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Sample records for 75-g oral glucose

  1. Maternal 75-g OGTT glucose levels as predictive factors for large-for-gestational age newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brankica, Krstevska; Valentina, Velkoska Nakova; Slagjana, Simeonova Krstevska; Sasha, Jovanovska Mishevska

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our goal was to investigate which glucose measurement from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has more capability of predicting large for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods The study group consisted of 118 consecutively pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, patients of Outpatients Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders Clinic. All were prospectively screened for GDM between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy and followed to delivery. Outcome measures included: patients' ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI before delivery, FPG, 1 and 2 hour OGTT glucose values, haemoglobin A1c at third trimester, gestational week of delivery, mode of delivery and baby birth weight. Results From 118 pregnancies, 78 (66.1%) women were with GDM, and 40 (33.9%) without GDM. There were statistically significant differences (30.7 versus 5.0%, p < 0.01) between LGA newborns from GDM and control group, respectively. Gestation week of delivery and fasting glucose levels were independent predictors for LGA (Beta = 0.58 and Beta = 0.37 respectively, p < 0.01). Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were compared for the prediction of LGA (0.782 (0.685-0.861) for fasting, 0.719 (0.607-0.815) for 1-hour and 0.51 (0.392-0.626) for 2-hour OGTT plasma glucose levels). Conclusion Fasting and 1-hour plasma glucose levels from OGTT may predict LGA babies in GDM pregnancies. PMID:26909480

  2. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  3. Failure of Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia to Compensate for Impaired Metabolic Response to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M; Janghorbani, M; Schuette, S; Considine, RV; Chisholm, RL; Mather, KJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the augmented insulin and glucose response to a glucose challenge is sufficient to compensate for defects in glucose utilization in obesity and type 2 diabetes, using a breath test measurement of integrated glucose metabolism. Methods Non-obese, obese normoglycemic and obese Type 2 diabetic subjects were studied on 2 consecutive days. A 75g oral glucose load spiked with 13C-glucose was administered, measuring exhaled breath 13CO2 as an integrated measure of glucose metabolism and oxidation. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed, measuring whole body glucose disposal rate. Body composition was measured by DEXA. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the determinants of the breath 13CO2. Results Breath 13CO2 was reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects despite hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The primary determinants of breath response were lean mass, fat mass, fasting FFA concentrations, and OGTT glucose excursion. Multiple approaches to analysis showed that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were not sufficient to compensate for the defect in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Conclusions Augmented insulin and glucose responses during an OGTT are not sufficient to overcome the underlying defects in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25511878

  4. Metabolite profiles during oral glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jennifer E; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P; Florez, Jose C; Clish, Clary B; Gerszten, Robert E; Wang, Thomas J

    2013-08-01

    To identify distinct biological pathways of glucose metabolism, we conducted a systematic evaluation of biochemical changes after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a community-based population. Metabolic profiling was performed on 377 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age 57 years, 42% women, BMI 30 kg/m(2)) before and after OGTT. Changes in metabolite levels were evaluated with paired Student t tests, cluster-based analyses, and multivariable linear regression to examine differences associated with insulin resistance. Of 110 metabolites tested, 91 significantly changed with OGTT (P ≤ 0.0005 for all). Amino acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates decreased after OGTT, and glycolysis products increased, consistent with physiological insulin actions. Other pathways affected by OGTT included decreases in serotonin derivatives, urea cycle metabolites, and B vitamins. We also observed an increase in conjugated, and a decrease in unconjugated, bile acids. Changes in β-hydroxybutyrate, isoleucine, lactate, and pyridoxate were blunted in those with insulin resistance. Our findings demonstrate changes in 91 metabolites representing distinct biological pathways that are perturbed in response to an OGTT. We also identify metabolite responses that distinguish individuals with and without insulin resistance. These findings suggest that unique metabolic phenotypes can be unmasked by OGTT in the prediabetic state. PMID:23382451

  5. Oral therapy with glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Nalin, D R; Pizarro, D; Hirschhorn, N

    1980-07-01

    Doctors Kahn and Blum based their views on oral rehydration on only 7 cases, and they fail to provide their methodological details. In their letter on oral rehydration with UNICEF/WHO (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization) glucose electrolyte solution (GES), they maintain that hyperkalemia is a danger of GES therapy, that hypernatremia will be aggravated, that therapy should not last for longer than 24 hours, that after 24 hours monitoring of plasma potassium will be needed, and that except for developing countries where material milk is used, no plan of treatment has been proposed after the first 24 hours of rehydration. The experience of Kahn and Blum is at variance with extensive data from many carefully monitored balanced studies in infants treated with GES. GES is a potent medication and needs to be used properly. Guidelines for use are listed. Kahn and Blum fail to indicate whether their 7 patients comprised their entire treatment group or only those with biochemical or clinical problems. They also fail to indicate the degree of dehydration of the infants at onset of therapy or the extent of ongoing diarrheal losses, and they do not describe the precise treatment regimen. Their mean time of treatment -- 41 hours -- was particularly long. The hyperkalemia reported by Kahn and Blum may have resulted from excessive GES administration, without a source of free water, to infants having few diarrheal stools. Proper use of GES formula rapidly rehydrates 95-98% of mildly to severely dehydrated infants, irrespective of etiology. PMID:6104241

  6. Oral glucose is the prime elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Grill, H J; Berridge, K C; Ganster, D J

    1984-01-01

    Seven sugars, two sugar alcohols, and a nonnutritive sweetener were orally administered to naive rats with and without gastric drainage fistulas. Although all taste solutions were ingested, only glucose evoked a statistically significant elevation of insulin levels. This rise was independent of a rise in glycemia. The preeminence of oral glucose as an elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion is especially striking, considering that glucose is neither the most intense (as measured electrophysiologically) nor the most palatable (as measured by behavioral preference tests) taste stimulus tested. These results suggest the existence of a gustatory and/or gastrointestinal chemoreceptor that is most responsive to glucose. PMID:6364839

  7. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Min Hyuk; Oh, Tae Jung; Choi, Karam; Lee, Jung Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background The oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans. Methods Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10) and T2DM (n=14). The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups. Results The insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. Conclusion The oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans. PMID:27273909

  8. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with (1-/sup 14/C)glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused (3-/sup 3/H)glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation. That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery.

  9. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  10. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  11. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    PubMed

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  12. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    PubMed

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine. PMID:27228466

  13. The Association between HbA1c, Fasting Glucose, 1-Hour Glucose and 2-Hour Glucose during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals with Elevated Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Marcus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Nerman, Olle; Eriksson, Johan; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Pivodic, Aldina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-hour (1 hPG) and 2-hour (2 hPG) glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and cardiovascular disease in individuals with elevated risk for diabetes. Design We studied the relationship between baseline, updated mean and updated (last) value of HbA1c, FPG, 1 hPG and 2 hPG after an oral 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and acute CVD events in 504 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline enrolled in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Setting Follow-up of clinical trial. Participants 504 individuals with IGT were followed with yearly evaluations with OGTT, FPG and HbA1c. Main Outcome Measure Relative risk of CVD. Results Over a median follow-up of 9.0 years 34 (6.7%) participants had a CVD event, which increased to 52 (10.3%) over a median follow-up of 13.0 years when including events that occurred among participants following a diagnosis of diabetes. Updated mean HbA1c, 1 hPG and 2 hPG, HR per 1 unit SD of 1.57 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.11), p = 0.0032, 1.51 (1.03 to 2.23), p = 0.036 and 1.60 (1.10 to 2.34), p = 0.014, respectively, but not FPG (p = 0.11), were related to CVD. In analyses of the last value prior to the CVD event the same three glycaemic measurements were associated with the CVD events, with HRs per 1 unit SD of 1.45 (1.06 to 1.98), p = 0.020, 1.55 (1.04 to 2.29), p = 0.030 and 2.19 (1.51 to 3.18), p<0.0001, respectively but only 2 hPG remained significant in pairwise comparisons. Including the follow-up period after diabetes onset updated 2 hPG (p = 0.003) but not updated mean HbA1c (p = 0.08) was related to CVD. Conclusions and Relevance Current 2 hPG level in people with IGT is associated with increased risk of CVD. This supports its use in screening for prediabetes and monitoring glycaemic levels of people with prediabetes. PMID:25285769

  14. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Pankow, James S; Vollenweider, Peter; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Dupuis, Josée; Jackson, Anne U; Kao, W H Linda; Li, Man; Glazer, Nicole L; Manning, Alisa K; Luan, Jian’an; Stringham, Heather M; Prokopenko, Inga; Johnson, Toby; Grarup, Niels; Boesgaard, Trine W; Lecoeur, Cécile; Shrader, Peter; O’Connell, Jeffrey; Ingelsson, Erik; Couper, David J; Rice, Kenneth; Song, Kijoung; Andreasen, Camilla H; Dina, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Pattou, François; Taneera, Jalal; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Rybin, Denis; Ardlie, Kristin; Sampson, Michael; Qi, Lu; van Hoek, Mandy; Weedon, Michael N; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Voight, Benjamin F; Grallert, Harald; Balkau, Beverley; Bergman, Richard N; Bielinski, Suzette J; Bonnefond, Amelie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Buchanan, Thomas A; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marilyn; Crawford, Gabriel J; Delplanque, Jerome; Doney, Alex; Egan, Josephine M; Erdos, Michael R; Firmann, Mathieu; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Hingorani, Aroon; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Krohn, Knut; Kumari, Meena; Lauritzen, Torsten; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Mayor, Vladimir; McAteer, Jarred B; Meyre, David; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Palmer, Colin N A; Pakyz, Ruth; Pascoe, Laura; Payne, Felicity; Pearson, Daniel; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Scott, Laura J; Sharp, Stephen J; Sijbrands, Eric; Singleton, Andrew; Siscovick, David S; Smith, Nicholas L; Sparsø, Thomas; Swift, Amy J; Syddall, Holly; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Waeber, Gérard; Walley, Andrew; Waterworth, Dawn M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhao, Jing Hua; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H Erich; Wilson, James F; van Duijn, Cornelia; Hu, Frank B; Morris, Andrew D; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Nilsson, Peter; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Shuldiner, Alan R; Walker, Mark; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter; Williams, Gordon H; Nathan, David M; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Cooper, Cyrus; Marmot, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mooser, Vincent; Stumvoll, Michael; Loos, Ruth J F; Altshuler, David; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Sladek, Robert; Froguel, Philippe; Meigs, James B; Groop, Leif; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watanabe, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958–30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, β (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 × 10−15). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 × 10−17; ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 × 10−16) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 × 10−4). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 × 10−16), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 × 10−8), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 × 10−11) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 × 10−10) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09–1.15, P = 4.8 × 10−18). PMID:20081857

  15. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  16. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  17. Effects of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on hepatic glucose balance before and after oral glucose. Role of insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Chap, Z; Ishida, T; Chou, J; Michael, L; Hartley, C; Entman, M; Field, J B

    1986-01-01

    In conscious dogs, phentolamine infusion significantly increased fasting portal vein insulin, glucagon, and decreased net hepatic glucose output and plasma glucose. Propranolol significantly decreased portal vein insulin, portal flow, and increased hepatic glucose production and plasma glucose. Phentolamine, propranolol, and combined blockade reduced glucose absorption after oral glucose. alpha, beta, and combined blockade abolished the augmented fractional hepatic insulin extraction after oral glucose. Despite different absolute amounts of glucose absorbed and different amounts of insulin reaching the liver, the percent of the absorbed glucose retained by the liver was similar for control and with alpha- or beta blockade, but markedly decreased with combined blockade. Our conclusions are: (a) phentolamine and propranolol effects on basal hepatic glucose production may predominantly reflect their action on insulin and glucagon secretion; (b) after oral glucose, alpha- and beta-blockers separately or combined decrease glucose release into the portal system; (c) net hepatic glucose uptake is predominantly determined by hyperglycemia but can be modulated by insulin and glucagon; (d) direct correlation does not exist between hepatic delivery and uptake of insulin and net hepatic glucose uptake; (e) alterations in oral glucose tolerance due to adrenergic blockers, beyond their effects on glucose absorption, can be, to a large extent, mediated by their effects on insulin and glucagon secretion reflecting both hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism. PMID:2870078

  18. A composite hydrogel system containing glucose-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-12-01

    Development of an oral delivery strategy for insulin therapeutics has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study, a glucose-responsive nanocarriers for loading of insulin has been prepared firstly. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited relative low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. In order to enhance the oral bioavailability of insulin, the insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers were further encapsulated into a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel environment for overcoming multiple barriers and providing multi-protection for insulin during the transport process. The hypoglycemic effect for oral delivery of insulin was studied in vivo. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from hydrogel systems containing insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers exhibited an effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with insulin-loaded nanocarriers. PMID:27612686

  19. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  20. Metabolic and haemodynamic effects of oral glucose loading in young healthy men carrying the 825T-allele of the G protein β3 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberger, Jens; Dammer, Sandra; Philipp, Thomas; Wenzel, Rene R; Schäfers, Rafael F

    2003-01-01

    Background A C825T polymorphism was recently identified in the gene encoding the β3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins (GNB3). The T-allele is significantly associated with essential hypertension and obesity. In order to further explore a possible pathogenetic link between the T-allele and impaired glucose tolerance we studied metabolic and haemodynamic responses to oral glucose loading in young, healthy subjects with and without the 825T-allele. Methods Twelve subjects with and 10 without the 825T-allele were investigated at rest and following glucose ingestion (75 g). Blood glucose, serum insulin and haemodynamics were determined prior to and over 2 hours following glucose ingestion. We non-invasively measured stroke volume (SV, by impedance-cardiography), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and systolic-time-intervals. Cardiac output (CO) was calculated from HR and SV. Total peripheral resistance was calculated from CO and BP. Metabolic and haemodynamic changes were quantified by maximal responses and by calculation of areas under the concentration time profile (AUC). Significances of differences between subjects with and without the T-allele were determined by unpaired two-tailed t-tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Metabolic and haemodynamic parameters at baseline were very similar between both groups. The presence of the T-allele did not alter the response of any metabolic or haemodynamic parameter to glucose loading. Conclusions In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism may serve as a genetic marker of early impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:12890290

  1. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Method: Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Results: Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). Conclusions: The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  3. γ-Tocopherol abolishes postprandial increases in plasma methylglyoxal following an oral dose of glucose in healthy, college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Masterjohn, Christopher; Mah, Eunice; Guo, Yi; Koo, Sung I; Bruno, Richard S

    2012-03-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease in part by increasing concentrations of the reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO), a byproduct of glucose metabolism. Oxidative stress increases MGO formation from glucose in vitro and decreases its glutathione-dependent detoxification to lactate. We hypothesized that the antioxidant γ-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, would decrease hyperglycemia-mediated postprandial increases in plasma MGO in healthy, normoglycemic, college-aged men. Participants (n=12 men; 22.3±1.0 years; 29.3±2.4 kg/m(2)) received an oral dose of glucose (75 g) in the fasted state prior to and following 5-day ingestion of a vitamin E supplement enriched in γ-tocopherol (500 mg/day). γ-Tocopherol supplementation increased (P<.0001) plasma γ-tocopherol from 2.22±0.32 to 7.06±0.71 μmol/l. Baseline MGO concentrations and postprandial hyperglycemic responses were unaffected by γ-tocopherol supplementation (P>.05). Postprandial MGO concentrations increased in the absence of supplemental γ-tocopherol (P<.05), but not following γ-tocopherol supplementation (P>.05). Area under the curve for plasma MGO was significantly (P<.05) smaller with the supplementation of γ-tocopherol than without (area under the curve (0-180 min), -778±1010 vs. 2277±705). Plasma concentrations of γ-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman, reduced glutathione and markers of total antioxidant capacity increased after supplementation, and these markers and plasma γ-tocopherol were inversely correlated with plasma MGO (r=-0.48 to -0.67, P<.05). These data suggest that short-term supplementation of γ-tocopherol abolishes the oral glucose-mediated increases in postprandial MGO through its direct and indirect antioxidant properties and may reduce hyperglycemia-mediated cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21543210

  4. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or (3-{sup 3}H)glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, (U-{sup 14}C)lactate or sodium ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ((6-{sup 3}H)glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of ({sup 14}C)glucose production or for dilution of {sup 14}C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from (U-{sup 14}C)-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for (U-{sup 14}C)lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. ({sup 14}C)-lactate as tracer). When (2-{sup 14}C)acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo.

  5. Depressive symptoms linked to 1-h plasma glucose concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test in men and women with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum-Weitzman, O.; Goldberg, R.; Hurwitz, B. E.; Llabre, M. M.; Gellman, M. D.; Gutt, M.; McCalla, J. R.; Mendez, A. J.; Schneiderman, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The addition of the 1-h plasma glucose concentration measure from an oral glucose tolerance test to prediction models of future Type 2 diabetes has shown to significantly strengthen their predictive power. The present study examined the relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia, focusing on the 1-h glucose concentration vs. fasting and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test glucose measures. Methods Participants included 140 adults with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes who completed a baseline psychobiological assessment and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, with measurements taken every 30 min. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Multivariate linear regression revealed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of 1-h plasma glucose concentrations after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, antidepressant use and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Results were maintained after controlling for fasting glucose as well as for indices of insulin resistance and secretion. Neither fasting nor 2-h plasma glucose concentrations were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Elevated depressive symptoms in persons with the metabolic syndrome were associated with greater glycaemic excursion 1-h following a glucose load that was not accounted for by differences in insulin secretory function or insulin sensitivity. Consistent with previous findings, this study highlights the value of the 1-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose measurement in the relation between depressive symptoms and glucose metabolism as an indicator of metabolic abnormalities not visible when focusing on fasting and 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test measurements alone. PMID:24344735

  6. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  7. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  8. Sucralose Affects Glycemic and Hormonal Responses to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Tiemann, Courtney D.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Wice, Burton M.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animal models. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22 ± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS. PMID:23633524

  9. Oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine level in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Dai; Nakara, Hiromi; Akagi, Keisuke; Ishii, Toshiya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Nagashima, Yoshikazu; Okaniwa, Azusa

    2004-02-01

    The present communication deals with information regarding the practice of the oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine in laboratory beagles. In the oral glucose tolerance test, a 180-min level was found to be crucial following a gavage administration of 50% glucose solution at 5 mL/kg per body weight under fasting conditions. Serum fructosamine concentration as 'determined by enzymatic assay ranged between 82 and 123 micromol/L (mean of 104 micromol/L), which was about 0.285 to 0.25 times the value obtained by the chemical method described by Johnson and colleagues. Reasons for differences are ascribed to the presence of substances with reducing potential other than fructosamine in the serum. PMID:15018152

  10. Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Akiko; Yasutake, Yu; Higashi, Sen; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Chishaki, Sakura; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25230237

  11. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  12. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  13. Flavor change and food deprivation are not critical for post-oral glucose appetition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    When mice trained to consume a CS− flavored solution paired with intragastric (IG) water self-infusion are given a new CS+ flavor paired with IG glucose self-infusion, their intake is stimulated within minutes in the first CS+ test. They also display a preference for the CS+ over the CS− in two-bottle tests. These indicators of post-oral appetite stimulation (appetition) have been studied in food-restricted mice, with novel CS+ and CS− flavors. Two experiments tested whether deprivation and flavor novelty are needed for stimulation of intake. Exp. 1 compared food-restricted and ad libitum fed C57BL/6 mice trained for 1 h/day: 3 sessions with CS− flavor and IG water followed by 3 sessions with a novel CS+ flavor and IG 16% glucose. Ad libitum (AL) fed mice licked less overall, but like the food-restricted (FR) group they increased licking in the first session. In the choice test, FR mice displayed a significant CS+ preference (73%) whereas AL mice had a weaker preference (64%). In Exp. 2, food-restricted mice were trained with a flavor and IG water, and then the Same or a New flavor paired with IG 8% glucose. The glucose infusion rapidly stimulated intakes in the first and subsequent sessions and to the same degree in the two groups. Both groups also showed similar reductions in licking in extinction tests with IG water infusions. These data show that mice need not be explicitly food deprived or given a novel flavor cue to increase ongoing ingestion in response to post-oral glucose stimulation. PMID:25484359

  14. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  15. Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

    1981-01-01

    of a transient, rapid burst of glucose uptake are unknown. The role of the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN−-H2O2 system in the oral microbial ecosystem is discussed. PMID:7012014

  16. Effect of human saliva on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans and other oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1981-02-01

    uptake and the basis of promotion of a transient, rapid burst of glucose uptake are unknown. The role of the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN(-)-H(2)O(2) system in the oral microbial ecosystem is discussed. PMID:7012014

  17. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. PMID:27255361

  18. [Diabetes in the Belgian province of Luxembourg: frequency, importance of the oral glucose tolerance test and a modestly increased fasting blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Hortulanus-Beck, D; Lefebvre, P J; Jeanjean, M F

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 1949 subjects aged 35-64 years has been studied in the Belgian Province of Luxembourg according with the MONICA project (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases) elaborated by the World Health Organization. Among the data collected, were a fasting glycaemia and a glycaemia at the second hour of a 75 grams oral glucose load. Analysis of these two parameters has allowed to divide the individuals of the study into: 4.1% of diabetic subjects which half of them being unknown, 5.2% of subjects presenting an impaired glucose tolerance, 3.4% of subjects with an early reactive hypoglycaemia and 87.3% of normoglycaemic subjects. The measurement of the fasting glycaemia alone has allowed to display 15 glucidic abnormalities (that is to say 0.8%) whereas the complementary realization of the oral glucose tolerance test has disclosed about 10% of additional abnormalities. The fact to consider a borderline fasting glycaemia (included between 110 and 140 mg/dl on venous plasma) result in a greater probability to find an abnormal blood glucose value at the second hour of the oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:2265736

  19. Acute and chronic effects of glyceryl trinitrate therapy on insulin and glucose regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Parker, John D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of acute and sustained transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy on insulin and glucose regulation. Totally, 12 males (18-30 years) underwent a glucose tolerance test at baseline (visit 1), 90 minutes after acute transdermal GTN 0.6 mg/h (visit 2), following 7 days of continuous GTN (visit 3), and 2 to 3 days after stopping GTN (visit 4). At each visit, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g oral glucose load. Indices of glucose metabolism that were examined included the insulin sensitivity index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the insulinogenic index. The acute administration of GTN had no effect on glucose and insulin responses (visit 2). However, after 7 days of GTN exposure (visit 3) there was an increase in the mean glucose concentration measured after the oral glucose load. On visit 1, the mean glucose concentration (± standard deviation) following the 75 g oral glucose challenge was 5.7 ± 0.5 µmol/L. On visit 3, after 7 days of transdermal GTN therapy, the mean glucose concentration after the oral glucose was significantly higher; 6.2 ± 0.5 µmol/L (P < .015; 95% confidence intervals 0.25-0.77). There was also an increase in the HOMA-IR index; on visit 1, the median HOMA-IR (interquartile range) was 5.2 (3.9) versus 6.9 (6.8) on visit 3 (P < .015). Other indices of glucose metabolism did not change. These observations document that GTN therapy modifies glucose metabolism causing evidence of increased insulin resistance during sustained therapy in normal humans. PMID:23230283

  20. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  1. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), S I (Cau r = -0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.41, P < 0.01), Φ dynamic (Cau r = -0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.57, P < 0.01), and Φ oral (Cau r = -0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10-10.5 mmol L(-1) in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose

  2. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  3. [Role of classical oral glucose-lowering medications in current treatment].

    PubMed

    Carramiñana Barrera, F C

    2014-07-01

    Classical oral glucose were discovered in the mid twentieth century. Despite the time elapsed since then and the lack of large studies to support the use of some of these drugs, they continue to be employed, are indicated in all clinical practice guidelines and consensus documents and, overall, remain among the most widely prescribed drugs in the national health system. The main arguments for their continued use are their widespread and prolonged prescription, their effectiveness, and cost. Their main disadvantages have always been and continue to be their adverse gastrointestinal effects, weight gain, the risk of hypoglycemia and other adverse effects, which have encouraged the development of new glucose-lowering drugs with an improved pharmacological profile that would cover the various mechanisms of hyperglycemia. Currently, deep knowledge of glucose-lowering drugs is required in the patient-centered management of diabetes. Furthermore, this knowledge should be adapted to each individual patient to acquire the experience necessary to achieve effective metabolic control, delay the development of chronic complications, and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with diabetes. PMID:25311715

  4. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers. PMID:26669903

  5. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26092495

  6. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438

  7. Effects of oral glucose on exercise thermoregulation in men after water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, Alan S.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Greenleaf, John E.; Barnes, Paul R.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Breckler, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis elevated blood glucose would attenuate the rise in exercise rectal temperature, six men age 35 plus or minus S.D. 7 years participated in each of three trials by 4-hr water immersion to the neck: (1) 2.0 g/kg body wt of oral glucose (33.8 percent wt./vol.) was consumed followed by 80 min controlled rest (Glu/Rest), and 70 min horizontal supine cycle exercise at 62.8 percent plus or minus S.E. 0.5 percent (1.97 plus or minus 0.02 L/min) of peak O2 uptake followed by 10 min recovery (2) with (Glu/Ex) and (3) without prior flucose (No Glu/Ex). Blood samples were taken at -25, 0, 15, 45, and 68 min of exercise and after plus 10 min of recovery for measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood glucose. Both mean skin (T sub sk) (from six sites) and rectal temperatures (T sub re) were monitored continuously. Sweat rate was measured by resistanc hygrometry. The mean of delta PV for the exercise trials was -12.2 plus or minus 2.1 percent. Mean blood glucose for the Glu/Ex trial was higher than that of the No Glu/Ex trial was (108.4 equal or minus 3.9 and 85.6 plus or minus 1.6 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.05. At the end of exercise T(sub sk) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Ex(32.0 plus or minus 0.3 and 32.4 equals or minus 0.2 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); T(sub re) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Es (38.22 plus or minus 0.17 and 38.60 plus or minus 0.11 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); and forearm sweat rate for the Glu/Ex trial (0.34 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.43 plus or minus g/sq cm, respectively, P less than 0.05). These data suggest that elevation of blood glucose prior to horizontal exercise following hypohydration attenuates the increase in body temperature without altering heat production or exercise hypovolemia.

  8. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  9. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS−) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  10. Mandatory oral glucose tolerance tests identify more diabetics in stable patients with chronic heart failure: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are believed to have unrecognized diabetes, which is associated with a worse prognosis. This study aimed to describe glucose tolerance in a general stable CHF population and to identify determinants of glucose tolerance focusing on body composition and skeletal muscle strength. Methods A prospective observational study was set up. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of CHF, stable condition and absence of glucose-lowering medication. Patients underwent a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), isometric strength testing of the upper leg and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Health-related quality of life and physical activity level were assessed by questionnaire. Results Data of 56 participants were analyzed. Despite near-normal fasting glucose values, 55% was classified as prediabetic, 14% as diabetic, and 20% as normal glucose tolerant. Of all newly diagnosed diabetic patients, 79% were diagnosed because of 2 h glucose values only and none because of HbA1c. Univariate mixed model analysis revealed ischaemic aetiology, daily physical activity, E/E’, fat trunk/fat limbs and extension strength as possible explanatory variables for the glucose curve during the glucose tolerance test. When combined in one model, only fat trunk/fat limbs and E/E’ remained significant predictors. Furthermore, fasting insulin was correlated with fat mass/height2 (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), extension strength (r = -0.33, p < 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our data confirm that a large majority of CHF patients have impaired glucose tolerance. This glucose intolerance is related to fat distribution and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. PMID:24673860

  11. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels of 75 and 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test during gestational diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mert, Meral; Purcu, Serhat; Soyluk, Ozlem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Karakaya, Pinar; Tamer, Gonca; Adas, Mine; Ekin, Murat; Hatipoglu, Sami; Ure, Oznur Sari; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important issue in terms of prevention of maternal and fetal complications. In our study we aimed to evaluate the relation of HbA1c and blood glucose levels of 75 and 50-100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant patients who were screened for GDM. Materials and methods: The parameters of 913 pregnant women screened for GDM are evaluated retrospectively. The two steps screening with 50-100 gram OGTT were used in 576 patients. The remaining 337 patients were screened with 75 gram OGTT. Results: The HbA1c levels of patients having high blood glucose (≥153 mg/dl) levels at 2nd hour in 75 gram OGTT were significantly higher than patients having normal blood glucose levels at 2nd hour of 75 gram OGTT (P=0.038). Correlation analyses showed no significant relation between any blood glucose level of 100 gram OGTT and HbA1c level. Whereas in 75 gram OGTT 1st and 2nd hour blood glucose levels were found to have a significant relation with A1c levels (P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: HbA1c may be used as an important tool in the diagnosis of GDM. But due to the variation of HbA1c in pregnant women and there is not an absolute cut-off level for A1c, it may be more reliable to evaluate HbA1c level together with the blood glucose levels in OGTT. PMID:26550262

  12. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Borg Andersson, A; Birkhed, D; Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F; Matsson, L

    1998-10-01

    The concentration of glucose in parotid saliva was measured after glucose/food intake in two separate studies (A and B). In Study A, 10 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 10 subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy controls were included. Study B comprised 15 subjects with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, nine subjects with Type 2 diabetes on treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and 12 healthy controls. After a 10-h overnight fast, the participants in Study A were given a 75 g oral glucose load, while those in Study B received a standardized breakfast. Citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected up to two hours after the intake. Capillary blood and gingival exudate samples were also taken. On the basis of AUC values (area under the curve over baseline), the glucose concentration in parotid saliva increased significantly in individuals with IGT and Type 2 diabetes compared with controls in Study A and in diabetic patients on treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs compared with controls in Study B. No effect by the glucose/food intake on the glucose concentration in gingival exudate could be demonstrated in any of the studies. The correlation coefficient between the AUC values of glucose in saliva and blood, when all three groups were combined, was 0.38 in Study A and 0.52 in Study B. It is concluded that the concentration of glucose in parotid saliva is elevated at least 2 h after glucose/food intake in individuals with both IGT and manifest diabetes mellitus. PMID:9786322

  13. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  14. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F; Larsen, Marianne O; Jelic, Katarina; Carr, Richard D; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-07-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To explore this, we examined the release and inactivation of GIP and GLP-1 after administration of glucose with or without OA or WP through gastric gavage in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Insulin responses to glucose (75 mg) were 3-fold augmented by addition of WP (75 mg; P < 0.01), which was associated with enhanced oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01). The insulin response to glucose was also augmented by addition of OA (34 mg; P < 0.05) although only 1.5-fold and with no associated increase in glucose elimination. The slope of the glucose-insulin curve was increased by OA (1.7-fold; P < 0.05) and by WP (4-fold; P < 0.01) compared with glucose alone, suggesting potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release. WP increased GLP-1 secretion (P < 0.01), whereas GIP secretion was unaffected. OA did not affect GIP or GLP-1 secretion. Nevertheless, WP increased the levels of both intact GIP and intact GLP-1 (both P < 0.01), and OA increased the levels of intact GLP-1 (P < 0.05). WP inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in the proximal small intestine by 50% (P < 0.05), suggesting that luminal degradation of WP generates small fragments, which are substrates for dipeptidyl peptidase IV and act as competitive inhibitors. We therefore conclude that fat and protein may serve as exogenous regulators of secretion and inactivation of the incretin hormones with beneficial influences on glucose metabolism. PMID:16627575

  15. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  16. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  17. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  18. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation. PMID:26660757

  19. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  20. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  1. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    PubMed

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P < 0.001) within each of the investigated groups. In patients with the highest fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin

  2. Peptide hormones in saliva. I. Insulin in saliva during the oral glucose tolerance test in female patients.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, L; Aman, E; Muşeţeanu, P; Dinulescu, E; Giurcăneanu, M

    1985-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin was performed in the serum and saliva of 27 female patients during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The patients were divided into two groups: 19 non-diabetic patients and 8 patients diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) disease. In one patient in each group, the OGTT was performed twice at intervals of 3-5 days. The results show that immunoreactive insulin (IRI) is present in saliva and its concentration increases during the glucose stimulation test from 6.48 +/- 1.13 microU/ml (means +/- SEM) in basal conditions at peak values of 45.46 +/- 10.14 microU/ml at 2 hrs after glucose intake. In patients with IGT salivary IRI increases from 5.18 +/- 1.39 microU/ml in basal conditions to peak values of 83.34 +/- 25.85 microU/ml at 3 hrs after glucose administration. Great response variations were observed either inter-individual or intraindividual in both groups of patients. Some patients had unusual high salivary IRI concentration especially in those with gastrointestinal troubles. Further, some hypotheses and experimental models, are advanced, considered useful for the explanation of the physiologic significance of the salivary IRI or of the IRI-like material. PMID:3901231

  3. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. PMID:26069091

  4. Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Freire, Nájala Borges de Sousa; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

    2008-09-30

    Nonpharmacological interventions are important alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in preterm neonates. Skin-to-skin contact or kangaroo mother care is a human and efficient way of caring for low-weight preterm neonates. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of kangaroo care compared to oral glucose on the response of healthy preterm neonates to a low-intensity acute painful stimulus. Ninety-five preterm neonates with a postmenstrual age of 28-36 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups in a single-blind manner. In group 1 (isolette, n=33), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette during heel lancing and did not receive analgesia. In group 2 (kangaroo method, n=31), the neonate was held in skin-to-skin contact for 10 min before and during the heel-lancing procedure. In group 3 (glucose, n=31), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette and received oral glucose (1 ml, 25%) 2 min before heel lancing. A smaller variation in heart rate (p=0.0001) and oxygen saturation (p=0.0012), a shorter duration of facial activity (brow bulge, eye squeeze and nasolabial furrowing) (p=0.0001), and a lower PIPP (Premature Infant Pain Profile) score (p=0.0001) were observed in group 2. In conclusion, skin-to-skin contact produced an analgesic effect in preterm newborns during heel lancing. PMID:18434021

  5. Oral glucose retention, saliva viscosity and flow rate in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Negoro, M; Nakagaki, H; Tsuboi, S; Adachi, K; Hanaki, M; Tanaka, D; Takami, Y; Nakano, T; Kuwahara, M; Thuy, T T

    2000-11-01

    There are significant differences of glucose retention in site-specificity and individuals. Sixty-two 5-year-old nursery schoolchildren participated in this study on the relation between the viscosity of saliva and flow rate and glucose retention. Each child was instructed to rinse his/her mouth with a glucose solution (0.5 M, 5 ml) and then to spit out. Three minutes after rinsing, glucose retention was determined. Resting saliva was collected by a natural outflow method, then the flow rate was determined. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity. Glucose retention and flow rate were correlated at the left maxillary primary molars, and glucose retention and viscosity were correlated at the maxillary central primary incisors. It was concluded that glucose retention after glucose mouth rinsing was site-specific, and that glucose retention and the index of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) were slightly correlated with the salivary viscosity and flow rate. PMID:11000387

  6. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score.

    PubMed

    Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2014-04-01

    Breed-related differences may occur in the innate insulin sensitivity (SI) of horses and ponies, an important factor believed to be associated with the risk of laminitis. The aim of this study was to measure the glucose and insulin responses of different breeds of horses and ponies in moderate body condition to a glucose-containing meal and to compare these responses with the indices of SI as determined by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Eight Standardbred horses, 8 mixed-breed ponies, and 7 Andalusian-cross horses with a mean ± SEM BCS 5.0 ± 0.3 of 9 were used in this study. Each animal underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they were fed a fiber-based ration (2.0 g/kg BW) containing 1.5 g/kg BW added glucose, as well as a standard FSIGT with minimal model analysis. The glucose response variables from the OGTT were similar between groups; however, the peak insulin concentration was higher in ponies (94.1 ± 29.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.003) and Andalusians (85.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (21.2 ± 3.5). The insulin area under the curve was also higher in ponies (13.5 ± 3.6 IU · min · L(-1); P = 0.009) and Andalusians (15.0 ± 2.7; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (3.1 ± 0.6). Insulin sensitivity, as determined by the FSIGT, was lower in Andalusians (0.99 ± 0.18 × 10(-4)/[mIU · min]) than in Standardbreds (5.43 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) and in ponies (2.12 ± 0.44; P = 0.003) than in Standardbreds. Peak insulin concentrations from the OGTT were negatively correlated with SI (P < 0.001; rs = -0.75). These results indicate that there are clear breed-related differences in the insulin responses of horses and ponies to oral and intravenous glucose. All animals were in moderate body condition, indicating that breed-related differences in insulin dynamics occurred independent of obesity. PMID:24308928

  7. Secretion of glucose in human parotid saliva after carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Borg, A; Birkhed, D

    1988-12-01

    The aims of the present investigation were, first, to follow the secretion of free glucose in parotid saliva in various subjects after a single oral intake of different carbohydrates, and second, to compare the salivary glucose concentration with the concentration in blood. Twenty healthy subjects, three women and 17 men, 20-35 yr of age, participated. They were asked not to eat or drink anything from 10 p.m. the night before the examination. 75 g of carbohydrate (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) dissolved in 300 ml water was ingested the next morning at 8 a.m. One experimental series with glucose was performed in triplicate in 10 of the subjects. Approximately 1.5 ml of citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after the intake. Salivary concentration of glucose was analyzed enzymatically. Most of the 0-min samples showed a variation in glucose concentration from 5 to 25 mumol/l. After the glucose, fructose, and sucrose intakes, the salivary glucose level increased about 2-4 times, especially in the 30-min samples. A large inter- as well as intra-individual variation was found both in the 0-min samples and in the samples collected after the different intakes. The correlation between the glucose concentration in saliva and blood was higher after than before the carbohydrate intakes. PMID:3206201

  8. Post-oral infusion sites that support glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Sclafani, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Rats learn to prefer a flavored solution (CS+) paired with a gastrointestinal glucose infusion over an alternate flavor (CS-) paired with a non-caloric infusion. Prior work implicates a post-gastric site of glucose action, which is the focus of this study. In Exp. 1, male rats (8-10/group) were infused in the duodenum (ID), mid-jejunum (IJ), or distal ileum (II) with 8% glucose or water as they drank saccharin-sweetened CS+ and CS- solutions, respectively, in one-bottle 30-min sessions. Two-bottle tests (no infusions) were followed by a second train-test cycle. By the second test, the ID and IJ groups preferred the CS+ (69%, 67%) to the CS- but the II group did not (48%). Satiation tests showed that ID and IJ infusions of glucose reduced intake of a palatable solution similarly, while II infusions were ineffective. In Exp. 2, rats (10/group) drank CS solutions in one-bottle, 30-min sessions and were given 2-h ID or hepatic portal vein (HP) infusions. The CS+ and CS- were paired with 10 ml infusions of 10% glucose and 0.9% saline, respectively. Following 8 training sessions, the ID group preferred the CS+ (67%) to the CS- but the HP group did not (47%) in a two-bottle test. The similar CS+ preferences displayed by ID and IJ, but not II groups implicate the jejunum as a critical site for glucose-conditioned preferences. A pre-absorptive glucose action is indicated by the CS+ preference displayed by ID but not HP rats in Exp. 2. Our data were obtained with non-nutritive CS solutions. HP glucose infusions are reported to condition preferences for a flavored food that itself has pre- and post-absorptive actions. Thus, there may be multiple sites for glucose conditioning with the upper or mid-intestines being the first site of action. PMID:20026145

  9. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  10. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  11. Frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in subjects with fasting blood glucose below 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL).

    PubMed

    Khan, S H; Ijaz, A; Bokhari, S A Raza; Hanif, M S; Azam, N

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by the available criteria is controversial and relies heavily on fasting glucose results. This cross-sectional study in 2010-2011 aimed to measure the frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in 127 subjects having fasting blood glucose < 7.0 mmol/L and to measure the agreement between different standard diagnostic criteria. Subjects presenting to a laboratory for analysis of fasting blood glucose for excluding diabetes mellitus underwent a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose challenge. A total of 40.6% of subjects with fasting blood glucose from 5.6-6.0 mmol/L had abnormal glucose regulation on the basis ofthe gold standard glucose challenge. Agreement between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization diagnostic criteria was only fair (kappa = 0.32). Abnormalities of glucose metabolism including impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus can exist at fasting blood glucose results < 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL). PMID:23516829

  12. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P < 0.05 or 0.001). These results suggested that RRDY and yam dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models. PMID:27499387

  13. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and heparanase expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: correlations and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) and heparanase (HPA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationship with clinicopathological parameters and potential implications for survival. Methods A total of 46 patients with OSCC and 10 normal individuals were recruited for the study. GRP78 and HPA expression were determined in the lesion tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between GRP78 and HPA was assessed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The associations of GRP78 and HPA with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were examined using the x2-test, Kaplan–Meier, or Cox regression. Results Patients with OSCC showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of GRP78 and HPA expression than normal oral tissues. GRP78 and HPA expression was positively correlated with size, TNM stage, histological grade, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis in OSCC patients. GRP78 expression was also positively correlated with HPA expression. Positive GRP78 and HPA expression was inversely correlated with survival in OSCC patients. Conclusions HPA expression was found to be positively correlated with GRP78 expression. GRP78 and HPA are biomarkers that may have the potential to guide the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:24766948

  14. The performance of hemoglobin A1c against fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test in detecting prediabetes and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, Jale; Akin, Safak; Karagaoglu, Ergun; Gurlek, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is accepted among the algorithms used for making diagnosis for diabetes and prediabetes since it does not require subjects to be prepared for giving a blood sample. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of HbA1c against fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting prediabetes and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 315 subjects were included in this study. The success of HbA1c in distinguishing the three diagnostic classes was examined by three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The best cut-off points for HbA1c were found for discriminating the three disease status. Results: The performance of HbA1c, measured by the volume under the ROC surface (VUS), is found to be statistically significant (VUS = 0.535, P < 0.001). The best cut-off points for discriminating between normal and prediabetes groups and between prediabetes and diabetes groups are c1 = 5.2% and c2 = 6.4% respectively. Conclusion: The performance of HbA1c in distinguishing between the prediabetes and diabetes groups was higher than its ability in distinguishing between healthy and prediabetes groups. This study provides enough information to understand what proportion of diabetes patients were skipped with the HbA1c especially when the test result is healthy or prediabetes. If a subject was diagnosed as healthy or prediabetes by HbA1c, it would be beneficial to verify the status of that subject by the gold standard test (OGTT and FPG). PMID:25657750

  15. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mougi, M.; Hendawi, A.; Koura, H.; Hegazi, E.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we reported that standard oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is not as effective as a reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS for the treatment of children with acute noncholera diarrhoea: with standard ORS the diarrhoea lasts longer, stool output is greater, serum sodium is higher, and there is more need for supplemental intravenous infusion. We studied a reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin (MD)-based ORS to determine whether it had similar benefits, and also the effect of sugar malabsorption on the efficacy of standard and MD-based ORS. A total of 90 boys aged 3-24 months with acute noncholera diarrhoea and moderate dehydration were randomly assigned to either standard ORS (glucose 20 g/l, osmolarity 311 mmol/l) or MD-ORS (MD 50 g/l, osmolarity 227 mmol/l). There were no differences in treatment results. Some 46% of subjects had a high total stool output (> 300 g/kg), which was unrelated to the type of ORS given. High stool output was significantly associated with a longer duration of diarrhoea (33 vs. 15 hours; P < 0.001), a persistently elevated serum sodium (149 vs. 144 mmol/l at 24 h; P < 0.02), the need for intravenous infusion (11/41 vs. 0/48; P < 0.002), and an increase in faecal reducing substances (10.8 vs. 3.4 g/l at 24 h; P < 0.001). We conclude that some children given standard ORS develop osmotic diarrhoea owing to the combined effect of transient sugar malabsorption and slight hypertonicity of the ORS. Earlier studies show that this adverse outcome can largely be avoided when extra water is given in reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS. Reduced osmolarity has no benefit, however, when glucose is replaced by maltodextrin, probably because the sugars released by hydrolysis of MD, when malabsorbed, raise the intraluminal osmolarity to equal or exceed that of standard ORS. Thus, reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS is superior to both standard ORS and reduced-osmolarity solutions based on maltodextrin and probably other complex carbohydrates

  16. The long term oral regulation of blood glucose in diabetic patients by using of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 expressing CTB-IGF-1 hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Bazi, Zahra; Jalili, Mahsa; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-11-01

    Regarding to the high prevalence and comorbidities of chronic high blood glucose in diabetic patients and the limited efficacy and current painful treatments. It is necessary to improve new treatments that are non-invasive and long-term for controlling blood glucose. Recent studies have shown that the healthy microflora in different body organs can perform as the gene vectors for expressing different types of gene therapies in situ. We have proposed that by constructing a recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 that expresses CTB-IGF-1 hybrid gene under control of ompC glucose sensitive promoter, the intestinal glucose level can be regulated. This method in comparison with other methods is a non-invasive way to control the blood glucose orally and it can be used for all types of diabetes. PMID:24074833

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Use of Oral Glucose with or without Gentle Facilitated Tucking of Infants during Neonatal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Pascal M.; Stritzke, Amelie; Ting, Joseph; Jabr, Mohammad; Jain, Amish; Kwan, Eddie; Chakkarapani, Ela; Brooks, Paul; Brant, Rollin; McNamara, Patrick J.; Holsti, Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of oral glucose given with or without facilitated tucking (FT), versus placebo (water) to facilitate image acquisition during a targeted neonatal echocardiography (TNE). Design Factorial, double blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Patients Infants born between 26 and 42 weeks of gestation (GA). Interventions One of four treatment groups: oral water (placebo), oral glucose (25%), facilitated tucking with oral water or facilitated tucking with oral glucose, during a single, structured TNE. All infants received a soother. Main Outcome Measure Change in Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) scores. Results 104 preterm infants were randomized (mean ± SD GA: 33.4 ± 3.5 weeks). BIIP scores remained low during the echocardiography scan (median, [IQ range]: 0, [0 to 1]). There were no differences in the level of agitation of infants amongst the treatment groups, with estimated reductions in mean BIIP relative to control of 0.27 (95%CI -0.40 to 0.94) with use of oral glucose and .04 (-0.63 to 0.70) with facilitated tucking. There were also no differences between treatment groups in the quality and duration of the echocardiography scans. Conclusions In stable infants in the NICU, a TNE can be performed with minimal disruption in a majority of cases, simply by providing a soother. The use of 25% glucose water in this context did not provide further benefit in reducing agitation and improving image acquisition. Clinical Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01253889 PMID:26496361

  18. Effects of colesevelam on glucose absorption and hepatic/peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Henry, R. R.; Aroda, V. R.; Mudaliar, S.; Garvey, W. T.; Chou, H. S.; Jones, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Colesevelam lowers glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the mechanisms by which colesevelam might affect glucose control. Methods In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with type 2 diabetes and haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) ≥7.5% on either stable diet and exercise or sulphonylurea therapy were randomized to colesevelam 3.75 g/day (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14). Hepatic/peripheral insulin sensitivity was evaluated at baseline and at week 12 by infusion of 3H-labelled glucose followed by a 2-step hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp. Two 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were conducted at baseline, one with and one without co-administration of colesevelam. A final OGTT was conducted at week 12. HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were evaluated pre-and post-treatment. Results Treatment with colesevelam, compared to placebo, had no significant effects on basal endogenous glucose output, response to insulin or on maximal steady-state glucose disposal rate. At baseline, co-administration of colesevelam with oral glucose reduced total area under the glucose curve (AUCg) but not incremental AUCg. At week 12, neither total AUCg nor incremental AUCg were changed from pre-treatment values in either group. Post-load insulin levels increased with colesevelam at 30 and 120 min, but these changes in total area under the insulin curve (AUCi) and incremental AUCi did not differ between groups. Both HbA1c and FPG improved with colesevelam, but treatment differences were not significant. Conclusions Colesevelam does not affect hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity and does not directly affect glucose absorption. PMID:21831167

  19. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial of rice versus glucose oral rehydration solutions in infants and young children with acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Faruque, A S; Hoque, S S; Fuchs, G J; Mahalanabis, D

    1997-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare a packaged ready-to-mix rice oral rehydration solution (ORS) to the standard glucose ORS for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea. Children were of either gender, aged 3-35 months, presenting with a history of watery diarrhoea for 72 h or less. The main outcomes examined were stool output, ORS intake, duration of diarrhoea and nutritional recovery during follow-up at 16 d of illness. Stool output in the first 24 h (106 vs 107 g kg(-1)), ORS intake in clinic (93 vs 102 ml per motion) and duration of diarrhoea (88 h vs 81 h) were similar in the two treatment groups. The few episodes that became persistent were similar (2%) in the two groups. The weight gain during follow-up was similar in the two ORS groups. PMID:9475306

  20. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, S. V.; Tillin, T.; Mayet, J.; Shibata, D. K.; Wright, A.; Heasman, J.; Beauchamp, N.; Forouhi, N. G.; Hughes, A. D.; Chaturvedi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South-Asian origin. Methods For 682 European and 520 South-Asian men and women, aged 58–85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Results Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist–hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c-defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c-defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P=0.04]. Conclusions Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the

  1. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  2. The sweet taste of success: the presence of glucose in the oral cavity moderates the depletion of self-control resources.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource-depletion model, self-control is a limited resource that is depleted after a period of exertion. Evidence consistent with this model indicates that self-control relies on glucose metabolism and glucose supplementation to depleted individuals replenishes self-control resources. In five experiments, we tested an alternative hypothesis that glucose in the oral cavity counteracts the deleterious effects of self-control depletion. We predicted a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to an artificially sweetened placebo rinse, would lead to better self-control after depletion. In Studies 1 to 3, participants engaging in a depleting task performed significantly better on a subsequent self-control task after receiving a glucose mouth rinse, as opposed to participants rinsing with a placebo. Studies 4 and 5 replicated these findings and demonstrated that the glucose mouth rinse had no effect on self-control in nondepleted participants. Results are consistent with a neural rather than metabolic mechanism for the effect of glucose supplementation on self-control. PMID:22995892

  3. Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing identifies HIV+ infected women with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) not captured by standard DM definition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H; Tien, Phyllis C

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may have differential risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population, and the optimal diagnostic algorithm for DM in HIV+ persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the utility of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for DM diagnosis in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV infection. Methods Using American Diabetic Association DM definitions, DM prevalence and incidence were assessed among women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. DM was defined by 2-hour OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL (DM_OGTT) or a clinical definition (DM_C) that included any of the following: (i) anti-diabetic medication use or self-reported DM confirmed by either fasting glucose (FG) ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, (ii) FG ≥ 126 mg/dL confirmed by a second FG ≥ 126 mg/dL or HbA1c 6.5%, or (iii) HbA1c 6.5% confirmed by FG ≥ 126 mg/dL cohort. Results Overall, 390 women (285 HIV+, median age 43 years; 105 HIV−, median age 37 years) were enrolled between 2003-2006. Over half of all women were African American. Using DM_C, DM prevalence rates were 5.6% and 2.8% among HIV+ and HIV− women, respectively. Among HIV+ women, adding DM_OGTT to DM_C increased DM prevalence from 5.6% to 7.4%, a 31% increase in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed (p=0.02). In HIV− women, no additional cases were diagnosed by DM-OGTT. Conclusion In HIV+ women, OGTT identified DM cases that were not identified by a standardized clinical definition. Further investigation is needed to determine whether OGTT should be considered as an adjunctive tool for DM diagnosis in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:27066296

  4. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  5. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  6. Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J

    2014-10-01

    Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by oral glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. Oral glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 μg/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 μg/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was

  7. High expression levels of the "erythroid/brain" type glucose transporter (GLUT1) in the basal cells of human eye conjunctiva and oral mucosa reconstituted in culture.

    PubMed

    Gherzi, R; Melioli, G; De Luca, M; D'Agostino, A; Guastella, M; Traverso, C E; D'Anna, F; Franzi, A T; Cancedda, R

    1991-07-01

    The expression of the "erythroid/brain" type glucose transporter (GLUT1) seems to be a feature of "barrier" tissues, at least in humans. Recently, we reported that GLUT1 is highly expressed in the basal layers of either "authentic" human epidermis or human epidermis reconstituted in culture and that its expression seems to be related to keratinocyte differentiation. In this paper we demonstrate that GLUT1 is selectively expressed in the basal layers of either eye conjunctiva epithelia or oral mucosa, reconstituted in culture starting from 1-2 mm2 bioptic specimens of normal human tissue. GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels are very high in conjunctiva and oral mucosa, 2-3 times higher than in epidermis reconstituted in culture. Taking into account its localization at the border of tissues not directly vascularized, but metabolically active, GLUT1 could play an important role in controlling the entry of glucose into these firmly guarded tissues. PMID:2055270

  8. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Hamuro, Akihiro; Misugi, Takuya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a retrospective design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. RESULTS Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. CONCLUSIONS Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves. PMID:26688669

  9. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using metabolite concentrations as proxies for enzymatic activity, suggested that two variants: rs2014355 in the gene encoding short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS) and rs11161510 in the gene encoding medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid β-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired β-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered insulin release following an oral glucose load or with T2D. Methods The variants were genotyped using KASPar® PCR SNP genotyping system and investigated for associations with estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a random sample of middle-aged Danish individuals (n ACADS = 4,324; n ACADM = 4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (n ACADS = 8,313; n ACADM = 8,344). Results In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following an oral glucose load (per allele effect (β) = -3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P = 0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (β = -3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P = 0.009), reduced acute insulin response (β = -2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P = 0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (β = 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P = 0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P = 0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose-stimulated insulin release or with T2D. Conclusions In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS was associated with reduced measures of

  10. Glucose- but Not Rice-Based Oral Rehydration Therapy Enhances the Production of Virulence Determinants in the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Juliane; Finger, Flavio; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Borgeaud, Sandrine; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Blokesch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings. PMID:25474211

  11. Effects of oral administration of some herbal extracts on food consumption and blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Musabayane, C T; Bwititi, P T; Ojewole, J A O

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories suggest that oral administration of some herbal extracts reduce blood glucose concentrations in rats, possibly by interfering with food consumption and/or gastrointestinal absorption of food. Accordingly, we monitored the amounts of food consumed and body weights in separate groups of nondiabetic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, orally treated with some plant extracts (20 mg 100 g -1 body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Control animals were administered the vehicle, citrate buffer (0.1 ml 100 g -1 body weight). Separate groups of rats administered allopathic hypoglycemic drugs metformin (50 mg 100 g -1 body weight) or glibenclamide (5 microg 100 g -1 body weight) acted as positive control animals. After 5 weeks, blood glucose concentrations were reduced in all the groups. Tapinanthus nyasicus leaf, Ficus thoningii bark, Solanum incanum fruit, and Morus alba leaf extracts decreased weekly food consumption throughout the 5-week study period. Similar results were obtained for the groups treated with metformin or glibenclamide. However, food consumption was increased by S. incanum root, Aloe chabaudii leaf, or Allium sativum bulb extracts, and this was associated with high prevalence of diarrhea. The herbal extracts and metformin did not affect serum insulin concentration in nondiabetic rats, while glibenclamide increased serum insulin concentration. In conclusion, it may be inferred that the herbal extracts examined produced hypoglycemia, probably by interfering with either food intake or gastrointestinal glucose absorption (as reported for metformin). These findings merit long-term investigation. PMID:16801983

  12. Optical design of a color-corrected 2.75 g visual loupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Ozan

    2013-11-01

    The key contribution is the optical design of a 2.75 g 2.5× magnification visual loupe developed within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Manufacturable Gradient Index (M-GRIN) phase 2 program. We present a visual loupe (i.e., a Galilean telescope) that is constructed by a positive optical power objective lens that makes use of a spherical gradient index profile and a negative optical power eye lens that collimates the light for visual use. The optical materials and the preform thickness in the design are judiciously designed to be manufacturable within the spherical gradient index design rules available today. A comparison of the M-GRIN design to an all-plastic homogeneous baseline design shows that the M-GRIN design reduces the weight from 4.15 to 2.75 g while maintaining equivalent optical performance of the baseline.

  13. Acute hyperglycemia alters von Willebrand factor but not the fibrinolytic system in elderly subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Ludovico; Coppola, Antonino; Grassia, Antonio; Mastrolorenzo, Luigia; Lettieri, Biagio; De Lucia, Domenico; De Nanzio, Annarita; Gombos, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    To assess whether acute hyperglycemia affects fibrinolytic balance in elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 40 non-obese elderly subjects (20 NGT, age 68 +/- 8 years; and 20 IGT, age 69 +/- 11 years) were studied. On two experimental days, randomly allocated and spaced 1 week apart, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in each subject at baseline (0) and 30, 60, 90, 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose or a similarly sweet dose of aspartame (250 mg) (control test). In both NGT and IGT elderly subjects, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and fibrinogen plasma levels did not significantly change after both oral aspartame and glucose load. In IGT subjects, vWF plasmatic levels decreased after glucose (not aspartame) oral load, reaching the minimum level at 90 min after load (82.7 +/- 7.8 versus 93.7 +/- 10.2, P <0.01). These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia does not modify plasma fibrinolysis in elderly subjects. The decrease of plasma concentration of vWF in IGT elderly subjects requires cautious interpretation and further extensive investigations. PMID:15613917

  14. [Amelioration of glucose tolerance and correction of reactive hypoglycemias induced by intravenous calcium infusion cannot be explained by modifications in blood glucagon levels].

    PubMed

    Vexiau, P; Cathelineau, G; Luyckx, A; Lefebvre, P

    1986-08-01

    Glucagon is not involved in intravenous calcium-induced improvement in glucose tolerance nor in correction of reactive hypoglycemia. Recent investigations have shown that intravenous (IV) calcium infusion improved blood glucose values in patients with moderately impaired glucose tolerance, and suppressed hypoglycemia in patients with isolated reactive hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that these changes were secondary to calcium induced alterations in glucagon (IRG) secretion. Four groups of subjects were studied: group 1: normal controls (n = 7); group 2: patients with isolated hypoglycemia (n = 9); group 3: patients with impaired glucose tolerance without reactive hypoglycemia (n = 9) and group 4: patients with impaired glucose tolerance and reactive hypoglycemia (n = 10). All patients were submitted in randomized order to two 5 hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, 75 g glucose), during a simultaneous infusion, either of saline or of calcium (calcium gluconate 36.3 mEq/5 h.), starting 30 minutes before the OGTT. In none of the groups did calcium infusion influence basal plasma IRG. In group 1 and 3, oral glucose significantly suppressed IRG, and during IV calcium infusion this suppression disappeared. In group 2, glucose ingestion resulted in a paradoxical increase in IRG both during saline and during calcium infusion. In group 4, oral glucose induced a significant drop in plasma IRG and a rebound rise during hypoglycemia, results which were unaffected by IV calcium infusion. These data suggest that glucagon is not involved in the alterations of blood glucose profiles during OGTT observed during intravenous calcium infusion. PMID:3770273

  15. Mechanisms Regulating Insulin Response to Intragastric Glucose in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Cajacob, Lucian; Riva, Daniele; Herzog, Raphael; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads. Subjects/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial in a hospital research unit. A total of 12 normal weight (6 men and 6 women) and 12 non-diabetic obese (BMI > 30, 6 men and 6 women) participants took part in the study. Subjects received intragastric loads of 10 g, 25 g and 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml tap water. Results Main outcome measures were plasma GLP-1 and GIP, plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and gastric emptying. The primary findings are: i) insulin resistance (P < 0.001) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001); ii) decreased insulin disposal (P < 0.001); iii) trend for reduced GLP-1 responses at 75 g glucose; and iv) increased fasting glucagon levels (P < 0.001) in obese subjects. Conclusions It seems that, rather than changes in incretin secretion, fasting hyperglucagonemia and consequent hyperglycemia play a role in reduced disposal of insulin, contributing to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01875575 PMID:26942445

  16. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  17. Adherence to oral glucose lowering therapies and associations with one year HbA1c: a retrospective cohort analysis in a large primary care database

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Beverley; Weedon, Michael N.; Donnelly, Louise; Holman, Rury R.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of taking oral glucose-lowering medicines intermittently, rather than as recommended, is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using community-acquired United Kingdom clinical data (CPRD and GoDARTS databases) to examine the prevalence of non-adherence to treatment for type 2 diabetes, and investigate its potential impact on HbA1c reduction stratified by type of glucose-lowering medication. Research design and methods Data for patients treated between 2004 and 2014 were extracted for those newly-prescribed metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors who continued to obtain prescriptions over one year, were extracted. Cohorts were defined by prescribed medication type, and good adherence as a medication possession ratio ≥0.8. Linear regression was used to determine potential associations between adherence and one-year baseline-adjusted HbA1c reduction. Results In CPRD and GoDARTS, 13% and 15% of patients respectively were non-adherent. Proportions of non-adherent patients varied by the oral glucose-lowering treatment prescribed (range 8.6% (thiazolidinedione) to 18.8% (metformin)). Non-adherent, compared with adherent, patients had a smaller HbA1c reduction (0.4%[4.4mmmol/mol] and 0.46%[5.0mmol/mol] for CPRD and GoDARTs respectively). Difference in HbA1c response for adherent compared with non-adherent patients varied by drug (range: 0.38%[4.1mmol/mol] to 0.75%[8.2mmol/mol] lower in adherent group). Decreasing levels of adherence were consistently associated with a smaller reduction in HbA1c. Conclusions Reduced medication adherence for commonly used glucose lowering therapies among patients persisting with treatment is associated with smaller HbA1c reductions, compared with those taking treatment as recommended. Differences observed in HbA1c responses to glucose lowering-treatments may be explained in part by their intermittent use. PMID:26681714

  18. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  19. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  20. Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy (OGTT); Glucose challenge test - pregnancy ... For the glucose screening test: You do not need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a ...

  1. Evaluation of Fasting State-/Oral Glucose Tolerance Test-Derived Measures of Insulin Release for the Detection of Genetically Impaired β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Guthoff, Martina; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Machicao, Fausto; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced) fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05). The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset) were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC)Insulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30) as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUCInsulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30), corrected insulin response (CIR), AUCC-Peptide(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30), AUCC-Peptide(0-120)/AUCGlucose(0-120), two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0–30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI)2 and IGI1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05). AUCC-Peptide(0-120)/AUCGlucose(0-120) was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. Conclusions/Significance With AUCInsulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0

  2. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  3. Prehepatic secretion and disposal of insulin in obese adolescents as estimated by three-hour, eight-sample oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Domzig, Christian; Wabitsch, Martin; Denzer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The body compensates for early-stage insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion. A reliable and easy-to-use mathematical assessment of insulin secretion and disposal could be a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Because the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is incompletely understood, assessing insulin metabolism with minimal assumptions regarding its metabolic regulation is a major challenge. To assess insulin secretion and indexes of insulin disposal, our marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) was applied to a sparse sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol measuring the insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Identifiability and potential bias of metabolic parameters were estimated from published data with dense sampling. The MRA was applied to OGTT data from 135 obese adolescents to demonstrate its clinical applicability. Individual prehepatic basal and dynamic insulin secretion and clearance levels were determined with a precision and accuracy greater than 10% of the nominal value. The intersubject variability in these parameters was approximately four times higher than the intrasubject variability, and there was a strong negative correlation between prehepatic secretion and plasma clearance of insulin. MRA-based analysis provides reliable estimates of insulin secretion and clearance, thereby enabling detailed glucose homeostasis characterization based on restricted datasets that are obtainable during routine patient care. PMID:27143555

  4. Influence of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs on Hyperglycemic Response to Foods in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Peterson; Chlup, Rudolf; Jana, Zapletalova; Kohnert, Klaus Dieter; Kudlova, Pavla; Bartek, Josef; Nakladalova, Marie; Doubravova, Blanka; Seckar, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective open-label trial was (1) to assess the influence of oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) on the glycemic index (GI), glucose response curves (GRCs), daily mean plasma glucose (MPG) and (2) to compare the GI of foods in persons with OAD-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the respective GI in healthy persons (HP). Methods Tested foods containing 50 g of carbohydrates were eaten for breakfast and dinner after 10 and 4 h of fasting, respectively. Glycemic index, GRC, and MPG were obtained using the CGMS®System Gold™ (CGMS). In T2DM patients [n = 16; age (mean ± standard error) 56.0 ± 2.25 years], foods were tested four times: tests 1, 2, and 3 were performed within one week in which placebo was introduced on day 2, and test 4 was carried out five weeks after reintroduction of OAD. Glycemic indexes, GRC, and MPG from tests 1, 2, 3, and 4 were compared. In a control group of 20 HP (age 24.4 ± 0.71 years), the mean GIs were calculated as the mean from 20 subject-related GIs. Results In T2DM patients, subject-related assessment of GIs, GRC, and MPG distinguished persons with and without OAD effect. Nevertheless, the group-related GIs and the MPG on days 2, 8, and 39 showed no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the GIs in OAD-treated T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP (except in apple baby food). Glucose response curves were significantly larger in T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP. Conclusions Determination of GRC and subject-related GI using the CGMS appears to be a potential means for the evaluation of efficacy of OAD treatment. Further studies are underway. PMID:20663465

  5. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  6. Postpartum Glucose Testing Rates Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Factors Affecting Testing Non-compliance from Four Tertiary Centers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    An, Jung-Joo; Kwon, Han-Sung; Hong, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate postpartum glucose testing rates in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine factors affecting testing non-compliance in the Korean population. This was a retrospective study of 1,686 patients with GDM from 4 tertiary centers in Korea and data were obtained from medical records. Postpartum glucose testing was conducted using a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance, fasting glucose, or hemoglobin A1C test. Test results were categorized as normal, prediabetic, and diabetic. The postpartum glucose testing rate was 44.9% (757/1,686 patients); and of 757 patients, 44.1% and 18.4% had pre-diabetes and diabetes, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, patients with a high parity, larger weight gain during pregnancy, and referral from private clinics due to reasons other than GDM treatment were less likely to receive postpartum glucose testing. However, patients who had pharmacotherapy for GDM were more likely to be screened. In this study, 55.1% of patients with GDM failed to complete postpartum glucose testing. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes (18.4%) at postpartum, clinicians should emphasize the importance of postpartum diabetes screening to patients with factors affecting testing noncompliance. PMID:26713061

  7. Altered insulin response to glucose in weight-losing cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rofe, A M; Bourgeois, C S; Coyle, P; Taylor, A; Abdi, E A

    1994-01-01

    Cancer cachexia and the underlying metabolic disturbances are due in part to either altered insulin release and action. Glucose intolerance in cancer patients is frequently observed but the nature of the insulin response is not usually described. The aim of this study was to investigate the insulin response in fasted, weigh-losing cancer patients following an oral glucose load (75 g). All cancer patients (n = 35) showed glucose intolerance. Three types of response were identified; those with an increased insulin: glucose ratio (I:G) at 60 min, (average 12.3, n = 13), those with a normal I:G (average 7.2 n = 7) and those with a decrease I:G (average 4.2, n = 15). Fasting plasma glucose concentrations were normal in all groups prior to the glucose tolerance test. However, patients with the lowest I:G also had the lowest fasting plasma insulin concentrations, the lowest plasma albumin concentrations and the highest plasma triglyceride concentrations. Those patients with an abnormal insulin response (either high or low I:G) had significantly greater weight loss (16% for low I:G group, 13% for the high I:G) compared to the normal responders (8%). Plasma fatty acid concentrations were increased in all cancer patients and decreased appropriately after glucose administration, indicating that lipolysis remained sensitive to the action of insulin. It is concluded that weight loss in cancer is associated with glucose intolerance and an abnormal insulin response, and that this response is indicative of either insulin resistance (high I:G) or decreased pancreatic function (low I:G). These findings suggest a role for insulin replacement therapy in the latter group of patients. PMID:8010722

  8. Effect of Miglitol (Bay m1099), a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP responses to an oral sucrose load in patients with post-prandial hypoglycaemic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Parer-Richard, C; Richard, J L; Jureidini, S; Orsetti, A; Mirouze, J

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from symptoms suggestive of idiopathic reactive hypoglycaemia and reproducible during an oral glucose tolerance test when plasma glucose was less than or equal to 2.8 mM, were included in an acute, double-blind and cross-over study to test the efficacy of Miglitol (Bay m1099), a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor versus placebo. Patients were randomized to ingest 100 mg Miglitol or placebo together with a sucrose solution (45 g/m2 body surface), one week apart. During four hours, plasma glucose levels were continuously monitored and plasma insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were measured at 30-minute intervals; serum C-peptide concentration was determined at 0, 30, 60 minutes and then every hour. The post-load rise in plasma glucose was significantly blunted by Miglitol, as shown by the reduced plasma glucose peak, the diminished early (0-120 min) area under the glycaemic curve and the decreased rate of plasma glucose rise. Thereafter, plasma glucose nadir was significantly raised and rate of plasma glucose fall was slowed by Miglitol with a concomitant improvement in the hypoglycaemic index. Insulin secretion was dampened as indicated by parallel reduction of plasma insulin and serum C-peptide peaks; morever, early area under the insulin curve and total (0-240 min) area under the C-peptide curve were significantly reduced. Decrease of plasma GIP peak and total area under the GIP curve were also significant. During sucrose tolerance test with Miglitol, hypoglycaemic symptoms were significantly alleviated but intestinal side-effects were common. Blunting the insulin response to glucose directly by delaying glucose absorption and indirectly through reducing GIP secretion, may be a valuable therapeutic approach in reactive hypoglycemia; nevertheless, long-term study with Miglitol are needed, due to the poor intestinal tolerance of this drug in the present acute study. PMID:1884880

  9. [Study on prevention of untoward reaction of glucose tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Fan, L F; Li, H Y; Wang, G H

    1996-03-01

    The prevention methods of the side effects of 75g glucose tolerance test were studied. The results showed that the speed of taking glucose water was 3-5 minutes; the water temperature was 20-30 degrees C; water volume of dissolving glucose was 300ml; 0.25g citric acid was added, the side effects will be avoided or reduced. PMID:8826187

  10. Exercise Intensity Modulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion when Adjusted for Adipose, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise intensity on compensatory changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when adjusted for adipose, liver and skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). Fifteen participants (8F, Age: 49.9±3.6yr; BMI: 31.0±1.5kg/m2; VO2peak: 23.2±1.2mg/kg/min) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT and/or HbA1c) underwent a time-course matched Control, and isocaloric (200kcal) exercise at moderate (MIE; at lactate threshold (LT)), and high-intensity (HIE; 75% of difference between LT and VO2peak). A 75g OGTT was conducted 1 hour post-exercise/Control, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (1/Oral Minimal Model; SMIR), hepatic (HOMAIR), and adipose (ADIPOSEIR) IR. Insulin secretion rates were determined by deconvolution modeling for GSIS, and disposition index (DI; GSIS/IR; DISMIR, DIHOMAIR, DIADIPOSEIR) calculations. Compared to Control, exercise lowered SMIR independent of intensity (P<0.05), with HIE raising HOMAIR and ADIPOSEIR compared with Control (P<0.05). GSIS was not reduced following exercise, but DIHOMAIR and DIADIPOSEIR were lowered more following HIE compared with Control (P<0.05). However, DISMIR increased in an intensity based manner relative to Control (P<0.05), which corresponded with lower post-prandial blood glucose levels. Taken together, pancreatic insulin secretion adjusts in an exercise intensity dependent manner to match the level of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanism by which exercise influences the cross-talk between tissues that regulate blood glucose in people with prediabetes. PMID:27111219

  11. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Handisurya, Ammon; Kerscher, Corinna; Tura, Andrea; Herkner, Harald; Payer, Berit Anna; Mandorfer, Mattias; Werzowa, Johannes; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Reiberger, Thomas; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; Säemann, Marcus; Schmidt, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients. Methods In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR). Results After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82–441.92) vs. 468.80 (414.27–488.57) mL/min/m2, p = 0.005), which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017) and adaptation index (p = 0.017) as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721), insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032–0.106) vs. 0.083 (0.054–0.144) nmol/mmol, p = 0.093) and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646) remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285) or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463) were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression. Conclusions HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV

  12. Distribution of proteins similar to IIIManH and IIIManL of the Streptococcus salivarius phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system among oral and nonoral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, M; Frenette, M; Vadeboncoeur, C

    1995-01-01

    In Streptococcus salivarius, the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system, which concomitantly transports and phosphorylates mannose, glucose, fructose, and 2-deoxyglucose, is composed of the general energy-coupling proteins EI and HPr, the specific membrane-bound IIIMan, and two forms of a protein called IIIMan, with molecular weights of 38,900 (IIIManH) and 35,200 (IIIManL), that are found in the cytoplasm as well as associated with the membrane. Several lines of evidence suggest that IIIManH and/or IIIManL are involved in the control of sugar metabolism. To determine whether other bacteria possess these proteins, we tested for their presence in 28 oral streptococcus strains, 3 nonoral streptococcus strains, 2 lactococcus strains, 2 enterococcus strains, 2 bacillus strains, 1 lactobacillus strain, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Three approaches were used to determine whether the IIIMan proteins were present in these bacteria: (i) Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, using anti-IIIManH and anti-IIIManH rabbit polyclonal antibodies; (ii) analysis of PEP-dependent phosphoproteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and (iii) inhibition by anti-IIIMan antibodies of the PEP-dependent phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose (a mannose analog) by crude cellular extracts. Only the species S. salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis possessed the two forms of IIIMan. Fifteen other streptococcal species possessed one protein with a molecular weight between 35,200 and 38,900 that cross-reacted with both antibodies. In the case of 9 species, a protein possessing the same electrophoretic mobility was phosphorylated at the expense of PEP. No such phosphoprotein, however, could be detected in the other six species. A III(Man)-like protein with a molecular weight of 35,500 was also detected in Lactobacillus casei by Western blot experiments as well as by PEP-dependent phosphoprotein analysis, and a

  13. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  14. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  15. A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, D E; Prevost, A T; Whichelow, M J; Cox, B D; Day, N E; Wareham, N J

    2000-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated relationships between individual nutrients and glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, but the association with the overall pattern of dietary intake has not previously been described. In order to characterize this association, 802 subjects aged 40-65 years were randomly selected from a population-based sampling frame and underwent a 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test. Principal component analysis was used to identify four dietary patterns explaining 31.7% of the dietary variation in the study cohort. These dietary patterns were associated with other lifestyle factors including socio-economic group, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. Component 1 was characterized by a healthy balanced diet with a frequent intake of raw and salad vegetables, fruits in both summer and winter, fish, pasta and rice and low intake of fried foods, sausages, fried fish, and potatoes. This component was negatively correlated with central obesity, fasting plasma glucose, 120 min non-esterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol. It therefore appears to be protective for the metabolic syndrome. Component 1 was negatively associated with the risk of having undiagnosed diabetes, and this association was independent of age, sex, smoking and obesity. The findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are associated with other lifestyle factors and with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The results provide further evidence for the recommendation of a healthy balanced diet as one of the main components of chronic disease prevention. PMID:10884714

  16. Oral administration of SR-110, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances glucose homeostasis, insulin signaling, and islet architecture in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Sakineh; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Kwon, Guim

    2016-04-15

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. As a follow-up study to our previous work on SR-135 (Arch Biochem Biophys 577-578: 49-59, 2015), we provide evidence that this series of compounds are effective when administered orally, and their mechanisms of actions extend to the peripheral tissues. A more soluble analogue of SR-135, SR-110 (from a new class of Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes) was orally administered for 2 weeks to B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Mice fed a HFD for 4 months gained significantly higher body weights compared to lean diet-fed mice (52 ± 1.5 g vs 34 ± 1.3 g). SR-110 (10 mg/kg daily) treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control or vehicle (peanut butter) group. SR-110 treatment enhanced insulin signaling in the peripheral organs, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, SR-110 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst is effective in improving glucose homeostasis and restoring islet morphology and β-cell insulin content under nutrient overload. PMID:26970045

  17. Impact of the American Diabetes Association diagnosis criteria on high-risk Spanish population. IGT Research Group. Impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Costa, B; Franch, J; Martín, F; Morató, J; Donado, A; Basora, J; Daniel, J

    1999-10-01

    To research into the impact of the new American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria on high risk Spanish population, two cross-sectional studies involving seven primary health care centers in Catalonia (Spain) were revised. Individuals aged > 40 years with any major risk factor for diabetes were screened according to the World Health Organization (WHO) rules using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose. The changes on diabetes prevalence and on epidemiological characteristics were evaluated applying the ADA criteria on the basis of FPG alone. A total of 970 individuals, 453 males (46.7%), mean age 59 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 30.6 kg/m2 were screened. Among the 459 diabetic subjects according to either the WHO or the ADA criteria, 314 (68.4%) were classified as having diabetes with respect to both sets of criteria (WHO and ADA). The overlap between impaired glucose tolerance (WHO) and impaired fasting glucose (ADA) diagnoses was 20.7%. Using the ADA criteria results in a decrease of the prevalence of diabetes by 1.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.2 to -0.8%). No changes in the diabetic phenotype (age, sex and BMI) were found. Impaired fasting glucose prevalence was 18.4% (95% CI = 16-21%). Overall concordance in terms of crude and weighted kappa-value was only acceptable (kappa = 0.51 and kappa = 0.61, respectively). To apply the new ADA diagnostic criteria on high risk Spanish population evidenced a decrease on diabetes prevalence. Nevertheless, the change of criteria undervalued the risk of postprandial hyperglycaemia related to impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:10580619

  18. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. Before and after inhibition of tumour growth by chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Sengeløv, H; Madsen, J; Ovesen, L

    1993-07-01

    Seven weight-losing patients with histologically verified small cell lung carcinoma were given an oral glucose load of 75 g before and at least 3 weeks after the end of chemotherapy to examine the effect of glucose on whole body and skeletal muscle thermogenesis before and after reduction of tumour. Whole body energy expenditure was measured by the open circuit ventilated hood system. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous-occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. The uptake of oxygen in skeletal muscle was calculated as the product of the forearm blood flow and the difference in a-v oxygen concentration. Whole body resting energy expenditure (REE) did not increase, it was 4.4 +/- 0.3 kJ min-1 (mean +/- SE) before chemotherapy and 4.4 +/- 0.2 kJ min-1 after chemotherapy. The glucose-induced thermogenesis in the 180 min following the glucose load was 93.6 +/- 9.9 kJ 180 min-1 before chemotherapy. This is significantly increased compared to that found in a healthy control group (74.7 +/- 4.8 kJ 180 min-1, P < 0.02). The glucose-induced thermogenesis was significantly reduced to 47.7 +/- 10.2 kJ 180 min-1 (P < 0.05) after chemotherapy. The oxygen uptake in resting skeletal muscles was 6.9 +/- 0.3 mumol 100 g-1 min-1 before chemotherapy and 7.0 +/- 0.7 mumol 100 g-1 min-1 after chemotherapy. This did not increase during the first 90 min following the glucose load in either investigations. In the period 90-180 min following the glucose load, the oxygen uptake was significantly increased before chemotherapy as compared to after chemotherapy, which suggests that the reduced whole body thermogenesis after chemotherapy in part was due to reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. PMID:8396523

  19. Blood glucose distribution and prevalence of diabetes in Hanoi (Vietnam).

    PubMed

    Quoc, P S; Charles, M A; Cuong, N H; Lieu, L H; Tuan, N A; Thomas, M; Balkau, B; Simon, D

    1994-04-01

    Few epidemiologic surveys have been performed to assess the prevalence of diabetes in representative samples, and few data are available on the epidemiologic features of diabetes in Southeast Asia. We report the results of a 1990 study performed in the Hanoi area (Vietnam) on 4,912 subjects (95.0% of the eligible population), aged 15 years or over, selected by a stratified random cluster procedure using the 1989 census list. A two-step design was used: 1) screening for diabetes by measuring capillary blood glucose (CBG) before dinner with a Glucometer II device; and 2) for subjects with a CBG measurement of > or = 105 mg/dl, a diagnostic test on the following morning, using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria (93.9% of the positive screenees took this test). CBG values before dinner were unimodally distributed and skewed to the right, increasing with age in both sexes. Women had a significantly higher level of age-adjusted CBG than did men before dinner (p < 0.0001) as well as when fasting (p < 0.0001) and 2 hours after the oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.013). The prevalence of diabetes was 1.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.5) and of impaired glucose tolerance, 1.6% (95% CI 1.3-2.0). Women had a significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did men (relative risk = 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1). Of the 63 diabetic subjects, nine (14.3%) had been diagnosed before the study, only one was obviously insulin dependent, and only one was obese with a body mass index of > or = 27 kg/m2. The subjects living in the urban areas had higher levels of fasting and 2-hour CBG and a higher diabetes prevalence than did the rural inhabitants (relative risk = 1.3; 95% CI 1.04-3.23). Diabetes appears to be a rare disease in the Hanoi area (1.4% for subjects aged 30-64 years, after age standardization using the Segi distribution), affecting women two times as often as men. Typical insulin-dependent (type I) or obese non

  20. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on potassium (86Rb+) permeability and plasma lipid peroxidation in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Güven, M; Onaran, I; Ulutin, T; Sultuybek, G; Hatemi, H

    2001-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is likely to be one of the important determinants of ion transport as it is known to induce oxidative stress and may thus enhance non-specific permeability of membranes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an acute increase in glycemia on 86Rb+ (a marker for K+) influx and lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced modification on 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation in 20 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). After 2-hour glucose loading, the levels of passive 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation were significantly increased, whereas the active influx of 86Rb+ was unchanged. The total and passive influx of 86Rb+ into erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of plasma lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia induces an increase in the passive influx of 86Rb+ in subjects with NGT, suggesting that acute hyperglycemia may produce an oxidative stress in plasma. These changes may be among the earliest changes occurring in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:11383909

  1. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on potassium (86Rb+) permeability and plasma lipid peroxidation in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Güven, M; Onaran, I; Ulutin, T; Sultuybek, G; Hatemi, H

    2001-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is likely to be one of the important determinants of ion transport as it is known to induce oxidative stress and may thus enhance non-specific permeability of membranes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an acute increase in glycemia on 86Rb+ (a marker for K+) influx and lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced modification on 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation in 20 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). After 2-hour glucose loading, the levels of passive 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation were significantly increased, whereas the active influx of 86Rb+ was unchanged. The total and passive influx of 86Rb+ into erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of plasma lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia induces an increase in the passive influx of 86Rb+ in subjects with NGT, suggesting that acute hyperglycemia may produce an oxidative stress in plasma. These changes may be among the earliest changes occurring in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:11508792

  2. Effect of glucose intake on human leucocyte /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding

    SciTech Connect

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding by human leucocytes were measured in eight normal nonobese fasting subjects before and after a challenge with 75 g glucose orally. The mean ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increased significantly from 194 to 283 mmol/kg protein/h (P less than .01), and (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding increased from 236 to 403 fmol/mg protein. The mean plasma potassium concentration fell from 4.2 to 3.9 mmol/L (P less than .05). Following intravenous glucose infusion, the median /sup 86/Rb transport increased from 186 to 267 mmol/kg protein/h, while median plasma potassium concentration fell from 4.3 to 3.9 mmol/L. Therefore, glucose intake acutely increases Na-K ATPase units, stimulates potassium (Rb) transport, and causes a concomitant fall in plasma potassium concentrations. Nutritional intake is probably an important determinant of Na-K ATPase units and activity in the human leucocyte.

  3. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  4. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Matuszek, Maria A.; Anton, Angelyn; Thillainathan, Sobana; Armstrong, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities. Method Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians. Results There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15–120 min), in South East/East Asians (60–120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B. Conclusions Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of

  5. [Study of causes of untoward reactions of the glucose tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Fan, L F

    1994-07-01

    The observation of the Side-effects and influent factores after 75g OGTT indioated that the aotal rate of side-effects was 52.43%. After OGTT the commonest side-effect was vomiting. Others were dizzy and palpitation. The side-effects were also related to age, sex, starvation, speed of taking glucose water, water volum of dissolving glucose, gastrointestinal diseases, blood glucose level, etc. It was recommended in this paper that the speed of taking glucose water should be 3-5 minutes, the water temperature below 40 degrees C and starvation about 14 hours. PMID:7614609

  6. Modulation of Coronary Heart Disease Risk by Insulin Resistance in Subjects With Normal Glucose Tolerance or Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Danit; Reaven, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study is based on the hypothesis that: 1)coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is accentuated in the insulin resistant subset of persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes (PreDM); 2)the prevalence of insulin resistance, and associated abnormalities, is greater in subjects with PreDM; and 3)insulin resistance is the major contributor to increased CHD risk in these individuals. Methods A 75 g oral glucose challenge was used to classify volunteers as having NGT or PreDM. Steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test subdivided both groups into insulin sensitive (IS=SSPG <8.4 mmol/L) or resistant (IR=SSPG ≥8.4 mmol/L). Measurements were made of demographic characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and comparisons made between the subgroups. Results Subjects with PreDM (n=127) were somewhat older, more likely to be non-Hispanic men, with increased adiposity than those with NGT (n=315). In addition, they had higher FPG concentrations, were insulin resistant (SSPG concentration; 11.4 vs. 7.2 mmol/L), with higher blood pressures, and a significantly more adverse CHD risk lipid profile (p<0.001). Twice as many subjects with PreDM were IR (72% vs. 35 %), and the CHD risk profile was significantly worse in the IR subgroups in those with either NGT or PreDM. Conclusions/interpretation CHD risk profile is significantly more adverse in subjects with PreDM as compared to individuals with NGT. However, glucose tolerance status is not the only determinant of CHD risk in nondiabetic individuals, and differences in degree of insulin resistance significantly modulate CHD risk in subjects with NGT or PreDM. PMID:25358836

  7. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials. PMID:2345922

  8. Coconut-derived D-xylose affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yun Jung; Bak, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Bumsik; Kim, Min-Sun; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic alterations including postprandial hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of obesity-related diseases. Xylose is a sucrase inhibitor suggested to suppress the postprandial glucose surge. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhibitory effects of two different concentrations of xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin responses and to evaluate its efficacy in the presence of other macronutrients. Randomized double-blind cross-over studies were conducted to examine the effect of D-xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin response following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In study 1, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 49) consumed a test sucrose solution (50 g sucrose in 130 ml water) containing 0, 5, or 7.5 g D-xylose powder. In study 2, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 50) consumed a test meal (50 g sucrose in a 60 g muffin and 200 ml sucrose-containing solution). The control meal provided 64.5 g of carbohydrates, 4.5 g of fat, and 10 g of protein. The xylose meal was identical to the control meal except 5 g of xylose was added to the muffin mix. In study 1, the 5 g xylose-containing solutions exhibited significantly lower area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-60 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-90 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and 0-120 min (P = 0.0071, P = 0.0016). In study 2, the test meal exhibited significantly lower AUCg and AUCi values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005), 0-60 min (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0025), and 0-90 min (P = 0.0396, P = 0.0246). In conclusion, xylose showed an acute suppressive effect on the postprandial glucose and insulin surges. PMID:22259678

  9. Effects of short term changes in the blood glucose level on the autofluorescence lifetime of the human retina in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Matthias; Nagel, Edgar; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schramm, Stefan; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) provides in vivo metabolic mapping of the ocular fundus. Changes in FLIO have been found in e.g. diabetes patients. The influence of short term metabolic changes caused by blood glucose level changes on is unknown. Aim of this work is the detection of short-term changes in fundus autofluorescence lifetime during an oral glucose tolerance test. Methods: FLIO was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (29+/-4 years, fasting for 12h) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (30° fundus, 34μm resolution, excitation with 473nm diode laser with 70 ps pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate, detection in two spectral channels 500-560nm (ch1) and 560-720nm (ch2) using the timecorrelated single photon counting method). The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by an Accu-Chek® Aviva self-monitoring device. Before and after a glucose drink (300ml solution, containing 75g of glucose (Accu-Chek® Dextrose O.G.T.), BGL and FLIO were measured every 15min. The FLIMX software package was applied to compute the average fluorescence lifetime τ on the inner ring of the ETDRS grid using a modified 3-exponential approach. Results: The results are given as mean +/- standard deviation over all volunteers in ch1. Baseline measurement: BGL: 5.3+/-0.4 mmol/l, τ1: 49+/-6ps. A significant reduction (α=5% Wilcoxon rank-sum test) in τ1 is detected after 15min (BGL: 8.4+/-1.1 mmol/l, τ1: 44+/-5ps) and after 90min (BGL: 6.3+/-1.4 mmol/l, τ1: 41+/-5ps). Results of ch2 show smaller reductions in the fluorescence lifetimes over time.

  10. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, P<0.01; 5.3±0.4% HbA1c, P<0.01) participated. Using a randomized design, subjects underwent either a whole body passive hyperthermia treatment via head-out hot water immersion (1h resting in 39.4±0.4°C water) that increased internal temperature above baseline by ∆1.6±0.4°C or a control resting condition. Twenty-four hours post treatments, a 75g OGTT was administered to evaluate changes in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. PMID:27264884

  11. Genome-wide and fine-mapping linkage studies of type 2 diabetes and glucose traits in the Old Order Amish: evidence for a new diabetes locus on chromosome 14q11 and confirmation of a locus on chromosome 1q21-q24.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Wen-Chi; St Jean, Pamela L; Mitchell, Braxton D; Pollin, Toni I; Knowler, William C; Ehm, Margaret G; Bell, Callum J; Sakul, Hakan; Wagner, Michael J; Burns, Daniel K; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2003-02-01

    We conducted a genome scan using a 10-cM map to search for genes linked to type 2 diabetes in 691 individuals from a founder population, the Old Order Amish. We then saturated two regions on chromosomes 1 and 14 showing promising linkage signals with additional markers to produce a approximately 2-cM map for fine mapping. Analyses of both discrete traits (type 2 diabetes and the composite trait of type 2 diabetes and/or impaired glucose homeostasis [IGH]), and quantitative traits (glucose levels during a 75-g oral glucose challenge, designated glucose 0-180 and HbA(1c)) were performed. We obtained significant evidence for linkage to type 2 diabetes in a novel region on chromosome 14q11 (logarithm of odds [LOD] for diabetes = 3.48, P = 0.00005). Furthermore, we observed evidence for the existence of a diabetes-related locus on chromosome 1q21-q24 (LOD for type 2 diabetes/IGH = 2.35, P = 0.0008), a region shown to be linked to diabetes in several other studies. Suggestive evidence for linkage to glucose traits was observed on three other regions: 14q11-q13 (telomeric to that above with LOD = 1.82-1.85 for glucose 150 and 180), 1p31 (LOD = 1.28-2.30 for type 2 diabetes and glucose 120-180), and 18p (LOD = 3.07, P = 0.000085 for HbA(1c) and LOD = 1.50 for glucose 0). In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes reside on chromosomes 1, 14, and 18. PMID:12540634

  12. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S. )

    1990-11-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with (2-3H)glucose and HGP with (6-3H)glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). (2-3H)- minus (6-3H)glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP.

  13. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  14. Placental DNA methylation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α promoter is associated with maternal gestational glucose level.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Gao, Hongjie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Chen, Suhua; Feng, Ling; Deng, Dongrui; Qiao, Fu-yuan; Liao, Lihong; McCormick, Kenneth; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    Intrauterine exposure to hyperglycaemia may increase the risk of later-life metabolic disorders. Although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood, epigenetic dysregulation in fetal programming has been implicated. With regard to energy homoeostasis, PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, encoded by the PPARGC1A gene) plays a regulatory role in several biochemical processes. We hypothesized that maternal gestational glucose levels would positively correlate with DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in placental tissue. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 58 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Caesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined after a 75-g OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Placenta tissue and cord blood were collected immediately after delivery. Genomic DNA was extracted and thereafter bisulfite conversion was performed. After PCR amplification, the DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter was quantified using a pyrosequencing technique. The protein level of PGC-1α was evaluated by Western blotting. For all participants as a whole, including the GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus) and normoglycaemia groups, the maternal gestational glucose level was positively correlated with placental DNA methylation, and negatively correlated with cord blood DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in a CpG site-specific manner. In the GDM group alone, the placental CpG site-specific methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter strongly correlated with gestational 2-h post-OGTT glycaemia. Epigenetic alteration of the PPAGRC1A promoter may be one of the potential mechanisms underlying the metabolic programming in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycaemia. PMID:25875376

  15. Glucose control.

    PubMed

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  16. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proposed contribution of glucose variability to the development of the complications of diabetes beyond that of glycemic exposure is supported by reports that oxidative stress, the putative mediator of such complications, is greater for intermittent as opposed to sustained hyperglycemia. Variability of glycemia in ambulatory conditions defined as the deviation from steady state is a phenomenon of normal physiology. Comprehensive recording of glycemia is required for the generation of any measurement of glucose variability. To avoid distortion of variability to that of glycemic exposure, its calculation should be devoid of a time component. PMID:23613565

  17. Glucose uptake saturation explains glucose kinetics profiles measured by different tests.

    PubMed

    Bizzotto, Roberto; Natali, Andrea; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Muscelli, Elza; Krssak, Martin; Brehm, Attila; Roden, Michael; Ferrannini, Ele; Mari, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    It is known that for a given insulin level glucose clearance depends on glucose concentration. However, a quantitative representation of the concomitant effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia on glucose clearance, necessary to describe heterogeneous tests such as euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps and oral tests, is lacking. Data from five studies (123 subjects) using a glucose tracer and including all the above tests in normal and diabetic subjects were collected. A mathematical model was developed in which glucose utilization was represented as a Michaelis-Menten function of glucose with constant Km and insulin-controlled Vmax, consistently with the basic notions of glucose transport. Individual values for the model parameters were estimated using a population approach. Tracer data were accurately fitted in all tests. The estimated Km was 3.88 (2.83-5.32) mmol/l [median (interquartile range)]. Median model-derived glucose clearance at 600 pmol/l insulin was reduced from 246 to 158 ml·min(-1)·m(-2) when glucose was raised from 5 to 10 mmol/l. The model reproduced the characteristic lack of increase in glucose clearance when moderate hyperinsulinemia was accompanied by hyperglycemia. In all tests, insulin sensitivity was inversely correlated with BMI, as expected (R(2) = 0.234, P = 0.0001). In conclusion, glucose clearance in euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps and oral tests can be described with a unifying model, consistent with the notions of glucose transport and able to reproduce the suppression of glucose clearance due to hyperglycemia observed in previous studies. The model may be important for the design of reliable glucose homeostasis simulators. PMID:27245333

  18. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  19. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  20. Impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Markers of Glucose Metabolism and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Women with Former Gestational Diabetes--A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Lim, Shueh Lin; Hor, Chee Peng; Khir, Amir S; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, with heightened risk for future development of diabetes. We evaluated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and cardio metabolic risk in Asian women with former GDM and hypovitaminosis D. In this double blind, randomized controlled trial, 26 participants were randomized to receive either daily 4000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo capsules. 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and biochemistry profiles were performed at baseline and 6 month visits. Mathematical models, using serial glucose, insulin and C peptide measurements from OGTT, were employed to calculate insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Thirty three (76%) women with former GDM screened had vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L at baseline. Supplementation, when compared with placebo, resulted in increased vitamin D level (+51.1 nmol/L vs 0.2 nmol/L, p<0.001) and increased fasting insulin (+20% vs 18%, p = 0.034). The vitamin D group also demonstrated a 30% improvement in disposition index and an absolute 0.2% (2 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c. There was no clear change in insulin sensitivity or markers of cardio metabolic risk. This study highlighted high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Asian women with former GDM. Six months supplementation with 4000 IU of vitamin D3 safely restored the vitamin D level, improved basal pancreatic beta-cell function and ameliorated the metabolic state. There was no effect on markers of cardio metabolic risk. Further mechanistic studies exploring the role of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis among different ethnicities may be needed to better inform future recommendations for these women with former GDM at high risk of both hypovitaminosis D and future diabetes. PMID:26057782

  1. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  2. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520.550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. (a) Specifications. The product...

  3. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  4. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  5. Effects of 2.0-g 1.75-g and 1.5-g Hypergravity on Pregnancy Outcome in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Nicole A.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, ten pregnant female rats were launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-70) on Gestational day(G) 11 of their 22-day pregnancy as part of the NASA/NIH.Rodent (R)2 Experiment. Following landing on G20, fetuses were harvested from half of the dams, while the remaining five dams underwent birth. Spaceflight did not interrupt pregnancy, alter litter sizes, or affect body weights or gender ratios of the fetuses or neonates. In the present study we used the NASA/NIH.R2 experimental paradigm to analyze the effects of hypergravity on pregnancy outcome. On G10, time-bred Sprague-Dawley rat dams were assigned to either G20 or Birth conditions, then further assigned to Hypergravity (HG) 2.0-g, HG 1.75-g, HG 1.5-g, Rotational Control (RC, 1.03), or Stationary Control (SC, 1.0-g) treatments. Dams were exposed to continuous centrifugation from G11 through G20, with brief daily stops for animal health checks and maintenance. For both the G20 and Birth dams, comparable litter sizes and litter gender ratios were observed across gravity conditions. However, centrifugation-exposed (HG and RC) fetuses and neonates showed significantly lower body masses (p less than 0.05) relative to SC offspring. HG 2.0-g offspring weighed significantly less than those in all other gravity conditions (p less than 0.05). The observed reductions in offspring body mass at 1.5-g and 1.75-g, can be attributed to the rotational component of centrifugation, rather than to increased gravitational load, whereas 2.0-g hypergravity exposure further exacerbated the gravity centrifugation effect on offspring body mass. Pregnant dams exposed to centrifugation weighed significantly less than SC dams (p less than 0.05), suggesting that centrifugation effects on maternal body mass may contribute to reduced size of the developing offspring. These findings are consistent with previous reports of non-pregnant adult animals suggesting that, whereas spaceflight has virtually no effect on body mass, centrifugation is

  6. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  7. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  8. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  9. Glucose Homeostatic Law: Insulin Clearance Predicts the Progression of Glucose Intolerance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Shinsuke; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Iwaki, Toshinao; Fukuzawa, Hiroki; Komori, Yasunori; Fujii, Masashi; Toyoshima, Yu; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Wataru; Kuroda, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic control of blood glucose is regulated by a complex feedback loop between glucose and insulin, of which failure leads to diabetes mellitus. However, physiological and pathological nature of the feedback loop is not fully understood. We made a mathematical model of the feedback loop between glucose and insulin using time course of blood glucose and insulin during consecutive hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 113 subjects with variety of glucose tolerance including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analyzed the correlation of the parameters in the model with the progression of glucose intolerance and the conserved relationship between parameters. The model parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion significantly declined from NGT to IGT, and from IGT to T2DM, respectively, consistent with previous clinical observations. Importantly, insulin clearance, an insulin degradation rate, significantly declined from NGT, IGT to T2DM along the progression of glucose intolerance in the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was positively correlated with a product of insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp analysis or determined with the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was correlated negatively with postprandial glucose at 2h after oral glucose tolerance test. We also inferred a square-law between the rate constant of insulin clearance and a product of rate constants of insulin sensitivity and secretion in the model, which is also conserved among NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. Insulin clearance shows a conserved relationship with the capacity of glucose disposal among the NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. The decrease of insulin clearance predicts the progression of glucose intolerance. PMID:26623647

  10. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  11. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  12. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  13. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  14. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance. PMID:25994135

  15. Fasting and postabsorptive hepatic glucose and insulin metabolism in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Raboudi, N; Arem, R; Jones, R H; Chap, Z; Pena, J; Chou, J; Field, J B

    1989-01-01

    The effect of thyroid hormone excess on hepatic glucose balances and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was examined in six conscious dogs with catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, and femoral artery and Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and after the animals were made hyperthyroid by intramuscular thyroxine administration (100 micrograms.kg-1.day-1) for 10 days. In the basal state and after oral glucose, insulin and glucagon levels in the three vessels and the basal fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon were not significantly modified by thyroid hormone. These results suggest that in short-term thyrotoxicosis insulin secretion is not impaired, and the rise in fasting plasma glucose and increased hepatic glucose production could reflect hepatic insulin resistance, increased availability of precursors for gluconeogenesis, or increased glycogenolysis. Hyperthyroidism significantly increased basal flows in the portal vein (14.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 12.9 +/- 0.5 ml.kg-1.min-1), the hepatic artery (4.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) and vein (19.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.4 ml.kg-1.min-1), the fasting plasma glucose concentration (104 +/- 3 vs. 92 +/- 2 mg/dl), and basal hepatic glucose output (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1). It did not alter the nonhepatic splanchnic uptake of glucose, the percent of orally administered glucose that appeared in the portal vein (47 +/- 2 vs. 45 +/- 11%), the percent of hepatic uptake of glucose (59 +/- 11 vs. 74 +/- 22%), or the shape of the glucose tolerance test. PMID:2643338

  16. 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits glucose absorption and accelerates glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Gui; Ji, Dong-Feng; Zhong, Shi; Lin, Tian-Bao; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Gui-Yan; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on glucose absorption and metabolism in normal and diabetic mice. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and labeled 13C6-glucose uptake assays suggested that DNJ inhibited intestinal glucose absorption in intestine. We also showed that DNJ down-regulated intestinal SGLT1, Na+/K+-ATP and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression. Pretreatment with DNJ (50 mg/kg) increased the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glycolysis enzymes (GK, PFK, PK, PDE1) and decreased the expression of gluconeogenesis enzymes (PEPCK, G-6-Pase). Assays of protein expression in hepatic cells and in vitro tests with purified enzymes indicated that the increased activity of glucose glycolysis enzymes was resulted from the relative increase in protein expression, rather than from direct enzyme activation. These results suggest that DNJ inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and accelerates hepatic glucose metabolism by directly regulating the expression of proteins involved in glucose transport systems, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis enzymes. PMID:23536174

  17. No Interactions Between Previously Associated 2-Hour Glucose Gene Variants and Physical Activity or BMI on 2-Hour Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Grarup, Niels; Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Shungin, Dmitry; Tönjes, Anke; Yesupriya, Ajay; Barnes, Daniel; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Glazer, Nicole L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marek, Diana; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Aadahl, Mette; Arking, Dan E.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Brage, Soren; Carlson, Olga D.; Chen, Han; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Couper, David J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Egan, Josephine S.; Ekelund, Ulf; Erdos, Michael R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grässler, Jürgen; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Hingorani, Aroon; Holloway, John W.; Hu, Frank B.; Isomaa, Bo; Jameson, Karen A.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jonsson, Anna; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lecoeur, Cécile; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Li, Guo; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Lyssenko, Valeri; Marmot, Michael; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morken, Mario A.; Müller, Gabriele; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Payne, Felicity; Prokopenko, Inga; Psaty, Bruce M.; Renström, Frida; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybin, Denis; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Sayer, Avan A.; Shrader, Peter; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Siscovick, David S.; Stančáková, Alena; Stumvoll, Michael; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Waeber, Gérard; Williams, Gordon H.; Witte, Daniel R.; Wood, Andrew R.; Xie, Weijia; Boehnke, Michael; Cooper, Cyrus; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif; Kao, W.H. Linda; Vollenweider, Peter; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M.; Pedersen, Oluf; Meigs, James B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Barroso, Inês; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.; Dupuis, Josée; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Gene–lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13–0.31], P = 1.63 × 10−6). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06–0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10−7), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene–lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions. PMID:22415877

  18. Enhanced glucose tolerance by intravascularly administered piceatannol in freely moving healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Okitsu, Teru; Nishimura, Eisaku; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-02-12

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the seeds of passion fruit that has a hypoglycemic effect when orally administered. To elucidate the contribution of intact and metabolites of piceatannol after gastro-intestinal absorption to hypoglycemic effect, we examined the influence of piceatannol and isorhapontigenin on blood glucose concentrations during fasting and glucose tolerance tests by administering them intravascularly to freely moving healthy rats. We found that intravascularly administered piceatannol reduced the blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and glucose tolerance tests, but isorhapontigenin did not during either of them. Furthermore, we found that piceatannol increased the insulinogenic index during glucose tolerance tests and that piceatannol had no influence on insulin sensitivity by performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping tests. These results suggest that piceatannol orally intaken may enhance glucose tolerance by the effect of intact piceatannol through enhanced early-phase secretion of insulin. Therefore, oral intake of piceatannol might contribute to proper control of postprandial glycemic excursions in healthy subjects. PMID:26773506

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  20. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  1. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... catalog. Additional Links ​ Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Children and Diabetes Glucose Meters Juvenile Diabetes (Teens and Diabetes ) Know Your Blood Glucose Numbers Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 Contact Us Health Information Center ...

  2. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  3. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  4. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  5. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  7. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  8. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of ... of glucose by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin.Over time, people who have diabetes and high ...

  9. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  10. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  11. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  12. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia. PMID:27319094

  13. Monoamines, glucose metabolism, aggression towards self and others.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M

    1988-08-01

    The evidence is reviewed that violent and suicidal behavior is associated with a deficiency of the serotonin system and that individuals with poor impulse control tend to become hypoglycemic during an oral glucose tolerance test, and have low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is postulated that serotonergic deficits may predispose individuals to poor impulse control, disturbance of glucose metabolism, alcohol abuse, violent behavior and suicide. PMID:2460415

  14. [Preoperative oral hydration for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Rie

    2011-07-01

    Preoperative oral hydration is an important component of "enhanced recovery after surgery" strategies. This was originally developed for patients undergoing colon surgery. The Obstetric Anesthesia Practice Guideline issued by American Society of Anesthesiologists states that intake of minimum amount of clear fluid 2 hours prior to surgery may be safe. However, anesthesiologists have to consider physiological changes that parturients undergo during pregnancy, such as increased risk of aspiration and impaired glucose tolerance. We also have to consider the potential effect of glucose loading on neonates. Mothers are more likely to develop ketosis by glucose loading. It also stimulates insulin release in the fetus, which can result in neonatal hypoglycemia. In addition, sodium overloading may deteriorate intra-vascular dehydration and cause lung edema to mothers. On the other hand, oral hydration can alleviate a sense of thirst and increase maternal satisfaction. Our data showed that maternal urinal ketone body at delivery tended to decrease with oral hydration during labor. Moreover, some articles suggest that oral hydration may improve utero-placental perfusion. Therefore, we have to balance risks and benefits of oral hydration in parturients. Further investigations are needed among this specific subgroup of patients in order to establish the safe application of preoperative oral hydration. PMID:21800658

  15. Oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, H P

    1996-08-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS), the best treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhea, is the most important medical advance of this century since it is key to reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea include those which produce enterotoxin at the intestinal mucosal surface, inducing secretion but are not invasive (e.g., Vibrio cholerae); those which invade and disrupt the mucosal lining (e.g., shigella species); and rotavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF ORS is considered a universal ORS. Much research has been done on the ideal composition of an ORS. An ORS must have sufficient sodium to replace losses on a volume to volume basis, a glucose concentration that matches that of sodium to ensure its delivery to the ileum, sufficient amounts of potassium and base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate or trisodium citrate dihydrate) to correct acidosis and to enhance sodium absorption, and sufficient amounts of liquid. The risk of hypernatremia with use of the WHO/UNICEF ORS is a concern since infants and young children have an immature renal concentrating capacity, increased insensible water losses, and an impaired natriuretic response. Neonates and young infants may be prone to relatively slow correction of acidosis. It appears that the potassium content (20 mmol/l) of WHO-ORS should be higher to promote a net positive potassium retention. Too much glucose in the ORS will induce reverse osmosis of water into the gut, effectively making the ORS a dehydrating solution rather than a hydrating solution. Some carbohydrates other than glucose have proven effective glucose substitutes (e.g., sucrose, rice starch and powder, other cereals). Cereals have higher acceptability levels in developing countries. Research is investigating the nutritional benefits of supplementing ORS with micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc). ORS use with early refeeding has a beneficial effect on nutritional status after an

  16. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18–80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  18. Early Postpartum Glucose Testing in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Werner, Erika F; Has, Phinnara; Tarabulsi, Gofran; Lee, Joyce; Satin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Objective Given that most women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) never undergo the recommended 6 to 12 weeks postpartum glucose tolerance test (GTT), we assessed the feasibility of performing GTTs on postpartum day 2. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study in which women with GDM received a 75-g 2-hour GTT on postpartum day 2. We assessed the feasibility of this GTT and compared the results to the standard of care GTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. We also evaluated maternal and pregnancy characteristics of women who return for 6 to 12 weeks GTTs compared with those lost to follow-up. Results In this study, 98 of 106 participants (92%) completed the postpartum day 2 GTT; 59% had normal glucose values at that time. Only 49 women returned at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Among women who had testing at both time points, the 2 days postpartum GTT were 100% sensitive and 94% specific for diabetes mellitus but less sensitive and specific for milder forms of abnormal glucose. Women who did not complete the 6 to 12 weeks postpartum GTT were less educated (p < 0.01) and more often had Medicaid (p < 0.01). Conclusion Performing GTTs on postpartum day 2 is feasible and should be further investigated as an alternative postpartum testing regimen in GDM. PMID:27120481

  19. Effect of D-glucose feeding on mortality induced by sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Su; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the life-threatening response to infection which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. In the current study, the effect of orally administered D-glucose on the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by D-Galactosamine (GaLN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis was examined in ICR mice. After various amounts of D-glucose (from 1 to 8 g/kg) were orally fed, sepsis was induced by injecting intraperitoneally (i.p.) the mixture of GaLN /LPS. Oral pre-treatment with D-glucose dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level and caused a reduction of sepsis-induced mortality. The oral post-treatment with D-glucose (8 g/kg) up to 3 h caused an elevation of the blood glucose level and protected the mortality observed in sepsis model. However, D-glucose post-treated at 6, 9, or 12 h after sepsis induction did not affect the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by sepsis. Furthermore, the intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment once with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.1 µg/5 ml) for 6 days caused a reduction of D-glucose-induced protection of mortality and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, once the hypoglycemic state is continued up to 6 h after sepsis initiated, sepsis-induced mortality could not be reversed by D-glucose fed orally. Based on these findings, it is assumed that the hypoglycemic duration between 3 and 6 h after the sepsis induction may be a critical time of period for the survival. D-glucose-induced protective effect against sepsis-induced mortality appears to be mediated via activating PTX-sensitive G-proteins in the spinal cord. Finally, the production of hyperglycemic state may be critical for the survival against the sepsis-induced mortality. PMID:26807027

  20. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  1. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  2. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  3. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  4. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  5. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  6. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  7. Emerging technology in diabetes mellitus: glucose monitoring and new insulins.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L Raymond; Karounos, Dennis G

    2002-08-01

    Modern diabetes management requires intensive self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, often coupled with a multicomponent insulin program. Recent advances include alternate site blood glucose testing devices, which facilitate more frequent sampling by individuals with diabetes. Continuous glucose monitoring through interstitial fluid analysis is now available and appears to give a more representative picture of the glycemic variations typical for type 1 diabetes. Recombinant DNA technology has led to the development of new insulin analogs that provide more physiologic insulin delivery. Inhaled and oral insulin formulations may replace multiple injections in future insulin therapy regimens. PMID:12190231

  8. Acute effects of fructose and glucose ingestion with and without caffeine in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, N K; Veirs, H; Langeloh, G

    1995-05-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in energy expenditure (EE), glucose intolerance, and a reduction in body nitrogen content. In addition, a reduction in the thermic response to glucose but not to fructose or protein has been reported in the elderly. The present study was conducted to further examine nutrient-induced thermogenesis and the effects of specific sugars on amino acid metabolism in relation to age. After 3 days on a weight-maintaining, 250-g carbohydrate diet, 16 healthy non-obese men and women in two age groups (18 to 29 and 66 to 80 years) consumed on 4 different days 500 mL of either a 75-g fructose or 75-g glucose solution, with or without 300 mg caffeine or vitamin C as a placebo. Blood substrate and hormone levels and EE, using indirect calorimetry, were measured at timed intervals for 3 hours after consumption of the drinks. There was no difference in the carbohydrate-induced increase in EE in either young or old even after adjustments for body weight and fat-free mass (FFM). An approximately 20-fold increase in serum caffeine levels increased EE in both groups (P < .003), but had minimal effects on substrate and hormone responses. In contrast to glucose, fructose induced a marked elevation in plasma alanine from combined basal levels of 301 +/- 24 to approximately 500 +/- 18 mumol/L (mean +/- SEM) in both groups (P < .001). However, both fructose and glucose ingestion resulted in a similar decline in branched-chain and aromatic amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7752912

  9. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  10. Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes Based on the 2013 WHO Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Benhalima, Katrien; Jegers, Katleen; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Aims Uncertainty exists on the prevalence of glucose intolerance in women with a recent diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) based on a two-step screening strategy and the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of postpartum screening, the prevalence and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of GDM. Methods Retrospective analysis of the medical records of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed in a universal two-step screening strategy with the 2013 WHO criteria. All women with a history of GDM are advised to undergo a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) around 12 weeks postpartum. Indices of insulin sensitivity (the Matsuda index and the reciprocal of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, 1/HOMA-IR) and an index of beta-cell function, the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) were calculated based on the OGTT postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders such as age, BMI, ethnicity and breastfeeding. Results Of the 191 women with GDM, 29.3% (56) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. These women had a higher BMI (28.6 ±6.8 vs. 26.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.015), were more often from an ethnic minority (EM) background (41.1% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.029) and smoked more often during pregnancy (14.3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.001) than women who attended the OGTT postpartum. Of all women (135) who received an OGTT postpartum, 42.2% (57) had prediabetes (11.9% impaired fasting glucose, 24.4% impaired glucose tolerance and 5.9% both impaired fasting and impaired glucose tolerance) and 1.5% (2) had overt diabetes. Compared to women with a normal OGTT postpartum, women with glucose intolerance were older (32.5±4.3 vs. 30.8±4.8 years, p = 0.049), were more often obese (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.023), were more often from an EM background (33.9% vs. 18.4%, p = 0.040), less often breastfed (69.5% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.041) and had more often an

  11. Exercise effects on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes: a triple-tracer approach

    PubMed Central

    Mallad, Ashwini; Hinshaw, Ling; Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Dadlani, Vikash; Basu, Rita; Lingineni, Ravi; Cobelli, Claudio; Johnson, Matthew L.; Carter, Rickey; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of exercise on postprandial glucose metabolism and insulin action in type 1 diabetes (T1D), we applied the triple tracer technique to study 16 T1D subjects on insulin pump therapy before, during, and after 75 min of moderate-intensity exercise (50% V̇o2max) that started 120 min after a mixed meal containing 75 g of labeled glucose. Prandial insulin bolus was administered as per each subject's customary insulin/carbohydrate ratio adjusted for meal time meter glucose and the level of physical activity. Basal insulin infusion rates were not altered. There were no episodes of hypoglycemia during the study. Plasma dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations rose during exercise. During exercise, rates of endogenous glucose production rose rapidly to baseline levels despite high circulating insulin and glucose concentrations. Interestingly, plasma insulin concentrations increased during exercise despite no changes in insulin pump infusion rates, implying increased mobilization of insulin from subcutaneous depots. Glucagon concentrations rose before and during exercise. Therapeutic approaches for T1D management during exercise will need to account for its effects on glucose turnover, insulin mobilization, glucagon, and sympathetic response and possibly other blood-borne feedback and afferent reflex mechanisms to improve both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:25898950

  12. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax—6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action. PMID:24711817

  13. Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage In Vivo12

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Coate, Katie C.; Winnick, Jason J.; An, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    In the postprandial state, the liver takes up and stores glucose to minimize the fluctuation of glycemia. Elevated insulin concentrations, an increase in the load of glucose reaching the liver, and the oral/enteral/portal vein route of glucose delivery (compared with the peripheral intravenous route) are factors that increase the rate of net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU). The entry of glucose into the portal vein stimulates a portal glucose signal that not only enhances NHGU but concomitantly reduces muscle glucose uptake to ensure appropriate partitioning of a glucose load. This coordinated regulation of glucose uptake is likely neurally mediated, at least in part, because it is not observed after total hepatic denervation. Moreover, there is evidence that both the sympathetic and the nitrergic innervation of the liver exert a tonic repression of NHGU that is relieved under feeding conditions. Further, the energy sensor 5′AMP-activated protein kinase appears to be involved in regulation of NHGU and glycogen storage. Consumption of a high-fat and high-fructose diet impairs NHGU and glycogen storage in association with a reduction in glucokinase protein and activity. An understanding of the impact of nutrients themselves and the route of nutrient delivery on liver carbohydrate metabolism is fundamental to the development of therapies for impaired postprandial glucoregulation. PMID:22585902

  14. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica.

    PubMed

    Malalavidhane, T S; Wickramasinghe, S M; Jansz, E R

    2000-09-01

    Ipomoea aquatica is a commonly consumed green leafy vegetable in Sri Lanka which is supposed to possess an insulin-like activity [Jayaweera, D.M.A., 1982. Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. Part 11. National Science Council, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp. 99]. Only a little attention has been paid to the therapeutic use of this plant. We studied the oral hypoglycaemic activity of single and multiple doses of I. aquatica in healthy, male Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. There was a significant reduction in the serum glucose concentrations with both single (33%, P<0.0027) and multiple (25%, P<0.02) doses. The optimum dose was 3.4 g/kg while the optimum activity was given 2 h after the administration of the extract. The present study indicates that a boiled, whole extract of I. aquatica exerts an oral hypoglycaemic effect in healthy, male, Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. PMID:10967485

  15. Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in the first trimester, comparison of fasting plasma glucose, two-step and one-step methods: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yeral, M Ilkin; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Uygur, Dilek; Seckin, K Doga; Karsli, M Fatih; Danisman, A Nuri

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of three methods commonly used for GDM screening: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), two-step 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT), and 75 g glucose tolerance test (GTT) in a randomized study design to predict GDM in the first trimester and determine the best approach in predicting GDM. In a non-blind, parallel-group prospective randomized controlled study; 736 singleton pregnant women underwent FPG testing in the first trimester and randomly assigned to two groups; two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT. GDM diagnosis was made according to Carpenter-Coustan or ADA (American Diabetes Association) criteria in two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT groups, respectively. Subsequent testing was performed by two-step 50 g GCT at 24-28 weeks for screen negatives. After excluding the women who were lost to follow-up or withdrawn as a result of pregnancy loss, 486 pregnant women were recruited in the study. The FPG, two-step GCT, and one-step GTT methods identified GDM in 25/486 (5.1 %), 15/248 (6.0 %), and 27/238 (11.3 %) women, respectively. Area under ROC curves were 0.623, 0.708, and 0.792, respectively. Sensitivities were 47.17, 68.18, and 87.1 %, respectively. Specificities were 77.37, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Positive predictive values were 20.33, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Negative predictive values were 92.29, 97, and 98.1 %, respectively. Until superior screening alternatives become available, the 75 g GTT may be preferred for GDM screening in the first trimester. PMID:24282036

  16. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    by G6PC (GSDIa) or SLC37A4 (GSDIb) gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term). However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I). Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma) may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch) and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake). Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis. PMID:21599942

  17. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:25656339

  18. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of cancers of the oral cavity, periodontal diseases, HIV, heart diseases etc. The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Materials & Methods: A total of 30 individuals of which 20 patients were diabetic patients and on medication and 10 patients were healthy non diabetic individuals were included in the study. Blood and saliva were collected under resting conditions and were subjected to glucose estimation. Results: Salivary and blood glucose concentrations were determined in non diabetic healthy individuals (n=10) and Type II Diabetes mellitus patients (n=20). Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c was also determined in both Type II diabetic patients and Control group and a significant correlation (r=0.73) and (r=0.46) was found between HbA1c and serum glucose concentrations in diabetic and control group respectively. A significant correlation (r=0.54) and (r=0.45) was found between fasting blood glucose and fasting salivary glucose for diabetic group and control group respectively. A positive correlation (r=0.39) and (r=0.38) was found between fasting salivary glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and control group respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the saliva can be used in the assessment of the blood glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus patients. How to cite the article: Satish BN, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B, Awanti M, Kumar P

  19. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  20. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  1. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  2. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  3. The relationship of plasma glucose and electrocardiographic parameters in elderly women with different degrees of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Solini, A; Passaro, A; D'Elia, K; Calzoni, F; Alberti, L; Fellin, R

    2000-08-01

    Plasma glucose has been regarded as a risk factor for macrovascular complications in diabetes, but less is known about its role in the development of cardiac impairment other than coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between basal and post-OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) plasma glucose levels and some ECG parameters in a group of elderly women with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). One-hundred and one women with normal fasting glucose (<6.0 mmol/L) and no familial history or clinical signs of CHD and diabetes underwent an OGTT and a resting ECG. Based on the degree of glucose tolerance, we identified 24 women with a diagnostic OGTT for either IGT or diabetes; the 77 women (age range 52-88 years) with normal glucose tolerance were further divided into two groups according to their post-OGTT area under the curve (AUCG): below and above the median value (32 and 45 women, respectively). Basal plasma glucose and insulin levels, as well as lipid profile and percent of hypertensive patients were similar in the three groups. Mean corrected QT (QTc) was prolonged as a function of progressive worsening of glucose tolerance even after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p=0.03). A similar relationship was apparent when post-OGTT plasma glucose peak (GP) was considered. In a multiple regression analysis, AUCG and GP were the only factors independently related to both QTc and Sokolow index. Our observations suggest that, even in the presence of a normal glucose tolerance, plasma glucose concentrations during an OGTT are associated with peculiar ECG signs potentially combined with an increased risk of sudden death, arrhythmias, or cardiovascular mortality. PMID:11073343

  4. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  5. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  7. Acute effects of guar gum on glucose tolerance and intestinal absorption of nutrients in rats.

    PubMed

    Daumerie, C; Henquin, J C

    1982-03-01

    The mechanism by which non-digestible fibres improve oral glucose tolerance is still unclear. We have studied the effects of guar gum on oral carbohydrate tolerance and intestinal absorption of nutrients in anaesthetized rats. Addition of guar to an intragastric glucose load (1 g/kg) markedly delayed the rise in plasma glucose levels when the concentration of the gum was adequate (10 mg/ml). The insulin response was somewhat less marked, but the differences were not significant. When glucose was introduced directly into the duodenum, the gum only slightly reduced the rise in glucose levels, during the first 15 min. If sucrose (1 g/kg) was infused in the duodenum, acarboseR, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, but not guar, slowed the rise in plasma glucose and insulin levels. Intestinal absorption was measured in a tied duodenojejunal loop. Guar decreased active transport of glucose (4 mmol/l) by approximately 20%, but had no significant effect on the passive transport of glucose (100 mmol/l), nor on the absorption of sucrose (40 mmol/l) or leucine (4 mmol/l). At the concentration which improved glucose tolerance (10 mg/ml), but not at lower concentrations, guar gum markedly slowed gastric emptying. These results suggest that guar gum improves tolerance to oral carbohydrates mainly by decreasing the rate of gastric emptying, but inhibition of intestinal absorption may also be involved in the presence of low concentrations of the sugars. PMID:6284563

  8. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  9. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  10. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  11. Diabetic neuropathy and plasma glucose control.

    PubMed

    Porte, D; Graf, R J; Halter, J B; Pfeifer, M A; Halar, E

    1981-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is defined, and theories of its pathogenesis are reviewed. Recent studies designed to investigate the influence of plasma glucose on nerve function in noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients are summarized. Motor nerve conduction velocities in the median and peroneal nerves were measured using a double-stimulus technique, and sensory conduction velocity was measured by conventional methods before and after therapy with oral agents or insulin. The degree of hyperglycemia was assessed by measurement of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. The degree of slowing in motor nerve conduction velocity in untreated patients was found to correlate with the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations, but sensory nerve function, although abnormal, did not show such correlation. Reduction of hyperglycemia was associated with improvement in motor nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and median motor nerves of these patients, but sensory nerve conduction velocity showed no such improvement. Improvement in median motor nerve conduction velocity was directly related to the degree of reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration. These findings suggest that metabolic factors related to hyperglycemia are important in the impaired motor nerve function seen in noninsulin-dependent patients with maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:7457487

  12. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  13. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. PMID:26940240

  14. L-tryptophan suppresses rise in blood glucose and preserves insulin secretion in type-2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Tomoko; Kamemura, Norio; Oda, Masataka; Sakurai, Jun; Nakaya, Yutaka; Harada, Nagakatsu; Suenaga, Midori; Matsunaga, Yoichi; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Katunuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ample evidence indicates that a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increases glucose energy expenditure and is beneficial in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of L-tryptophan in T2DM. Blood glucose was measured by the glucose dehydrogenase assay and serum insulin was measured with ELISA in both normal and hereditary T2DM rats after oral glucose administration with or without L-D-tryptophan and tryptamine. The effect of tryptophan on glucose absorption was examined in the small intestine of rats using the everted-sac method. Glucose incorporation in adipocytes was assayed with [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose using a liquid scintillation counter. Indirect computer-regulated respiratory gas-assay calorimetry was applied to assay energy expenditure in rats. L-Tryptophan suppressed both serum glucose and insulin levels after oral glucose administration and inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine. Tryptamine, but not L-tryptophan, enhanced insulin-stimulated [(3)H]-glucose incorporation into differentiated adipocytes. L-Tryptophan increased glucose-associated energy expenditure in rats in vivo. L-Tryptophan-rich chow consumed from a young age preserved the secretion of insulin and delayed the progression of T2DM in hereditary diabetic rats. The results suggested that L-tryptophan suppresses the elevation of blood glucose and lessens the burden associated with insulin secretion from β-cells. PMID:23419400

  15. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  16. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  18. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  19. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban adults in Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Olatunbosun, S. T.; Ojo, P. O.; Fineberg, N. S.; Bella, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 998 subjects randomly selected from five main ministries and departments in the Government Secretariat participated in the survey. Each subject was asked to fast overnight and ingested 75 g of glucose dissolved in 250 mL of water after answering a questionnaire. Relevant anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip diameters, and blood pressure also were taken. After 2 hours, of blood was drawn and plasma glucose concentration measured. Diagnosis of diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was based on 1985 World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off values. Blood glucose results were available in 875 subjects. Seven subjects were found to be diabetic for a prevalence of 0.8%, with the majority (5 subjects) being newly diagnosed. Nineteen were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for a prevalence of 2.2%. There were no sex differences between the two groups. All of the newly diagnosed diabetics were asymptomatic. Multivariate analysis revealed that subjects with a family history of diabetes, higher body mass index, and higher systolic blood pressure had higher blood glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes in this survey is lower than rates reported in recent surveys in Nigeria that used less stringent criteria and different methodologies. The rate is comparable to that of a Tanzanian study that used WHO criteria. However, the rate of impaired glucose tolerance in this study, first to be reported in Nigeria, is lower than that obtained in the Bantu population. PMID:9617070

  20. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S; Bell, Steven E J; McCoy, Colin P; McCarthy, Helen O; McElnay, James C; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  1. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J.; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M.; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S.; Bell, Steven E. J.; McCoy, Colin P.; McCarthy, Helen O.; McElnay, James C.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  2. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-07-25

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  5. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    García-Alcalá, Hector; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Hirales-Tamez, Omara; Salinas-Palma, Jorge; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC) survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population. Methods We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups). Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140–199 mg/dL), and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL). We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age. Results A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively) and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05). Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9.2 years) were older than those with impaired fasting glucose (46.19 ± 8.89 years), glucose intolerance (46.15 ± 10.9 years), and normal levels (41.9 ± 10.45 years, P < 0.05). We found a higher frequency of diabetes

  6. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  7. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  8. Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation.

    PubMed

    Sokeng, S D; Rokeya, B; Hannan, J M A; Junaida, K; Zitech, P; Ali, L; Ngounou, G; Lontsi, D; Kamtchouing, P

    2007-12-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of Ipomoea aquatica aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol extracts on the glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. Extracts orally tested at the dose of 160 mg/kg exerted a significant inhibitory effect on glucose absorption when compared with control animals. The most pronounced effect was observed with the aqueous extract. Ouabain used as reference inhibitor strongly inhibited glucose absorption. On the other hand both plant extracts inhibited the gastrointestinal motility suggesting that the inhibition of glucose absorption is not due to the acceleration of intestinal transit. PMID:17651914

  9. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period. PMID:26258147

  10. Prediabetes Phenotype Influences Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis with Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Eikenberg, Joshua D.; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L.; Davy, Kevin P.; Pownall, John; Baugh, Mary E.; Flack, Kyle D.; Boshra, Soheir; Winett, Richard A.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if prediabetes phenotype influences improvements in glucose homeostasis with resistance training (RT). Methods Older, overweight individuals with prediabetes (n = 159; aged 60±5 yrs; BMI 33±4 kg/m2) completed a supervised RT program twice per week for 12 weeks. Body weight and composition, strength, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance, and Matsuda-Defronza estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were assessed before and after the intervention. Participants were categorized according to their baseline prediabetes phenotype as impaired fasting glucose only (IFG) (n = 73), impaired glucose tolerance only (IGT) (n = 21), or combined IFG and IGT (IFG/IGT) (n = 65). Results Chest press and leg press strength increased 27% and 18%, respectively, following the 12-week RT program (both p<0.05). Waist circumference (-1.0%; pre 109.3±10.3 cm, post 108.2±10.6 cm) and body fat (-0.6%; pre 43.7±6.8%, post 43.1±6.8%) declined, and lean body mass (+1.3%; pre 52.0±10.4 kg, post 52.7±10.7 kg) increased following the intervention. Fasting glucose concentrations did not change (p>0.05) following the intervention. However, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance improved in those with IGT (pre 8.94±0.72 mmol/l, post 7.83±1.11 mmol/l, p<0.05) and IFG/IGT (pre 9.66±1.11mmol/l, post 8.60±2.00 mmol/l) but not in those with IFG (pre 6.27±1.28mmol/l, post 6.33± 1.55 mmol/l). There were no significant changes in ISI or glucose area under the curve following the RT program. Conclusions RT without dietary intervention improves 2-hr oral glucose tolerance in individuals with prediabetes. However, the improvements in glucose homeostasis with RT appear limited to those with IGT or combined IFG and IGT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01112709 PMID:26840904

  11. Glucose homoeostasis following injury.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    Metabolic changes following injury have been observed for many years, and John Hunter discussed such changes in 1794. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism have been observed for a similar length of time, and glycosuria and hyperglycaemia have been reported by a number of observers. This paper records and quantitates the extent of hyperglycaemia in patients undergoing surgery of different degrees of severity and relates them to changes in blood insulin, growth hormone, cortisol, and catecholamine concentrations. Further animal studies were performed which suggested that a fall in intracellular glucose utilisation may be a contributory factor. The use of isotope labelling of glucose in man has enabled further studies to be done to clarify changes in exchangeable glucose mass, replacement rate, and space both in the normal situation and in the presence of infusions of glucagon, noradrenaline, glucose, and amino-acids. The hyperglycaemia is clearly the result of a complex interaction of changes in the availability and activity of hormones which control glucose metabolism both within and outside the cell. PMID:496234

  12. Intestinal Glucose Uptake Protects Liver from Lipopolysaccharide and d-Galactosamine, Acetaminophen, and Alpha-Amanitin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zanobbio, Laura; Palazzo, Marco; Gariboldi, Silvia; Dusio, Giuseppina F.; Cardani, Diego; Mauro, Valentina; Marcucci, Fabrizio; Balsari, Andrea; Rumio, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    We have recently observed that oral administration of d-glucose saves animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. This effect is the likely consequence of glucose-induced activation of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1. In this study, we investigated possible hepatoprotective effects of glucose-induced, sodium-dependent, glucose transporter-1 activation. We show that oral administration of d-glucose, but not of either d-fructose or sucrose, prevents LPS-induced liver injury, as well as liver injury and death induced by an overdose of acetaminophen. In both of these models, physiological liver morphology is maintained and organ protection is confirmed by unchanged levels of the circulating markers of hepatotoxicity, such as alanine transaminase or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, d-glucose was found to protect the liver from α-amanitin-induced liver injury. In this case, in contrast to the previously described models, a second signal had to be present in addition to glucose to achieve protective efficacy. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation that was induced by low doses of LPS was identified as such a second signal. Eventually, the protective effect of orally administered glucose on liver injury induced by LPS, overdose of acetaminophen, or α-amanitin was shown to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. These findings, showing glucose-induced protective effects in several animal models of liver injury, might be relevant in view of possible therapeutic interventions against different forms of acute hepatic injury. PMID:19700751

  13. Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

  14. How to monitor blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  15. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-15

    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. PMID:26725934

  16. Ywhaz/14-3-3ζ Deletion Improves Glucose Tolerance Through a GLP-1-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gareth E; Piske, Micah; Lulo, James E; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Lopez, Angel F; Johnson, James D

    2016-07-01

    Multiple signaling pathways mediate the actions of metabolic hormones to control glucose homeostasis, but the proteins that coordinate such networks are poorly understood. We previously identified the molecular scaffold protein, 14-3-3ζ, as a critical regulator of in vitro β-cell survival and adipogenesis, but its metabolic roles in glucose homeostasis have not been studied in depth. Herein, we report that Ywhaz gene knockout mice (14-3-3ζKO) exhibited elevated fasting insulin levels while maintaining normal β-cell responsiveness to glucose when compared with wild-type littermate controls. In contrast with our observations after an ip glucose bolus, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in 14-3-3ζKO mice after an oral glucose gavage. This improvement in glucose tolerance was associated with significantly elevated fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. 14-3-3ζ knockdown in GLUTag L cells elevated GLP-1 synthesis and increased GLP-1 release. Systemic inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor attenuated the improvement in oral glucose tolerance that was seen in 14-3-3ζKO mice. When taken together these findings demonstrate novel roles of 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and suggest that modulating 14-3-3ζ levels in intestinal L cells may have beneficial metabolic effects through GLP-1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27167773

  17. Implementing a Protocol Using Glucose Gel to Treat Neonatal Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Catherine; Fagan, Elyse; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin; Zamfirova, Ina; Flicker, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is a leading cause of admission of neonates to the NICU. Typical treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia includes supplementation with formula or, in some cases, intravenous glucose administration. These treatments, though effective at treating hypoglycemia, interrupt exclusive breastfeeding and interfere with mother-infant bonding. Our institution developed a treatment algorithm for newborns at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia. The new algorithm called for the oral administration of 40% glucose gel. This intervention resulted in a 73% decreasein admission rates to the NICU for hypoglycemia, and it supported exclusive breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, and mother-infant bonding. PMID:26902441

  18. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  19. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  20. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  1. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  2. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do ...

  3. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Andalib, Iman; Shah, Hiral; Bal, Bikram S.; Shope, Timothy R.; Finelli, Frederick C.; Koch, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n = 63; 60 females; 3 males; mean age 49 years) who had gastric bypass surgery and then glucose breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. Results. Among 63 postoperative individuals, 51 (81%) had a late rise (≥45 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane, supporting glucose malabsorption; 46 (90%) of these 51 subjects also had an early rise (≤30 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane supporting upper gut bacterial overgrowth. Glucose malabsorption was more frequent in subjects with upper gut bacterial overgrowth compared to subjects with no evidence for bacterial overgrowth (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These data support the presence of intestinal glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth in individuals with abdominal symptoms after gastric bypass surgery. Breath hydrogen testing after oral glucose should be considered to evaluate potential malabsorption in symptomatic, postoperative individuals. PMID:26538792

  4. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  5. Renal Glucose Handling

    PubMed Central

    Ferrannini, Ele; Veltkamp, Stephan A.; Smulders, Ronald A.; Kadokura, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, stimulates glycosuria and lowers glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacodynamics of ipragliflozin in T2DM patients with impaired renal function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Glycosuria was measured before and after a single ipragliflozin dose in 8 nondiabetic subjects and 57 T2DM patients (age 62 ± 9 years, fasting glucose 133 ± 39 mg/dL, mean ± SD) with normal renal function (assessed as the estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) (eGFR1 ≥90 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m−2), mild (eGFR2 ≥60 to <90), moderate (eGFR3 ≥30 to <60), or severe reduction in eGFR (eGFR4 ≤15 to <30). RESULTS Ipragliflozin significantly increased urinary glucose excretion in each eGFR class (P < 0.0001). However, ipragliflozin-induced glycosuria declined (median [IQR]) across eGFR class (from 46 mg/min [33] in eGFR1 to 8 mg/min [7] in eGFR4, P < 0.001). Ipragliflozin-induced fractional glucose excretion (excretion/filtration) was 39% [27] in the T2DM patients (pooled data), similar to that of the nondiabetic subjects (37% [17], P = ns). In bivariate analysis of the pooled data, ipragliflozin-induced glycosuria was directly related to eGFR and fasting glucose (P < 0.0001 for both, r2 = 0.55), predicting a decrement in 24-h glycosuria of 15 g for each 20 mL/min decline in eGFR and an increase of 7 g for each 10 mg/dL increase in glucose above fasting normoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS In T2DM patients, ipragliflozin increases glycosuria in direct, linear proportion to GFR and degree of hyperglycemia, such that its amount can be reliably predicted in the individual patient. Although absolute glycosuria decreases with declining GFR, the efficiency of ipragliflozin action (fractional glucose excretion) is maintained in patients with severe renal impairment. PMID:23359360

  6. Glucose Metabolism in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen A.; Stein, Stefanie; Hines, James

    1974-01-01

    The metabolism of glucose was examined in several clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Radiorespirometric studies revealed that growing cells metabolized glucose by a combination on the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. A portion of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate formed via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway was recycled by conversion to glucose-6-phosphate. Subsequent catabolism of this glucose-6-phosphate by either the Entner-Doudoroff or pentose phosphate pathways yielded CO2 from the original C6 of glucose. Enzyme analyses confirmed the presence of all enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff, pentose phosphate, and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathways. There was always a high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) relative to that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44). The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase utilized either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as electron acceptor. Acetate was the only detectable nongaseous end product of glucose metabolism. Following the disappearance of glucose, acetate was metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle as evidenced by the preferential oxidation of [1-14C]acetate over that of [2-14C]acetate. When an aerobically grown log-phase culture was subjected to anaerobic conditions, lactate and acetate were formed from glucose. Radiorespirometric studies showed that under these conditions, glucose was dissimilated entirely by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Further studies determined that this anaerobic dissimilation of glucose was not growth dependent. PMID:4156358

  7. How high is too high in cutoff levels from 50-g glucose challenge test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji Ye; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the highest 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) value that indicates no further diagnostic test is needed to confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under the criteria of National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the Carpenter and Coustan (C&C) and fasting glucose thresholds from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods We collected the 50-g GCT results from 16,560 pregnancies and identified 2,457 gravidas with positive 50-g GCT (≥130 mg/dL) values who underwent the 100-g glucose tolerance test. We investigated GDM prevalence in pregnancies with positive 50-g GCT according to the respective diagnostic thresholds and determined the 50-g GCT cutoff values with 100% positive predictive value for GDM under each diagnostic threshold. Results Twelve point five percent (306/2,457), 20.0% (492/2,457), and 9.6% (235/2,457) met the diagnostic criteria of GDM with the application of NDDG, C&C criteria, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG (≥92 mg/dL), respectively. We also found that the prevalence of GDM increased with increasing 50-g GCT values using each diagnostic criterion. Importantly, we identified that all subjects with a 50-g GCT value ≥223, ≥217, or ≥228 mg/dL can be exclusively diagnosed as having gestational diabetes according to the criteria of NDDG, C&C, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG, respectively. Conclusion We propose that women with a 50-g GCT screening value ≥228 mg/dL can be reliably omitted from further confirmative tests for GDM, such as 100- or 75-g glucose tolerance test. PMID:27200307

  8. Direct analysis of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose dry blood spot enrichments by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Margarida; Mendes, Vera M; Lima, Inês S; Martins, Fátima O; Fernandes, Ana B; Macedo, M Paula; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a triple-quadrupole scan mode was developed and comprehensively validated for the determination of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose enrichments from dried blood spots (DBS) without prior derivatization. The method is demonstrated with dried blood spots obtained from rats administered with a primed-constant infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose and an oral glucose load enriched with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to <5μL of blood and the overall method was accurate and precise for the determination of DBS isotopic enrichments. PMID:27107853

  9. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract on glucose tolerance in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (Charles foster).

    PubMed

    Sachdewa, A; Raina, D; Srivastava, A K; Khemani, L D

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to test the hypoglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats, their alcoholic leaf extracts were studied. Both the groups of animals receiving either. A. marmelos or H. rosa sinensis leaf extract for seven consecutive days, at an oral dose equivalent to 250 mg kg-1 showed significant improvements in their ability to utilize the external glucose load. Average blood glucose lowering caused by A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 67% and 39% respectively, which shows that former significantly (p < 0.001) improves the glucose tolerance curve. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with both the plants. Efficacy of A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 71% and 41% of glybenclamide, respectively. These data throw some light on the possible mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of both the plants. The mechanism of action could be speculated partly to increased utilization of glucose, either by direct stimulation of glucose uptake or via the mediation of enhanced insulin secretion. PMID:11480352

  10. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765