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Sample records for 7li18o 17o8li ta

  1. TA Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorf, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights several current collaborative activities of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC). There are many specific examples of TA (Technical Assistance) collaborations that take place on a regular basis; the seven examples presented here were selected to represent different types of collaboration. The…

  2. INRAD work at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, Phillip D; Lacy, Keith A; Hahn, Wendy K; Shonrock, Clinton O

    2011-01-18

    The INRAD Facility at TA-55 is described. Safety considerations in operating the facility are described in the Detailed Operating Procedure (DOP) format. Other considerations on the future operation of the facility are discussed.

  3. Metabolism of triiodothyroacetic acid (TA3) in rat liver. I. Deiodination of TA3 and TA3 sulfate by microsomes.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, M; Heusdens, F A; Visser, T J

    1989-07-01

    The deiodination of the acetic acid side-chain analogs of T3 as well as 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) was investigated by incubating 125I-labeled 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid (TA3) and 3,3'-diiodothyroacetic acid (3,3'-TA2) with rat liver microsomes at 37 C and pH 7.2 in the presence of 5 mM dithiothreitol. TA3 sulfate (TA3S) and 3,3'-TA2S were also tested as substrate since sulfation is known to accelerate T3 and 3,3'-T2 conversion. Reaction products were analyzed on Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC. TA3 underwent only inner ring deiodination (IRD), but 3,3'-TA2 was equally converted by IRD and outer ring deiodination (ORD). TA3S was metabolized very rapidly by IRD to 3,3'-TA2S which was only observed transiently due to its rapid deiodination predominantly in the outer ring. Kinetic studies under initial reaction rate conditions yielded apparent Michaelis-Menten (Km) values (micromolar) of 1.8 for TA3, 0.8 for 3,3'-TA2, and 0.004 for TA3S, and 0.02 for 3,3'-TA2S and Vmax values (picomoles per min/mg protein) of 174 for TA3, 49 for 3,3'-TA2, 21 for TA3S, and 63 for 3,3'-TA2S. The Vmax/Km ratios for the IRD of TA3 and TA3S were 16 and 930 times higher, respectively, relative to T3. Deiodinations were sensitive to propylthiouracil inhibition, indicating the involvement of the type I iodothyronine deiodinase. Furthermore, the iodothyroacetic acid derivatives competitively inhibited the ORD of rT3 with apparent inhibition constant (Ki) values (0.45 microM for TA3, 4 nM for TA3S, and 0.04 microM for 3,3'-TA2S) in agreement with corresponding Km values. We conclude that 1) TA3 and 3,3'-TA2 are better substrates than T3 and 3,3'-T2 for the type I deiodinase of rat liver; 2) the IRD of TA3 and ORD of 3,3'-TA2 are markedly enhanced by sulfation similar to the parent iodothyronines; and 3) TA3S in the best known substrate for IRD due to its very high affinity for the type I deiodinase. PMID:2737156

  4. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  5. TA-55 change control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.; Selvage, R.D.; Courtney, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents.

  6. Resistance of Ta/PtMn/Ta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Z. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Eckert, J. C.; Sparks, P. D.; Carey, M. J.

    2004-03-01

    Anomalous electrical resistance as a function of temperature has been observed for IrMn exchange-biased spin valves and Ti/IrMn/Ti trilayers (1). We have followed up with a study of Pt_50Mn_50 thin films with structure Ta/PtMn/Ta. In the past, resistance of PtMn alloys has been studied by Sarkissian (2) and Kastner (3) with Mn concentration ranging from 0.05-18%. These studies have found resistance minima, which vary depending on Mn concentration. We have found similar resistance curves for the PtMn structures, which depend on the thickness of the film and whether the film has been annealed. This work was supported by the Parsons Foundation, The Office of Naval Research, and the Harvey Mudd College Faculty Research Committee. References: (1) J. C. Eckert, N. P. Stern, D. S. Snowden, and P. D. Sparks, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 6608 (2003) (2) B. V. B. Sarkissian and R. H. Taylor, J. Phys. F 4, L243 (1974) (3) J. Kastner, E. F. Wassermann, K. Matho, and J. L. Tholence, J. Phys. F 8, 103 (1974)

  7. 78 FR 28627 - TA-W-80,340; TA-W-80,340A; TA-W-80,340B

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-80,340; TA-W-80,340A; TA-W-80,340B] Bush Industries, Inc., Mason... (TA-W-80,340) and Bush Industries, Inc., Allen Street Facility, Jamestown, New York (TA-W- 80,340A... the subject firm's Erie, Pennsylvania facility. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-80,340 is...

  8. Direct evidence on Ta-Metal Phases Igniting Resistive Switching in TaOx Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Yang, Min; Ju, Hyunsu; Hwan Kim, Gun; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Ryu, Han-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A Ta/TaOx/Pt stacked capacitor-like device for resistive switching was fabricated and examined. The tested device demonstrated stable resistive switching characteristics including uniform distribution of resistive switching operational parameters, highly promising endurance, and retention properties. To reveal the resistive switching mechanism of the device, micro structure analysis using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) was performed. From the observation results, two different phases of Ta-metal clusters of cubic α-Ta and tetragonal β-Ta were founded in the amorphous TaOx mother-matrix after the device was switched from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) by externally applied voltage bias. The observed Ta metal clusters unveiled the origin of the electric conduction paths in the TaOx thin film at the LRS. PMID:26365532

  9. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

  10. Field investigations of soils at TA-19, TA-26, TA-73 and TA-0, SWMU aggregate 0-D and 016

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, L.D.

    1995-03-01

    Field based investigations of the general soil-geomorphic characteristics were carried out at TA-19, -26, -73, -0, Aggregate 0-D and -016 in order to provide information for utilization in ongoing and anticipated LANL ERP (Environmental Restoration Project) activities at these sites. These investigations show that soils exhibiting diverse morphologic character, varying ages, and relations to landforms characterize these sites. A review of recent and ongoing soils studies also shows that soil textural, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics may profoundly influence the migration and/or retardation of a variety of potential contaminants initially placed in direct contact with soils, or that encounter soils during subsurface percolation or discharge. Soil-geomorphic relations also provide important insights into recent site erosion, deposition or other surficial processes that must, be considered as part of environmental assessment of a given site and remediation; and, the planned geomorphic mapping activities at each site, as well as other associated activities (e.g, geophysical survey, site sampling) are accordingly appropriate and necessary with respect to identification of significant soil relations at each site. Specific and general recommendations in consideration of important findings regarding the possible impacts of soil development of the nature of contaminant behavior at various sites are provided to help guide sampling and analysis activities during ERP investigations outlined in the RFI Work Plan for Operational Unit-1071.

  11. Synthesis and morphology of CVD diamond on Ta and TaC film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Masahiko; Karasawa, Shiro; Ohya, Seishiro; Watanabe, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    Synthetic diamond films have been deposited on the Si(111) surface, polycrystalline Ta plate, TaC/Si, and TaC/Ta substrates using an electron assisted chemical vapor deposition (EACVD) method. The effects of substrate pretreatment and existence of carbide layer on the diamond nucleation, subsequent growth and morphology have been studied. The substrate pretreatment, scratching by diamond powder, affects nucleation behavior, subsequent growth and morphology of diamond. Existence of carbide layer and formation of carbide on the substrate affects nucleation density, growth rate and morphology of diamond.

  12. Thermally stable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features of Ta/TaO{sub x}/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W stacks via TaO{sub x} underlayer insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, SeungMo; Lee, JaBin; An, GwangGuk; Kim, JaeHong; Chung, WooSeong; Hong, JinPyo

    2014-09-21

    We report that a TaO{sub x} underlayer enhances the stability of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in TaO{sub x}/Ta/CoFeB/MgO stacks during annealing; control of oxygen content in the TaO{sub x} layer is critical. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations revealed clear suppression of Ta atom diffusion towards the CoFeB/MgO interface or MgO regions. The TaO{sub x} underlayer possibly served as a diffusion sponge, permitting some thermally activated Ta atoms to impregnate the TaO{sub x} underlayer via a diffusion path, such as grain boundaries. We propose a possible mechanism for enhanced PMA stability based on diffusion of thermally activated Ta atoms.

  13. First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun

    2012-03-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.

  14. Solid Collection Efforts: Ta Collimator Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M

    2011-11-21

    Ta collimator sets that were part of the gated x-ray detector diagnostic (GXD) at NIF were analyzed for debris distribution and damage in 2011. These disks (ranging in thickness from 250 to 750 {mu}m) were fielded approximately 10 cm from target chamber center (TCC) on various symcap, THD and re-emit shots. The nose cone holder and forward Ta collimator (facing target chamber center, TCC) from all shots show evidence of surface melt. Non-destructive analysis techniques such as optical microscopy, surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to determine debris composition and degree of deformation associated with each Ta disk. Molten debris from the stainless steel nose cone contaminated the surface of the collimators along with other debris associated with the target assembly (Al, Si, Cu, Au and In). Surface elemental analysis of the forward collimator Ta disks indicates that Au hohlraum debris is less concentrated on these samples versus those fielded 50 cm from TCC in the wedge range filter (WRF) assembly. It is possible that the Au is distributed below or within the stainless steel melt layer covering the disk, as most of the foreign debris is captured in the melted coating. The other disks (fielded directly behind the forward collimator in a sandwiched configuration) have visible forms of deformation and warping. The degree of warping increases as the shock wave penetrates the assembly with the most damage sustained on the back collimator. In terms of developing a solid collection capability, the collimator analyses suggests that close proximity may cause more interference with capsule debris collection and more damage to the surface of the collector diagnostic. The analyses of the Ta collimators were presented to the Target and Laser Interaction Sphere (TaLIS) group; a representative presentation is attached to this document.

  15. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance. PMID:25697954

  16. Preliminary analysis of EUSO—TA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenu, F.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Shin, H.; Jung, A.; Bacholle, S.; Bisconti, F.; Capel, F.; Eser, J.; Kawasaki, Y.; Kuznetsov, E.; Larsson, O.; Mackovjak, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Plebaniak, Z.; Prevot, G.; Putis, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Adams, J.; Bertaina, M.; Bobik, P.; Casolino, M.; Matthews, J. N.; Ricci, M.; Wiencke, L.; EUSO-TA Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The EUSO-TA detector is a pathfinder for the JEM-EUSO project and is currently installed in Black Rock Mesa (Utah) on the site of the Telescope Array fluorescence detectors. Aim of this experiment is to validate the observation principle of JEM-EUSO on air showers measured from ground. The experiment gets data in coincidence with the TA triggers to increase the likelihood of cosmic ray detection. In this framework the collaboration is also testing the detector response with respect to several test events from lasers and LED flashers. Moreover, another aim of the project is the validation of the stability of the data acquisition chain in real sky condition and the optimization of the trigger scheme for the rejection of background. Data analysis is ongoing to identify cosmic ray events in coincidence with the TA detector. In this contribution we will show the response of the EUSO-TA detector to all the different typologies of events and we will show some preliminary results on the trigger optimization performed on such data.

  17. Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  18. Roles of TaON and Ta(3)N(5) in the visible-Fenton-like degradation of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingxun; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-02-28

    In this study, the roles of TaON and Ta3N5 in the degradation of atrazine by the visible-Fenton-like system were examined in detail. The TaON and Ta3N5 samples prepared by the nitridation of Ta2O5 and characterized by XRD, DRS, BET and PL analyses. The results showed that the TaON sample had weaker absorption in the visible region but higher specific surface area than the Ta3N5 sample. The degradation rate of atrazine in visible-TaON-Fenton-like system was 2.64 times than that in visible-Ta3N5-Fenton-like system. Both Fe(2+) and H2O2 could be reduced by eCB (electrons in the conduction band) in TaON or Ta3N5, while atrazine could not be oxidized by hVB (holes in the valance band). OH is the active species for the degradation of atrazine in visible-TaON/Ta3N5-Fenton-like systems. Majority of OH originated from Fenton reaction. After Fe(3+) was reduced by eCB to Fe(2+), Fe(2+) reacted quickly with H2O2 to generate OH. In addition, by capturing eCB, a little of H2O2 was reduced to yield OH, which contributed a small fraction of atrazine degradation. Based on the experimental results, the roles of TaON and Ta3N5 in the visible-Fenton-like system were proposed. And the higher photocatalytic activity of TaON than Ta3N5 was suggested to be due to the higher separation efficiency of electrons and holes, which may be related to the larger specific surface area. PMID:24413052

  19. On the effect of Ta on improved oxidation resistance of Ti-Al-Ta-N coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiler, M.; Scheu, C.; Hutter, H.; Schnoeller, J.; Michotte, C.; Mitterer, C.; Kathrein, M.

    2009-05-15

    Formation of protective oxide scales is the main reason for the high oxidation resistance of TiAlN based coatings. Here the authors report on further improvement in the oxidation resistance of TiAlN by Ta alloying. An industrial-scale cathodic arc evaporation facility was used to deposit Ti-Al-Ta-N coatings from powder metallurgically produced Ti{sub 38}Al{sub 57}Ta{sub 5} targets. After oxidation in ambient air, a significantly reduced oxide layer thickness in comparison to unalloyed TiAlN reference material was observed. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy line scans and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling showed that the oxide scale consists of an Al-rich top layer without detectable amount of Ta and a Ti-Ta-rich sublayer. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, rutile-type TiO{sub 2}, and anatase-type TiO{sub 2} as the scale forming oxides. Furthermore, the Ti-Ta-rich sublayer consists of a porous layer at the oxide-nitride interface but appears dense toward the Al-rich top layer. The improved oxidation resistance is explained by doping the TiO{sub 2} lattice by replacing Ti{sup 4+} with Ta{sup 5+} in the rutile lattice, which decreases the oxygen mass transport. This leads to reduced oxidation of Ti under formation of TiO{sub 2} at the oxide-nitride interface and is the reason for the excellent oxidation behavior of Ti-Al-Ta-N coatings.

  20. Spin Seebeck Effect vs. Anomalous Nernst Effect in Ta/CoFeB /Ta Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bowen; Xu, Yadong; Schneider, Mike; Shi, Jing; Univ of California-Riverside Team; Everspin Technologies Inc. Team

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in a vertical trilayer structure under a vertical temperature gradient. The structure consists of a 3nm CoFeB layer sandwiched by β-phase tantalum (Ta) layers. The samples are deposited by magnetron sputtering. The existence of Ta β-phase is verified by the resistivity and its negative temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR). Under a fixed vertical temperature gradient, the measured transverse thermoelectric voltage is linearly proportional to the total sample resistance when the Ta thickness exceeds 2 nm, which can be explained by a shunting resistor model. When the Ta thickness is below 2 nm, the voltage deviates from the linear resistance dependence and merges to the ANE voltage of the CoFeB single layer, due to a weakened inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Ta thinner than the spin diffusion length. In the linear regime, the slope contains both a varying SSE and a fixed ANE responses, thus the SSE contribution could be quantitatively separated out from the ANE of CoFeB. Our results indicate a large SSE from the β-phase Ta due to its large Spin Hall Angle. This work was supported by CNN/DMEA and DOE.

  1. Direct evidence on Ta-Metal Phases Igniting Resistive Switching in TaO(x) Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Kyu; Ju, Hyunsu; Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Ryu, Han-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A Ta/TaOx/Pt stacked capacitor-like device for resistive switching was fabricated and examined. The tested device demonstrated stable resistive switching characteristics including uniform distribution of resistive switching operational parameters, highly promising endurance, and retention properties. To reveal the resistive switching mechanism of the device, micro structure analysis using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) was performed. From the observation results, two different phases of Ta-metal clusters of cubic α-Ta and tetragonal β-Ta were founded in the amorphous TaOx mother-matrix after the device was switched from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) by externally applied voltage bias. The observed Ta metal clusters unveiled the origin of the electric conduction paths in the TaOx thin film at the LRS. PMID:26365532

  2. Low-temperature deposition of TaB and TaB 2 by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, Seiji; Kito, Kazuhito; Sugiyama, Kohzo

    1982-02-01

    Tantalum borides were deposited on a copper substrate from a gas phase TaCl 5-BCl 3-H 2-Ar in the temperature range of 540-800°C. TaB 2 (single-phase) was deposited at a source gas flow ratio (BCl 3/TaCl 5) of six and a temperature above 600°C. On the other hand, TaB (single-phase) was deposited at BCl 3/TaCl 5 = 2-4 and 600-700°C. The microhardness of TaB and TaB 2 were 3250 and 3150 kg/mm 2, respectively. The TaB layer was stable to oxidation below 700° C and to acid corrosion.

  3. Graphene-Modified Interface Controls Transition from VCM to ECM Switching Modes in Ta/TaOx Based Memristive Devices.

    PubMed

    Lübben, Michael; Karakolis, Panagiotis; Ioannou-Sougleridis, Vassilios; Normand, Pascal; Dimitrakis, Panagiotis; Valov, Ilia

    2015-10-28

    By modification of the electrode-solid-electrolyte interface with graphene, transit from valence change memories (VCM) to electrochemical metallization memories (ECM) in the cell Ta(C)/Ta2 O5 /Pt is demonstrated, thus, bridging both mechanisms. The ECM operation is discussed in the light of Ta-cation mobility in TaOx . The crucial role of electrochemical processes and moisture in the resistive switching process is also highlighted. PMID:26456484

  4. Atomically engineering Cu/Ta interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Zhou, Xiao Wang

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the late start LDRD project (investment area: Enable Predictive Simulation) entitled 'Atomically Engineering Cu/Ta Interfaces'. Two ultimate goals of the project are: (a) use atomistic simulation to explore important atomistic assembly mechanisms during growth of Cu/Ta multilayers; and (b) develop a non-continuum model that has sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency for use as a design tool. Chapters 2 and 3 are essentially two papers that address respectively these two goals. In chapter 2, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the growth of Cu films on (010) bcc Ta and Cu{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x} alloy films on (111) fcc Cu. The results indicated that fcc crystalline Cu films with a (111) texture are always formed when Cu is grown on Ta. The Cu films are always polycrystalline even when the Ta substrate is single crystalline. These polycrystalline films are composed of grains with only two different orientations, which are separated by either orientational grain boundaries or misfit dislocations. Periodic misfit dislocations and stacking fault bands are observed. The Cu film surface roughness was found to decrease with increasing adatom energy. Due to a Cu surface segregation effect, the Cu{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x} films deposited on Cu always have a higher Cu composition than that used in the vapor mixture. When Cu and Ta compositions in the films are comparable, amorphous structures may form. The fundamental origins for all these phenomena have been studied in terms of crystallography and interatomic interactions. In chapter 3, a simplified computational method, diffusional Monte Carlo (dMC) method, was developed to address long time kinetic processes of materials. Long time kinetic processes usually involve material transport by diffusion. The corresponding microstructural evolution of materials can be analyzed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods, which essentially

  5. Optimization of Ta thickness for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction applications in the MgO-FeCoB-Ta system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokalski, Vincent; Moneck, Matthew T.; Yang, En; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2012-08-01

    The impact of Ta thickness on magnetic anisotropy and interlayer magnetic coupling is evaluated for the Ta-FeCoB-MgO thin film system commonly used in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is shown that there exists a window of Ta thickness where strong magnetic coupling of FeCoB with another magnetic layer is achievable through Ta while still maintaining properties required for use in a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction. We also expand on existing knowledge about the role of annealing temperature, film composition, and seedlayer sequence on magnetic anisotropy in Ta/FeCoB/MgO tri-layers of varying FeCoB thickness.

  6. Direct Electrolytic Reduction of Solid Ta2O5 to Ta with SOM Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyi; Yang, Xiaqiong; Li, Junqi; Lu, Xionggang; Yang, Shufeng

    2016-06-01

    A process that uses the solid-oxide-oxygen-ion conducting membrane has been investigated to produce tantalum directly from solid Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2 or a molten mixture of 55.5MgF2-44.5CaF2 (in wt pct). The sintered porous Ta2O5 pellet was employed as the cathode, while the liquid copper alloy, saturated with graphite powder and encased in a one-end-closed yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) tube, acted as the anode. The electrolysis potential in this method is higher than that of the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge process because the YSZ membrane tube blocks the melts to electrolyze, and only Ta2O5 is will be electrolyzed. The microstructures of reduced pellets and a cyclic voltammogram of solid Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2 were analyzed. In addition, the influence of particle size and porosity of the cathode pellets on metal-oxide-electrolyte, three-phase interlines was also discussed. The results demonstrate that the sintering temperature of cathode pellets and electrolytic temperature play important roles in the electrochemical process. Furthermore, this process can be used to produce Ta metal efficiently without the expensive cost of pre-electrolysis and generation of harmful by-products.

  7. New insights into the initial stages of Ta oxide nanotube formation on polycrystalline Ta electrodes.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hany A; Horwood, Corie A; Abhayawardhana, Anusha D; Birss, Viola I

    2013-02-21

    Ta oxide nanotubes (NTs) were formed by the anodization of Ta at 15 V in a solution of concentrated sulfuric acid containing 0.8-1.0 M hydrofluoric acid. To study the initial stages of NT formation, FESEM images of samples anodized for very short times were obtained. The results contradict the existing explanation of the current-time data collected during anodization, which has persisted in the literature for more than two decades. In addition to providing a first-time morphological study of Ta oxide NT formation at very early stages of anodization, we also propose a new interpretation of the i-t response, showing that pores are already present in the first few milliseconds of anodization and that NTs are formed well before present models predict. This behaviour may also extend to the anodization of other valve metals, such as Al, Ti, Zr, W, and Nb. PMID:23338813

  8. Generation and characterization of KsprtTA and KsptTA transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinchao; Small, Erin V.; Igarashi, Peter; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologies that allow tissue specific expression or ablation of genes has contributed enormously to our knowledge of the mechanism regulating organ development and maintenance in mice. The tetracycline inducible system allows reversible regulation of gene products upon administration of Doxycycline. Here we describe the generation and activity of two transgenic lines expressing the cDNAs for the Tet responsive transcription factors rtTA and tTA (Tet-on and off) respectively under the control of an element that drives expression in the epithelium of the developing and adult kidney. Both lines show inducible and reversible activity in the embryonic and adult organ. PMID:23420736

  9. Magnetic characteristics of possible hydrothermal vents in TA 25 and TA26 seamounts, the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Choi, Soon Young; Park, Chan Hong

    2014-05-01

    The deep sea three component magnetic survey was conducted in the western (site A) and eastern (site B) slopes of the caldera of TA25 seamount and the summit area of TA26 seamount, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific, at Jan. 2012, using German R/V SONNE and ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) of ROPOS Co. The magnetic survey lines were the 29 N-S lines (TA25-East : 12 lines, TA25-West : 11 lines, TA26 : 6 lines) with about 100 m spacing and about 50 m above seafloor. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor was attached with the line frame of ROV and the data logger and motion sensor in ROV. A motion sensor (Octans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer and motion sensors and the USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) data of the position of ROV were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0 A/m magnetization. The magnetic anomaly map of TA25 site A shows high anomalies in the central part and low anomalies in the northern part, ranging from about -500 to 500 nT. The magnetization map, calculated by the inversion of the bathymetry and the magnetic anomaly, represents low anomalous zones over the south-western part and the northern part of the area. The magnetic anomaly map of TA25 site B displays high anomalies in the southeastern part and low anomalies in the central and eastern parts, ranging from about -700 to 800 nT. The low magnetization zones occur over the western part and central part of the area. The high magnetic anomalies of the survey area of TA26 are located in the north and northeastern parts and low anomalies in the southeastern part, with the magnetic anomaly range from about -2000 to 1600 nT. The magnetization map shows east-west trend low anomalous zones in the

  10. Development of W-Ta generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This research program was used to further develop the existing W-Ta generator and to evaluate alternative adsorbents, preferably inorganic materials, as supports for the generator. During the first half year, combinations of non-complexing eluents and a variety of adsorbents, both inorganic and organic, were evaluated. Some of these adsorbents were synthetic, such as chelate resins that could be specific for tungsten. In the second half of the year, the stress was mainly on the use of complexing eluents because of the high affinity of hydrous oxides for tantalum, on the synthesis of chelate resins and on the use novel techniques (electrolytic) to solve the tantalum-adsorption problem.

  11. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 39049). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73,381D, Helena, MT;...

  12. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  13. Lecture Discourse of a Foreign TA: A Preliminary Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A study of the communication skill needs of the foreign teaching associate (TA) in American universities focused on two questions: (1) What does a foreign TA do to communicate information in an American classroom in terms of comunication strategies and devices for cohesion and coherence of discourse? and (2) How does this compare with the way an…

  14. TaOx-based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Amit; Jana, Debanjan; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaOx is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaOx with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaOx with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaOx-based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaOx-based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production. PMID:24107610

  15. TaOx-based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaOx is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaOx with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaOx with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaOx-based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaOx-based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production. PMID:24107610

  16. Biocompatibility of nanotube formed Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy surface decorated with TiO2 nanotubes by anodization in an electrolyte containing 1 M H3PO4 and 0.8 wt.% NaF with an applied voltage of 10 V for 2 h. The anodization was carried out using a scanning potentiostat. The microstructures of alloys and morphology of the nanotubes were investigated by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In comparison to the Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloy, the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy contained a lower amount of α" phase, while the β phase was higher. In this study, we observed the formation of a spongy porous layer on the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy, while the Ti-30Nb and Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloys showed an absence of such a spongy layer. PMID:25958540

  17. Microstructural and weldability evaluation of 310TaN

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    Excellent weldability and good microstructural stability of 310TaN, in terms of the formation and growth of secondary phases at elevated temperature, was revealed in this investigation. The interganular stress corrosion resistance of 310TaN is superior to modified 800H and 310HCbN evaluated previously due to the fact that TaC, TaN and Ta(C,N) particles are more stable compared to Nb-rich or Ti-rich carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides presented in the other advanced alloys. Using resistance spot welding technique for which extremely fast cooling is a characteristic, it was found that a very minor amount of gain boundary liquation takes place during welding thermal cycling. The limited grain boundary liquation is of the eutectic type i.e., a low tendency to weld HAZ hot cracking.

  18. Characterization and Modeling of Nonfilamentary Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti Analog Synaptic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yen-Chuan; Wang, I.-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2015-05-01

    A two-terminal analog synaptic device that precisely emulates biological synaptic features is expected to be a critical component for future hardware-based neuromorphic computing. Typical synaptic devices based on filamentary resistive switching face severe limitations on the implementation of concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synapses with low conductance and state fluctuation. For overcoming these limitations, we propose a Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti device with superior analog synaptic features. A physical simulation based on the homogeneous (nonfilamentary) barrier modulation induced by oxygen ion migration accurately reproduces various DC and AC evolutions of synaptic states, including the spike-timing-dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, a physics-based compact model for facilitating circuit-level design is proposed on the basis of the general definition of memristor devices. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the promising electronic synapse can facilitate realizing large-scale neuromorphic systems.

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Nonfilamentary Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti Analog Synaptic Device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yen-Chuan; Wang, I-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A two-terminal analog synaptic device that precisely emulates biological synaptic features is expected to be a critical component for future hardware-based neuromorphic computing. Typical synaptic devices based on filamentary resistive switching face severe limitations on the implementation of concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synapses with low conductance and state fluctuation. For overcoming these limitations, we propose a Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti device with superior analog synaptic features. A physical simulation based on the homogeneous (nonfilamentary) barrier modulation induced by oxygen ion migration accurately reproduces various DC and AC evolutions of synaptic states, including the spike-timing-dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, a physics-based compact model for facilitating circuit-level design is proposed on the basis of the general definition of memristor devices. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the promising electronic synapse can facilitate realizing large-scale neuromorphic systems. PMID:25955658

  20. Characterization and Modeling of Nonfilamentary Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti Analog Synaptic Device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yen-Chuan; Wang, I-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A two-terminal analog synaptic device that precisely emulates biological synaptic features is expected to be a critical component for future hardware-based neuromorphic computing. Typical synaptic devices based on filamentary resistive switching face severe limitations on the implementation of concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synapses with low conductance and state fluctuation. For overcoming these limitations, we propose a Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti device with superior analog synaptic features. A physical simulation based on the homogeneous (nonfilamentary) barrier modulation induced by oxygen ion migration accurately reproduces various DC and AC evolutions of synaptic states, including the spike-timing-dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, a physics-based compact model for facilitating circuit-level design is proposed on the basis of the general definition of memristor devices. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the promising electronic synapse can facilitate realizing large-scale neuromorphic systems. PMID:25955658

  1. 77 FR 64827 - Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... party responded to the sunset review notice of initiation by the applicable deadline (77 FR 58524... COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination of... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on imports of honey from Argentina would be likely to...

  2. O-GlcNAc-mediated interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 elicits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation during vernalization in winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Xu, Shujuan; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Yunyuan; Xing, Lijing; Niu, Yuda; Huan, Qing; Tang, Yimiao; Zhao, Changping; Wagner, Doris; Gao, Caixia; Chong, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization, sensing of prolonged cold, is important for seasonal flowering in eudicots and monocots. While vernalization silences a repressor (FLC, MADS-box transcription factor) in eudicots, it induces an activator (TaVRN1, an AP1 clade MADS-box transcription factor) in monocots. The mechanism for TaVRN1 induction during vernalization is not well understood. Here we reveal a novel mechanism for controlling TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation in response to prolonged cold sensing in wheat. The carbohydrate-binding protein VER2, a jacalin lectin, promotes TaVRN1 upregulation by physically interacting with the RNA-binding protein TaGRP2. TaGRP2 binds to TaVRN1 pre-mRNA and inhibits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. The physical interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 is controlled by TaGRP2 O-GlcNAc modification, which gradually increases during vernalization. The interaction between VER2 and O-GlcNAc-TaGRP2 reduces TaGRP2 protein accumulation in the nucleus and/or promotes TaGRP2 dissociation from TaVRN1, leading to TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. Our data reveal a new mechanism for sensing prolonged cold in temperate cereals. PMID:25091017

  3. Nature of β-TaON surfaces at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tushar K.; Nair, Nisanth N.

    2015-05-01

    TaON has been recently identified as a promising water-splitting photocatalyst. Here we present the results of our detailed computational study to understand the exposed surfaces of β-TaON at ambient conditions. By employing periodic density functional theory, structures and electronic properties of all the low index native surfaces of β-TaON were studied. Nature of the β-TaON surfaces at ambient moist conditions was investigated using the ab initio thermodynamics approach. Based on the surface energies computed as a function of temperature (T) and pressure, we obtain the equilibrium shape of the β-TaON single crystal by the Wulff construction and study the exposure of these surfaces as a function of T at moist conditions. The effects of surface hydration and T on the exposure of the low-index surfaces are discussed. This study presents surface models relevant for studying catalytic reactions using β-TaON. Surface reactivity of the most stable surface of TaON is then analyzed.

  4. Metabolism of triiodothyroacetic acid (TA3) in rat liver. II. Deiodination and conjugation of TA3 by rat hepatocytes and in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, M; Heusdens, F A; Bonthuis, F; Visser, T J

    1989-07-01

    The hepatic metabolism of 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid (TA3), a naturally occurring side-chain analog of T3, was studied in vitro and in vivo. Metabolites were quantified by HPLC after Sephadex LH-20 prepurification of samples obtained after incubation of [125I]TA3 or 3,[3'-125I]diiodothyroacetic acid (3,[3'-125I]TA2) with isolated rat hepatocytes under various conditions or after iv administration of [125I]TA3 to normal or 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated rats. In protein-free incubations with hepatocytes, TA3 glucuronide (TA3G) and I- were normally the main TA3 products, i.e. 44% and 49%, respectively. In the presence of the type I deiodinase inhibitor PTU, the I- production from added TA3 decreased to 3%, and TA3 sulfate (TA3S) increased from 2-14%. Normally, 3,3'-TA2 was converted to I-, but in the presence of PTU 3,3'-TA2S was produced. In SO4(2-)-depleted cultures incubated with TA3 or 3,3'-TA2, production of I- was diminished, and the glucoronides of the substrates and the deiodinated products were generated. If both sulfation and deiodination were inhibited, TA3 and 3,3'-TA2 were cleared completely via glucuronidation. The metabolism of TA3 and especially 3,3'-TA2 was greatly retarded in cultures with 0.1% BSA. PTU treatment of TA3-injected rats reduced plasma I- levels 6-fold, increased plasma sulfates 2.6-fold, but did not affect plasma TA3 clearance. Biliary excretion of radioactivity until 4 h after [125I]TA3 injection amounted to 55% of the dose in controls vs. 85% in PTU-treated rats. In both groups, an unknown metabolite X was detected in serum and its sulfate conjugate XS in bile. The mean percent distribution of TA3G/TA3S/XS in bile amounted to 70:8:13 in control and 57:22:12 in PTU rats. In conclusion, TA3 is effectively metabolized in rat liver by glucuronidation and subsequent biliary excretion of TA3G, which may explain its rapid in vivo clearance relative to T3. Furthermore, a significant proportion of TA3 is deiodinated by the type I

  5. Silver delafossite nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}?

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira; Lowe, Michael; Leonard, Brian M.; Subban, Chinmayee V.; Masubuchi, Yuji; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Dronskowski, Richard; Hennig, Richard G.; Abruna, Hector D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2011-01-15

    A new silver nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}, was synthesized from NaTaN{sub 2} by a cation-exchange reaction, using a AgNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} flux at 175 {sup o}C. Its crystal structure type is delafossite (R3-bar m) with hexagonal lattice parameters of a=3.141(3) A, c=18.81(2) A, in which silver is linearly coordinated to nitrogen. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and combustion nitrogen/oxygen analysis gave a composition with atomic ratios of Ag:Ta:N:O as 1.0:1.2(1):2.1(1):0.77(4), which is somewhat Ta rich and indicates some oxide formation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a Ta- and O-rich surface and transmission electron microscope observation exhibited aggregates of ca. 4-5 nm-sized particles on the surface, which are probably related to the composition deviation from a AgTaN{sub 2}. The lattice parameters of stoichiometric AgTaN{sub 2} calculated by density functional theory agree with the experimental ones, but the possibility of some oxygen incorporation and/or silver deficiency is not precluded. -- Graphical abstract: A delafossite silver nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}, was synthesized from NaTaN{sub 2} by a cation-exchange reaction using a AgNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} flux. It contains N-Ag-N linear bonding. Display Omitted

  6. Magnetism of Ta dichalcogenide monolayers tuned by strain and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, Priyanka; Sharma, Vinit; Yu, Hongbin; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph

    2015-07-01

    The effects of strain and hydrogenation on the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of monolayers of Ta based dichalcogenides (TaX2; X = S, Se, and Te) are investigated using density-functional theory. We predict a complex scenario of strain-dependent magnetic phase transitions involving paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and modulated antiferromagnetic states. Covering one of the two chalcogenide surfaces with hydrogen switches the antiferromagnetic/nonmagnetic TaX2 monolayers to a semiconductor, and the optical behavior strongly depends on strain and hydrogenation. Our research opens pathways towards the manipulation of magnetic as well as optical properties for future spintronics and optoelectronics applications.

  7. Magnetism of Ta dichalcogenide monolayers tuned by strain and hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, Priyanka; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph; Sharma, Vinit; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-07-20

    The effects of strain and hydrogenation on the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of monolayers of Ta based dichalcogenides (TaX{sub 2}; X = S, Se, and Te) are investigated using density-functional theory. We predict a complex scenario of strain-dependent magnetic phase transitions involving paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and modulated antiferromagnetic states. Covering one of the two chalcogenide surfaces with hydrogen switches the antiferromagnetic/nonmagnetic TaX{sub 2} monolayers to a semiconductor, and the optical behavior strongly depends on strain and hydrogenation. Our research opens pathways towards the manipulation of magnetic as well as optical properties for future spintronics and optoelectronics applications.

  8. Intrinsic diamagnetism in the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Zhilin; Guo, Liwei; Chen, Xiaolong; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Fang; Prucnal, Slawomir; Helm, Manfred; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of TaAs, a prototype Weyl semimetal. TaAs crystals show diamagnetism with magnetic susceptibility of about -7×10-7 emu/(g Oe) at 5 K. A general feature is the appearance of a minimum at around 185 K in magnetization measurements as a function of temperature, which resembles that of graphite. No phase transition is observed in the temperature range between 5 K and 400 K.

  9. A study of nitrogen behavior in the formation of Ta/TaN and Ti/TaN alloyed metal electrodes on SiO2 and HfO2 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassilloud, R.; Maunoury, C.; Leroux, C.; Piallat, F.; Saidi, B.; Martin, F.; Maitrejean, S.

    2014-04-01

    We studied Ta, TaN, and sub-stoichiometric TaNx electrodes (obtained by nitrogen redistribution in Ta/TaN or Ti/TaN bilayers) deposited on thermal SiO2 and HfO2/IL (0.8 nm SiO2 IL, i.e., interlayer) stacks. Effective work-functions (WF) were extracted on MOS capacitor structures on SiO2 bevelled insulator of 4.2 eV for pure Ta, 4.6 eV for TaN, and 4.3 eV for sub-stoichiometric TaNx. This intermediate WF value is explained by TaN nitrogen redistribution with reactive Ta or Ti elements shifting the gate work-function toward the Si conduction band. The same electrodes deposited on an HfO2/IL dielectric showed different behavior: First, the Ta/HfO2/IL stack shows a +200 meV WF increase (towards the Si valence band) compared to the SiO2 dielectric stack. This increase is explained by the well-known HfO2/IL dipole formation. Second, in contrast to electrodes deposited on SiO2, sub-stoichiometric TaNx/HfO2 is found to have a lower WF (4.3 eV), than pure Ta on HfO2 (4.4 eV). This inversion in work-function behavior measured on SiO2 vs. HfO2 is explained by the nitrogen redistribution in Ta/TaN bilayer together with diffusion of nitrogen through the HfO2 layer, leading to Si-N formation which prevents dipole formation at the HfO2/IL interface.

  10. Predicting Texture Evolution in Ta and Ta-10W Alloys Using Polycrystal Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Marko; Zecevic, Miroslav; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Bhattacharyya, Abhishek; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-11-01

    We present results of texture characterization and predictions of a multiscale physically based constitutive law developed to predict the mechanical response and texture evolution of body-centered cubic metals. The model is unique in the sense that single crystal deformation results not only from the resolved shear stress along the direction of slip (Schmid law) but also from shear stresses resolved along directions orthogonal to the slip direction as well as the three normal stress components (non-Schmid effects). The single crystal model is implemented into a visco-plastic self-consistent homogenization scheme containing a hardening law for crystallographic slip. The polycrystal model is calibrated using a set of mechanical test data collected on a tantalum-tungsten alloy, Ta-10W, in tension and compression and pure tantalum, Ta, in tension, compression, and cross-rolling. We demonstrate that the model effectively captures the texture evolution in all cases. We show that alloying has the effect of increasing the dislocation friction stress, the trapping rate of dislocations, and activation barrier for recovery.

  11. Effect of high pressure on the formation of ordered phases in Ta-C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Geshko, E.I.; Klyugvant, V.V.; Pilipovskii, Y.L.; Shamatov, Y.M.

    1985-03-01

    This paper considers the effect of pressure on the completion of the transformations TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 2/C. The data show that in the samples with C/Ta = 0.68 and 0.71, the applied pressure substantially increases the diffraction peak heights of the ordered phases, Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C. In samples with C/Ta = 0.76, high pressure does not generally increase the intensities of the diffracted peaks of Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C, however the equilibrium between them is displaced to the side of increased Ta/sub 2/C content. In one of the samples a complete disappearance of the disordered TaC /SUB x/ is not observed. It is concluded that high pressure ( about7GPa) promotes the transition of nonstoichiometric TaC /SUB x/ into ordered Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C as well as broadens the existence region of the latter. A complete transformation of TaC /SUB x/ into the ordered phase does not occur even at pressures up to about 9 GPa.

  12. Pre-Test Analysis Predictions for the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Checkout Tests - TA01 and TA02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.

  13. Effect of Ta concentration on the refractive index of TiO2:Ta studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurfani, Eka; Kurniawan, Robi; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Marlina, Resti; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated optical properties of Ta-doped TiO2 thin film on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrate using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) at room temperature. Amplitude ratio Ψ and phase difference L1 between p- and s- polarized light waves are obtained by multiple incident angles measurement (60°, 70°, and 80°) at energy range of 0.5 - 6.5 eV. In order to obtain optical properties for every Ta concentrations (0.01, 0.4, and 5 at. %), multilayer modelling was performed simultaneously by using Drude-Lorentz model. Refractive index and optical dispersion parameters were determined by Wemple-DiDomenico relation. In general, refractive index at zero photon energy n(0) increases by increasing Ta concentration. Furthermore, optical band gap shows a significant increasing due to presence of Ta dopant. In addition, other optical constants are discussed as well.

  14. Investigations of Ta film resistors on chemically vapor deposited diamond plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hua; Zhan, Ru-Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yang

    1999-12-01

    Ta films were deposited by sputtering on chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond plates to be used as resistors for microelectronic applications. The resistance temperature coefficient is only -10 ppm/°C when heating Ta film resistance from room temperature to 150°C. Meanwhile, no reaction is found at the interface between Ta and CVD diamond. These results show the Ta film resistance has high electrical and chemical stability in this temperature range. On the basis of data obtained by differential thermal analysis(DTA), it is found that the endothermic effects begin to appear for Ta/CVD diamond from 300°C. After heating Ta/CVD diamond up to 800°C, XRD analysis indicates that there are strong chemical reactions between Ta and CVD diamond to produce TaC, TaO, and TaO 2.

  15. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta3N5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurlaela, Ela; Harb, Moussab; del Gobbo, Silvano; Vashishta, Manish; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta3N5), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta3N5 were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta3N5 is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses.

  16. Resistive switching of a TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer via ionic control of carrier tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Kim, Hyunjung; Jang, Woochool; Song, Hyoseok; Kang, Chunho; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-04-14

    Resistance random access memory (RRAM) is an attractive candidate for future non-volatile memory due to its superior features. As the oxide thickness is scaled down, the charge transport mechanism is also subject to the transition from hopping to tunneling dominant process, which is critically related to the interfacial electronic band structure. A TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer-based RRAM is fabricated and characterized in this work. Upon TaON insertion at the lower interface, the improved switching behavior is observed. The TaON at the bottom electrode interface blocks oxygen vacancy percolation due to strong N-O bonds and also modifies interfacial band alignment to lower the injected electron energy from bottom electrode due to higher tunneling barrier height than that of TaO{sub x}/Pt. This study suggested that a defect-minimized insertion layer like TaON with a proper interfacial band alignment is pivotal in RRAM for the effective ionic control of carrier tunneling resulting in non-linear I-V behavior with improved properties.

  17. Numerical study of the structural and vibrational properties of amorphous Ta2O5 and TiO2-doped Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damart, T.; Coillet, E.; Tanguy, A.; Rodney, D.

    2016-05-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we synthesized amorphous Ta2O5 and amorphous TiO2-doped Ta2O5. We show that Ta2O5 is composed primarily of six-folded Ta atoms forming octahedra that are either organized in chain-like structures or share edges or faces. When Ta2O5 is doped with TiO2, Ti atoms form equally five- and six-folded polyhedra that perturb but do not break the network structure of the glass. Performing a vibrational eigenmode analysis and projecting the eigenmodes on the rocking, stretching, and bending motions of the Ta-2O and Ta-3O bonds, we provide an atomic-scale analysis that substantiates the interpretations of Raman spectra of amorphous Ta2O5. This eigenmode analysis also reveals the key role played by Ti atoms in the 5 to 12 THz range.

  18. A new RHQT Nb3Al superconducting wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takao; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nimori, Shigeki; Banno, Nobuya; Iijima, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi

    2012-06-01

    To suppress the low-magnetic-field instability (flux jumps in low magnetic fields) of a rapid-heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) processed Nb3Al superconductor, we had previously modified the cross-sectional design of an RHQT Nb3Al by adopting a Ta filament-barrier structure. Unlike Nb barriers, Ta barriers are not superconducting in magnetic fields at 4.2 K so that they electromagnetically decouple filaments. However, small flux jumps still occurred at 1.8 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the magnets used in high-energy particle accelerators. Furthermore, poor bonding at the Ta/Ta interface between neighboring Ta-coated jelly-roll (JR) filaments frequently caused precursor wires to break during drawing. To overcome these problems, we fabricated a new RHQT Nb3Al wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure for which an internal stabilization technique (Cu rods encased in Ta are dispersed in the wire cross section) was extended. Removing the Ta/Ta interface in the interfilamentary barrier (JR filament/Ta/Cu/Ta/JR filament) allowed precursor wires to be drawn without breaking. Furthermore, the Cu filament barrier electromagnetically decoupled filaments to suppress flux jumps at 1.8 K. The ductile Cu layer also improved the bending strain tolerance of RHQT Nb3Al.

  19. Assessment of relative Ti, Ta, and Nb (TiTaN) enrichments in global ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, B.; Day, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The relative sensitivity of trace element concentrations to processes governing solid-melt and solid-fluid interactions has made them particularly useful for tracing the effects of partial melting, fractional crystallization, metasomatism and similar processes on the composition of a parental melt to a rock or mineral. Radiogenic and stable isotope compositions, in contrast, can provide information on the long-term history and provenance of magmas. Despite the distinct information derived from relative and absolute abundances of trace elements compared with isotopes, numerous studies of ocean island basalts (OIB) have attempted to use trace elements as diagnostic geochemical tracers to understand parental magma compositions. In particular, attempts have been made to correlate 'TiTaN' (Ti, Ta and Nb) anomalies to the He-Os isotopic compositions of OIB based on contributions from recycled eclogite, a theoretical high-TiTaN reservoir, and peridotite, a theoretical high-3He/4He reservoir (Jackson, et al., 2008 G-cubed). These authors have proposed that TiTaN anomalies can be used as independent indicators for recycled oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle in OIB sources, a distinction previously reserved for isotopic data. However, TiTaN anomalies appear uncorrelated to OIB mantle source composition for three reasons. First, a new geochemical compilation of global OIB shows a wide range of Ti (Ti/Ti* = 0.28 - 2.35), Ta (Ta/Ta* = 0.11 - 93.42) and Nb (Nb/Nb* = 0.13 - 17.79) anomalies that do not correlated with each other or noble gas systematics, indicating that: (i) TiTaN anomalies alone do not correspond to the primitive source traced by high-3He/4He or the solar neon component and (ii) Ti, Ta and Nb anomalies may each reflect distinct processes or origins, rather than tracing a single source or process together. Second, positive Ti anomalies can be generated by low-degree (1-10%), non-modal batch partial melting of garnet lherzolite at temperatures and pressures

  20. First-principles calculation of phase equilibrium of V-Nb, V-Ta, and Nb-Ta alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Valsakumar, M. C.; van de Walle, Axel

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the calculated phase diagrams of V-Nb, V-Ta, and Nb-Ta alloys computed by combining the total energies of 40-50 configurations for each system (obtained using density functional theory) with the cluster expansion and Monte Carlo techniques. For V-Nb alloys, the phase diagram computed with conventional cluster expansion shows a miscibility gap with consolute temperature Tc=1250 K. Including the constituent strain to the cluster expansion Hamiltonian does not alter the consolute temperature significantly, although it appears to influence the solubility of V- and Nb-rich alloys. The phonon contribution to the free energy lowers Tc to 950 K (about 25%). Our calculations thus predicts an appreciable miscibility gap for V-Nb alloys. For bcc V-Ta alloy, this calculation predicts a miscibility gap with Tc=1100 K. For this alloy, both the constituent strain and phonon contributions are found to be significant. The constituent strain increases the miscibility gap while the phonon entropy counteracts the effect of the constituent strain. In V-Ta alloys, an ordering transition occurs at 1583 K from bcc solid solution phase to the V2Ta Laves phase due to the dominant chemical interaction associated with the relatively large electronegativity difference. Since the current cluster expansion ignores the V2Ta phase, the associated chemical interaction appears to manifest in making the solid solution phase remain stable down to 1100 K. For the size-matched Nb-Ta alloys, our calculation predicts complete miscibility in agreement with experiment.

  1. Er3+ diffusion in LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Zhang, Qun; Wong, Wing-Han; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2015-12-01

    Some Er3+-doped LiTaO3 plates were prepared by in-diffusion of Er-metal film locally coated onto congruent Z-cut substrate in air at a wide temperature range from 1000 to 1500 °C. After diffusion, Er3+-doping effect on LiTaO3 refractive index and Li2O out-diffusion arising from Er3+ in-diffusion were studied at first. Refractive indices at the doped and undoped surface parts were measured by prism coupling technique and the surface composition was estimated. The results show that Er3+ dopant has small contribution to the LiTaO3 index. Li2O out-diffusion is slight (Li2O content loss <0.3 mol%) for the temperature below 1300 °C while is moderate (Li2O content loss <0.6 mol%) for the temperature above 1400 °C. The Er3+ profile was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The study shows that the diffused Er3+ ions follow either a complementary error function or a Gaussian profile. Characteristic parameters including diffusivity, diffusion constant, activation energy, solubility, solubility constant and heat of solution were obtained and compared with the LiNbO3 case. The comparison shows that the diffusivity and solubility in LiTaO3 are considerably smaller than in LiNbO3 because of the difference of Ta and Nb in atomic weight.

  2. Weyl semimetal state in TaP: experimental discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Hasan Research Group Team

    Despite their extreme rareness in nature, Weyl semimetals provide the first realization of Weyl fermions. After families of tantalum-based (TaAs, TaP) and niobium-based (NbAs, NbP) compounds were recently predicted as Weyl semimetal candidates, our group experimentally realized the Weyl semimetal state in TaP. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to probe the surface features of TaP. Weyl fermion cones and nodes were directly observed in the bulk, and Fermi arcs were observed on the surface. The surface states were found to possess a rich structure, containing topological Fermi arcs and topologically trivial closed contours in the neighborhood of Weyl points. This finding opens up possibilities to study the relationship between trivial and topological surface states on the surface of a Weyl semimetal. By determining the number of chiral edge modes on a closed path enclosing the Weyl node, bulk-boundary correspondence was demonstrated, leading to the establishment of a topologically nontrivial nature of the Weyl semimetal state in TaP. The work at Princeton and Princeton-led ARPES measurements were supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundations EPiQS Initiative through Grant GBMF4547 (Hasan) and by U.S. Department of Energy DE-FG-02-05ER46200.

  3. Role of Hf and Zr in the hydrogen embrittlement of Ta and Cb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the hydrogen embrittlement of aged Ta alloy T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and similar Ta and Cb alloys. It is found that aging ternary Ta alloys such as T-111 near 1040 C for 1000 hr or longer increases their sensitivity to low-temperature hydrogen embrittlement. Segregation of Hf to grain boundaries during aging causes embrittlement upon testing at -196 C and is responsible for the observed hydrogen embrittlement. Binary Ta and Cb alloys, Ta-2Hf and Cb-1Zr, are not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under the conditions of this study and did not exhibit grain boundary segregation of Hf or Zr. Ternary alloys Ta-8W-.5Hf, Ta-8W-1Hf, and Ta-4W-2Hf are superior to T-111 for containment of alkali metals in that they do not exhibit aging embrittlement. However, these alloys in the aged condition are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.

  4. Ta and N modulated electronic, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya Fei; Li, Can; Hu, Ji Yuan; Gong, Yin Yan; Niu, Leng Yuan; Liu, Xin Juan

    2016-02-01

    Bond relaxation and the associated electronic energies mediate the properties of a substance, and therefore, doping could be the effective means for such purpose. With the aid of first principle calculations and experimental observations, we examine four co-doped specimens (Ta-N1, Ta-N2, Ta-N3, Ta-N4) with different Ta and N co-doped positions, and show that Ta or N addition could modulate the electronic, optical and photocatalytic responses of TiO2 for photocatalysts applications. Results show that, Ta-O bonding not only reduces the electronic transition energies but also increased the carrier mobility of impurity level in Ta-doped and Ta-N2, Ta-N3, and Ta-N4 co-doped TiO2 specimens, while the impurity level disappears and the band gap reduces by 0.46 eV in Ta-N1 co-doped specimen due to the forming Ta-N bonding. Most strikingly, Ta-N co-doped TiO2 have twofold photocatalytic ability better than pure TiO2 under visible light excitation.

  5. Optical spectroscopy of the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, B.; Dai, Y. M.; Zhao, L. X.; Wang, K.; Yang, R.; Zhang, W.; Liu, J. Y.; Xiao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Taylor, A. J.; et al

    2016-03-24

    Here, we present a systematic study of both the temperature and frequency dependence of the optical response in TaAs, a material that has recently been realized to host the Weyl semimetal state. Our study reveals that the optical conductivity of TaAs features a narrow Drude response alongside a conspicuous linear dependence on frequency. The weight of the Drude peak decreases upon cooling, following a T2 temperature dependence, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Two linear components with distinct slopes dominate the low-temperature optical conductivity. A comparison between our experimental results and theoretical calculations suggests that the linear conductivity below ~230more » cm–1 arises purely from interband transitions near the Weyl points, providing rich information about the Weyl semimetal state in TaAs.« less

  6. Optical spectroscopy of the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Dai, Y. M.; Zhao, L. X.; Wang, K.; Yang, R.; Zhang, W.; Liu, J. Y.; Xiao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Taylor, A. J.; Yarotski, D. A.; Prasankumar, R. P.; Qiu, X. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic study of both the temperature and frequency dependence of the optical response in TaAs, a material that has recently been realized to host the Weyl semimetal state. Our study reveals that the optical conductivity of TaAs features a narrow Drude response alongside a conspicuous linear dependence on frequency. The weight of the Drude peak decreases upon cooling, following a T2 temperature dependence, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Two linear components with distinct slopes dominate the low-temperature optical conductivity. A comparison between our experimental results and theoretical calculations suggests that the linear conductivity below ˜230 cm-1 arises purely from interband transitions near the Weyl points, providing rich information about the Weyl semimetal state in TaAs.

  7. Low temperature CVD of TaB/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.

    1980-01-01

    Crystalline TaB/sub 2/ has been deposited using the CVD reaction of TaCl/sub 5/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ in the temperature range of 773-1200/sup 0/K. Thermodynamic calculations have been made which compare the use of both B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and BCl/sub 3/ as B source gases. The deposits obtained with B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ exhibited extremely small crystal size and contained amorphous B when the deposition temperature was below approx. 873/sup 0/K but were substoichiometric in B above this temperature. Carbon analysis indicated that C may substitute for B and thereby stabilize the diboride structure at high deposition temperatures. Microhardness of the coatings decreased with increasing B/Ta ratio and decreasing crystal size.

  8. Evaluation of airflow patterns in 2706-T and 2706-TA

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    1999-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the current placement of fixed head air samplers and continuous air monitors (CAMs) in the 2706-T and 2706-TA Complex. The airflow study consisted of 6 configurations of facility HVAC and HEPA filtration equipment to determine impacts on CAM location. The results of this study provide recommendations based on guidance in DOE G 411.1-8 and NUREG-1400 for placement of fixed head air samplers or CAMS within 2706-T and 2706-TA.

  9. Preparation, characterization, and catalytic performance of Ta-HMS mesoporous molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefeng; Zhang, Like; Gao, Huanxin; Chen, Qingling

    2016-08-01

    Various Ta-HMS (hexagonal mesoporous silica) samples with different Ta content were hydrothermally prepared and characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption, ICP-AES, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the samples was also evaluated in the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. The regularity of mesoporous structure decreases while more extraframe Ta ions are formed with increasing the Ta content. Ta-HMS with Ta/Si ratio of 0.015 shows the highest conversion and selectivity in the studied epoxidation reaction. The catalyst can be used for three times without significant activity loss.

  10. Ta2O5-based redox memory formed by neutral beam oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    A room temperature neutral beam oxidation process using a tantalum (Ta) metal film was used to obtain a high quality Ta oxide (Ta2O5) film. After irradiation of a Ta metal film with a neutral oxygen beam, a nanometer-thick Ta2O5 film with a film density of 7.5 g/cm3 was obtained. We also confirmed that the fabricated Cu/Ta2O5/Pt redox memory structure shows a bipolar resistive switching characteristic. This result demonstrates the great potential of neutral beam metal oxidation for the development of redox-based memory devices.

  11. EDITORIAL: TaCoNa-Photonics 2008 TaCoNa-Photonics 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Busch, Kurt; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on theoretical and computational nano-photonics features papers presented at the first International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Nano-Photonics (TaCoNa-Photonics 2008) held in Bad Honnef, Germany, 3-5 December 2008. The workshop covered a broad range of topics related to current developments and achievements in this interdisciplinary area of research. Since the late 1960s, the word `photonics' has been understood as the science of generating, controlling, and detecting light. Nowadays, a routine fabrication of complex structures with micro- and nano-scale dimensions opens up many new and exciting possibilities in photonics. The science of generating, routing and detecting light in micro- and nano-structured matter, `nano-photonics', is becoming more important both in research and technology and offers many promising applications. The inherently sub-wavelength character of the structures that nano-photonics deals with challenges modern theoretical and computational physics and engineering with many nontrivial questions: Up to what length-scale can one use a macroscopic phenomenological description of matter? Where is the interface between the classical and quantum description of light in nano-scale structures? How can one combine different physical systems, different time- and length-scales in a single computational model? How can one engineer nano-structured materials in order to achieve the desired optical properties for particular applications? Any attempt at answering these kinds of questions is impossible without the joint efforts of physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and programmers. This is the reason why the major goal of the TaCoNa-Photonics workshops is to provide a forum where theoreticians and specialists in numerical methods from all branches of physics, engineering sciences and mathematics can compare their results, report on novel results and breakthroughs, and discuss new challenges ahead. In order to

  12. Effects of N2O Plasma Annealing on the Characteristics of Tantalum Oxide Thin Films Deposited on TaN/Ta Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Ya-Huang; Chang, Chich-Shang; Wu, Tai-Bor

    2002-12-01

    The effects of N2O plasma annealing on the structural and leakage current characteristics of amorphous and crystallized TaOx thin films deposited on a TaN/Ta bottom electrode by chemical vapor deposition at 350°C were investigated. An interfacial Ta(O,N) layer was formed following the oxidation of the TaN electrode after plasma annealing the TaOx films of ˜25 nm thickness, which decreased the effective capacitance of the thin film capacitors, and the Ta(O,N) layer grew with increasing annealing time or temperature. The growth of the Ta(O,N) layer up to a thickness of 38 nm followed a linear oxidation law with an activation energy of ˜0.74 eV for the annealing of the amorphous TaOx films in a temperature range of 300°C-450°C. However, an activation energy of ˜1.18 eV was found for the linear oxidation of TaN within an oxidation thickness of 22 nm, and then, the oxidation switched to a parabolic process with an activation energy of ˜0.8 eV for annealing the crystallized TaOx films. The current-voltage (I-V) relation of the TaOx films was asymmetric with respect to the biasing polarity, and the leakage current decreased with increasing annealing time or temperature due to the formation and growth of a Ta(ON) layer. Barrier heights of 1.08 and 0.74 eV were evaluated from the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics for the Schottky emission in the amorphous and crystalline 50-nm-thick TaOx films annealed in N2O plasma at 350°C for 10 min, respectively.

  13. Comparative Raman study of Weyl semimetals TaAs, NbAs, TaP and NbP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. W.; Richard, P.; Zhao, L. X.; Chen, G.-F.; Ding, H.

    2016-07-01

    We report a comparative polarized Raman study of Weyl semimetals TaAs, NbAs, TaP and NbP. The evolution of the phonon frequencies with the sample composition allows us to determine experimentally which atoms are mainly involved for each vibration mode. Our results confirm previous first-principles calculations indicating that the A1, B1(2), E(2) and E(3) modes involve mainly the As(P) atoms, the B1(1) mode is mainly related to Ta(Nb) atoms, and the E(1) mode involves both kinds of atoms. By comparing the energy of the different modes, we establish that the B1(1), B1(2), E(2) and E(3) become harder with increasing chemical pressure. This behaviour differs from our observation on the A1 mode, which decreases in energy, in contrast to its behaviour under external pressure.

  14. Comparative Raman study of Weyl semimetals TaAs, NbAs, TaP and NbP.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Richard, P; Zhao, L X; Chen, G-F; Ding, H

    2016-07-27

    We report a comparative polarized Raman study of Weyl semimetals TaAs, NbAs, TaP and NbP. The evolution of the phonon frequencies with the sample composition allows us to determine experimentally which atoms are mainly involved for each vibration mode. Our results confirm previous first-principles calculations indicating that the A1, B1(2), E(2) and E(3) modes involve mainly the As(P) atoms, the B1(1) mode is mainly related to Ta(Nb) atoms, and the E(1) mode involves both kinds of atoms. By comparing the energy of the different modes, we establish that the B1(1), B1(2), E(2) and E(3) become harder with increasing chemical pressure. This behaviour differs from our observation on the A1 mode, which decreases in energy, in contrast to its behaviour under external pressure. PMID:27248581

  15. Analysis of NiAlTa precipitates in beta-NiAl + 2 at. pct Ta alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, V.; Michal, G. M.; Vedula, K.; Nathal, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from experiments performed to identify the precipitates, and their orientation in the matrix, in a beta-NiAl alloy containing 2 at. pct. Ta after undergoing creep test at 1300 K. Test specimens formed by extruding hot powders were compressed at 1300 K for about 50 hr at a strain rate averaging 6/1 million per sec. The specimens were then thinned and examined under an electron microscope and by X-ray diffractometry. An intermetallic NiAlTa compound with a hexagonal Cl4 structure appeared as second phase precipitates in the samples, exhibiting plate-like shapes and a habit plane close to (012). The prism planes of the hexagonal NiAlTa precipitates paralleled the closest packed planes in the cubic beta-NiAl matrix.

  16. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru-Ta-Zr coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O2-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta2O5-, and ZrO2-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru-Ta-Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  17. Superconducting state in (W, Ta)5SiB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, M.; Kawashima, K.; Akimitsu, J.

    We characterize the superconducting state in a boro-silicide (W, Ta)5SiB2, with Tc of 6.5 K by means of magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. As x increased, the transition temperature Tc abruptly enhances from 5.8 to 6.5 K. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curve indicated that (W, Ta)5SiB2 was a conventional type-II superconductor. The estimated lower critical field Hc1(0) and upper critical field Hc2(T) are about 121 Oe and 14.7 kOe, respectively. The penetration depth λ(0) and coherence length ξ(0) are calculated to be approximately 369 and 14.9 nm, respectively, using Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations. Specific heat data shows the superconductivity in W4.5Ta0.5SiB2 belongs to a week-coupling BCS superconductor. Finally, we discuss the increasing of Tc in of (W, Ta)5SiB2 system.

  18. Compositional depth profiling of TaCN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Adelmann, Christoph; Conard, Thierry; Franquet, Alexis; Brijs, Bert; Munnik, Frans; Burgess, Simon; Witters, Thomas; Meersschaut, Johan; Kittl, Jorge A.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Van Elshocht, Sven

    2012-07-15

    The composition profiling of thin TaCN films was studied. For the composition profile determination using x-ray photoemission spectrometry (XPS) in combination with Ar sputtering, preferential sputtering effects of N with respect to Ta and C were found to lead to inaccurate elemental concentrations. Sputter yield calculations for the given experimental conditions allowed for the correction of a part of the error, leading to fair accuracy by reference-free measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy was demonstrated by the calibration of the XPS compositions against elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) results. For Auger electron spectrometry (AES) in combination with Ar sputtering, accurate results required the calibration against ERDA. Both XPS and AES allowed for a reliable and accurate determination of the compositional profiles of TaCN-based thin films after calibration. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry was also used to assess the composition of the TaCN films. However, the analysis was hampered by large matrix effects due to small unintentional oxygen contents in the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry is also discussed, and it is shown that an accurate reference-free measurement of the average film concentration can be achieved.

  19. Ta Keo Temple Reconstruction Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Wang, C.; Wan, Y. P.; Khuon, K. N.

    2015-08-01

    Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009). This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project's data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.

  20. T.A. Barron: Glowing Like a Crystal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with T.A. Barron, an author of a trilogy of novels about a 12-year-old girl. Topics include character development, adult/child relationships, themes, writing processes, the influence of children on the writing, adult science fiction and young-adult classification of the books, and research and rewrites. (AEF)

  1. The Foreign TA: A Guide to Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gburek, Janice L., Ed.; Dunnett, Stephen C., Ed.

    Articles on teaching effectiveness for foreign teaching assistants (TAs) are presented. Topics include: adapting to the U.S. academic environment, understanding the role of the TA and gaining confidence, anticipating undergraduates' expectations, improving communication skills, and teaching laboratory classes and recitation classes. Titles and…

  2. Low-emittance tuning at CesrTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, James

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed 500GeV center-of-mass electron/positron collider. In order to meet luminosity requirements, low-emittance beams must be provided at the start of the two 15-km main linacs. These low-emittance beams will be provided by damping rings, whose optics must be well-corrected in order to minimize dilution of the vertical emittance. In 2008 the Cornell Electron/Positron Storage Ring (CESR)was reconfigured from an electron/positron collider to the CESR Test Accelerator (CesrTA), to serve as a testbed for the ILC damping rings. One of the primary research objectives of the CesrTA project is to explore beam-based optics correction techniques for application at the ILC damping rings. The geometric vertical emittance target for CesrTA is < 10 pm at 2.085 GeV. This dissertation discusses the tuning methods used at CesrTA to achieve low-emittance conditions. Simulationsmodeling the effects ofmagnetmisalignments, systematic and random multipoles, BPM errors, and emittance correction algorithm have been developed, and suggest the residual vertical emittance measured at the conclusion of the tuning procedure is dominated by sources unaffected by optics correction. The same characterization methods leading to this diagnosis have been applied to the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings to evaluate misalignment and multipole tolerances. Dynamic aperture studies for the ILC damping rings are discussed.

  3. Microstructural Investigations On Ni-Ta-Al Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Negache, M.; Souami, N.

    2010-01-05

    The Ni-Al-Ta ternary alloys in the Ni-rich part present complex microstructures. They are composed of multiple phases that are formed according to the nominal composition of the alloy, primary Ni(gamma), Ni{sub 3}Al(gamma'), Ni{sub 6}AlTa(tau{sub 3}), Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) or in equilibrium: two solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}), (tau{sub 3}-delta), (tau{sub 3}-gamma), (gamma-delta) or three solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}-delta). The nature and the volume fraction of these phases give these alloys very interesting properties at high temperature, and this makes them attractive for specific applications. We have developed a series of ternary alloys in electric arc furnace, determining their solidification sequences using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), characterized by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and by a microhardness tests. The follow-up results made it possible to make a correlation between the nature of the formed phases and their solidifying way into the Ni{sub 75}Al{sub x}Ta{sub y} (x+y = 25at.%) system, which are varied and complex. In addition to the solid solution Ni (gamma), the formed intermetallics compounds (gamma', tau{sub 3} and delta) has been identified and correlated with a complex balance between phases.We noticed that the hardness increases with the tantalum which has a hardening effect and though the compound Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) is the hardest. The below results provide a better understanding of the complex microstructure of these alloys.

  4. Development of capacitive RF MEMS switches with TaN and Ta2O5 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persano, Anna; Quaranta, Fabio; Cola, Adriano; De Angelis, Giorgio; Marcelli, Romolo; Siciliano, Pietro

    2011-06-01

    We develop shunt capacitive RF MEMS switches in III-V technology making use of materials which can be alternative to the ones commonly used, in order to overcome some technological constraints concerning the RF MEMS reliability. Specifically, we evaluate the potential of tantalum nitride (TaN) and tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) to be used for the switches actuation pads and dielectric layers, respectively. To this scope, a compositional, structural and electrical characterization of TaN and Ta2O5 films as a function of the deposition parameters, such as the substrate temperature and the sputtering mixture composition, is performed. The realized switches show good actuation voltages, in the range 15- 20 V, an insertion loss better than -0.8 dB up to 30 GHz, and an isolation of ~ -40 dB at the resonant frequency. A comparison between the measured S-parameter values and the results of a circuit simulation is also presented and discussed, providing useful information on the operation of the fabricated switches.

  5. Coexistence of Weyl physics and planar defects in the semimetals TaP and TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, T.; Rhodes, D. A.; Chen, K.-W.; Das, S.; Zhang, Q. R.; Sun, J.; Zeng, B.; Xin, Y.; Balicas, L.; Baumbach, R. E.; Manousakis, E.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2016-06-01

    We report a structural study of the Weyl semimetals TaAs and TaP, utilizing diffraction and imaging techniques, where we show that they contain a high density of defects, leading to nonstoichiometric single crystals of both semimetals. Despite the observed defects and nonstoichiometry on samples grown using techniques already reported in the literature, de Haas-van Alphen measurements on TaP reveal quantum oscillations and a high carrier mobility, an indication that the crystals are of quality comparable to those reported elsewhere. Electronic structure calculations on TaAs reveal that the position of the Weyl points relative to the Fermi level shift with the introduction of vacancies and stacking faults. In the case of vacancies the Fermi surface becomes considerably altered, while the effect of stacking faults on the electronic structure is to allow the Weyl pockets to remain close to the Fermi surface. The observation of quantum oscillations in a nonstoichiometric crystal and the persistence of Weyl fermion pockets near the Fermi surface in a crystal with stacking faults point to the robustness of these quantum phenomena in these materials.

  6. Homoatomic clustering in T4Ga5 (T = Ta, Nb, Ta/Mo): a story of reluctant intermetallics crystallizing in a new binary structure type.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Rie T; Kilduff, Brandon J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    In the formation of binary compounds, heteroatomic interactions are generally expected to play the leading role in providing stability. In this Article, we present a series of gallides, T(4)Ga(5) (T = Ta, Nb, and Ta/Mo), which appear to defy this expectation. Their complex crystal structures represent a new binary structure type (to the best of our knowledge),, which can be visualized in terms of a host lattice of T@T(8) body centered cubic (bcc) clusters linked through face-capping Ga(2) dumbbells to form a primitive cubic framework. The cubic spaces that result are alternately filled by distorted T pentagonal dodecahedra (sharing atoms with the host lattice) and dimers of bcc fragments, leading to a √2 × √2 × 2 supercell of the host framework structure. Ga tetrahedra and icosahedral units fill the remaining void spaces. Underlying these structural features is a strong tendency for homoatomic clustering of Ta and Ga, which is evident in all of the coordination polyhedra. Electronic structure calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and DFT-calibrated Hückel models reveal possible origins for this elemental segregation and the factors stabilizing the structure as a whole. A deep pseudogap is present at the Fermi energy of Ta(4)Ga(5) (as well as at that of Nb(4)Ga(5)), corresponding to the near-optimization of Ta-Ta and Ta-Ga interactions. This pseudogap emerges as a result of the ability of extensive Ta-Ta bonding to provide local 18-electron configurations to the Ta atoms, despite the electron concentration being only 8.75 electrons per Ta atom. Support for these Ta-Ta interactions is provided by Ga bridging atoms, whose valence orbitals' low number of angular nodes confers preferential stabilization to Ta-Ta bonding functions over antibonding ones. The observed spatial separation of the structure into Ta and Ga domains occurs as a consequence of the Ga atoms being pushed toward the periphery of the Ta clusters to play this supporting role. PMID

  7. Characterization of Pi-ta Blast resistance gene in an international rice core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice prevents infections by races of Magnaporthe oryzae containing AVR-Pita. In the present study, 1,790 accessions were characterized for Pi-ta, and the Pi-ta independent resistance genes using marker analysis, disease evaluation with the race IB-49 carrying AVR-Pita, and IE-1k n...

  8. Establishment of codominant markers for rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide length polymorphism (SNLP) was identified at the intron region of the Pi-ta gene to develop a codominant Pi-ta gene marker suitable for genotyping with an ABI automated machine. The DNA primer specific to the resistance Pi-ta allele was labeled with the blue dye as a forward pr...

  9. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress. PMID:25855206

  10. Establishment of codominant marker for rice blast resistance gene pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide length polymorphism (SNLP) was identified at the intron region of the Pi-ta gene to develop a codominant Pi-ta gene marker suitable for genotyping with an ABI automated machine. The DNA primer specific to the resistance Pi-ta allele was labeled with the blue dye as a forward pr...

  11. Characterization of leucocin B-Ta11a: a bacteriocin from Leuconostoc carnosum Ta11a isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Felix, J V; Papathanasopoulos, M A; Smith, A A; von Holy, A; Hastings, J W

    1994-10-01

    Leuconostoc (Lc.) carnosum Ta11a, isolated from vacuum-packaged processed meats, produced a bacteriocin designated leucocin B-Ta11a. The crude bacteriocin was heat stable and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but not to catalase, lysozyme, or chloroform. It was active against Listeria monocytogenes and several lactic acid bacteria. Leucocin B-Ta11a was optimally produced at 25 degrees C in MRS broth at an initial pH of 6.0 or 6.5. An 8.9-MDa plasmid in Leuconostoc carnosum Ta11a hybridized to a 36-mer oligonucleotide probe (JF-1) that was homologous to leucocin A-UAL187. A 4.9-kb Sau3A fragment from a partial digest of the 8.9-MDa plasmid was cloned into pUC118. The 8.1-kb recombinant plasmid (pJF8.1) was used for sequencing and revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 codes for a protein of 61 amino acids comprising a 37-amino-acid bacteriocin that was determined to be the leucocin B-Ta11a structural gene by virtue of its homology to leucocin A-UAL 187 (Hastings et al. 1991. J. Bacteriol 173:7491-7500). The 24-amino-acid N-terminal extension, however, differs from that of leucocin A-UAL187 by seven residues. The predicted protein of the ORF2 has 113 amino acids and is identical with the amino acid sequence of the cognate ORF of the leucocin A-UAL 187 operon. PMID:7765496

  12. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  13. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  14. Ultrafast magnetization and structural dynamics in the intercalated transition metal dichalcogenides Fe0.25TaS2 and Mn0.25TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Zhu, X. D.; Wang, L. H.; Cheong, S.-W.; Tobey, R. I.

    2016-05-01

    We measure magnetization and structural dynamics in two intercalant-ordered transition metal dichalcogenides: Fe0.25TaS2 and Mn0.25TaS2. The structurally equivalent materials allow us to probe the effect of orbital angular momentum which is active in Fe0.25TaS2 and absent in Mn0.25TaS2. Interestingly, we find that the magnetooptics dynamics are nearly indistinguishable in these two materials, in contradiction to conventional explanations of a spin–lattice mechanism. We compare our results to other materials where spin–lattice demagnetization has been put forth as a demagnetization channel.

  15. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Nurlaela, Ela; Harb, Moussab; Gobbo, Silvano del; Vashishta, Manish; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-15

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange–correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses. - Graphical abstract: Detailed investigation has been conducted from combined experimental and theoretical approaches on Raman and IR spectroscopies, electronic structures, dielectric constants and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Crystal structures of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed based on XRD and DFT calculation. • Raman and IR spectra of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} materials are measured and computed by DFPT method. • Optoelectronic properties of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed. • Dielectric constant and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are calculated.

  16. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Knoell, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by /sup 137/Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m/sup 3/ of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations.

  17. Rotational structures and the wobbling mode in {sup 167}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D. J.; Ludington, A.; Pifer, R.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Aguilar, A.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Shirwadkar, U.; Tandel, S. K.

    2011-06-15

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 167}Ta were studied through the {sup 120}Sn({sup 51}V,4n) reaction. Twelve rotational bands have been observed and the relative excitation energy of each sequence is now known owing to the multiple interband connections. Several quasineutron alignments were observed that aided in the quasiparticle assignments of these bands. The resulting interpretation is in line with observations in neighboring nuclei. Trends in the wobbling phonon energy seen in {sup 161,163,165,167}Lu and {sup 167}Ta are also discussed and particle-rotor model calculations (assuming constant moments of inertia) are found to be inconsistent with the experimental data.

  18. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R D; Rosa, P F S; Scott, B; Wakeham, N; Ghimire, N J; Bauer, E D; Thompson, J D; Ronning, F

    2016-01-01

    The change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. Density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [ℤ2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions. PMID:27271852

  19. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-06-01

    The change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. Density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [ℤ2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions.

  20. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  1. Lattice Instability of 2H-TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Bosco Balaguru, R.; Lawrence, N.; Alfred Cecil Raj, S.

    The charge density wave (CDW) in the layered compound 2H-TaSe2 at low temperatures has a commensurate phase, which causes super lattice points to appear in the Brillöuin zone of the undistorted phase. A Born-von Karman formalism has been employed for the calculation of phonon frequency distribution curves of 2H-TaSe2 both in the normal and in the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) phases. A folding technique has been adopted for the calculation in the CCDW phase. The phonon distribution for both the phases have been reported. With these distributions the thermal properties such as specific heat capacity, Debye Waller factor W(k) and thermal conductivity have been worked out, and compared with the available experimental results.

  2. Dislocation nucleation in bcc Ta single crystals studied by nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hamza, A V

    2007-08-08

    The study of dislocation nucleation in closed-packed metals by nanoindentation has recently attracted much interest. Here, we address the peculiarities of the incipient plasticity in body centered cubic (bcc) metals using low index Ta single-crystals as a model system. The combination of nanoindentation with high-resolution atomic force microscopy provides us with experimental atomic-scale information on the process of dislocation nucleation and multiplication. Our results reveal a unique deformation behavior of bcc Ta at the onset of plasticity which is distinctly different from that of closed-packed metals. Most noticeable, we observe only one rather than a sequence of discontinuities in the load-displacement curves. This and other differences are discussed in context of the characteristic plastic deformation behavior of bcc metals.

  3. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-01-01

    The change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. Density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [ℤ2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions. PMID:27271852

  4. Shock Hugoniot measurements on Ta to 0. 78 TPa

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.; Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Weingart, R.C.

    1983-08-18

    Symmetric impact shock Hugoniot measurements have been made on Ta with an electrically exploded foil gun system. The results obtained to date for the Hugoniot of Ta cover the range 0.19 to 0.78 TPa (impact velocities from 4.0 to 9.7 km/s) and agree with data obtained by other researchers to within 2.7% rms. Recent improvements in the system include electromagnetic shielding of impactor and target, continuous measurement of impactor velocity with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and computer-aided analysis of shot film. Conservative extrapolation from current operating conditions indicate that pressures of 1.1 to 1.5 TPa could be achieved with little difficulty.

  5. Optimal filling fraction of Ta2O5 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubio, C. R.; Guitian, F.; Gil, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) inverse opals were prepared by combining the self-assembly process and sol-gel chemistry-based opal infiltration. The inverse opal was made by the infiltration of a tantalum(V) ethoxide solution in the interstices of the polystyrene colloidal crystal template, and then removing the original opal template by calcination. The infiltration process as well as the optimal precursor concentration has been investigated in order to obtain Ta2O5 inverse opals with the optimal filling fraction. The effects of processing, template sphere size, morphology, structural properties, filling fraction and composition of the inverse opal are provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results correlate the concentration of the precursor with the filling fraction of the template.

  6. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  7. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report that the change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. In conclusion, density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [Z2 invariant (0;111)] withoutmore » Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions.« less

  8. Reaction of Ta thin film with single crystalline (001) beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Kolawa, E.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Ruiz, R. P.; Baud, L.; Jaussaud, C.; Madar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between a sputtered-deposited Ta film (320 nm thick) and a single crystalline (001) beta-SiC substrate induced by vacuum annealing at temperatures of 600-1200 C for 1 h (30 min at 1100 C) is investigated by 3 MeV He(+2) backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopies. No significant reaction is observed at 800 C or at lower tempertures. At 900 C, the main product phases are Ta2C and carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3. A minor amount of unreacted Ta is also present. After annealing at 1000 C, all the tantalum has reacted; the reaction zone possesses a multilayered structure of beta-SiC/TaC/carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3/alpha-Ta5Si3/Ta2C. The diffusion path at 1000 C is plotted on the isothermal section of the Ta-Si-C phase diagram. At 1100 C, the reacted layer has an interface with the SiC substrate that is still quite flat but has a rough surface due to the formation of macroscopic voids within the reacted layer. The equilibrium products predicted by the phase diagram are TaC and TaSi2. This final state is reached by annealing at 1200 C for 1 h. At that point, the reacted layer has a latterally very uneven structure and morphology.

  9. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  10. Biased FeTaC(N) soft underlayers for perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Jiang, Ruo-Fan

    2003-05-01

    FeTaCN films, prepared by using reactive sputtering, were studied for the application for soft underlayers of perpendicular media. As-deposited FeTaCN nanocrystalline films with a N2/Ar ratio of 5% exhibited high saturation moment (Bs=1.63 T) and low coercivity (1.4 Oe). IrMn/FeTaCN exchange-biased multilayer films and CoSm/FeTaCN hard-biased films were investigated to control the domain structure and magnetization reversal in FeTaCN films. Exchange bias field is inversely proportional to the thickness of FeTaCN films and reaches 11.4 Oe in the laminated sample of [IrMn (8 mm)/FeTaCN (50 nm)]×4. The interfacial coupling energy between IrMn and FeTaCN is 0.09 erg/cm2. The biasing field of CoSm/FeTaCN can reach a maximum value of 10.6 Oe at the FeTaCN thickness of 200 nm. The corresponding interfacial coupling energy of FeTaCN/CoSm is as large as 0.27 erg/cm2.

  11. TaN resistor process development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Kathleen; Martinez, Marino John; Clevenger, Jascinda; Austin, Franklin H., IV; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Wolfley, Steven L.; Patrizi, Gary A.; Vigil, Pablita S.; Grine, Alejandro J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an integrated resistor process based on reactively sputtered tantalum nitride. Image reversal lithography was shown to be a superior method for liftoff patterning of these films. The results of a response surface DOE for the sputter deposition of the films are discussed. Several approaches to stabilization baking were examined and the advantages of the hot plate method are shown. In support of a new capability to produce special-purpose HBT-based Small-Scale Integrated Circuits (SSICs), we developed our existing TaN resistor process, designed for research prototyping, into one with greater maturity and robustness. Included in this work was the migration of our TaN deposition process from a research-oriented tool to a tool more suitable for production. Also included was implementation and optimization of a liftoff process for the sputtered TaN to avoid the complicating effects of subtractive etching over potentially sensitive surfaces. Finally, the method and conditions for stabilization baking of the resistors was experimentally determined to complete the full implementation of the resistor module. Much of the work to be described involves the migration between sputter deposition tools - from a Kurt J. Lesker CMS-18 to a Denton Discovery 550. Though they use nominally the same deposition technique (reactive sputtering of Ta with N{sup +} in a RF-excited Ar plasma), they differ substantially in their design and produce clearly different results in terms of resistivity, conformity of the film and the difference between as-deposited and stabilized films. We will describe the design of and results from the design of experiments (DOE)-based method of process optimization on the new tool and compare this to what had been used on the old tool.

  12. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  13. The Crystallization Clinic-A TA Orientation Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Marjorie

    1999-01-01

    Our orientation exercise for TAs in the organic laboratories is a Crystallization Clinic, and the main feature is a contest. Each TA has a different unknown solid to recrystallize. The products are judged by the students in the organic lab courses. Beauty of the crystals is the single criterion. The contest serves to refresh the TAs' technique and to give them empathy with the beginning students.

  14. Excited states in the proton-unbound nuclide 158Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, R. J.; Page, R. D.; Joss, D. T.; O'Donnell, D.; Uusitalo, J.; Darby, I. G.; Andgren, K.; Auranen, K.; Bönig, S.; Cederwall, B.; Doncel, M.; Drummond, M. C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Gray-Jones, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; HerzáÅ, A.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Leino, M.; Leppänen, A.-P.; McPeake, C.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Revill, J.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Sayǧi, B.; Scholey, C.; Seweryniak, D.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Taylor, M. J.; Thornthwaite, A.

    2016-03-01

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient odd-odd proton-unbound nuclide 158Ta have been investigated in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, 166Ir nuclei were produced in the reactions of 380 MeV 78Kr ions with an isotopically enriched 92Mo target. The α -decay chain of the 9+ state in 166Ir was analyzed. Fine structure in the α decay of the 9+ state in 162Re established a 66 keV difference in excitation energy between the lowest-lying 9+ and 10+ states in 158Ta. Higher-lying states in 158Ta were populated in the reactions of 255 MeV 58Ni ions with an isotopically enriched 102Pd target. Gamma-ray decay paths that populate, depopulate, and bypass a 19- isomeric state have been identified. The general features of the deduced level scheme are discussed and the prospects for observing proton emission branches from excited states are considered.

  15. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  16. Branched Ta nanocolumns grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-05-15

    Periodic arrays of Ta nanocolumns, 200 nm wide and 600 nm tall, were grown by glancing angle sputter deposition onto self-assembled close-packed arrays of 260-nm-diameter silica spheres. Each sphere leads to the development of a single Ta column. As growth progresses, roughening of the column top surfaces causes branching of some columns into subcolumns. The measured fraction of branched columns f{sub b} decreases with increasing growth temperature, from 30% at 200 deg. C to 4% at 700 deg. C. This is attributed to the increased adatom mobility at elevated temperatures, leading to a larger average separation of growth mounds and, in turn, lower nucleation probabilities for subcolumns. Branching into 3 and 4 subcolumns exhibits probabilities proportional to f{sub b}{sup 2} and f{sub b}{sup 3}, respectively. A fit of the data with a simple nucleation model provides an effective activation energy for Ta surface diffusion of 2.0 eV.

  17. Seismic assessment of Technical Area V (TA-V).

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Carlos S.

    2014-03-01

    The Technical Area V (TA-V) Seismic Assessment Report was commissioned as part of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Self Assessment Requirement per DOE O 414.1, Quality Assurance, for seismic impact on existing facilities at Technical Area-V (TA-V). SNL TA-V facilities are located on an existing Uniform Building Code (UBC) Seismic Zone IIB Site within the physical boundary of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The document delineates a summary of the existing facilities with their safetysignificant structure, system and components, identifies DOE Guidance, conceptual framework, past assessments and the present Geological and Seismic conditions. Building upon the past information and the evolution of the new seismic design criteria, the document discusses the potential impact of the new standards and provides recommendations based upon the current International Building Code (IBC) per DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety and DOE G 420.1-2, Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and Non-Nuclear Facilities.

  18. Crystal Structures of U(Ta,W) 5O 16and U(Ta,W) 2O 8Revealed by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askeljung, Charlotta; Sundberg, Margareta

    1999-04-01

    Two new phases, U(Ta,W)5O16and U(Ta,W)2O8, were formed by solid state reaction of the binary oxides (U3O8, Ta2O5, and WO3) and Ta metal powder. They were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The phases are orthorhombic with the following unit cell dimensions: U(Ta,W)5O16,a=10.052(1),b=7.3207(5), andc=7.9600(4) Å; and U(Ta,W)2O8,a= 20.232(2),b=7.4520(4), andc=4.0652(2) Å. Both structures are built up of (Ta,W)O6-octahedra arranged as ReO3-type slabs two octahedra wide. In U(Ta,W)5O16these slabs are connected by a thin lamella consisting of hexagonal UO8-bipyramids and (Ta,W)O6-octahedra alternating along both thebandcaxes. EDS analysis indicated a composition of UTa1.5W3.5O16. The structure is related to UMo5O16, but with every other layer displaced through {1}/{2}b. The second phase, U(Ta,W)2O8, is isotypic with the orthorhombic modification of UMo2O8, in which the ReO3-type slabs are intergrown with lamellas of edge-sharing pentagonal UO7-bipyramids. The composition UTa0.5W1.5O8was obtained by EDS analysis. Some defects in terms of three-octahedra-wide ReO3-type slabs have been observed in U(Ta,W)5O16crystals. EDS analyses of such crystals showed a high-tungsten and a low-tantalum content.

  19. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atta U.; Nunes, Carlos A.; Coelho, Gilberto C.; Suzuki, Paulo A.; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bourree, Francoise; Rogl, Peter F.

    2012-06-15

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x} (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type (space group P4{sub 2}/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3-x} (x=0.03(1); Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.568(3), and Nb{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type into the ternary M-Si-B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D8{sub 8}-phase in the Nb-Si-B system crystallizes with the Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type revealing the formula Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ta{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292; Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) was solved from NPD.

  20. Processing and characterization of zeta-Ta4C 3-x: A high toughness tantalum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael M.

    Tantalum carbides are commonly processed by hot-pressing, canned hot-isostatic-pressing, or spark-plasma sintering because of their high melting temperatures and low diffusivities. This study reports processing of dense ζ-Ta4C 3-x by reaction sintering of a Ta and TaC powder mixture (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66). ζ-Ta4C3-x is of interest due to its rhombohedral (trigonal) crystal structure that may be characterized as a polytype with both face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Ta stacking sequences interrupted by stacking faults and missing carbon layers. This structure leads to easy cleaving on the basal planes and high fracture toughness. A key step in processing is the hydrogenation of the Ta powder to produce beta-TaH x, a hard and brittle phase that enables efficient comminution during milling and production of small, equiaxed Ta particles that can be packed to high green density with the TaC powder. Studies of phase evolution by quantitative X-ray diffraction during sintering revealed several intermediate reactions: (a) decomposition of beta-TaHx to Ta, (b) diffusion of C from gamma-TaC to Ta leading to the formation of α-Ta2Cy' with the kinetics described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation with an exponent, n = 0.5, and an activation energy of 221 kJ/mole, (c) equilibration of α-Ta2Cy' and gamma-TaC 0.78 phases, and (d) formation of ζ-Ta4C2.56 from the equilibrated α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 phases with the kinetics characterized by a higher JMAK exponent ( n ≈ 3) and higher activation energy (1089 kJ/mole). The microstructure showed evidence of nucleation and growth of the ζ-Ta4C 2.56 phase in both the α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 parent phases with distinct difference in the morphology due to the different number of variants of the habit plane. A hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) material (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66), having formed 95 w% ζ-phase, attained a fracture toughness of 15.6 +/- 0.5 MPa√m and a

  1. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  2. Metastable phases in HxLi1-xTaO3 waveguide layers and pure LiTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Grigorieva, T. I.; Kalabin, I. E.; Savatinova, I.; Savova, I.; Spesivtsev, E. V.; Tonchev, S.; Ziling, C. C.

    2001-10-01

    The formation of high-temperature phases in low-doped H:LiTaO3 waveguide layers in Z-cut LiTaO3 has been observed both by refractive-index and IR-spectra measurements. This permits us to correlate the index jumps to the changes of the OH bonds in the crystal lattice. Reversible phase transitions were detected in the temperature interval T=50-200 °C over a wide range of hydrogen content including as-grown LiTaO3. The high-temperature phases are metastable close to room temperature. This was demonstrated by tracing the time evolution of the refractive-index change. It was shown that the high-temperature phases are responsible for the long-term refractive-index instabilities in both H:LiTaO3 waveguides and virgin LiTaO3.

  3. Effects of constant voltage stressing on HfTaOx/SiGe gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, S.; Mahata, C.; Hota, M. K.; Sarkar, C. K.; Maiti, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrathin HfTaOx gate dielectric has been deposited on Si0.81Ge0.19 by RF co-sputtering of HfO2 and Ta2O5 targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses indicate an interfacial layer containing GeOx, Hf silicate, SiOx (layer of Hf- Si-Ge-O) formation during deposition of HfTaOx. No evidence of Ta-silicate or Ta incorporation was found at the interface. X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements show that as-deposited HfTaOx films are amorphous; however, the crystallization temperature of HfTaOx film is found to increase significantly after annealing beyond 500 °C (for 5 min) along with the incorporation of Ta (with 18% Ta). It has been found that HfTaOx gate dielectric on Si0.81Ge0.19 exhibit excellent electrical properties with low interface state density (~6.0×1011 cm-2eV-1) and hysteresis voltage (<70 mV). Charge trapping/detrapping behavior of the gate stacks has been studied under constant voltage stressing and the degradation mechanism of the dielectrics has been studied in detail.

  4. Magnetic field strength influence on the reactive magnetron sputter deposition of Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerweger, R.; Holec, D.; Paulitsch, J.; Rachbauer, R.; Polcik, P.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2013-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering enables the deposition of various thin films to be used for protective as well as optical and electronic applications. However, progressing target erosion during sputtering results in increased magnetic field strengths at the target surface. Consequently, the glow discharge, the target poisoning, and hence the morphology, crystal structure and stoichiometry of the prepared thin films are influenced. Therefore, these effects were investigated by varying the cathode current Im between 0.50 and 1.00 A, the magnetic field strength B between 45 and 90 mT, and the O2/(Ar + O2) flow rate ratio Γ between 0% and 100%. With increasing oxygen flow ratio a substoichiometric TaOx oxide forms at the metallic Ta target surface which further transfers to a non-conductive tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, impeding a stable dc glow discharge. These two transition zones (from Ta to TaOx and from TaOx to Ta2O5) shift to higher oxygen flow rates for increasing target currents. In contrast, increasing the magnetic field strength (e.g., due to sputter erosion) mainly shifts the TaOx to Ta2O5 transition to lower oxygen flow rates while marginally influencing the Ta to TaOx transition. To allow for a stable dc glow discharge (and to suppress the formation of non-conductive Ta2O5 at the target) even at Γ = 100% either a high target current (Im ⩾ 1 A) or a low magnetic field strength (B ⩽ 60 mT) is necessary. These conditions are required to prepare stoichiometric and fully crystalline Ta2O5 films.

  5. The system Ta-V-Si: Crystal structure and phase equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.U.; Broz, P.; Bursik, J.; Grytsiv, A.; Chen, X.-Q.; Giester, G.; Rogl, P.

    2012-03-15

    Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Three ternary phases were found: {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), {tau}{sub 2}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} (MgZn{sub 2}-type) and {tau}{sub 3}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). The crystal structure of {tau}{sub 2}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} was solved by X-ray single crystal diffraction (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). Atom order in the crystal structures of {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type) and {tau}{sub 3}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} was derived from X-ray powder diffraction data. A large homogeneity range was found for {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta{sub x}V{sub 1-x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} revealing random exchange of Ta and V at a constant Si content. At 1500 Degree-Sign C, the end points of the {tau}{sub 1}-phase solution (0.082{<=}x{<=}0.624) are in equilibrium with the solutions (Ta{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3} type, 0{<=}x{<=}0.128) and (Ta{sub x}V{sub 1-x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type, 0{<=}x{<=}0.048). - Graphical abstract: Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary phases were found at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1500 Degree-Sign C, {tau}{sub 1}-phase has large homogeneity region (0.064{<=}x{<=}0.624).

  6. Identification of a New Locus, Ptr(t), Required for Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta-Mediated Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Yulin; Martin, Rodger Carl

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a NBS type resistance gene Pi-ta to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here we report the identification of a new locus Ptr(t) that is required for Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. A Pi-ta expressing susceptible mutant was identified using a genetic screen. Putative mutations at Ptr(t) does not alter recognition specificity to another resistance gene Pi-ks in the Pi-ta homozygote indicate that Ptr(t) is more likely specific to Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. Genetic crosses of Pi-ta Ptr(t) and Pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes suggest that Ptr(t) segregate at single dominant nuclear gene. A ratio of 1 resistant: 1 susceptible of a BC1 using Pi-ta Ptr(t) with pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes indicates that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are linked and co-segregated. Genotyping of mutants of pi-ta ptr(t) and Pi-ta Ptr(t) homozygotes using ten simple sequence repeat markers spanning 9 megabase of Pi-ta determines that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are of indica origin. Identification of Ptr(t) is a significant advancement in studying Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition and transduction.

  7. Adventures in transformations: TG, TA, oh my! (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) AAVSO made available, through the great volunteer work of Gordon Myers and George Silvis, two very useful tools, Transform Generator and Transform Applier (TG and TA) for transforming instrumental magnitudes to the standard system. I will juxtapose the steps necessary to obtain transformation parameters "the old fashion way" and how can the same result be achieved with these two tools. I will present transformation parameters for the Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) telescope and obtained with the standard field M67. These parameters were applied to photometric results for AE Uma, a short-period, high-amplitude delta Scuti star (Period ~ 0.086 d).

  8. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2014-10-25

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in-situ at 450°C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. As a result, these observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition.

  9. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner's future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  10. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner’s future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  11. Supporting data for senary refractory high-entropy alloy CrxMoNbTaVW

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, B.; Gao, M.C.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This data article is related to the research paper entitled “senary refractory high-entropy alloy CrxMoNbTaVW [1]”. In this data article, the pseudo-binary Cr-MoNbTaVW phase diagram is presented to show the impact of Cr content to the senary Cr-MoNbTaVW alloy system; the sub-lattice site fractions are presented to show the disordered property of the Cr-MoNbTaVW BCC structures; the equilibrium and Scheil solidification results with the actual sample elemental compositions are presented to show the thermodynamic information of the melted/solidified CrxMoNbTaVW samples; and the raw EDS scan data of the arc-melted CrxMoNbTaVW samples are also provided. PMID:26693172

  12. Low emissivity Ag/Ta/glass multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Ho; Lee, Kee Sun; Sivasankar Reddy, A.

    2011-09-15

    Ta is deposited on a glass substrate as an interlayer for the two-dimensional growth of Ag thin films because Ta has good thermal stability and can induce a negative surface-energy change in Ag/glass. From the transmission electron microscopy results, we concluded that the Ag crystals in the bottom layer (seemingly on Ag/Ta) were flattened; this was rarely observed in the three-dimensional growth mode. Comparing Ag/Ta/glass with Ag/glass, we found that the Ta interlayer was effective in reducing both the resistance and the emissivity, accompanied by the relatively high transmittance in the visible region. In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0.08 of the emissivity, including {approx}61% of the transmittance in the visible region (wavelength: 550 nm).

  13. Tribological properties changes of H13 steel induced by MEVVA Ta ion implantation*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianhua, Yang; Tonghe, Zhang

    2004-05-01

    The tribological properties of Ta-implanted H13 steel was studied using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. The doses of Ta and C ions implanted on H13 steel were 5×10 17 and 2×10 17 cm -2, respectively. The extraction voltages were 48 kV for Ta implantation and 30 kV for C implantation. Rutherford backscattering spectrum (RBS) was used to measure the surface composition of the samples implanted. The observation of phase induced by Ta, C implantation was carried out by grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD). The wear test of the implanted surface revealed that Ta+C dual implantation reduced the wear of the implanted steel by nearly a factor of 2. This wear mechanism of the Ta-implanted steel was compared with that of Ti implantation.

  14. Aqueous corrosion of ion beam mixed Ta films on 13% chromium steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N. K.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of aqueous corrosion of ion beam mixed Ta on 13 wt% chromium steel in 1M H 2SO 4 or 0.1N NaCl solution has been investigated. The results show that Ta ion mixing can evidently improve the corrosion resistance of chromium steel. The corrosion resistances of the ion beam mixed Ta films are affected by the nature of the substrates. Some suggestions are proposed according to microanalysis results by using SEM, RBS and XPS techniques.

  15. Magnetotransport measurements of current induced effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chaoliang; Yamanouchi, Michihiko Ikeda, Shoji; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-23

    We evaluate current-induced effective magnetic fields in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures from the external magnetic field angle dependence of the Hall resistance. We confirm the presence of two components of effective fields. The dependence of their magnitudes on Ta thickness implies that both components are related to the spin current in Ta layer generated by the spin Hall effect.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Role of Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) Loci in Bacterial Persistence.

    PubMed

    Butt, Aaron T; Titball, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method to analyze the functionality of putative TA loci by expressing them in Escherichia coli. Here, we describe the procedure for cloning recombinant TA genes into inducible plasmids and expressing these in E. coli. Following expression, toxicity, resuscitation of growth, and changes in persister cell formation are assayed. This can confirm whether predicted TA loci are active in E. coli and whether expression can affect persister cell formation. PMID:26468105

  17. Comparison between Pt/TiO2/Pt and Pt/TaO X /TaO Y /Pt based bipolar resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Patrick W. C.; Odai Hatem, Firas; Almurib, Haider Abbas F.; Nandha Kumar, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nonvolatile memories have emerged in recent years and have become a leading candidate towards replacing dynamic and static random-access memory devices. In this article, the performances of TiO2 and TaO2 nonvolatile memristive devices were compared and the factors that make TaO2 memristive devices better than TiO2 memristive devices were studied. TaO2 memristive devices have shown better endurance performances (108 times more switching cycles) and faster switching speed (5 times) than TiO2 memristive devices. Electroforming of TaO2 memristive devices requires ∼4.5 times less energy than TiO2 memristive devices of a similar size. The retention period of TaO2 memristive devices is expected to exceed 10 years with sufficient experimental evidence. In addition to comparing device performances, this article also explains the differences in physical device structure, switching mechanism, and resistance switching performances of TiO2 and TaO2 memristive devices. This article summarizes the reasons that give TaO2 memristive devices the advantage over TiO2 memristive devices, in terms of electroformation, switching speed, and endurance.

  18. Reduced-temperature processing and consolidation of ultra-refractory Ta4HfC5

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballa, Osama; Cook, B. A.; Russell, A. M.

    2013-04-26

    TaC, HfC, and WC powders were subjected to high-energy milling and hot pressing to produce Ta4HfC5, a composite of Ta(4)HfC5 + 30 vol.% WC, and a composite of Ta4HfC5 + 50 vol.% WC. Sub-micron powders were examined after four different milling intervals prior to hot pressing. XRD was used to verify proper phase formation. SEM, relative density, and hardness measurements were used to examine the resulting phases. Hot pressed compacts of Ta4HfC5 showed densification as high as 98.6% along with Vickers hardness values of 21.4 GPa. Similarly, Ta4HfC5 + 30 vol.% WC exhibited 99% densification with a Vickers hardness of 22.5 GPa. These levels of densification were achieved at 1500 degrees C, which is lower than any previously reported sintering temperature for Ta4HfC5. Microhardness values measured in this study were higher than those previously reported for Ta4HfC5. The WC additions to Ta4HfC5 were found to improve densification and increase microhardness. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Wang, Yun; Xu, Wenqi; Wu, Lintao; Wang, Hancheng; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants. PMID:26469859

  20. (Ag,Cu)-Ta-O ternaries as high-temperature solid-lubricant coatings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongyu; Otero-de-la-Roza, Alberto; Gu, Jingjing; Stone, D'Arcy; Aouadi, Samir M; Johnson, Erin R; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-07-22

    Ternary oxides have gained increasing attention due to their potential use as solid lubricants at elevated temperatures. In this work, the tribological properties of three ternary oxides-AgTaO3, CuTaO3, and CuTa2O6-were studied using a combination of density-functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with newly developed empirical potential parameters, and experimental measurements (AgTaO3 and CuTa2O6 only). Our results show that the MD-predicted friction force follows the trend AgTaO3 < CuTaO3 < CuTa2O6, which is consistent with the experimentally measured coefficients of friction. The wear performance from both MD and experiment exhibits the opposite trend, with CuTa2O6 providing the best resistance to wear. The sliding mechanisms are investigated using experimental characterization of the film composition after sliding, quantification of Ag or Cu cluster formation at the interface during the evolution of the film in MD, and DFT energy barriers for atom migration on the material surface. All our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the formation of metal (or metal oxide) clusters on the surface are responsible for the friction and wear behavior of these materials. PMID:26106877

  1. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements. PMID:26476792

  2. Morphological instability of Ag films caused by phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mardani, Shabnam Vallin, Örjan; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Norström, Hans; Olsson, Jörgen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2014-08-18

    Wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor technologies are maturing and may provide increased device performance in many fields of applications, such as high-temperature electronics. However, there are still issues regarding the stability and reliability of WBG devices. Of particular importance is the high-temperature stability of interconnects for electronic systems based on WBG-semiconductors. For metallization without proper encapsulation, morphological degradation can occur at elevated temperatures. Sandwiching Ag films between Ta and/or TaN layers in this study is found to be electrically and morphologically stabilize the Ag metallization up to 800 °C, compared to 600 °C for uncapped films. However, the barrier layer plays a key role and TaN is found to be superior to Ta, resulting in the best achieved stability, whereas the difference between Ta and TaN caps is negligible. The β-to-α phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer is identified as the major cause responsible for the morphological instability observed above 600 °C. It is shown that this phase transition can be avoided using a stacked Ta/TaN barrier.

  3. Electrochemical and Electrochromic Properties of Nanoworm-shaped Ta2O5-Pt Thin-Films

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K

    2004-05-18

    A Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Pt nanostructure electrode was fabricated by means of cosputtering. Worm-like Pt nanoparticles were produced in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of nanoworm-shaped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Pt electrode are compared with those of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin-film electrode without Pt nanoparticles.

  4. Ultra-High Strength and Ductile Lamellar-Structured Powder Metallurgy Binary Ti-Ta Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Shenghang; Wang, Xin; Li, Kaiyang; Liu, Bin; Wu, Hong; Tang, Huiping

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and ductile powder metallurgy (PM) binary Ti-20at.%Ta alloy has been fabricated via sintering from elemental Ti and Ta powders and subsequent hot swaging and annealing. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in each stage were evaluated. Results show that inhomogeneous microstructures with Ti-rich and Ta-rich areas formed in the as-sintered Ti-Ta alloys due to limited diffusion of Ta. In addition, Kirkendall porosity was observed as a result of the insufficient diffusion of Ta. Annealing at 1000°C for up to 24 h failed to eliminate the pores. Hot swaging eliminated the residual sintering porosity and created a lamellar microstructure, consisting of aligned Ta-enriched and Ti-enriched phases. The hot-swaged and annealed PM Ti-20Ta alloy achieved an ultimate tensile strength of 1600 MPa and tensile elongation of more than 25%, due to its unique lamellar microstructure including the high toughness of Ta-enriched phases, the formation of α phase in the β matrix and the refined lamellae.

  5. Geology of the Western Part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-3 to TA-16), Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    C.J.Lewis; A.Lavine; S.L.Reneau; J.N.Gardner; R.Channell; C.W.Criswell

    2002-12-01

    We present data that elucidate the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and structure in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory between Technical Areas 3 and 16 (TA-3 and TA-16). Data include those gathered by geologic mapping of surficial, post-Bandelier Tuff strata, conventional and high-precision geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of cooling units within the Bandelier Tuff, logging of boreholes and a gas pipeline trench, and structural analysis using profiles, cross sections, structure contour maps, and stereographic projections. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the paleoseismic and geomorphic history of the area, which will aid in future seismic hazard evaluations and other investigations. The study area lies at the base of the main, 120-m (400-ft) high escarpment formed by the Pajarito fault, an active fault of the Rio Grande rift that bounds Los Alamos National Laboratory on the west. Subsidiary fracturing, faulting, and folding associated with the Pajarito fault zone extends at least 1,500 m (5,000 ft) to the east of the main Pajarito fault escarpment. Stratigraphic units in the study area include upper units of the Tshirege Member of the early Pleistocene Bandelier Tuff, early Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits that predate incision of canyons on this part of the Pajarito Plateau, and younger Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium and colluvium that postdate drainage incision. We discriminate four sets of structures in the area between TA-3 and TA-16: (a) north-striking faults and folds that mark the main zone of deformation, including a graben in the central part of the study area; (b) north-northwest-striking fractures and rare faults that bound the eastern side of the principal zone of deformation and may be the surface expression of deep-seated faulting; (c) rare northeast-striking structures near the northern limit of the area associated with the southern end of the Rendija Canyon fault; and (d) several small east

  6. Corrosion behaviour of welds and Ta in liquid lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Müller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2016-02-01

    Four specimens, P91 welded by friction stir welding with and without post heat treatment, P91 electromagnetic pulse welded (EMP) and 14Cr ODS (explosive welding) were exposed at 550 °C for up to 2131 h to Pb containing 10-6 wt% oxygen. After the exposure none of the samples showed dissolution attack, all were protected by an oxide layer at the surface. Nearly no effect on the oxidation due to welding was found in both friction stir welded specimens. Severe deformation and partial melting during explosive welding result in a slower oxide layer growth within the welding zone. The EMP sample was tested as delivered without post-heat treatment. No Pb penetrated into the tiny gap between the welded parts. After the test, the gap is filled up with oxides. Additionally, Ta, discussed as a pump impeller material, was exposed to Pb and PbBi at different temperatures (400-900 °C) and oxygen concentrations in liquid metal (saturated, 10-6 wt%, 10-8 wt% and reduced (<<10-8 wt%). Only the Ta specimens exposed to Pb with highly reduced oxygen content showed nearly no attack. All the others exhibited oxide scale formation that becomes severe above 400 °C test temperature.

  7. Cooperative hunting roles among taï chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe

    2002-03-01

    All known chimpanzee populations have been observed to hunt small mammals for meat. Detailed observations have shown, however, that hunting strategies differ considerably between populations, with some merely collecting prey that happens to pass by while others hunt in coordinated groups to chase fast-moving prey. Of all known populations, Taï chimpanzees exhibit the highest level of cooperation when hunting. Some of the group hunting roles require elaborate coordination with other hunters as well as precise anticipation of the movements of the prey. The meat-sharing rules observed in this community guarantee the largest share of the meat to hunters who perform the most important roles leading to a capture. The learning time of such hunting roles is sometimes especially long. Taï chimpanzee males begin hunting monkeys at about age 10. The hunters' progress in learning the more sophisticated hunting roles is clearly correlated with age; only after 20 years of practice are they able to perform them reliably. This lengthy learning period has also been shown in some hunter-gatherer societies and confirms the special challenge that hunting represents. PMID:26192594

  8. Spectroscopy of TaN in Support of Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Sharfi, David; Kim, Yongrak; Kokkin, Damian; Bouchard, Jacob; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Tantalum nitride, TaN, has been recently identified as a leading candidate for extending the study of T, P-odd effects in the nuclear realm to include proton, neutron, and quark electric dipole moments (EDM) and beyond. This is primarily due to enhancements in the interaction of electrons with the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) and the resulting parity-violating effects. Study of the dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the 17570.80 (Ω = 0+) , 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) , 19216.80 (Ω = 1), and 19396.78 (Ω = 1) bands above the X1Σ+ (v = 0) ground state of TaN near 569 nm, 543 nm, 520 nm, and 515 nm has enabled a determination of the branching ratios and transition dipole moments of all 4 states. Radiative lifetimes of 454(32) ns, 479(12) ns, 333(4) ns, and 480(17) ns respectively were measured from an analysis of the fluorescence decay curves, and potential optical pumping approaches for both populating and detecting the parity-violation sensitive 3Δ1 state are proposed. Further experiments using CW laser excitation have enabled the observation of the hyperfine structure of several bands in the gateway 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) to X1Σ+ (v = 0) transition, and analysis of these complex spectra is underway. DK, JB, and TS acknowledge support from NSF CHE-1265885, as do RM, DS, and YK from Pomona College.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-Ta-Nb-Mn foams.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Guerra, C; Lascano, S; Guzman, D; Rojas, P A; Thirumurugan, M; Bejar, L; Medina, A

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented increase in human life expectancy have produced profound changes in the prevailing patterns of disease, like the observed increased in degenerative disc diseases, which cause degradation of the bones. Ti-Nb-Ta alloys are promising materials to replace the damaged bone due to their excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. In general metallic foams are widely used for medical application due to their lower elastic moduli compare to bulk materials. In this work we studied the synthesis of 34Nb-29Ta-xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt.% Mn) alloy foams (50% v/v) using ammonium hydrogen carbonate as a space holder. Alloys were produced through mechanical alloying in a planetary mill for 50h. Green compacts were obtained by applying 430 MPa pressure. To remove the space holder from the matrix the green compacts were heated to 180 °C for 1.5h and after sintered at 1300 °C for 3h. Foams were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning, transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The elastic modulus of the foam was measured as ~30 GPa, and the values are almost equal to the values predicted using various theoretical models. PMID:26478329

  10. Reconnaissance of the Hydrogeology of Ta'u, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of existing data and information collected on a reconnaissance field visit supports a conceptual model of ground-water occurrence in Ta'u, American Samoa, in which a thin freshwater lens exists in a predominantly high-permeability aquifer that receives high rates of recharge. Because the freshwater lens is thin throughout most of the island, the productivity of wells, especially those near the coast where the lens is the thinnest, is likely to be limited by saltwater intrusion. The landfill in northwestern Ta'u is closer to the north coast of the island than to any of the existing or proposed well sites. Although this may indicate that ground water beneath the landfill would flow away from the existing and proposed well sites, this interpretation may change depending on the hydraulic properties of a fault and rift zone in the area. Of four plausible scenarios tested with a numerical ground-water flow model, only one scenario indicated that ground water from beneath the landfill would flow toward the existing and proposed well sites; the analysis does not, however, assess which of the four scenarios is most plausible. The analysis also does not consider the change in flow paths that will result from ground-water withdrawals, dispersion of contaminants during transport by ground water, other plausible hydrogeologic scenarios, transport of contaminants by surface-water flow, or that sources of contamination other than the landfill may exist. Accuracy of the hydrologic interpretations in this study is limited by the relatively sparse data available for Ta'u. Understanding water resources on Ta'u can be advanced by monitoring rainfall, stream-flow, evaporation, ground-water withdrawals, and water quality, and with accurate surveys of measuring point elevations for all wells and careful testing of well-performance. Assessing the potential for contaminants in the landfill to reach existing and proposed well sites can be improved with additional information on the

  11. The isolation and characterisation of the wheat molecular ZIPper I homologue, TaZYP1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous tripartite structure used to hold homologous chromosomes together during the early stages of meiosis. The yeast ZIP1 and its homologues in other species have previously been characterised as the transverse filament protein of the synaptonemal complex. Proper installation of ZYP1 along chromosomes has been shown to be dependent on the axial element-associated protein, ASY1 in Arabidopsis. Results Here we report the isolation of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) ZYP1 (TaZYP1) and its expression profile (during and post-meiosis) in wild-type, the ph1b deletion mutant as well as in Taasy1 RNAi knock-down mutants. TaZYP1 has a putative DNA-binding S/TPXX motif in its C-terminal region and we provide evidence that TaZYP1 interacts non-preferentially with both single- and double-stranded DNA in vitro. 3-dimensional dual immunofluorescence localisation assays conducted with an antibody raised against TaZYP1 show that TaZYP1 interacts with chromatin during meiosis but does not co-localise to regions of chromatin where TaASY1 is present. The TaZYP1 signal lengthens into regions of chromatin where TaASY1 has been removed in wild-type but this appears delayed in the ph1b mutant. The localisation profile of TaZYP1 in four Taasy1 knock-down mutants is similar to wild-type but TaZYP1 signal intensity appears weaker and more diffused. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies performed on plant species where ZYP1 signal is sandwiched by ASY1 signal located on both axial elements of the SC, data from the 3-dimensional dual immunofluorescence localisation assays conducted in this study show that TaZYP1 signal only lengthens into regions of chromatin after TaASY1 signal is being unloaded. However, the observation that TaZYP1 loading appears delayed in both the ph1b and Taasy1 mutants suggests that TaASY1 may still be essential for TaZYP1 to play a role in SC formation during meiosis. These data further suggest that the

  12. Single-Crystal Electrical Resistivities of Some Ta-Rich Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyungsoo; Hughbanks, Timothy

    1993-02-01

    Vapor phase transport synthesis of several Ta-rich chalcogenides affords us good single crystals for four-probe measurements of their electrical resistivities. A comparison of the temperature dependent resistivities of Ta2S and Ta3S2 show that the latter compound is a considerably poorer conductor for all temperatures from 15 to 270 K, as predicted in our earlier band structure study of these materials and consistent with the recent work of Nozaki and coworkers. In both cases, resistivities were measured along the direction parallel to the 1x [Ta5Ta] chains that serve as these materials' basic structural building blocks. The compounds Ta9M2S6 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) show normal metallic behavior over the same range of temperatures. A distortion that leads to a doubling of the c-axis length for the Fe and Co containing compounds seems to have no significant effect on the electronic density of states at the Fermi level in either material. In contrast, the compounds Ta11M2Se8 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) exhibit markedly different resistivities as a function of temperature. While Ta11Fe2Se8 and Ta11Ni2Se8 behave much like the structurally similar Ta9M2S6 compounds, the resistivity of Ta11Co2Se8 shows a curiously weak temperature dependence and a high residual value at the lowest temperatures of measurement (15 K). Powder diffraction data for this compound suggests that crystals prepared at low temperature have lower symmetry than the Pnnm space group originally reported.

  13. Interfacial electronic structure-modulated magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/Ta multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Jiang, Shao Long; Yang, Guang; Liu, Yang; Teng, Jiao; Yu, Guang Hua; Wang, Kai You; Wu, Zheng Long

    2014-09-01

    We have observed several unexpected phenomena when a trace amount of Fe atoms is deposited onto the CoFeB/MgO interface in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/Ta multilayers. With the nominal thickness of the introduced Fe atoms (t{sub Fe}) varying from 0 to 0.1 Å, the effective magnetic anisotropy energy (K{sub eff}) of annealed multilayers is remarkably enhanced from 1.28 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3} to 2.14 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3}. As t{sub Fe} further increasing, the K{sub eff} decreases and even becomes negative when t{sub Fe} > 1 Å, indicating the change from perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer reveals that the Fe atoms at annealed CoFeB/MgO interface show different electronic structures as t{sub Fe} increasing, which combine with O atoms to form FeO{sub x} (x < 1), Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively, leading to modulation of Fe 3d-O 2p orbital hybridization and thus the K{sub eff}. On the other hand, we find that the introduction of Fe atoms also helps to reduce the multilayers' magnetic damping.

  14. Low-Level, Measured Response of Los Alamos National Laboratories TA 16 - Building 411 and TA 8 - Building 23 to Direct Flash Attachment of Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dinallo, Michael A.; Holmes, Parris; Merewether, Kimball O.; Morris, Marvin E.

    1999-02-01

    On September 24, 25, 28, and 29, 1998 and on October 19 and 23, 1998, transfer impedance measurements were made on Los Alamos National Laboratories TA 16 - Building 411 and TA 8-- Building 23 to characterize their interior open-circuit voltage response to a direct lightning flash attachment to the structures. The theory, history, measurement methods and equipment, and specific measured results are detailed. The measured results demonstrate that if the remaining metallic penetrations are bonded, then the rebar of the two structures is sufficiently well connected to form a Faraday cage that reduces the maximum open-circuit voltage inside the structure to a sufficiently low level that the required standoff distance to prevent arcing to explosive assemblies is 6.8 inches for TA 16 - Building 411 and is 11.5 inches for TA 8 - Building 23.

  15. Strong enhancement of superconductivity at high pressures within the charge-density-wave states of 2 H -TaS2 and 2 H -TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Osorio, M. R.; Navarro-Moratalla, E.; Nemes, N. M.; Tissen, V. G.; Cario, L.; Coronado, E.; García-Hernández, M.; Vieira, S.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.; Suderow, H.

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the superconducting and charge-density-wave (CDW) critical temperatures (Tc and TCDW) as a function of pressure in the transition metal dichalchogenides 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -TaS2 . Resistance and susceptibility measurements show that Tc increases from temperatures below 1 K up to 8.5 K at 9.5 GPa in 2 H -TaS2 and 8.2 K at 23 GPa in 2 H -TaSe2 . We observe a kink in the pressure dependence of TCDW at about 4 GPa that we attribute to the lock-in transition from incommensurate CDW to commensurate CDW. Above this pressure, the commensurate TCDW slowly decreases, coexisting with superconductivity within our full pressure range.

  16. Structural and electronic investigations of PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 constructed from α-U3O8 types of layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul A.

    2015-09-01

    The PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 phases were prepared by ion-exchange and solid-state methods, respectively, and their structures were characterized by neutron time-of-flight diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods (PbTa4O11, R 3 (No. 146), a=6.23700(2) Å, c=36.8613(1) Å; BiTa7O19, P 6 bar c 2 (No. 188), a=6.2197(2) Å, c=20.02981(9) Å). Their structures are comprised of layers of TaO6 octahedra surrounded by three 7-coordinate Pb(II) cations or two 8-coordinate Bi(III) cations. These layers alternate down the c-axis with α-U3O8 types of single and double TaO7 pentagonal bipyramid layers. In contrast to earlier studies, both phases are found to crystallize in noncentrosymmetric structures. Symmetry-lowering structural distortions within PbTa4O11, i.e. R 3 bar c →R3, are found to be a result of the displacement of the Ta atoms within the TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra, towards the apical and facial oxygen atoms, respectively. In BiTa7O19, relatively lower reaction temperatures leads to an ordering of the Bi/Ta cations within a lower-symmetry structure, i.e., P63/mcm→ P 6 bar c 2 . In the absence of Bi/Ta site disorder, the Ta-O-Ta bond angles decrease and the Ta-O bond distances increase within the TaO7 double layers. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal two particle morphologies for PbTa4O11, hexagonal rods and finer irregularly-shaped particles, while BiTa7O19 forms as aggregates of irregularly-shaped particles. Electronic-structure calculations confirm the highest-energy valence band states are comprised of O 2p-orbitals and the respective Pb 6s-orbital and Bi 6s-orbital contributions. The lowest-energy conduction band states are composed of Ta 5d-orbital contributions that are delocalized over the TaO6 octahedra and layers of TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The symmetry-lowering distortions in the PbTa4O11 structure, and the resulting effects on its electronic structure, lead to its relatively higher photocatalytic activity compared to similar structures without

  17. Nb/Ta - Zr/Hf Fractionations during Subduction: Implications for the'Missing' Nb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zateslo, T.; Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Stern, C.; Taylor, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    Key differences between the chemical composition of terrestrial materials and those of meteorites have led to the suggestion that a 'hidden' high Nb/Ta reservoir exists in the Earth's mantle. In order to test this hypothesis we must identify the processes that can create such a reservoir. Here we report the first high precision HFSE data on products of the subduction processes thought to fractionate Nb from Ta: boninites (hydrous melting), adakites (slab melting), OIBs (Koolau, Walvis: plume with recycled oceanic crust), as well as kimberlites and lamproites. We developed a new method for the high precision determination of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf concentrations based on a modified version of standard addition. All analyses were performed on a single collector ICPMS (ELEMENT 1), using Y and Yb as internal standards to correct for instrumental drift during the unspiked -spiked sample sequence. Concentrations are calculated using a York- type regression that accounts for all measured and propagated errors. Long-term reproducibility (multiple dissolutions and multiple spike solutions) for the standards BHVO-1, BIR-1 AGV-1 and BCR-1 are better than 0.8% (1s) for Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios. The advantages of this method compared to previous methods are fast throughput, no column chemistry and low blanks. The Koolau and Walvis Ridge lavas have subchondritic Nb/Ta for a given Zr/Hf, overlapping other OIB suites and show no evidence for a recycled, high Nb/Ta reservoir in their source. OIB, considered as a group, have relatively constant Nb/Ta (15-16) but more variable Zr/Hf (35-50). In contrast, boninites (Chichi Jima) have significantly subchondritic Nb/Ta (4-12) at near constant Zr/Hf (35), while adakites (South Andes) extend to near chondritic Nb/Ta (13-19) at more variable Zr/Hf (30-40). The adakites showing the least evidence for crustal contamination have the highest Nb/Ta. The arc lavas cross the OIB trend at near right angle on a Nb/Ta vs. Zr/Hf plot having larger Nb/Ta

  18. The role of Ta and Pt in segregation within Co-Cr-Ta and Co-Cr-Pt thin film magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Kemner, K.M.; Harris, V.G.; Chakarian, V.; Idzerda, Y.U.; Elam, W.T.; Kao, C.; Feng, Y.C.; Laughlin, D.E.; Woicik, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Polarization dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (PD-EXAFS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements of CoCrTa and CoCrPt films, sputter deposited at varying substrate temperatures, were performed to investigate the average local structure and chemistry about the Ta, Pt, and Co atoms and the average magnetic moment of the Co and Cr atoms within these films. Results from the MCD measurements indicate the average net magnetic moment of the Cr atoms is opposite in direction and five percent in amplitude relative to the Co moments. Inspection of the Fourier transforms of the XAFS data from these samples shows an increase in structural disorder around the Ta and Pt atoms with increasing substrate deposition temperature. A further comparison between the Ta and Pt edge EXAFS results show that the temperature-dependent increase in structural disorder is greater around the Ta atoms in the CoCrTa system than it is around the Pt atoms in the CoCrPt system. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Non-stoichiometry and Defects in the Weyl Semimetals TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, Tiglet; Rhodes, Daniel A.; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Zhang, Qui; Zheng, Bin; Xin, Yan; Balicas, Luis; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Siegrist, Theo

    We report on a structural study of the Weyl semimetals TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP, utilizing diffraction techniques (single crystal x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) and imaging techniques (transmission electron microscopy). We observe defects of various degrees, leading to non-stoichiometric single crystals of all four semimetals. While TaP displays a very large pnictide deficiency with composition TaP0 . 83 (3) and stacking faults accompanied by anti-site disorder and site vacancies, TaAs displays transition metal deficiency with composition Ta0 . 92 (2)As and a high density of stacking faults. NbP also displays pnictide deficiency, yielding composition NbP0 . 95 (2), and lastly, NbAs display very little deviation from a 1:1 composition, NbAs1 . 00 (3), and is therefore recommended to serve as the model compound for these semimetals. DOE-BES #DE-SC0008832 (TB & TS), NSF DMR-1157490 (NHMFL).

  20. Symmetry-breaking Ta4+ centers in KTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Zaritskii, M. I.; Glinchuk, M. D.; Bykov, I. P.; Rosa, J.; Jastrabík, L.

    1998-07-01

    A study of photoinduced Ta4+ centers in nominally pure KTaO3 single crystals has been carried out by electron-spin resonance. Two of these centers (Ta4+-VO and Ta4+-VO-Me4+) are connected with vacancies of oxygen (VO); a third center is associated with an OH- molecular ion (Ta4+-OH-). This assignment is made on the basis of concentration measurements of the corresponding centers after annealing in argon, oxygen, hydrogen, and H2O vapor atmospheres. It has been shown that the Ta4+ centers are shallow donors; at T>=30 K they are ionized and transformed into ordinary VO and OH- which are assumed to be the main lattice defects before illumination. Their energy levels are determined by the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the light-induced nonequilibrium localized electron population. The energy levels of Ta4+-VO and Ta4+-VO-Me4+ centers are situated at 26 and 8 meV below the bottom of the conduction band, respectively. The symmetry of the centers is inverse broken in the sense that the photoelectron is localized near one of two equivalent Ta5+ ions next to an oxygen vacancy or OH-. The role of VO defects and OH- molecules in the nucleation of local polar clusters in nominally pure KTaO3 crystals at low temperatures is discussed.

  1. Along the Ta Diffusion Path Through a Boron and Oxygen Containing Tri-layer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Ji, Rong; Wang, Chen Chen; Ter Lim, Sze; Xie, Huiqing; Gerard, Ernult F.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion and migration of elements are commonly observed in the fabrication of multilayer thin-film devices, including those of STT-RAM. The CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer thin-film stack has been widely used in the design of STT-RAM devices as the functional magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) structure. Such issues faced in the fabrication of these devices have been extensively researched from the stand point of engineering the materials property and structure to achieve the best MTJ performance. In this work, we conducted a detailed examination of the chemical-state change of the Ta and B in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta film stack by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We showed that the chemical-state change of Ta and B is a result of the Ta diffusion phenomena through the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer structure. In particular, we report the evidences of the formation of TaB x O y compound at some considerable depth away from the Ta layer. Also of value to XPS spectroscopy, the Ta binding energy for such TaB x O y compound is reported for the first time.

  2. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyi; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xiaomin; Ma, Zhanbing; Chen, Lihong; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Wang, Jie; He, Yanzhen; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA) and H(2)O(2). Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2), and less ion leakage (IL), but higher relative water content (RWC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities when compared with the wild type (WT) under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants. PMID:23285044

  3. Field resistance expressed when the PI-TA gene is compromised by Magnaporthe oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene provided 14 years of durable resistance to contemporary field population of Magnaporthe oryzae in southern USA rice production areas before being overcome during 2004 in ‘Banks’, a Pi-ta-based cultivar, by race IE-1k of the blast pathogen. Previously detected in production fields in 1...

  4. Graphite surface topography induced by Ta cluster impact and oxidative etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, C. T.; Andersson, S.; Brühwiler, P.; Mårtensson, N.; Olsson, L.; Erlandsson, R.; Henkel, M.; Urbassek, H. M.

    1998-04-01

    Freshly cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), when baked in air at ≈630°C, forms one-monolayer (ML)-deep circular pits due to oxidation initiated at surface defect sites. We found that the areal density and depths of these pits could be modulated by deliberately introducing surface and sub-surface defects by energetic ion bombardment prior to baking. Bombardment by 555-eV/atom Ta +1, Ta +2, Ta +4, or Ta +9 always enhanced the areal density of etch pits, but only bombardment by Ta +4, or Ta +9 significantly enhanced the depths of the pits. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of Ta n cluster bombardment of HOPG ( n=1,2,4, and 9) with the aim of characterizing the damage structures induced by the bombardment and correlating them with the experimental data. For Ta 9, the simulations showed a high level of damage extending from the surface down to nine MLs, in agreement with the most probable etch pit depth observed. For other cluster species, predicted etch pit depths were deeper than the observed ones. Annealing or steric requirements for initiating oxidation may account for some of the differences between simulations and experimental results.

  5. A vibrational spectral study of hydrated tantalum phosphate(TaPO 5) phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranford, G. T.; Condrate, R. A.

    1990-04-01

    Infrared and Raman spectra were measured for various hydrated tantalum phosphate (TaPO 5) materialsafter dehydration at various temperatures, and the spectral differences were interpreted on the basis of structure. The structural nature of water along with protonated phosphate and TaO 6 groups in the amorphous hydrated materials was discussed.

  6. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously provided…

  7. Statistical inference of selection and divergence of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance gene Pi-ta has been effectively used to control rice blast disease worldwide. A few recent studies have described the possible evolution of Pi-ta in cultivated and weedy rice. However, evolutionary statistics used for the studies are too limited to precisely understand selection and d...

  8. Wheat Transcription Factor TaAREB3 Participates in Drought and Freezing Tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Qian; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AREB (ABA response element binding) proteins in plants play direct regulatory roles in response to multiple stresses, but their functions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not clear. In the present study, TaAREB3, a new member of the AREB transcription factor family, was isolated from wheat. Sequence analysis showed that the TaAREB3 protein is composed of three parts, a conserved N-terminal, a variable M region, and a conserved C-terminal with a bZIP domain. It belongs to the group A subfamily of bZIP transcription factors. TaAREB3 was constitutively expressed in stems, leaves, florets, anthers, pistils, seeds, and most highly, in roots. TaAREB3 gene expression was induced with abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature stress, and its protein was localized in the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells and stably expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. TaAREB3 protein has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to the ABRE cis-element in vitro. Overexpression of TaAREB3 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced ABA sensitivity, but also strengthened drought and freezing tolerances. TaAREB3 also activated RD29A, RD29B, COR15A, and COR47 by binding to their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that TaAREB3 plays an important role in drought and freezing tolerances in Arabidopsis. PMID:26884722

  9. Haplotype diversity at the Pi-ta locus in cultivated rice and its wild relataives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice confers resistance to the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae containing AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is predicted to encode a cytoplasmic receptor protein with nucleotide binding sites and leucine rich domain. A panel of 51 oryza accessions consisting of the AA genome species, O. sativa, O. glabe...

  10. TaO x -based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit; Jana, Debanjan; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2013-10-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaO x is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaO x with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaO x with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaO x -based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaO x -based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production.

  11. Wheat Transcription Factor TaAREB3 Participates in Drought and Freezing Tolerances in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Qian; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AREB (ABA response element binding) proteins in plants play direct regulatory roles in response to multiple stresses, but their functions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not clear. In the present study, TaAREB3, a new member of the AREB transcription factor family, was isolated from wheat. Sequence analysis showed that the TaAREB3 protein is composed of three parts, a conserved N-terminal, a variable M region, and a conserved C-terminal with a bZIP domain. It belongs to the group A subfamily of bZIP transcription factors. TaAREB3 was constitutively expressed in stems, leaves, florets, anthers, pistils, seeds, and most highly, in roots. TaAREB3 gene expression was induced with abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature stress, and its protein was localized in the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells and stably expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. TaAREB3 protein has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to the ABRE cis-element in vitro. Overexpression of TaAREB3 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced ABA sensitivity, but also strengthened drought and freezing tolerances. TaAREB3 also activated RD29A, RD29B, COR15A, and COR47 by binding to their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that TaAREB3 plays an important role in drought and freezing tolerances in Arabidopsis. PMID:26884722

  12. Alternatively spliced transcripts of Pi-ta blast resistance gene in Oryza sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae containing its cognate avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is a single-copy gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. In the present study, w...

  13. Using the TA to Prepare Graduate Students for Research and Employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Kenneth

    One of the most underused components of the physics graduate program is the time spent being a teaching assistant (TA). Often the TA duties consist of grading and trying to help undergraduates survive a physics course. How those duties are accomplished is left to each TA. The most common TA preparation, if it exists, has a narrow focus on the class being taught. Preparation consists of describing, or perhaps practicing, specific teaching skills and gaining familiarity with the equipment used in the laboratory portion of the class. Instead TAs can be integrated into the entire course in which they function so that they learn the course as a system. This means treating a course in the same way one approaches a research project with the TAs as members of the research team headed by a faculty advisor. TA preparation is broadened and support includes the management, teamwork, and communication skills necessary. This makes the TAs more efficient and effective teachers while explicitly connecting the TA experience to the ``soft'' skills they need in their own research careers whether in industry, national laboratories, or academia. This talk describes such a program, functioning for over 20 years at the University of Minnesota, that takes no more time than the usual TA but results in graduate students that are more satisfied with their TA experience, are better prepared to function in research groups, and provide a better classroom experience for their undergraduate students.

  14. Suboxide/subnitride formation on Ta masks during magnetic material etching by reactive plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hu; Muraki, Yu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-07-15

    Etching characteristics of tantalum (Ta) masks used in magnetoresistive random-access memory etching processes by carbon monoxide and ammonium (CO/NH{sub 3}) or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) plasmas have been examined by mass-selected ion beam experiments with in-situ surface analyses. It has been suggested in earlier studies that etching of magnetic materials, i.e., Fe, Ni, Co, and their alloys, by such plasmas is mostly due to physical sputtering and etch selectivity of the process arises from etch resistance (i.e., low-sputtering yield) of the hard mask materials such as Ta. In this study, it is shown that, during Ta etching by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions, suboxides or subnitrides are formed on the Ta surface, which reduces the apparent sputtering yield of Ta. It is also shown that the sputtering yield of Ta by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions has a strong dependence on the angle of ion incidence, which suggests a correlation between the sputtering yield and the oxidation states of Ta in the suboxide or subnitride; the higher the oxidation state of Ta, the lower is the sputtering yield. These data account for the observed etch selectivity by CO/NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}OH plasmas.

  15. Oxygen related recombination defects in Ta3N5 water splitting photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gao; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    A key route to improving the performance of Ta3N5 photoelectrochemical film devices in solar driving water splitting to hydrogen is to understand the nature of the serious recombination of photo-generated carriers. Here, by using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we confirmed that for the Ta3N5 films prepared by nitriding Ta2O5 precursor, one PL peak at 561 nm originates from deep-level defects recombination of the oxygen-enriched Ta3N5 phases, and another one at 580 nm can be assigned to band recombination of Ta3N5 itself. Both of the two bulk recombination processes may decrease the photoelectrochemical performance of Ta3N5. It was difficult to remove the oxygen-enriched impurities in Ta3N5 films by increasing the nitriding temperatures due to their high thermodynamically stability. In addition, a broadening PL peak between 600 and 850 nm resulting from oxygen related surface defects was observed by the low-temperature PL measurement, which may induce the surface recombination of photo-generated carriers and can be removed by increasing the nitridation temperature. Our results provided direct experimental evidence to understand the effect of oxygen-related crystal defects in Ta3N5 films on its photoelectric performance.

  16. Worldwide distribution and origin of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pi-ta is a single resistance (R) gene encoding a putative NBS type receptor with single amino acid alanine at position 918 (G at 6640) determining the resistance specificity. The distribution and origin of the Pi-ta gene were investigated in a germplasm core collection consisting of 1790 accessions ...

  17. Electron Cloud at Low Emittance in CesrTA

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Mark; Alexander, James; Billing, Michael; Calvey, Joseph; Conolly, Christopher; Crittenden, James; Dobbins, John; Dugan, Gerald; Eggert, Nicholas; Fontes, Ernest; Forster, Michael; Gallagher, Richard; Gray, Steven; Greenwald, Shlomo; Hartill, Donald; Hopkins, Walter; Kreinick, David; Kreis, Benjamin; Leong, Zhidong; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; /more authors..

    2012-07-06

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for a program of electron cloud (EC) research at ultra low emittance. The instrumentation in the ring has been upgraded with local diagnostics for measurement of cloud density and with improved beam diagnostics for the characterization of both the low emittance performance and the beam dynamics of high intensity bunch trains interacting with the cloud. A range of EC mitigation methods have been deployed and tested and their effectiveness is discussed. Measurements of the electron cloud's effect on the beam under a range of conditions are discussed along with the simulations being used to quantitatively understand these results.

  18. Single crystal studies of binary compounds Ta/Ga - A system with experimental and crystallographic peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Agbelenko; Ade, Martin; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We report on single crystal growth and characterisation of binary intermetallics TaxGay. Single crystals were obtained from mixtures of the elements which were handled under various conditions. Several new compounds were identified. The highest Ga-content is found for the new binary phases Ta6Ga31 and Ta8Ga41. Both compounds evolve as intergrown crystals. Ta8Ga41 belongs to the V8Ga41 type (R 3 bar , Z=3, a=14.311 Å, c=15.344 Å), Ta6Ga31 to the triclinic Mo6Ga31-type (P 1 bar , Z=2, a=9.697 Å, b=9.698 Å, c=14.879 Å, α=87.18°, β=80.83°, γ=85.18°). TaGa3 bases on the tetragonal TiAl3-type (I4/mmm, Z=2, a=3.769 Å, c=8.718 Å) but shows stacking faults leading to an increased Ta content Ta1+xGa3-x. This interpretation is supported by the structure model of an orthorhombic superstructure with an idealized composition Ta2Ga5 (Cmcm, Z=4, a=3.769, b=31.37, c=3.770 Å). Ta2-xGa5+x (x≈0.38) is a representative of the Mn2Hg5-type (P4/mbm, Z=2, a=9.3213(13), c=2.7572(6) Å). Ta4Ga5 represents a new compound with a novel crystal structure (P4/mbm, Z=16, a=11.793(2), c=16.967(3) Å). The complex structure contains polyhedra with coordination numbers between 11 and 14. Ta3Ga2 (P42/mnm, Z=2, a=6.8382(4), c=3.4963(2) Å) belongs to the U3Si2 type. For the composition Ta5Ga3 three different structure types were confirmed but with some differences. The tetragonal W5Si3 type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=10.2199(7), c=5.1121(4) Å) is a stoichiometric binary compound, the hexagonal Mn5Si3-type (P63/mcm, Z=2, a=7.7023(4), c=5.3062(3) Å) contains a small amount of oxygen (Ta5Ga3O0.4) and in the tetragonal Cr5B3-type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=6.5986(9), c=11.931(2)Å) one of the Ga-sites shows a significant underoccupation of 40% ("Ta2.2Ga"). Compositions were confirmed by EDX measurements.

  19. Dental development of the Taï Forest chimpanzees revisited.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Smith, B H; Reid, D J; Siedel, H; Vigilant, L; Hublin, J J; Boesch, C

    2010-05-01

    Developmental studies consistently suggest that teeth are more buffered from the environment than other skeletal elements. The surprising finding of late tooth eruption in wild chimpanzees (Zihlman et al., 2004) warrants reassessment in a broader study of crown and root formation. Here we re-examine the skeletal collection of Taï Forest juvenile chimpanzees using radiography and physical examination. Several new individuals are included, along with genetic and histological assessments of questionable identities. Only half of the Taï juveniles employed by Zihlman et al. (2004) have age of death known with accuracy sufficient for precise comparisons with captive chimpanzees. One key individual in the former study, misidentified during field recovery as Xindra (age 8.3), is re-identified as Goshu (age 6.4). For crown formation we find that onset and duration greatly overlap captive chimpanzees, whereas root development may be more susceptible to acceleration in captive individuals. Kuykendall's (1996) equation relating captive tooth formation stage to age gives reasonable estimates of young wild subjects' true ages. Direct comparisons of tooth eruption ages are limited. A key 3.76 year-old individual likely possessed an emerging mandibular M1 at death (previously estimated from the maxillary molar as occurring at 4.1 years). Wild individuals appear to fall near the middle or latter half of captive eruption ranges. While minor developmental differences are apparent in some comparisons, our reanalysis does not show an "unambiguous pattern" of slower tooth formation in this wild environment. These data do not undermine recent developmental studies of the comparative life histories of fossil hominins. PMID:20416929

  20. Density functional study of the high-pressure behavior of Ta3N5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Dong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effects of high pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of new synthesized U3Te5-type and U3Se5-type Ta3N5 are investigated by plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. The cell volumes, lattice constants and elastic constants of U3Te5-type and U3Se5-type Ta3N5 under pressure ranging from 0 to 100 GPa are obtained. The Vickers hardness and Debye temperature of U3Te5-and U3Se5-type Ta3N5 are calculated for the first time. DOS and PDOS are calculated to study the electronic properties and covalent bonds between N and Ta atoms, which are considered to be the origin of the high hardness of these two types Ta3N5.

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum well structures with Ta electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenlong; Jiang, Yuxuan; Huan, Chao; Chen, Xunchi; Jiang, Zhigang; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Klem, John F.; Pan, Wei

    2014-11-10

    We present our recent electronic transport results in top-gated InAs/GaSb quantum well hybrid structures with superconducting Ta electrodes. We show that the transport across the InAs−Ta junction depends largely on the interfacial transparency, exhibiting distinct zero-bias behavior. For a relatively resistive interface, a broad conductance peak is observed at zero bias. When a transparent InAs−Ta interface is achieved, a zero-bias conductance dip appears with two coherent-peak-like features forming at bias voltages corresponding to the superconducting gap of Ta. The conductance spectra of the transparent InAs−Ta junction at different gate voltages can be fit well using the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory.

  2. Growth and optical properties of Mg, Fe Co-doped LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangquan; Ma, Decai; Zhang, Tao; Ling, Furi; Wang, Biao

    2006-02-01

    Mg, Fe double-doped LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 crystals have been grown by Czochralski method. The optical properties were measured by two-beam coupling experiments and transmitted facula distortion method. The results showed that the photorefractive response speed of Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 was about three times faster than that of Fe:LiTaO3, whereas the photo-damage resistance was two orders of magnitude higher than that of Fe:LiTaO3. In this paper, site occupation mechanism of impurities was also discussed to explain the high photo-damage resistance and fast response speed in Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal.

  3. Growth and photorefractive properties of Zn, Fe double-doped LiTaO 3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangquan; Wang, Biao; Zhang, Tao; Ling, Furi; Wang, Rui

    2006-02-01

    Zn, Fe double-doped LiTaO3 crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method. The photorefractive properties and optical damage resistance were measured by the two-beam coupling experiments and transmitted facula distortion method, respectively. The results showed that the photorefractive response speed of Zn:Fe:LiTaO3 was about four times faster than that of Fe:LiTaO3, whereas the optical damage resistance was two orders of magnitude higher than that of Fe:LiTaO3. In this paper, site occupation mechanism of impurities was also discussed to explain the high optical damage resistance and fast response speed of Zn:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal.

  4. "Engineered dual NbTa barriers for higher Jc Nb3Sn superconductors"

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Barber; Karl T. Hartwig

    2012-07-07

    The tantalum (Ta) diffusion barrier in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors often develops a failure mode during wire drawing where the Nb and Ta layers deform non-uniformly leading to a rough interface with adjacent copper. The non-uniform deformation of these layers can lead to premature wire breakage and breaches in the barrier, and contamination of the copper stabilizer by tin (Sn). The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate that a dual NbTa layer made from severely deformed Nb and Ta exhibits improved co-deformation behavior with pure Cu in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors. This phase I project demonstrated improved microstructural uniformity and superior mechanical property characteristics of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) processed and rolled Nb and Ta sheets. The results of this work point to a method for fabrication of higher field and lower cost superconducting magnets for high energy physics applications.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytical properties of Ba3Ta5O14N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anke, B.; Bredow, T.; Soldat, J.; Wark, M.; Lerch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Light yellow Ba3TaV5O14N was successfully synthesized as phase-pure material crystallizing isostructurally to well-known mixed-valence Ba3TaV4TaIVO15. The electronic structure of Ba3Ta5O14N was studied theoretically with a hybrid Hartree-Fock-DFT method. The most stable structure was obtained when nitrogen atoms were placed at 4 h sites having fourfold coordination. By incorporating nitrogen, the band gap decreases from ∼3.8 eV commonly known for barium tantalum(V) oxides to 2.8 eV for the oxide nitride, giving rise to an absorption band well in the visible-light region. Ba3Ta5O14N was also tested for photocatalytic hydrogen formation.

  6. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I.; Reneau, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted.

  7. Oxidation behavior and mechanical properties of laminated Hf-Ta coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Huang, Yu-Ren; Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the internal oxidation of laminated Hf-Ta coatings with a cyclically gradient chemical concentration distribution along the growth direction. The oxidation behavior was examined by annealing the coatings at 400-600 °C in a 15 ppm O2-N2 atmosphere for 30 min. The variations in crystalline structure, nanohardness, chemical states, and chemical composition profiles in depth after various annealing conditions were investigated. The results indicate that all the Hf-Ta coatings maintain a laminated structure after annealing at 400-600 °C. Internal oxidation conducts during 500 and 600 °C annealing, but part of the outmost layers exhibits complex oxides after annealing at 600 °C. The nanohardness of annealed Hf-Ta coatings related to the formation of HfO2, Hf6Ta2O17, and amorphous Ta-oxide were studied.

  8. Potential energy surfaces for the Ta{sup +}+C{sub 2} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, S.; Balasubramanian, K.

    1997-03-01

    Relativistic complete-active space self-consistent field and multireference configuration interaction computations including spin{endash}orbit coupling are made on the TaC{sub 2}{sup +} cation, the most abundant of metal carbides observed in direct laser vaporization and Knudsen effusion{endash}mass spectrometric experiments. The suggested mechanism of TaC{sub 2}{sup +} formation via recombination reactions between Ta{sup +} and C{sub 2} is consistent with the calculated potential energy curves for the low-lying electronic states. Two nearly degenerate unsymmetrical linear (Ta{endash}C{endash}C{sup +}) and symmetrical C{sub 2v}(C{endash}Ta{endash}C{sup +}) isomers suggest that the products can include a mixture of both isomers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Gray Ta2O5 Nanowires with Greatly Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilian; Lin, Tianquan; Cui, Houlei; Zhao, Wenli; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-13

    Black TiO2, with enhanced solar absorption and photocatalytic activity, has gained extensive attention, inspiring us to investigate the reduction of other wide-bandgap semiconductors for improved performance. Herein, we report the preparation of gray Ta2O5 nanowires with disordered shells and abundant defects via aluminum reduction. Its water decontamination is 2.5 times faster and hydrogen production is 2.3-fold higher over pristine Ta2O5. The reduced Ta2O5 also delivers significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical performance compared with the pristine Ta2O5 nanowires, including much higher carrier concentration, easier electron-hole separation and 11 times larger photocurrent. Our results demonstrate that Ta2O5 will have great potentials in photocatalysis and solar energy utilization after proper modification. PMID:26670703

  10. Developing tTA transgenic rats for inducible and reversible gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Yang, Min; Landel, Carlisle P; Xia, Pedro Yuxing; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xia, Xu Gang

    2009-01-01

    To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox)-regulated gene expression in transgenic rats. In the two transmittable lines, tTA-mediated activation of the reporter gene was fully subject to regulation by Dox. Dox dose-dependently suppressed tTA-activated gene expression. The washout time for the effects of Dox was dose-dependent. We tested a complex regime of Dox administration to determine the optimal effectiveness and washout duration. Dox was administered at a high dose (500 microg/ml in drinking water) for two days to reach the effective concentration, and then was given at a low dose (20 microg/ml) to maintain effectiveness. This regimen of Dox administration can achieve a quick switch between ON and OFF statuses of tTA-activated gene expression. In addition, administration of Dox to pregnant rats fully suppressed postnatal tTA-activated gene expression in their offspring. Sufficient levels of Dox are present in mother's milk to produce maximal efficacy in nursing neonates. Administration of Dox to pregnant or nursing rats can provide a continual suppression of tTA-dependent gene expression during embryonic and postnatal development. The tTA transgenic rat allows for inducible and reversible gene expression in the rat; this important tool will be valuable in the development of genetic rat models of human diseases. PMID:19214245

  11. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-08-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  12. Top electrode material related bipolar memory and unipolar threshold resistance switching in amorphous Ta2O5 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunyu; Sheng, Cuicui; Liang, Changhao

    2013-06-01

    Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) is one of the most studied materials for its stable resistance switching and potential application in nonvolatile memory devices. Top electrode and essential switching material are two critical points dominating its switching characteristics. Here, Ta2O5 films of amorphous nature (a-Ta2O5) with tunable thicknesses were made by changing the applied voltage during anodic oxidation of Ta-metal foils. The resistance-switching behavior of an a-Ta2O5 film in a metal/a-Ta2O5/Ta configuration was investigated by using a sputtered W or Ag metal film as the top electrode. The unipolar threshold switching phenomenon was observed using W as top electrode (WTE), while bipolar switching behaviors were achieved using active Ag metal as top electrode (AgTE). The thickness of the a-Ta2O5 film shows an obvious effect on the SET voltage in a WTE/a-Ta2O5/Ta device. The interfacial redox reaction induced formation of more conductive Ta-rich suboxide and the Joule heating effect are proposed to contribute to the unipolar threshold switching behavior. It is also suggested that the bipolar switching could have resulted from the electrochemical reaction-induced dissolution and growth of Ag conducting channels inside the Ta2O5 films.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  14. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  15. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  16. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  17. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  18. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  19. 78 FR 41954 - TA-W-82,634, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Dresher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-82,634, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Dresher, Pennsylvania; TA-W-82,634A, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Iselin, New Jersey; TA-W-82,634B, Prudential Global Business...

  20. Overexpression of wheat gene TaMOR improves root system architecture and grain yield in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiaoru; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Wang, Jingyi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-07-01

    Improved root architecture is an effective strategy to increase crop yield. We demonstrate that overexpression of transcription factor gene MORE ROOT (TaMOR) from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) results in more roots and higher grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). TaMOR, encoding a plant-specific transcription factor belonging to the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) protein family, is highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. In this study, tissue expression patterns indicated that TaMOR mainly localizes to root initiation sites. The consistent gene expression pattern suggests that TaMOR is involved in root initiation. Exogenous auxin treatment induced TaMOR expression without de novo protein biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that TaMOR interacts with TaMOR-related protein TaMRRP, which contains a four-tandem-pentatricopeptide repeat motif. Overexpression of TaMOR led to more lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana, and TaMOR-overexpressing rice plants had more crown roots, a longer main panicle, a higher number of primary branches on the main panicle, a higher grain number per plant, and higher yield per plant than the plants of wild type. In general, TaMOR-D-overexpressing lines had larger root systems in Arabidopsis and rice, and produce a higher grain yield per plant. TaMOR therefore offers an opportunity to improve root architecture and increase yield in crop plants. PMID:27229732

  1. Fractionation of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf in the Mantle-Crust Sytem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, K.; Weyer, S.; Muenker, C.

    2001-12-01

    The isovalent element pairs Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta have generally been regarded as behaving identical during most geologic processes. As a consequence, it was expected that the ratios of these elements pairs are more of less constant and chondritic in all reservoirs of the silicate Earth. However, recent measurements of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta of higher precision have indicated that mantle-derived magmas in certain geochemical environments and tectonic settings are characterized by distinct variations in Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios that deviate significantly from the chondritic values. In comparison to known analytical methods, the resolution of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf measurements can be improved by nearly a factor of 10 by isotope dilution measurements using a mixed 180Ta-94Zr-180Hf-176Lu tracer. In order to establish the solar system ratios for Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf, chondrites and eucrites were analyzed. The mean Zr/Hf of all chondrites and eucrites investigated in this study is 34.2+/-0.3 (2 RSE) and is indistinguishable from the chondrite-only mean value, which is 34.1+/-0.6. This new mean Zr/Hf value is lower than the previous estimate for the Zr/Hf of 36.3, which was inferred from analyses of OIBs and the chondrite Orgueil (Jochum et al., 1986). The chondritic Nb/Ta of 17.6+/-1.0 determined in this study agrees with previously estimated values (Jochum et al. 2000). A comparison of basalts and peridotites reveals subchondritic Zr/Hf for depleted peridotites and basalts derived from the depleted mantle. Peridotites from the Balmuccia peridotite (Italy) have Zr/Hf as low as 10 and they show an excellent correlation with Zr-contents. Therefore it can be assumed that the lower Zr/Hf in the mantle relative to the chondritic value is a feature caused by melt extraction. Nb/Ta in the Balmuccia peridotites show a similar variation, but no correlation with Ta-contents and Zr/Hf can be observed. This decoupling is caused by the extremely incompatible behavior of Nb and Ta during mantle melting. Small

  2. Growth and holographic storage properties of Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yequan; Fang, Shuangquan; Xu, Wusheng; Xu, Yuheng

    2003-04-01

    Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystals were first grown by Czochralski method, and Fe:LiTaO3 crystals, Fe:LiNbO3 and Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals were also grown at the same time. The holographic storage properties of these crystals, such as the exponential gain coefficient, the diffraction efficiency and the response time, were measured by the two-wave coupling method. It was found that the response speed of Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal was five times faster than that of Fe:LiTaO3. The light scattering resistance ability was also measured, and that of Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal was two orders of magnitude higher than that of Fe:LiTaO3 as well as higher than that of Mg:Fe:LiNbO3. The enhancement mechanism of the photorefractive properties for Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal was discussed for the first time.

  3. Improved Piezoelectric Properties of LiTaO3 Family Solid Solution Ceramics with Modified Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Noriko; Takaoka, Junpei; Chino, Takashi; Fukami, Tatsuo; Elouadi, Brahim

    2006-09-01

    Nonstoichiometric LiTaO3 ceramics doped with 15 mol % CaTiO3 have been prepared to improve the piezoelectricity of LiTaO3 ceramics and iron doping has been investigated to obtain a high mechanical quality factor, Qm. By increasing the ratio of B sites (Ta and Ti) from 49.5 to 52.0 mol %, crack generation was suppressed and resonance frequency in the radial vibration mode shifted. (Li0.84Ca0.15)(Ta0.86Ti0.15)O3 ceramics whose A and B site ratios were 49.5 and 50.5 mol %, respectively, caused a higher resonance frequency and a high piezoelectric activity than the stoichiometric LiTaO3. The optimum composition for the piezoelectric properties was obtained from the nonstoichiometric LiTaO3 expressed as (Li0.832Ca0.158)(Ta0.856Ti0.15Fe0.004)O3; the phase shift was 73° and the quality factor Qm was 7872 in the radial vibration mode. Although the phase shift is still not sufficiently high, it is expected to approach 90° by fixing it under better poling conditions. One of the possible applications of this material is as an oscillator element for signal processing circuits.

  4. Phosphido-bridged Ta/Rh bimetallic complex: synthesis, structure, and catalytic hydrosilylation of acetophenone.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Andrea E; Leelasubcharoen, Somying; Kuzmina, Lyudmila G; Howard, Judith A K; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2010-10-21

    Reaction of Cp2TaH3 (1) with ClPEt2 gives the insertion product [Cp2TaH2(PHEt2)]Cl (5), which upon deprotonation with LiN(SiMe3)2 affords the phosphido complex Cp2TaH2(PEt2) (6) as the kinetic product. The latter transforms by a first-order reaction during the course of 3.5 days to the phosphine complex Cp2TaH(PHEt2) (7). Repetition of this insertion/deprotonation sequence gives the compounds [Cp2Ta(PHEt2)2]Cl (8) and Cp2Ta(PEt2)(PHEt2) (9). Reaction of the latter with 0.5[(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C2H4)]2 in the presence of LiN(SiMe3)2 gives the bimetallic complex Cp2Ta(μ-PEt2)2Rh(η2-C2H4) (10), which was studied by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex 10 catalyses the hydrosilylation of acetophenone by PhMeSiH2. PMID:20585667

  5. Characterization of Ta-Si-N coatings prepared using direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lin, Kun-Yi; Wang, Hsiu-Hui; Cheng, Yu-Ru

    2014-06-01

    Ta-Si-N coatings were prepared using reactive direct current magnetron co-sputtering on silicon substrates. When the sputtering powers and N2 flow ratio were varied, Ta-Si-N coatings exhibited various chemical compositions and crystalline characteristics. The high-Si-content Ta-Si-N coatings exhibited an amorphous phase in the as-deposited states, whereas the low-Si-content coatings exhibited a face-centered cubic phase or an amorphous phase depending on the N content. This study evaluated the application of amorphous Ta-Si-N coatings, such as the protective coatings on glass molding dies, in high-temperature and oxygen-containing atmospheres for longed operation durations. To explore the oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of the Ta-Si-N coatings, annealing treatments were conducted in a 1%O2-99%Ar atmosphere at 600 °C for 4-100 h. The material characteristics and oxidation behavior of the annealed Ta-Si-N coatings were examined using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a nanoindentation tester. The Si oxidized preferentially in the Ta-Si-N coatings. The in-diffusion of oxygen during 600 °C annealing was restricted by the formation of an amorphous oxide scale consisting of Si and O.

  6. Nb-Ta mobility and fractionation during exhumation of UHP eclogite from southwestern Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lifei; Lü, Zeng; Bader, Thomas; Chen, Zhenyu

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the behavior of high field strength elements (HFSE) during retrograde overprint of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites, analysis of Nb and Ta concentrations was carried out on bulk rock, rutile (in both veins and host rocks) and titanite in the host eclogite. The studied samples were collected from the UHP metamorphic belt of southwestern Tianshan, China. Petrographic observation and phase equilibria modeling show that the host eclogites have experienced UHP metamorphism and the rutile-bearing veins are thought to be originated from an internal fluid source, probably by lawsonite dehydration during exhumation. The presence of vein rutile indicates HFSE could be mobilized from host eclogites to veins, which is probably facilitated by complexation with dissolved Na-Al silicates and fluorine-rich fluids. Changes in fluid composition (e.g., F-1, X(CO2)) may trigger the precipitation of rutile. Rutile/fluid partitioning may be the key to fractionating Nb and Ta, with preference for Ta in the fluid, resulting in Nb/Ta ratio of rutile in the veins lower than that in the host eclogite. Besides, the transformation of rutile into titanite also might be an effective mechanism for fractionating Nb from Ta, resulting in the intra-grain Nb-Ta zonations in vein rutile. The Nb-Ta mobility and fractionation can happen during exhumation of the UHP eclogite, which should be very important for understanding the behavior of HFSE in subduction zone metamorphism.

  7. Study of Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam in amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Kapil Deo; Reddy, K. R. C.; Kumar, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghṛta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia. Materials and Methods: Brāhmī Ghṛta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāṇa Ghṛta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study. Results: Brāhmī Ghṛta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta and standard drug. Conclusion: Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them. PMID:23929987

  8. Integration of high-dielectric constant Ta2O5 oxides on diamond for power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoheng; Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Liu, Jiangwei; Imura, Masataka; Li, Hongdong; Koide, Yasuo

    2012-12-01

    The authors report on the direct integration of high-dielectric constant (high-k) Ta2O5 films on p-type single crystal diamond for high-power electronic devices. Crystallized hexagonal phase δ-Ta2O5 film is achieved on diamond by annealing the amorphous Ta2O5 film deposited by a sputter-deposition technique. The electrical properties of the Ta2O5 thin films are investigated by fabricating metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes. The leakage current of the MIS diode is as low as 10-8 A/cm2 for the as-deposited amorphous Ta2O5 film and 10-2 A/cm2 for the crystallized film, which is 108 and 102 times lower than that of the Schottky diode at a forward bias of -3 V, respectively. The dielectric constant of the amorphous Ta2O5 films is measured to be 16 and increases to 29 after annealing at 800 °C. Different current leakage mechanisms and charge trapping behaviors are proposed for the amorphous and crystallized Ta2O5 thin films.

  9. TaADF3, an Actin-Depolymerizing Factor, Negatively Modulates Wheat Resistance Against Puccinia striiformis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Deng, Lin; Chang, Dan; Chen, Shuntao; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in plant defense against pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulators. However, there is limited evidence linking ADFs with plant defense against pathogens. In this study, we have isolated and functionally characterized a stress-responsive ADF gene (TaADF3) from wheat, which was detectable in all examined wheat tissues. TaADF3 is a three-copy gene located on chromosomes 5AL, 5BL, and 5DL. A particle bombardment assay in onion epidermal cells revealed the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of TaADF3. The expression of TaADF3 was inducible by abscisic acid (ABA), as well as various abiotic stresses (drought and cold) and virulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) but was down regulated in response to avirulent Pst. Virus-induced silencing of TaADF3 copies enhanced wheat resistance to avirulent Pst, with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR). Upon treatment with virulent Pst, TaADF3-knockdown plants exhibited reduced susceptibility, which was accompanied by increased ROS production and HR. Interestingly, the silencing of TaADF3 resulted in hindered pathogen penetration and haustoria formation for both avirulent and virulent Pst. Moreover, the array and distribution of actin filaments was transformed in TaADF3-knockdown epidermal cells, which possibly facilitated attenuating the fungus penetration. Thus, our findings suggest that TaADF3 positively regulates wheat tolerance to abiotic stresses and negatively regulates wheat resistance to Pst in an ROS-dependent manner, possibly underlying the mechanism of impeding fungal penetration dependent on the actin architecture dynamics. PMID:26834758

  10. Anomalous anti-damping in sputtered β-Ta/Py bilayer system.

    PubMed

    Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous decrease in effective damping parameter αeff in sputtered Ni81Fe19 (Py) thin films in contact with a very thin β-Ta layer without necessitating the flow of DC-current is observed. This reduction in αeff, which is also referred to as anti-damping effect, is found to be critically dependent on the thickness of β-Ta layer; αeff being highest, i.e., 0.0093 ± 0.0003 for bare Ni81Fe19(18 nm)/SiO2/Si compared to the smallest value of 0.0077 ± 0.0001 for β-Ta(6 nm)/Py(18 nm)/SiO2/Si. This anomalous anti-damping effect is understood in terms of interfacial Rashba effect associated with the formation of a thin protective Ta2O5 barrier layer and also the spin pumping induced non-equilibrium diffusive spin-accumulation effect in β-Ta layer near the Ta/Py interface which induces additional spin orbit torque (SOT) on the moments in Py leading to reduction in αeff. The fitting of αeff (tTa) revealed an anomalous negative interfacial spin mixing conductance, g(↑↓) = -1.13  ± .05 × 10(18) m(-2) and spin diffusion length, λSD = 2.47 ± 0.47 nm. The increase in αeff observed above tTa = 6 nm is attributed to the weakening of SOT at higher tTa. The study highlights the potential of employing β-Ta based nanostructures in developing low power spintronic devices having tunable as well as low value of α. PMID:26782952

  11. Anomalous anti-damping in sputtered β-Ta/Py bilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous decrease in effective damping parameter αeff in sputtered Ni81Fe19 (Py) thin films in contact with a very thin β-Ta layer without necessitating the flow of DC-current is observed. This reduction in αeff, which is also referred to as anti-damping effect, is found to be critically dependent on the thickness of β-Ta layer; αeff being highest, i.e., 0.0093 ± 0.0003 for bare Ni81Fe19(18 nm)/SiO2/Si compared to the smallest value of 0.0077 ± 0.0001 for β-Ta(6 nm)/Py(18 nm)/SiO2/Si. This anomalous anti-damping effect is understood in terms of interfacial Rashba effect associated with the formation of a thin protective Ta2O5 barrier layer and also the spin pumping induced non-equilibrium diffusive spin-accumulation effect in β-Ta layer near the Ta/Py interface which induces additional spin orbit torque (SOT) on the moments in Py leading to reduction in . The fitting of (tTa) revealed an anomalous negative interfacial spin mixing conductance, and spin diffusion length,. The increase in αeff observed above tTa = 6 nm is attributed to the weakening of SOT at higher tTa. The study highlights the potential of employing β-Ta based nanostructures in developing low power spintronic devices having tunable as well as low value of α.

  12. Effect of Ti doping on Ta 2O 5 stacks with Ru and Al gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskaleva, A.; Tapajna, M.; Atanassova, E.; Frohlich, K.; Vincze, A.; Dobročka, E.

    2008-07-01

    The Ti-doped Ta 2O 5 thin films (<10 nm) obtained by rf sputtering are studied with respect to their composition, dielectric and electrical properties. The incorporation of Ti is performed by two methods - a surface doping, where a thin Ti layer is deposited on the top of Ta 2O 5 and a bulk doping where the Ti layer is sandwiched between two layers of Ta 2O 5. The effect of the process parameters (the method and level of doping) on the elemental distribution in-depth of the films is investigated by the time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The Ti and Ta 2O 5 are intermixed throughout the whole thickness but the layers are very inhomogeneous. Two sub-layers exist in all the samples — a near interfacial region which is a mixture of Ta-, Ti-, Si-oxides as well as TaSiO, and an upper Ti-doped Ta 2O 5 sub-layer. For both methods of doping, Ti tends to pile-up at the Si interface. The electrical characterisation is performed on capacitors with Al- and Ru-gate electrodes. The two types of MIS structures exhibit distinctly different electrical behavior: the Ru gate provides higher dielectric permittivity while the stacks with Al electrode are better in terms of leakage currents. The specific metal-dielectric reactions and metal-induced electrically active defects for each metal electrode/high- k dielectric stack define its particular electrical behavior. It is demonstrated that the Ti doping of Ta 2O 5 is a way of remarkable improvement of leakage characteristics (the current reduction with more than four orders of magnitude as compared with undoped Ta 2O 5) of Ru-gated capacitors which originates from Ti induced suppression of the oxygen vacancy related defects.

  13. Synthesis of Ti-Ta alloys with dual structure by incomplete diffusion between elemental powders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Wu, Hong; Song, Min; Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Ta alloys were sintered using blended elemental powders. A dual structure, consisting of Ti-rich and Ta-rich zones, was formed due to the insufficient diffusion between Ti and Ta powders. The microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro biological properties of the alloys were studied. Results indicated that the alloys have inhomogenous microstructures and compositions, but the grain structures were continuous from the Ti-rich zone to the Ta-rich zone. The Ta-rich zone exhibited a much finer grain size than the Ti-rich zone. The alloys had a high relative density in the range of 95-98%, with the porosity increasing with the content of Ta due to the increased difficulty in sintering and the formation of Kirkendall pores. The alloys had a good combination of low elastic modulus and high tensile strength. The strength of alloys was almost doubled compared to that of the ingot metallurgy alloys with the same compositions. The low elastic modulus was due to the residual pores and the alloying effect of Ta, while the high tensile strength resulted from the strengthening effects of solid solution, fine grain size and α phase. The alloys had a high biocompatibility due to the addition of Ta, and were suitable for the attachment of cells due to the surface porosity. It was also indicated that PM Ti-(20-30)Ta alloys are promising for biomedical applications after the evaluations of both the mechanical and the biological properties. PMID:26275506

  14. Anomalous anti-damping in sputtered β-Ta/Py bilayer system

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous decrease in effective damping parameter αeff in sputtered Ni81Fe19 (Py) thin films in contact with a very thin β-Ta layer without necessitating the flow of DC-current is observed. This reduction in αeff, which is also referred to as anti-damping effect, is found to be critically dependent on the thickness of β-Ta layer; αeff being highest, i.e., 0.0093 ± 0.0003 for bare Ni81Fe19(18 nm)/SiO2/Si compared to the smallest value of 0.0077 ± 0.0001 for β-Ta(6 nm)/Py(18 nm)/SiO2/Si. This anomalous anti-damping effect is understood in terms of interfacial Rashba effect associated with the formation of a thin protective Ta2O5 barrier layer and also the spin pumping induced non-equilibrium diffusive spin-accumulation effect in β-Ta layer near the Ta/Py interface which induces additional spin orbit torque (SOT) on the moments in Py leading to reduction in . The fitting of (tTa) revealed an anomalous negative interfacial spin mixing conductance, and spin diffusion length,. The increase in αeff observed above tTa = 6 nm is attributed to the weakening of SOT at higher tTa. The study highlights the potential of employing β-Ta based nanostructures in developing low power spintronic devices having tunable as well as low value of α. PMID:26782952

  15. Structure and electronic properties of conducting, ternary TixTa1-xN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenoglou, G. M.; Lekka, Ch. E.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Karras, G.; Kosmidis, C.; Evangelakis, G. A.; Patsalas, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the electronic structure and optical properties of conducting ternary transition metal nitrides consisting of metals of different groups of the periodic table of elements. For the study of the bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of conducting TixTa1-xN film growth, optical spectroscopy and ab initio calculations were used. Despite the different valence electron configuration of the constituent elements, Ta(d3s2) and Ti(d2s2), we show that TiN and TaN are completely soluble due to the hybridization of the d and sp electrons of the metals and N, respectively, that stabilizes the ternary TixTa1-xN systems to the rocksalt structure. The optical properties of TixTa1-xN have been studied using spectroscopic methods and detailed electronic structure calculations, revealing that the plasma energy of the fully dense TixTa1-xN is varying between 7.8 and 9.45 eV. Additional optical absorption bands are manifested due to the N p →Ti/Ta d interband transition the t2g→eg transition due to splitting of the metals' d band, with the major exception of the Ti0.50Ta0.50N, where the eg unoccupied states are not manifested due to the local structure of the ternary system; this finding is observed for the first time and proves previous assignments of optical transitions in TaN.

  16. Study of XANES near Ta-L edges in LiTaO3 through thermal wave, fluorescence and first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. R.; Kumar, Shailendra; Ghosh, Haranath; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of Ta-L2 and L3 edges in LiTaO3 (LTO) crystals are measured by measuring amplitude and phase of thermal waves generated within the LTO crystal, using pyroelectric property of LTO. Thus, LTO crystal is used both as a sample as well as sensor material. XANES of Ta-L edges in LTO are also measured by fluorescence. XANES spectra from fluorescence and first-principles simulations agree excellently well. The onset of the pre-edge region of XANES, measured by both techniques, extends below the edge by about 50 eV. This pre-edge onset of absorption is explained in terms of the core-hole lifetime effect on near-edge absorption using density functional theory. However, detailed nature of XANES peaks near Ta-L3 and Ta-L2 absorption edges, measured by thermal waves and fluorescence, differ. Possible origins of these differences are discussed.

  17. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  18. Identification of a new locus, Ptr(t), required for rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yulin; Martin, Rodger

    2008-04-01

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a nucleotide binding site-type resistance gene, Pi-ta, to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here, we report the identification of a new locus, Ptr(t), that is required for Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. A Pi-ta-expressing susceptible mutant was identified using a genetic screen. Putative mutations at Ptr(t) do not alter recognition specificity to another resistance gene, Pi-k(s), in the Pi-ta homozygote, indicating that Ptr(t) is more likely specific to Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. Genetic crosses of Pi-ta Ptr(t) and Pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes suggest that Ptr(t) segregates as a single dominant nuclear gene. A ratio of 1:1 (resistant/susceptible) of a population of BC1 of Pi-ta Ptr(t) with pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes indicates that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are linked and cosegregate. Genotyping of mutants of pi-ta ptr(t) and Pi-ta Ptr(t) homozygotes using ten simple sequence repeat markers at the Pi-ta region determined that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are located within a 9-megabase region and are of indica origin. Identification of Ptr(t) is a significant advancement in studying Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition and transduction. PMID:18321185

  19. Application of LiTaO3 pyroelectric crystal for pulsed neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. F.; Lu, Y.; Wu, J.; Gao, H.; Li, M.

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of a LiTaO3 pyroelectric crystal for pulsed neutron detection has been studied. The detector consists of a slice of electroded Z-cut LiTaO3 pyroelectric crystal, and no additional neutron converter is required owing to the Li contained in the crystal. The slight temperature increase caused by neutron radiation will lead to the release of bound charges and will give rise to a pyroelectric signal. The response of it has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Our preliminary experiment on the CFBR-II reactor suggests that the LiTaO3 pyroelectric detector is promising for high intensity neutron - pulse measurement.

  20. Template-free synthesis of Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Chao; Wang, Lianzhou; Liu, Gang; Lu, Gao Qing Max; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-04-14

    We report the template-free synthesis of Ta3N5 nanorod array films grown on Ta foil by a combination of a vapor-phase hydrothermal process and subsequent nitriding. The Ta3N5 nanorod array film modified with Co(OH)x when used as a photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting yields a stable photocurrent density of 2.8 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 VRHE under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency at 480 nm is determined to be 37.8%. PMID:23463440

  1. Connection between the glass transition temperature Tg and the Arrhenius temperature TA in supercooled liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. N.

    2016-08-01

    At high temperatures the structural relaxation time in liquids has Arrhenius temperature dependence. At lowering temperature, temperature dependence changes to a super Arrhenius at some temperature TA. This temperature is an important point for the structural relaxation dynamics in supercooled liquids because it reflects the transition to collective relaxation. Here we derive a relation between TA, the glass transition temperature Tg and fragility. We show that the ratio Tg/TA increases with increasing fragility of a liquid. The derived relation is in agreement with the experimental data in a series of molecular, hydrogen bonding and two inorganic glass-formers.

  2. New Developments of the Therapeutic Alliance (TA): Good News for Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Elizabeth L

    2016-03-01

    Clinicians have long known that successful psychotherapy, including successful psychodynamic psychotherapy, depends upon the interaction between therapist and patient. In other words, it is important to have a strong therapeutic alliance. This article presents the history of the concept of the therapeutic alliance (TA). It also explores three areas of research that have bearing on the TA. The importance of the TA and the extensive research work that pertains to it hold promise for psychodynamic psychiatry, both in terms of understanding, and in the treatment of mental suffering. PMID:26938802

  3. Effect of Ta doped on microstructure of sodium potassium niobate single crystal grown by flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Rajesh, D.; Rajasekaran, S. V.; Perumal, R.; Chitra, M.; Jayavel, R.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of sodium potassium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) and 0.5mol%, 1mol% and 1.5 mol% tantalum oxide Ta2O5 doped KNN were grown by flux method. The formation of microstructure and domain structure was investigated for both pure and Ta doped KNN single crystals. The partial substitution of the B-site ion Nb5+ by the Ta5+ ion in the KNN single crystal results show that the decrease in the domain size and increase in the surface roughness with increasing concentration of dopants.

  4. Structural studies of the metal-rich region in the ternary Ta-Nb-S system

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaoqiang.

    1991-10-07

    Six new solid solution type compounds have been prepared using high temperature techniques and characterized by means of single crystal x-ray techniques during a study of the metal-rich region of the ternary Ta-Nb-S system. The structures of Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 11-x}S{sub 4} are reminiscent of niobium-rich sulfides, rather than of tantalum-rich sulfides. The coordinations of sulfur are capped trigonal prismatic while the metal coordinations are capped distorted cubic prismatic for Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 11-x}S{sub 4}, and capped distorted cubic prismatic and pentagonal prismatic for Nb{sub 12-x}Ta{sub x}S{sub 4}. The structures of Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 5-x}S{sub 2} contain homoatomic layers sequenced S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S (M is mixed Nb, Ta) generating six-layer sheets, respectively. Weak S-S interactions at 3.26 and 3.19{Angstrom} between sheets contrast with the M-M binding within and between the sheets in these two novel layered compounds. The former are presumably responsible for the observed graphitic slippage of the samples. Nb{sub 21-x}Ta{sub x}S{sub 8} and Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 2-x}S are isostructural with Nb{sub 21}S{sub 8} and Ta{sub 2}S, respectively. Extended Hueckel band calculations were carried out for two layered compounds, Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 5-x}S{sub 2} (x {approx} 1.72) and Nb{sub x}ta{sub 2-x}S (x {approx} 0.95). Based upon band calculations metallic properties can be expected for these two layered compounds. The relative preference of the metal sites for the two metal elements (Ta, Nb) in two layered compounds is explained by the results of the band calculations. 17 figs., 31 tabs., 80 refs.

  5. The effect of Ta2O5 on the interaction between silicon and its contact metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented showing that the presence of the commonly used antireflection coating material, Ta2O5, on the free surface of contact metallization can either suppress or enhance, depending on the system, the interaction that takes place at elevated temperatures between the metallization and the underlying silicon. The Ta2O5 layer is shown to suppress both the generation and the annihilation of vacancies at the metal free surface which are necessary to support metal-silicon interactions. It is also shown that the mechanical condition of the free metal surface has a significant effect on the passivating ability of the Ta2O5 layer.

  6. Ground-based tests of JEM-EUSO components at the Telescope Array site, "EUSO-TA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We are conducting tests of optical and electronics components of JEMEUSO at the Telescope Array site in Utah with a ground-based "EUSO-TA" detector. The tests will include an engineering validation of the detector, cross-calibration of EUSO-TA with the TA fluorescence detector and observations of air shower events. Also, the proximity of the TA's Electron Light Source will allow for convenient use of this calibration device. In this paper, we report initial results obtained with the EUSO-TA telescope.

  7. Charge modulation and structural transformation in TaTe2 studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiagui; Tan, Andrew; Wagner, Sean; Liu, Jinyu; Mao, Zhiqiang; Ke, Xianglin; Zhang, Pengpeng

    2016-07-01

    We show that the (3 × 1) stripe structure observed in TaTe2 at room temperature arises from the formation of Ta4+-Ta4+ dimer chains along with a separate chain of Ta3+. More importantly, we reveal an intriguing lattice distortion and charge modulation at low temperature, which suggests an interplay and competition between the triple-axis (3 × 3) charge density wave-like modulation and the single-axis (3 × 1) stripe configuration. This work highlights the importance of TaTe2 as an alternative platform with rich structural and electrical phases to explore charge-lattice coupling.

  8. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment Rest House Building TA-16-41

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, Isabel; Salmon, Michael W.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the evaluation completed on the Rest House Facility (TA-16-4111) in support of hazard analysis for a Documented Safety Assessment (DSA). The Rest House facility has been evaluated to verify the structural response to seismic, wind, and snow loads in support of the DynEx DSA. The structural analyses consider the structure and the following systems and/or components inside the facility as requested by facility management: cranes, lighting protection system, and fire protection system. The facility has been assigned to Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Performance Category (PC) –3. The facility structure was evaluated to PC-3 criteria because it serves to confine hazardous material, and in the event of an accident, the facility cannot fail or collapse. Seismicinduced failure of the cranes, lighting, and fire-protection systems according to DOE-STD-1021-93 (Ref. 1) “may result in adverse release consequences greater than safety-class Structures, Systems, and Components (SSC) Evaluation Guideline limits but much less than those associated with PC-4 SSC.” Therefore, these items will be evaluated to PC-3 criteria as well. This report presents the results of those analyses and suggests recommendations to improve the seismic capacity of the systems and components cited above.

  9. Influence of shockwave obliquity on deformation twin formation in Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, V; Cerreta, E K; Mason, T A; Maudlin, P J; Bingert, J F

    2009-02-18

    Energetic loading subjects a material to a 'Taylor wave' (triangular wave) loading profile that experiences an evolving balance of hydrostatic (spherical) and deviatoric stresses. While much has been learned over the past five decades concerning the propensity of deformation twinning in samples shockloaded using 'square-topped' profiles as a function of peak stress, achieved most commonly via flyer plate loading, less is known concerning twinning propensity during non-I-dimensional sweeping detonation wave loading. Systematic small-scale energetically-driven shock loading experiments were conducted on Ta samples shock loaded with PEFN that was edge detonated. Deformation twinning was quantified in post-mortem samples as a function of detonation geometry and radial position. In the edge detonated loading geometry examined in this paper, the average volume fraction of deformation twins was observed to drastically increase with increasing shock obliquity. The results of this study are discussed in light of the formation mechanisms of deformation twins, previous literature studies of twinning in shocked materials, and modeling of the effects of shock obliquity on the evolution of the stress tensor during shock loading.

  10. Biocompatibility of new Ti-Nb-Ta base alloys.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdelrahman H; Gepreel, Mohamed A-H; Gouda, Mohamed K; Hefnawy, Ahmad M; Kandil, Sherif H

    2016-04-01

    β-type titanium alloys are promising materials in the field of medical implants. The effect of β-phase stability on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of a newly designed β-type (Ti77Nb17Ta6) biocompatible alloys are studied. The β-phase stability was controlled by the addition of small quantities of Fe and O. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis showed that the addition of O and Fe stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The strength and hardness have increased with the increase in β-phase stability while ductility and Young's modulus have decreased. The potentio-dynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the new alloys is better than Ti-6Al-4V alloy by at least ten times. Neutral red uptake assay cytotoxicity test showed cell viability of at least 95%. The new alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their high mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and reduced cytotoxicity. PMID:26838885

  11. Information Enrichment Using TaToo's Semantic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimak, Gerald; Rizzoli, Andrea E.; Avellino, Giuseppe; Lobo, Tomas Pariente; Fuentes, José Maria; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    The Internet is growing in a non-coordinated manner, where different groups continuously publish and update information, adopting a variety of standards, according to the specific domain of interest: from agriculture to ecology, from groundwater to climate change. This unconstrained and unregulated growth has proven to be very successful, as more information is made available, even more is being added, in a virtuous cycle of information accrual. At the same time, modern search engines make looking for information rather easy, with their overall performance being more than satisfactory for most users. Yet, searching and discovering information requires a good deal of expertise and pre-existing knowledge. That may not be a problem when a user searches for common assets using a generic-purpose search engine. But what happens when the user is trying to gather scientific information across boundaries (e.g. cross different disciplines, cross environmental domains, etc)? This asks for new approaches, methods and tools to close the discovery gap of information resources satisfying your specific request. This is exactly the challenge the TaToo project is heading to.

  12. Formation of Novel Silicon Nitride with Face-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure in a TaN/Ta/Si(100) Thin Film System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chun; Jou, Shyan-Kay; Chiu, Chuei-Fu

    2005-07-01

    We discovered a new silicon nitride with cubic symmetry formed in the silicon at the Ta/Si interface of the TaN/Ta/Si(100) thin film system when the silicon wafer was annealed at 500 or 600°C. The cubic silicon nitride grew into the silicon crystal in the shape of an inverse pyramid after the annealing process. The boundary planes of the inverse pyramid were the \\{111\\} planes of the silicon crystal. The orientation relationship between the silicon nitride and silicon crystal is cubic to cubic. The lattice constant of the new silicon nitride is a=0.5548 nm and is about 2.2% larger than that of the silicon crystal.

  13. The TaClo concept: 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo), a new toxin for dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, G; God, R; Feineis, D; Wesemann, W; Riederer, P; Rausch, W D; Reichmann, H; Sontag, K H

    1995-01-01

    Due to its structural analogy to the neurotoxin MPTP, "TaClo" (1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline), a compound readily originating in vitro from tryptamine ("Ta") and chloral ("Clo"), is discussed as a potential natural inducer of parkinsonian-like symptoms. Its spontaneous formation in man has to be taken into account after application of the drug chloral hydrate or after exposure to the solvent trichloroethylene. This first representative of chloral-derived heterocycles could now indeed be demonstrated to be formed in vivo after application of its putative precursors to rats. In vivo analysis of the nigrostriatal dopamine metabolism, behavioural studies, and histochemical findings as well as a strong inhibition of the complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain revealed the neurotoxic potential of TaClo on the dopaminergic system. PMID:8821060

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel copper transporter gene family TaCT1 in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxun; Fan, Renchun; Li, Libin; Wei, Bo; Li, Guoliang; Gu, Liqing; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-07-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and copper transporter plays a pivotal role for keeping copper homeostasis. However, little is known about copper transporters in wheat. Here, we report a novel copper transporter gene family, TaCT1, in common wheat. Three TaCT1 homoeologous genes were isolated and assigned to group 5 chromosomes. Each of the TaCT1 genes (TaCT1-5A, -5B or -5D) possesses 12 transmembrane domains. TaCT1 genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaf than in root, culm and spikelet. Excess copper down-regulated the transcript levels of TaCT1 and copper deficiency-induced TaCT1 expression. Subcellular experiments localized the TaCT1 to the Golgi apparatus. Yeast expression experiments and virus-induced gene silencing analysis indicated that the TaCT1 functioned in copper transport. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that three amino acid residues, Met(35), Met(38) and Cys(365), are required for TaCT1 function. Phylogenetic and functional analyses suggested that homologous genes shared high similarity with TaCT1 may exist exclusively in monocot plants. Our work reveals a novel wheat gene family encoding major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type copper transporters, and provides evidence for their functional involvement in promoting copper uptake and keeping copper homeostasis in common wheat. PMID:24372025

  15. Reaction mechanisms of atomic layer deposition of TaN{sub x} from Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} precursor and H{sub 2}-based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Knoops, H. C. M.; Langereis, E.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-15

    The reaction mechanisms of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TaN{sub x} using Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} were studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The fact that molecule dissociation and formation in the plasma have to be considered for such ALD processes was illustrated by the observation of 4% NH{sub 3} in a H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} (1:1) plasma. Using QMS measurements the reaction products during growth of conductive TaN{sub x} using a H{sub 2} plasma were determined. During the Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} exposure the reaction product HNMe{sub 2} was detected. The amount of adsorbed Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} and the amount of HNMe{sub 2} released were found to depend on the number of surface groups generated during the plasma step. At the beginning of the plasma exposure step the molecules HNMe{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were measured. After an extended period of plasma exposure, the reaction products CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were still present in the plasma. This change in the composition of the reaction products can be explained by an interplay of aspects including the plasma-surface interaction, the ALD surface reactions, and the reactions of products within the plasma. The species formed in the plasma (e.g., CH{sub x} radicals) can re-deposit on the surface and influence to a large extent the TaN{sub x} material composition and properties.

  16. In vitro biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta-Pd and Ti-Sn-Nb-Ta-Pd alloys.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Okazaki, Y; Tateishi, T; Ito, Y

    1995-07-01

    There is much discussion about the toxic effect of vanadium and aluminum contained in Ti-6Al-4V alloy for prosthetic implants. The goal of the present investigation was to develop new titanium alloys with sufficient mechanical properties using more biocompatible alloying elements: zirconium, tin, niobium, tantalum, and palladium. The relative growth rates of L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly higher when cultured with the extraction of Ti-10Zr-8Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd or Ti-15Zr-4Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd alloys than when cultured with the extraction of Ti-6Al-4AV ELI alloy. The tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area for Ti-15Sn-4Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd alloy were 989 MPa, 14.4%, and 49.3%, respectively, surpassing Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy. (ASTM F138-84); those for Ti-15Zr-4Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd alloy were 725 MPa, 23.6% and 54.9%, respectively. More than 15% addition of tin as well as zirconium deteriorated the tensile properties. Titanium release into a 5% hydrochloric acid solution from the new titanium alloys was 20-50 micrograms/cm2 per day, though that from Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy was 1300 micrograms/cm2 per day. The optimum alloy compositions are Ti-15Zr-4Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd and Ti-15Sn-4Nb-2Ta-0.2Pd, judging from cytocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties. The former is characterized by its higher level cytocompatibility and corrosion resistance, while the latter is characterized by mechanical properties. PMID:7593029

  17. Queer paradox/paradoxical queer: Anne Garréta's Pas un jour (2002).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how Anne Garréta's Pas un jour (2002) is a decidedly queer text, in both the new and the old sense of that contested epithet. I examine three interrelated concerns central to Pas un jour. First, I analyze Garréta's mediation of desire in general: her own experiences of it; modalities thereof which subvert more 'normative' models of lesbianism; and her convergences with other gay, but male writers and theorists of desire such as Guy Hocquenghem, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault. Second, I interrogate Garréta's dichotomy between desire and friendship, and adumbrate contrasts with Foucauldian theory. Finally, I scrutinize the meaning and value attributed to the particular body of desire with which Garréta is most commonly associated-homosexuality- and their links with those of a contemporary gay male writer, Dominique Fernandez. PMID:17804371

  18. Superconductivity in the new ternary phase of the Ta-Hf-B system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Lucas Eduardo; Santos, Frederico Benedetto; Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho; Renosto, Sergio Tuan; Fisk, Zachary; Da Silva Machado, Antonio Jefferson

    2014-03-01

    In the Ta-B binary system the TaB phase crystallizes in the orthorhombic symmetry with CrB prototype structure which displays superconducting critical temperature close to 4.0 K. To our knowledge this binary phase (CrB prototype structure) is a just stable phase in all temperature range. In this work we will show that the substitution of Ta for Hf it is able to produce a allotropic transformation from CrB to FeB prototype structure. These results represent a new pseudo-ternary phase in the Ta - Hf -B system which is stable in high temperature. The phase found in this work present superconducting critical temperature close to 6.9 K which is sustained by specific heat, magnetization and resistivity measurements.

  19. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oezer, D.; Sanjines, R.; Ramirez, G.; Rodil, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical and optical properties of Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from individual Ta and Si targets were studied in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and silicon contents on both properties and their correlation to the film microstructure. Three sets of fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films were prepared: sub-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.44}, nearly stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.5}, and over-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.56}. The optical properties were investigated by near-normal-incidence reflectivity and ellipsometric measurements in the optical energy range from 0.375 eV to 6.8 eV, while the d.c. electrical resistivity was measured in the van der Pauw configuration from 20 K to 300 K. The optical and electrical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude-Lorentz model and the so-called grain boundary scattering model, respectively. The electronic properties were closely correlated with the compositional and structural modifications of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films due to variations in the stoichiometry of the fcc-TaN{sub z} system and the addition of Si atoms. According to the nitrogen and silicon contents, fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10{sup 2} {mu}{Omega} cm to about 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {mu}{Omega} cm. The interpretation of the experimental temperature-dependent resistivity data within the Grain Boundary Scattering model, combined with the results from optical investigations, showed that the mean electron transmission probability G and the free carriers concentration, N, are the main parameters that control the transport properties of these films. The results indicated that the correlation between electrical and optical measurements with the chemical composition and the nanostructure of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films provides a pertinent and

  1. Isolation and characterization of three TaYUC10genes from wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yin, Na; Niu, Zubiao; Hui, Wenrong; Song, Jing; Huang, Chunli; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2014-08-10

    YUCCA protein participates in a key rate-limiting step in the tryptophan-dependent pathway for auxin biosynthesis and is involved in numerous processes during plant development. In this study, the genomic and cDNA sequences of three TaYUC10 homoeologous genes were isolated. These sequences showed a very high conservation in coding region and the exon/intron structure, whereas their intron lengths were different. The cDNA and polypeptide chains of the three TaYUC10 genes were highly similar. These genes were most homologous to BdYUC10. Location analysis showed that TaYUC10.1 was present in chromosome 5BL. TaYUC10.3 was expressed in all parts of the wheat, but was predominant in the reproductive organs of mature wheat, such as flowering spikelets or fertilized embryos. In the fertilized embryos 28d post-anthesis, expression of TaYUC10.3 was clearly increased with the development of seeds. This indicates that TaYUC genes may play a vital role in seed development. TaYUC10.3 overexpressed in Arabidopsis had a typical phenotype, excessive auxin accumulation also seen in higher plants, and showed increased spacing of silique and downward curling of the blade margin. Sterility was observed in adult transgenic plants, becoming more severe in late development. The floral structures of sterile plants were not integrated. TaYUC10 may be required for numerous wheat growth processes, including flower and seed development. PMID:24929126

  2. Unique LaTaO[subscript 4] Polymorph for Multiple Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E.; Waller, Mollie; Osterloh, Frank E.

    2009-11-04

    Rare-earth niobate and tantalate (RE-Nb/Ta) materials are of considerable interest in environmental and energy-related applications that include phosphors for solid-state lighting, photocatalysts for both contaminant degeneration and H{sub 2} generation, chemically robust hosts for nuclear materials and wastes, and ion conductors for lithium batteries or solid-oxide fuel cells. However, the chemically inert nature limits the synthetic routes available to obtain these materials, which in turn hampers the discovery and development of new RE-Nb/Ta phases. Of the simple orthotantalate, LaTaO{sub 4}, there were three polymorphs known prior. With this paper, we present the structural characterization (from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data collected at the APS 11-BM line) of a fourth polymorph. It is obtained only from dehydration of La{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2}, which is in turn synthesized hydrothermally. The structure of the new LaTaO{sub 4} polymorph is distinctive from the others in the arrangement of the alternating La-O polyhedra layers and TaO{sub 6} octahedra layers. Luminescence measurements (Eu-doped) and photocatalysis studies of the new LaTaO{sub 4} polymorph, and comparison to the performance of a previously described LaTaO{sub 4} polymorph reveals enhanced performance of the new polymorph in both applications. This study illustrates the relevance of form-function relationships in solid-state materials, as well as the important role of synthesis in the development of advanced functional materials.

  3. Development of X-Shape Filtered Arc Deposition Apparatus for Thick ta-C Film Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikokasa, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    Novel X-shape filtered arc deposition (X-FAD) apparatus is specially designed and newly developed for thick hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on superhard alloy (or cemented carbide) substrate. The apparatus has a graphite cathode for deposition of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC; ta-C and amorphous carbon: a-C) film and a chromium (Cr) cathode for deposition of Cr layer. The filter duct shapes a composed form of a T-shape filter (T-FAD) for DLC film and a crank-shape filter (Crank FAD) for Cr film. Both carbon plasma beam and Cr plasma beam finally pass through a common plasma duct and scanner part, and go forward to the substrate. It is known that the adhesion of ta-C film to the superhard alloy is not good and the employment of binding interlayer between ta-C film and superhard alloy is one of the solutions. In this paper, using X-FAD, thick ta-C film was prepared on the superhard alloy. Principal results were as follows. (1) Crank FAD remarkably worked to prepare droplet-free Cr film. (2) Cr single layer did not work as appropriate biding interlayer between superhard alloy and ta-C. (3) Multi interlayer composed of Cr, a-C, and functionally graded DLC (a-C to ta-C), worked as a good biding interlayer for ta-C film on superhard alloy with thickness of more than 1 μm.

  4. Synthesis of mesoporous sulfur-doped Ta2O5 nanocomposites and their photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A; Faisal, M; Harraz, Farid A; Al-Hajry, A; Al-Sehemi, A G

    2016-06-01

    Mesoporous sulfur (S)-doped Ta2O5 nanocomposites have been synthesized for the first time through the sol-gel reaction of tantalum chloride and thiourea in the presence of a F127 triblock copolymer as structure directing agent. The as-formed mesophase S-doped Ta2O5 hybrid gels were calcined at 700°C for 4h to obtain mesoporous S-Ta2O5 nanocomposites. The experimental results indicated that the surface area of the S-doped Ta2O5 was up to 50m(2)g(-1) and the pore diameter was controllable in the range of 3-7.7nm. The S-doped Ta2O5 nanocomposites behave as superior visible light-sensitive photocatalysts and the 1.5at.% S-doped Ta2O5 (S1.5) photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity of ∼92% for the photodegradation of methylene blue, identical to 80% TOC removal after three hours illumination under visible light. The photodegradation rate of S1.5 photocatalyst showed 3.4 times higher than the undoped Ta2O5 due to their narrow bandgap, large surface area, mesostructure and well crystalline state. The S1.5 photocatalyst could be recycled at least five times without an apparent decrease in its photocatalytic efficiency, indicating its high stability for practical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates one-step synthesis of mesoporous S-doped Ta2O5 nanocomposites as an efficient photocatalysts under visible light illumination. PMID:27017474

  5. Synthesis of Fe-Pd and Fe-Pd/Ta magnetic nanocomposites by severe plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.; Kulovits, A.; Soffa, W.A.; Barnard, J.A.

    2005-05-15

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) and cyclic codeformation were used to prepare bulk magnetic nanocomposite of ordered L1{sub 0} Fe-Pd phase and soft {alpha}-Fe following an atomic ordering and precipitation reaction. Enhanced coercivity and remanence have been achieved with this method. Layering of Ta foils with the Fe-34 at. %Pd foils was explored in an effort to minimize nanocomposite grain size by confinement. Faster kinetics and improvement in the remanence resulted from Ta layering.

  6. Charge transfer activation energy for alkali atoms on Re and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gładyszewski, Longin

    1993-09-01

    Ion and atom desorption energies for five alkali metals on Re and Ta were determined using the ion thermal emission noise method. The activation energies for the charge transfer process in the adsorbed state were calculated using a special energetic balance equation, which describes the surface ionization and thermal desorption effect. Energies for desorption of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs from Re and Ta surfaces were determined by measuring the time autocorrelation function of the ion thermoemission current fluctuations.

  7. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically anomalous if intended to express the situation…

  8. Oxygen related recombination defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} water splitting photoanode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Gao; Yu, Tao E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn; Zou, Zhigang; Yan, Shicheng E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn

    2015-10-26

    A key route to improving the performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photoelectrochemical film devices in solar driving water splitting to hydrogen is to understand the nature of the serious recombination of photo-generated carriers. Here, by using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we confirmed that for the Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films prepared by nitriding Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursor, one PL peak at 561 nm originates from deep-level defects recombination of the oxygen-enriched Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} phases, and another one at 580 nm can be assigned to band recombination of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} itself. Both of the two bulk recombination processes may decrease the photoelectrochemical performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. It was difficult to remove the oxygen-enriched impurities in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films by increasing the nitriding temperatures due to their high thermodynamically stability. In addition, a broadening PL peak between 600 and 850 nm resulting from oxygen related surface defects was observed by the low-temperature PL measurement, which may induce the surface recombination of photo-generated carriers and can be removed by increasing the nitridation temperature. Our results provided direct experimental evidence to understand the effect of oxygen-related crystal defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films on its photoelectric performance.

  9. Visible Light Assisted Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation by Ta2O5/Bi2O3, TaON/Bi2O3, and Ta3N5/Bi2O3 Composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adhikari, Shiba; Hood, Zachary D.; More, Karren Leslie; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Zhang, Lifeng; Gross, Michael; Lachgar, Abdou

    2015-06-15

    Composites comprised of two semiconducting materials with suitable band gaps and band positions have been reported to be effective at enhancing photocatalytic activity in the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we report the synthesis, complete structural and physical characterizations, and photocatalytic performance of a series of semiconducting oxide composites. UV light active tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) and visible light active tantalum oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) were synthesized, and their composites with Bi2O3 were prepared in situ using benzyl alcohol as solvent. The composite prepared using equimolar amounts of Bi2O3 and Ta2O5 leads to the formation ofmore » the ternary oxide, bismuth tantalate (BiTaO4) upon calcination at 1000 °C. The composites and single phase bismuth tantalate formed were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated for generation of hydrogen using aqueous methanol solution under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The results show that as-prepared composite photocatalysts extend the light absorption range and restrict photogenerated charge-carrier recombination, resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to individual phases. The mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity for the heterostructured composites is elucidated based on observed activity, band positions calculations, and photoluminescence data.« less

  10. Atomic Level Design Rule for Ta-based Resistive Switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seo Hyoung; Hong, S.; Lee, M.-J.; Kim, Y.-B.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Magyari-Kope, B.; Kaduk, J. A.; Eastman, J. A.; Kim, J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding resistive switching phenomena is a prerequisite to realizing the next generation of information storage systems. Ta-based resistive switching devices have been extensively investigated due to their fast switching and reliable endurance among other materials. Despite extensive recent interests, there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of electronic structure and local structure of the Ta-based device. Here, we investigated Ta2O5 powder, Ta2O5-δ and TaOx thin films and devices using synchrotron x-ray studies at the Advanced Photon Source, combining resonant x-ray inelastic scattering (RIXS), extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and density functional theory based ab initio calculations. We found that there are strong correlations between critical values of band gap energies and local atomic environments around Ta atoms. These studies can provide vast possibilities to create new materials based on atomic level design rather than the traditional trial-error methods. Work at the APS, Argonne is supported by a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.