7. Small-scale anisotropies in the microwave background in a baryon-dominated open universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gouda, N.; Sasaki, M.; Suto, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in a baryon-dominated universe (BDU) are calculated using a gauge-invariant method. The theoretical predictions on a 4.5-arcmin angular scale are compared with the observational data of Uson and Wilkinson (1984). Both adiabatic and isocurvature scenarios predict roughly the same amplitudes of the anisotropies on this scale, in spite of the difference of the physical mechanism of the anisotropy generation. As a result, CMB isotropy requires that the density parameter of a BDU must be larger than 0.8 even in an isocurvature scenario. This conclusion is compatible with the observation of light elements only if the universe were fairly inhomogeneous at the epoch of primordial nucleosynthesis. In turn, to the extent that standard primordial nucleosynthesis predictions are assumed, the idea of a BDU based on either adiabatic or isocurvature models can be ruled out. 22 references.

  8. Developmental Trajectories in Siblings of Children with Autism: Cognition and Language from 4 Months to 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Jaffe, Dena H.; Manor, Orly; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cognitive and language development at 4, 14, 24, 36, 54 months, and 7 years of siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to that of siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) using growth curve analyses. At 7 years, 40% of the SIBS-A, compared to 16% of SIBS-TD, were identified with cognitive, language and/or academic…

  9. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = −2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.33, −1.05) and b = −2.69 (95% CI = −4.22, −1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  10. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  11. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  12. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  13. The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Oral Habits among 5–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kasparaviciene, Kristina; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Vasiliauskas, Arunas; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Sidlauskas, Mantas; Marmaite, Ugne

    2014-01-01

    Background Digit sucking, tongue thrust swallowing, and mouth breathing are potential risk factors for development of malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of different occlusal traits among 5–7-year-old children and assess their relationship with oral habits. Material/Methods The study included 503 pre-school children (260 boys and 243 girls) with a mean age of 5.95 years. Different occlusal traits were verified by intraoral examination. Oral habits were diagnosed using data gathered from clinical examination of occlusion and extra-oral assessment of the face, combined with a questionnaire for parents. Results The study demonstrated that 71.4% of the children presented with 1 or more attributes of malocclusion and 16.9% had oral habits. The vertical and sagittal malrelation of incisors, as well as spacing, were the predominant features. This study showed that digit suckers have higher incidence of anterior open bite (P=0.013) and posterior crossbite (P=0.005). The infantile type of swallowing demonstrated strong association (P=0.001) with anterior open bite. Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits and tongue thrust swallowing are significant risk factors for the development of anterior open bite and posterior crossbite in pre-school children. PMID:25344319

  14. Neurofibromatous sensory neuropathy of the thigh in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gautam M; Murari, Ashok Shyam; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Yang, Jae Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    Neuropathy is considered to be an unusual complication of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Neurofibromatous neuropathy is extremely rare in the setting of paediatric age group, pure sensory mononeuropathy and NF1. The following is a description of a 7-year-old boy who presented with complains of discomfort and parasthesia on the anterior aspect of his left thigh which is an unusual mode of presentation and site of involvement. Clinical examination and imaging revealed an isolated sensory neuropathy of the left anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh secondary to plexiform neurofibromatosis involving the L1-L4 nerve roots and the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh. The main abnormality in this patient was segmental hypertrophy of the left lower limb and dilatation of left lumbar neural foramens. Subtotal excision of the neurofibromas of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve was performed and the patient was asymptomatic at the end of 27 months (2.25 years) of followup. Although the result of treatment in this case was good, long-term followup is necessary in view of greater risk of malignant transformation and development of spinal deformity and overall long-term poor prognosis in this particular patient subgroup of NF1. PMID:17929043

  15. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  16. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  17. Indications and outcome for obstetric patients' admission to intensive care unit: a 7-year review.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Zayed, F; Al-Mehaisen, L; Alchalabi, H; Khader, Y

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications, interventions and clinical outcome of pregnant and newly delivered women admitted to the multidisciplinary intensive care unit at the King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan over a 7-year period from January 2002 to December 2008. The collected data included demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of delivery, pre-existing medical conditions, reason for admission, specific intervention, length of stay and maternal outcome. A total of 43 women required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), which represented 0.37% of all deliveries. The majority (95.3%) of patients were admitted to the ICU postpartum. The most common reasons for admissions were (pre)eclampsia (48.8%) and obstetric haemorrhage (37.2). The remainder included adult respiratory distress syndrome (6.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.3%) and neurological disorders (4.6%). Mechanical ventilation was required to support 18.6% of patients and transfusion of red blood cells was needed for 48.8% of patients. There were three maternal deaths (6.9%). A multidisciplinary team approach is essential to improve the management of hypertensive disorders and postpartum haemorrhage to achieve significant improvements in maternal outcome. A large, prospective study to know which women are at high risk of admission to the intensive care units and to prevent serious maternal morbidity and mortality is warranted. PMID:20455722

  18. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  19. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  20. First hip arthroplasty register in Italy: 55,000 cases and 7 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, B.; De Clerico, M.; Petropulacos, K.; Toni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Register for Orthopaedic Prosthetic Implantation (RIPO) has been prospectively collecting data on hip prostheses performed in all the orthopaedic units in the region Emilia-Romagna since January 2000. The register aims to determine the characteristics of patients, evaluate the effectiveness of prostheses, and allow internal audit. Adherence to the register is compulsory (93% capture). By 31 December 2006 the register contained data on 35,041 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), 14,613 hemiarthoplasties, and 5,878 revisions. All prosthetic components are registered on an individual basis. Survival analysis is done following the Kaplan Meier method. Cumulative survival rate at 7 years is 96.8% (95% CI: 96.4–97.1%) for THA and 97.6% (97.0–98.3%) for hemiarthroplasties. Multivariate analysis verified that survival of the THA is affected by pathology, where the worst conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, femoral neck fracture, and sequelae of coxitis or Paget’s disease. Results are comparable to other major registers of Northern Europe and Australia. PMID:17987290

  1. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  2. A LAST LOOK AT THE MICROWAVE HAZE/BUBBLES WITH WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    The microwave 'haze' was first discovered with the initial release of the full sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). It is diffuse emission toward the center of our Galaxy with spectral behavior that makes it difficult to categorize as any of the previously known emission mechanisms at those wavelengths. With now seven years of WMAP data publicly available, we have learned much about the nature of the haze, and with the release of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the discovery of the gamma-ray haze/bubbles, we have had a spectacular confirmation of its existence at other wavelengths. As the WMAP mission winds down and the Planck mission prepares to release data, I take a last look at what WMAP has to tell us about the origin of this unique Galactic feature. Much like the gamma rays, the microwave haze/bubbles is/are elongated in latitude with respect to longitude by a factor of roughly two, and at high latitudes, the microwave emission cuts off sharply above {approx}35 Degree-Sign (compared to {approx}50 Degree-Sign in the gammas). The hard spectrum of electrons required to generate the microwave synchrotron is consistent with that required to generate gamma-ray emission via inverse Compton scattering, though it is likely that these signals result from distinct regions of the spectrum ({approx}10 GeV for the microwaves and {approx}1 TeV for the gammas). While there is no evidence for significant haze polarization in the seven-year WMAP data, I demonstrate explicitly that it is unlikely such a signal would be detectable above the noise.

  3. Medical applications of microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jan; Lapes, M.

    2004-04-01

    Medical applications of microwaves (i.e. a possibility to use microwave energy and/or microwave technique and technology for therapeutical purposes) are a quite new and a very rapidly developing field. Microwave thermotherapy is being used in medicine for the cancer treatment and treatment of some other diseases since early eighties. In this contribution we would like to offer general overview of present activities in the Czech Republic, i.e. clinical applications and results, technical aspects of thermo therapeutic equipment and last but not least, prospective diagnostics based on microwave principals ant technology and instrumentation.

  4. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Sperm donation and its application in China: a 7-year multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Li, Yu-Shan; Wang, Quan-Xian; Cao, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hui-Li; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm donation in China is different from that in other countries due to cultural, social and political factors. This research presents the current status of sperm donation in Mainland China and highlights some problems. Between January 2003 and December 2009, 19 471 sperm donors were screened totally and 6467 donors (33.2%) were recruited. The primary reasons for non-recruitment were either inadequate semen parameters (55.0%) or positive results for sexually transmitted diseases (7.9%). There were 327 (1.7%) qualified donors who withdrew from the program because of frustration related to failed semen parameters, participation merely for free medical tests or job transfer. A questionnaire investigating donor intention, as well as other concerns associated with sperm donation, was distributed to 516 potential donors. All potential donors indicated their primary motivation as altruism, while 90.9% mentioned monetary reward as a second motivating factor. Approximately 93.4% of donors expressed some apprehension about the risk of consanguineous mating and the protection of their identity. Over the past 7 years, 488 389 vials of donors' semen have been cryopreserved. In 36 438 artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 23.9% and the live birth rate was 16.6%. In 7148 in vitro fertilization cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.8% and the live birth rate was 35.2%. Human sperm banks have been strictly monitored to ensure that each sperm donor can only impregnate five women nationwide. There is still a large gap between the supply and demand for sperm donation which may be solved by updated guidelines. PMID:21623386

  6. Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Bullman, T A

    2001-09-01

    To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up. PMID:11532780

  7. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  8. Searching for hidden mirror symmetries in CMB fluctuations from WMAP 7 year maps

    SciTech Connect

    Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Starobinsky, Alexey A. E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2012-07-01

    We search for hidden mirror symmetries at large angular scales in the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination map of CMB temperature anisotropies using global pixel based estimators introduced for this aim. Two different axes are found for which the CMB intensity pattern is anomalously symmetric (or anti-symmetric) under reflection with respect to orthogonal planes at the 99.84(99.96)% CL (confidence level), if compared to a result for an arbitrary axis in simulations without the symmetry. We have verified that our results are robust to the introduction of the galactic mask. The direction of such axes is close to the CMB kinematic dipole and nearly orthogonal to the ecliptic plane, respectively. If instead the real data are compared to those in simulations taken with respect to planes for which the maximal mirror symmetry is generated by chance, the confidence level decreases to 92.39(76.65)%. But when the effect in question translates into the anomalous alignment between normals to planes of maximal mirror (anti)-symmetry and these natural axes mentioned. We also introduce the representation of the above estimators in the harmonic domain, confirming the results obtained in the pixel one. The symmetry anomaly is shown to be almost entirely due to low multipoles, so it may have a cosmological and even primordial origin. Contrary, the anti-symmetry one is mainly due to intermediate multipoles that probably suggests its non-fundamental nature. We have demonstrated that these anomalies are not connected to the known issue of the low variance in WMAP observations and we have checked that axially symmetric parts of these anomalies are small, so that the axes are not the symmetry ones.

  9. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  10. ARE THERE ECHOES FROM THE PRE-BIG-BANG UNIVERSE? A SEARCH FOR LOW-VARIANCE CIRCLES IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir

    2011-10-20

    In a recent analysis of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year temperature maps, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to find concentric circular patterns in the sky with anomalously low variances. These circles are presented as observational evidence for violent processes in a universe preceding our big bang as predicted by Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. We reassess the statistical significance of the detection of the claimed concentric low-variance circles by comparing the WMAP data with Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky plus realistic modeling of WMAP's anisotropic noise. We find no anomaly in the variances compared with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The observed variances in the data are consistent with a Gaussian CMB sky as predicted by the inflationary cosmology model at better than 3{sigma}.

  11. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  12. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  13. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  15. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  16. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  17. Determinants of change in oral health-related quality of life over 7 years among older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Enoki, K; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K-I; Yoshida, M; Maeda, Y; Thomson, W M

    2013-04-01

    Because there are more elderly people than ever before and because they are living for longer periods of time, it is essential to understand the determinants of healthy ageing. This study examined changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Japanese elderly over a 7-year period. A sample of independently living individuals (aged 60+ years) underwent a questionnaire and dental examination at baseline and 7 years afterwards. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was used to assess the impact of oral conditions. Occlusal force and salivary flow were also assessed. Of the 411 participants assessed at baseline, 130 (31·6%) accepted to participate after 7 years. There were no significant differences between those lost to follow-up and those assessed at 7 years, except that a higher proportion of the latter rated their baseline general health as good. Among the latter, the overall mean GOHAI score did not change significantly (11·8 at baseline and 11·1 at follow-up; P = 0·16). However, after controlling for age, gender and baseline GOHAI score, participants who had lost teeth or experienced a decline in occlusal force after 7 years had higher follow-up GOHAI scores (indicating poorer OHRQoL). Unfavourable changes in clinical oral status over time are reflected in poorer self-rated oral health. PMID:23356574

  18. Soil respiration under mature deciduous forest trees after 7 years of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Martin; Körner, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic rise in atmospheric CO2 is expected to impact carbon fluxes not only at ecosystem level but also at the global scale by altering carbon cycle processes in soils. At the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC), we examined how 7 years of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) affected soil CO2 dynamics in a c. 100-year-old mixed deciduous forest. The use of 13C-depleted CO2 for canopy enrichment allowed us to trace the flow of recently fixed carbon (C). In the seventh year of growth at ~550 ppm CO2, soil respiratory CO2 consisted of 39% labelled C. During the growing season, soil air CO2 concentration was significantly enhanced under CO2-exposed trees. However, elevated CO2 failed to stimulate cumulative soil respiration (Rs) over the growing season. We found periodic reductions as well as increases in instantaneous rates of Rs in response to elevated CO2, depending on soil temperature and soil volumetric water content (VWC; significant 3-way interaction). During wet periods, soil water savings under CO2-enriched trees led to excessive VWC (>45%) that suppressed Rs. Elevated CO2 stimulated Rs only when VWC was ≤40% and concurrent soil temperature was high (>15 °C). Seasonal Q10 estimates of Rs were significantly lower under elevated (Q10 = 3.30) compared to ambient CO2 (Q10 = 3.97). However, this effect disappeared when 3 consecutive sampling dates of extremely high VWC were disregarded. This suggests that elevated CO2 affected Q10 mainly indirectly through changes in VWC. Fine root respiration did not differ significantly between treatments but soil microbial biomass (Cmic) increased by 14% under elevated CO2 (marginally significant). Our findings do not indicate enhanced soil C emissions in such stands under future atmospheric CO2. It remains to be shown whether C losses via leaching of dissolved organic or inorganic C (DOC, DIC) help to balance the carbon budget in this forest.

  19. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  20. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  1. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  2. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  3. A Developmental Study of Timing Behavior in 4 1/2- and 7-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouthas, Viviane; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    Investigates effects of age and instructions on temporal regulations of behavior in two experiments. Results of two experiments suggest that for 4 1/2- and 7-year-olds trained with DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates), age and timing performance are related, and that instructions to wait between operant responses enhance DRL performance…

  4. Home Environment and Cognitive Ability of 7-Year-Old Children in the Colorado Adoption Project: Genetic and Environmental Etiologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study results indicate that correlations between measures of the home environment and children's intelligence quotient at 7 years of age are often mediated genetically. Among 153 adoptive and 136 nonadoptive families, such correlations were generally lower in adoptive families than in nonadoptive families. (RH)

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  6. Association Between Gestational and Environmental Events and Central Nervous System Function in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drorbaugh, James E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence of variables frequently associated with low birthweight was compared in samples of 100 low-birthweight (LBW) infants and 100 normal birthweight infants, and the association with central nervous system function at 7 years was examined in LBW Ss. (Author/CL)

  7. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  8. Lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy infected with Wuchereria bancrofti in Sierra Leone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dome, Mackenzie; Ansumana, Rashid; Covington, Andrea L; Rebollo, Maria P; Sesay, Santigie; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Koudou, Benjamin G; Michael, Edwin; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of congenital lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy in Sierra Leone with active filarial infection and penile edema. The genital edema with onset at 6 months of age may have been due to a congenital abnormality in lymphatic drainage. Other possible causes of childhood lymphedema, including Milroy's disease, are discussed. PMID:24561072

  9. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  10. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  11. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  12. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  13. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  14. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  15. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the

  16. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ

  17. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  18. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  19. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  20. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  1. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  2. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  3. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  4. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  5. Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-04-28

    In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

  6. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  7. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  8. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A in an Urban Minority Birth Cohort in New York City, Prenatal Through Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Just, Allan C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern over potential health effects associated with exposures to the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA), insufficient information is available on determinants of BPA concentrations among minority populations in the US. Objectives To describe concentrations and predictors of BPA in an inner-city longitudinal birth cohort. Methods We analyzed spot urines for total BPA collected during pregnancy and child ages 3, 5, and 7 years from African Americans and Dominicans (n=568) enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort and residing in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Adjusting for specific gravity, generalized estimating equations were used to compare BPA concentrations across paired samples and linear regression analyses were used to determine relationships between BPA, season of sample collection, socio-demographic variables and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites. Results BPA was detected in > 94% of samples. Prenatal concentrations were significantly lower than postnatal concentrations. Geometric means were higher among African Americans compared to Dominicans in prenatal (p=0.008), 5 year (p<0.001) and 7 year (p=0.017) samples. Geometric means at 5 and 7 years were higher (p=0.021, p=0.041 respectively) for children of mothers never married compared to mothers ever married at enrollment. BPA concentrations were correlated with phthalate metabolite concentrations at prenatal, 3, 5 and 7 years (p-values <0.05). Postnatal BPA concentrations were higher in samples collected during the summer. Conclusions This study shows widespread BPA exposure in an inner-city minority population. BPA concentration variations were associated with socio-demographic characteristics and other xenobiotics. PMID:23312110

  9. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin-A in renal transplantation: 7-year observational results.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Bernhard K; Montagnino, Giuseppe; Krüger, Bernd; Margreiter, Raimund; Olbricht, Christoph J; Marcen, Roberto; Sester, Urban; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Dietl, Karl-Heinz; Rigotti, Paolo; Ronco, Claudio; Hörsch, Silke; Banas, Bernhard; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Arias, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The European Tacrolimus versus Ciclosporin-A Microemulsion (CsA-ME) Renal Transplantation Study demonstrated that tacrolimus decreased acute rejection rates at 6 months. Primary endpoints of this investigator-initiated, observational 7-year follow-up study were acute rejection rates, patient and graft survival rates, and a composite endpoint (BPAR, graft loss, and patient death). We analyzed data from the original intent-to-treat population (n = 557; 286 tacrolimus, 271 CsA-ME). A total of 237 tacrolimus and 208 CsA-ME patients provided data. At 7 years, Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of patients free from BPAR were 77.1% in the tacrolimus arm and 59.9% in the CsA-ME arm, graft survival rates amounted to 82.6% and 80.6%, and patient survival rates to 89.9% and 88.1%. Estimated combined endpoint-free survival rates were 60.2% in the tacrolimus arm and 47.0% in the CsA-ME arm (P = <0.0001). A higher number of patients from the CsA-ME arm crossed over to tacrolimus during 7 year follow-up: 19.7% vs. 7.9% (P = <0.002). More patients in the tacrolimus group stopped steroids and received immunosuppressive monotherapy. Significantly, more CsA-ME patients received lipid-lowering medication and experienced cosmetic and cardiovascular adverse events. Tacrolimus-treated renal transplant recipients had significantly higher combined endpoint-free survival rates mainly driven by lower acute rejection rates despite less immunosuppressive medication at 7 years. PMID:26565071

  10. THE LOCAL DUST FOREGROUNDS IN THE MICROWAVE SKY. I. THERMAL EMISSION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Dikarev, Valeri; Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami; Krueger, Harald; Krivov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Analyses of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation maps made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) have revealed anomalies not predicted by the standard inflationary cosmology. In particular, the power of the quadrupole moment of the CMB fluctuations is remarkably low, and the quadrupole and octopole moments are aligned mutually and with the geometry of the solar system. It has been suggested in the literature that microwave sky pollution by an unidentified dust cloud in the vicinity of the solar system may be the cause for these anomalies. In this paper, we simulate the thermal emission by clouds of spherical homogeneous particles of several materials. Spectral constraints from the WMAP multi-wavelength data and earlier infrared observations on the hypothetical dust cloud are used to determine the dust cloud's physical characteristics. In order for its emissivity to demonstrate a flat, CMB-like wavelength dependence over the WMAP wavelengths (3 through 14 mm), and to be invisible in the infrared light, its particles must be macroscopic. Silicate spheres of several millimeters in size and carbonaceous particles an order of magnitude smaller will suffice. According to our estimates of the abundance of such particles in the zodiacal cloud and trans-Neptunian belt, yielding the optical depths of the order of 10{sup -7} for each cloud, the solar system dust can well contribute 10 muK (within an order of magnitude) in the microwaves. This is not only intriguingly close to the magnitude of the anomalies (about 30 muK), but also alarmingly above the presently believed magnitude of systematic biases of the WMAP results (below 5 muK) and, to an even greater degree, of the future missions with higher sensitivities, e.g., Planck.

  11. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  12. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  13. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F.; Bourdon, Austin

    2008-12-15

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal universe) as well as explanations involving local contaminants, undiagnosed foregrounds, or systematic errors. Because the large-scale power deficit is arguably the most significant of the observed anomalies, explanations that worsen this discrepancy should be regarded with great skepticism, even if they help in explaining other anomalies such as multipole alignments.

  14. Detection of trans-Planckian effects in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Elgaroey, Oystein

    2008-02-15

    Quantum gravity effects are expected to modify the primordial density fluctuations produced during inflation and leave their imprint on the cosmic microwave background observed today. We present a new analysis discussing whether these effects are detectable, considering both currently available data and simulated results from an optimal CMB experiment. We find that the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data show no evidence for the particular signature considered in this work but give an upper bound on the parameters of the model. However, a hypothetical experiment shows that with proper data, the trans-Planckian effects should be detectable through alternate sampling methods. This fuzzy conclusion is a result of the nature of the oscillations, since they give rise to a likelihood hypersurface riddled with local maxima. A simple Bayesian analysis shows no significant evidence for the simulated data to prefer a trans-Planckian model. Conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are not suitable for exploring this complicated landscape, but alternative methods are required to solve the problem. This, however, requires extremely high-precision data.

  15. IMPACTS OF DARK STARS ON REIONIZATION AND SIGNATURES IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Pat; Roebber, Elinore; Holder, Gil; Venkatesan, Aparna; Gondolo, Paolo; Pierpaoli, Elena E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu

    2011-12-01

    We perform a detailed and systematic investigation of the possible impacts of dark stars on the reionization history of the universe, and its signatures in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We compute hydrogen reionization histories, CMB optical depths, and anisotropy power spectra for a range of stellar populations including dark stars. If dark stars capture large amounts of dark matter (DM) via nuclear scattering, reionization can be substantially delayed, leading to decreases in the integrated optical depth to last scattering and large-scale power in the EE polarization power spectrum. Using the integrated optical depth observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe seven-year mission, in our canonical reionization model we rule out the section of parameter space where dark stars with high scattering-induced capture rates tie up {approx}> 90% of all the first star-forming baryons, and live for {approx}> 250 Myr. When nuclear scattering delivers only moderate amounts of DM, reionization can instead be sped up slightly, modestly increasing the CMB optical depth. If dark stars do not obtain any DM via nuclear scattering, effects on reionization and the CMB are negligible. The effects of dark stars on reionization and its CMB markers can be largely mimicked or compensated for by changes in the existing parameters of reionization models, making dark stars difficult to disentangle from astrophysical uncertainties, but also widening the range of standard parameters in reionization models that can be made consistent with observations.

  16. A FOREGROUND-CLEANED COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAP FROM NON-GAUSSIANITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Rajib

    2011-10-01

    In this Letter, we present a new method to estimate a foreground-cleaned cosmic microwave background (CMB) map at a resolution of 1{sup 0} by minimizing the non-Gaussian properties of the cleaned map which arise dominantly due to diffuse foreground emission components from the Milky Way. We employ simple kurtosis statistic as the measure of non-Gaussian properties and perform a linear combination of five frequency maps provided by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in its seven-year data release in such a way that the cleaned map has a minimum kurtosis which leads to a non-Gaussianity-minimized, foreground-cleaned CMB map. We validate the method by performing Monte Carlo simulations. To minimize any residual foreground contamination from the cleaned map we flag out the region near the galactic plane based upon results from simulations. Outside the masked region our new estimate of the CMB map matches well with the WMAP's Internal Linear Combination (ILC) map. A simple pseudo-C{sub l} -based CMB TT power spectrum derived from the non-Gaussianity minimized map reproduces the earlier results of WMAP's power spectrum. An important advantage of the method is that it does not introduce any negative bias in angular power spectrum in the low multipole regime, unlike usual ILC method. Comparing our results with the previously published results we argue that CMB results are robust with respect to specific foreground removal algorithms employed.

  17. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  18. Microwave Comb Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Stable reference tones aid testing and calibration of microwave receivers. Signal generator puts out stable tones in frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz at all multiples of reference input frequency, at any frequency up to 1 MHz. Called "comb generator" because spectral plot resembles comb. DC reverse-bias current switched on and off at 1 MHz to generate sharp pulses in step-recovery diode. Microwave components mounted on back of special connector containing built-in attenuator. Used in testing microwave and spread-spectrum wide-band receivers.

  19. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  20. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  1. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  2. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  3. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  4. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  5. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  6. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  7. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  8. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  9. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  10. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process. PMID:15323110

  11. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  12. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  13. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Danielle L; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  14. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  15. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  16. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  17. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  18. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  19. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  20. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  1. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  2. [Acute leukemia in childhood: present status of 100 cases after 7 years of complete remission (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schaison, G; Jacquillat, C; Lemercier, N; Weil, M; Alby, N; Auclerc, M F; Boiron, M; Bernard, J

    1980-01-01

    Amongst 1,200 leukemie children treated between 1958 and 1971, 60 are in complete remission for more than 10 years and 100 for more than 7 years. There were 96 acute lymphoid and 4 acute myeloid leukemias. Ten patients who have relapsed in the past have not done so lately. The F/M sex ratio is 1.5. Poor prognostic features were initially absent in 2/3 of cases. In 1/3 there was associated hyperleucocytosis and/or tumours. 93 children are in remission, their treatment having been stopped for 1 to 12 years. Five children relapsed and 4 are in a second remission for more than 2 years. Two children died in remission: one from a hepatocarcinoma and one from cardiac failure. These patients have been shown to have the following: 1) normal growth; 2) normal puberty: 8 patients have been able to reproduce, giving 10 children, one with multiple malformations; 3) school achievement and later socioprofessional behaviour has been normal. The patients have often sought a medical or paramedical career. Sequelae are minimal, psychological problems being minimal in the child. With the protocols used, mean remission curve shows a plateau after 9 years and complete definitive care is achieved in 92 per cent of patients surviving at 7 years. The very distant future outlook is not known. No other malignant haematological disease has occurred but one child died from a carcinoma. PMID:6931627

  3. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  4. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  5. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  6. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  7. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  8. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  9. Optomechanics with microwave light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    Recently, superconducting circuits resonant at microwave frequencies have revolutionized the measurement of astrophysical detectors [1] and superconducting qubits [2]. In this talk, I will describe how we extend this technique to measuring and manipulating nanomechanical oscillators. By strongly coupling the motion of a nanomechanical oscillator to the resonance of the microwave circuit we create structures where the dominant dissipative force acting on the oscillator is the radiation pressure of microwave ``light'' [3]. These devices are ultrasensitive force detectors and they allow us to cool the oscillator towards its motional ground state. [4pt] [1] P. K. Day et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003).[0pt] [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004).[0pt] [3] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  10. RFTF ECH microwave system

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    A Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) has recently been constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for development and testing of Ion Cyclotron Heating (ICH) antennas under realistic fusion reactor plasma edge conditions. High-power ICH antennas must be immersed in the plasma for proper coupling of rf power and therefore are subject to particle bombardment and heat flux. In RFTF, plasma is generated and heated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with 28-GHz microwave power from a gyrotron tube. The plasma is confined in a simple magnetic mirror formed by two superconducting coils surrounding a box-shaped vacuum vessel. Using 50 kW of microwave power, a plasma with density of 5 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup 3/ and temperature of 8 eV is obtained, a fairly good fusion research edge plasma. This presentation covers the microwave generation and transmission system plus some of the electron cyclotron heated (ECH) results on RFTF.