Science.gov

Sample records for 8-inch fresh water

  1. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  2. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  3. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  4. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  5. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  6. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  7. Antiloosening ability of 5/8 inch stainless steel BSW threaded fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Bikash; Das, Santanu

    2016-07-01

    Threaded fasteners are popular for temporary joining of different components due to the fact that they retain high clamping force and torque for long. However, they may loosen under vibrating conditions causing failure of the system. In this experimental work, antiloosening ability of various 5/8 inch BSW fastening elements, such as conventional nut and nylock nut with flat washer, spring washer, inside and outside serrated washers is tested with stainless steel (SS) bolts. A hybrid double nut using a simple nut and one nylock nut at the outside and a typical adhesive bonded nut with 5/8 inch BSW bolt are introduced to obtain resistance to loosening. Some hybrid double nut and adhesive bonded nut are recommended for stainless steel 5/8 inch BSW bolts under vibration.

  8. Insight Into Sustainability of Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, S. P.

    2002-05-01

    Global modeling often assumes that water is not an issue on the macro scale. WorldWater system dynamics model has been developed for modeling global world water balance and capturing the dynamic character of main variables affecting water availability and use in the future. In spite of not being a novel approach, system dynamics offers (i) a new way for identifying factors that are affecting the future availability of fresh water and provides (ii) insight into the impacts of different development strategies on the future availability of fresh water. WorldWater simulations are clearly demonstrating the strong feedback relation between water availability and different aspects of world development. Results of numerous simulations are contradictory to the assumption made by many global modelers and do confirm that water is an issue on the global scale. Two major observations are made from early model simulations: (a) the use of clean water for dilution and transport of wastewater, if not dealt in other ways, imposes a major stress on the global world water balance; and (b) water use by different sectors is demonstrating quite different dynamics then predicted by classical forecasting tools and other water-models. Inherent linkages between water quantity and quality sectors with food, industry, persistent pollution, technology, and nonrenewable resources sectors of the model create shoot and collapse behavior in water use dynamics. This presentation is discussing a number of different water-related scenarios and their implications on the future water balance. In particular, two extreme scenarios (business as usual - named `Chaos', and unlimited desalination - named `Ocean') will be discussed. Based on the conclusions derived from these two extreme cases a set of more moderate and realistic scenarios (named `Conservation') is proposed.

  9. Performance of new 8-inch photomultiplier tube used for the Tibet muon-detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Zhai, L.-M.; Chen, X.; Hu, X.-B.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jin, H.-B.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Feng, C.-F.; Jia, H.-Y.; Zhou, X.-X.; Danzengluobu; Chen, T.-L.; Labaciren; Liu, M.-Y.; Gao, Q.; Zhaxiciren

    2016-06-01

    Since 2014, a new hybrid experiment consisting of a high-energy air-shower-core array (YAC-II), a high-density air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD) has been continued by the Tibet ASγ collaboration to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays in the wide energy range including the ``knee''. In this experiment, YAC-II is used to select high energy core events induced by cosmic rays in the above energy region, while MD is used to estimate the type of nucleus of primary particles by measuring the number of muons contained in the air showers. However, the dynamic range of each MD cell is only 5 to 2000 photoelectrons (PEs) which is mainly designed for observation of high-energy celestial gamma rays. In order to obtain the primary proton, helium and iron spectra and their ``knee'' positions with energy up to 1016 eV, each of PMTs equipped to the MD cell is required to measure the number of photons capable of covering a wide dynamic range of 100–106 PEs according to Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we firstly compare the characteristic features between R5912-PMT made by Japan Hamamatsu and CR365-PMT made by Beijing Hamamatsu. If there exists no serious difference, we will then add two 8-inch-in-diameter PMTs to meet our requirements in each MD cell, which are responsible for the range of 100–10000 PEs and 2000–1000000 PEs, respectively. That is, MD cell is expected to be able to measure the number of muons over 6 orders of magnitudes.

  10. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Global modeling of fresh surface water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Eikelboom, T.; van Vliet, M. T.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature determines a range of water physical properties, the solubility of oxygen and other gases and acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and the presence or absence of pathogens. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism, tolerance to parasites, diseases and pollution and life history. Compared to statistical approaches, physically-based models of surface water temperature have the advantage that they are robust in light of changes in flow regime, river morphology, radiation balance and upstream hydrology. Such models are therefore better suited for projecting the effects of global change on water temperature. Till now, physically-based models have only been applied to well-defined fresh water bodies of limited size (e.g., lakes or stream segments), where the numerous parameters can be measured or otherwise established, whereas attempts to model water temperature over larger scales has thus far been limited to regression type of models. Here, we present a first attempt to apply a physically-based model of global fresh surface water temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modelled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by short and long-wave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice-formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We used the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global fresh surface water temperature at daily time steps on a 0.5x0.5 degree grid for the period 1970-2000. Meteorological forcing was obtained from the CRU data set, downscaled to daily values with ECMWF

  12. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  13. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit. PMID:17777883

  14. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  15. Electron beam welding of 8-inch thick 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Charles M.

    1980-08-01

    Electron beam welding procedures were developed and used to make sound welds in 8-inch thick 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo in the horizontal position. A two-pass technique, one pass from each side, was developed for welding the 8-inch thickness. Techniques for eliminating various weld defects were developed. It was learned that the beam oscillation conditions strongly influenced welding performance. Procedures were developed for hard and soft vacuum operation, but hard vacuum was preferred. Procedures for starting and stopping the welding sequence were developed, along with a repair technique involving re-welding over a plug filled hole. The joint fit-up requirements were determined: a joint mismatch of 3/4 in. was welded, and a joint gap opening of 0.100 in. was welded without alteration of the welding procedure. It was shown that it is not necessary to demagnetize the material for successful welding, but that a special magnetic shield may be needed to protect the electron beam from stray magnetic fields. A demonstration weld failed to meet the NDE requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code due to poor base metal quality which adversely affected weld performance. The mechanical properties (hardness, strength, ductility, and impact), and the microstructure of electron beam welded 8-inch thick SA387 Grade 22 Class 2 were determined and appeared to be adequate.

  16. Using density difference to store fresh water in saline subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginkel, M.; Olsthoorn, Th. N.; des Tombe, B.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of fresh water in the subsurface for later recovery and use (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) is becoming more and more important in the coming decades for seasonal or emergency storage, especially in the light of climate change and increasing population. However, fresh water storage in a saline subsurface poses a challenge: the initially vertical interface between injected fresh and native salt water is unstable and tends to rotate. The injected fresh water tends to float upward on top of native salt water, where it becomes hard or impossible to recover at a later stage. A wide body of literature exists about this buoyancy effect that is caused by the density difference between fresh and salt water. Yet, very few papers focus on solutions to this problem. In this paper we propose a storage principle to overcome this buoyancy problem by actually using the density difference to keep the fresh water in place, by combining salt water extraction and impermeable barriers. This technique seems promising and could solve many local fresh water storage problems. It is especially applicable in shallow water table aquifers for the storage of fresh water below parks and arable land or for seasonal storage of desalinated water. We performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modelling to study the dynamic behaviour of a fresh water bubble stored in saline subsurface using the technique of salt water extraction and impermeable barriers; including effects of operation dynamics, groundwater flow, and diffusion, dispersion and density differences.

  17. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; König, A.; Hacker, J.; Bartl, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  18. Reuse of fresh water sludge in cement making.

    PubMed

    Pan, R; Huang, C; Lin, S

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing demand for high quality water, a large quantity of chemical agent must be added in the water purification process, which in turn generates enormous amount of fresh water sludge. Of all the options for sludge disposal, sludge reuse has been considered most economical and environmentally sound. This study evaluated the possibility of incorporating fresh water sludge in the making of Portland cement through the sintering process. The goal was to search for the optimal condition to maximize the replacement of clay with the fresh water sludge. Characteristics of fresh water sludge were collected and analyzed. The analysis showed that water source and water treatment process dominate th characteristics, particularly the chemical composition of the fresh water sludge. The fresh water sludge was mixed with the cement clay in various percentages, from 0% to 100%, as raw material for cement-making. The effects of its addition on the sintering condition and the quality of cement were evaluated. The analysis of the clinkers showed that the addition of the fresh water sludge did not change the phase form and the f-CaO content of the cement. The compressive strength of the masonry increased with the increasing addition of fresh water sludge. All cement products made from various replacement ratios met the Chinese National Standard of first degree Portland cement. PMID:15581011

  19. Melting icebergs to produce fresh water and mechanical energy

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, W.M.; Hautala, E.; Randall, J.M.

    1981-10-20

    Fresh water and mechanical energy are obtained from melting of icebergs. Warm surface seawater is contacted with a fluid, which is vaporized. The resulting vapor is used to generate mechanical energy and then is condensed by contacting it with cold melt water from the iceberg. The fluid is regenerated with a concomitant elevation in the temperature of the melt water. The warmer melt water is cycled to the body of the iceberg to facilitate its melting and produce additional cold melt water, which is apportioned as fresh water and water cycled to condense the aforesaid vapor. In an alternate embodiment of the invention warm seawater is evaporated at reduced pressure. Mechanical energy is generated from the vapor, which is then condensed by direct and intimate contact with cold melt water from the iceberg. The resultant fresh water is a mixture of condensed vapor and melt water from the iceberg and has a temperature greater than the cold melt water. This fresh water mixture is contacted with the body of the iceberg to further melt it; part of the cold melt water is separated as fresh water and the remainder is cycled for use in condensing the vapor from the warm surface seawater.

  20. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  1. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  2. Some aspects of lunar photography with an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. C. D.

    1992-04-01

    A brief review of telescope properties and basic data on the Moon leads to some pragmatic conclusions on how to take a high resolution photograph of the lunar surface through an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope using a single lens reflex camera body as the film holder.

  3. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, C G

    2000-01-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  4. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed

    Reuther, C G

    2000-02-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  5. HEALTH EFFECTS CRITERIA FOR FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A criterion for the quality of the bathing water, based upon swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness, was developed from data obtained during a multi-year freshwater epidemiological-microbiological research program conducted at bathing beaches near Erie, Pennsylvania and Tul...

  6. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology. PMID:22328161

  7. Fresh water and power from the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Anthony; Hillis, David L.

    An experiment--the Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus--was built to obtain design data for a larger test that will assess the technical feasibility of the open-cycle OTEC process. (This closed-cycle concept was successfully demonstrated in 1979.) The project is a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The apparatus was erected at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii and became operational in the summer of 1987. It is used by both ANL and SERI to conduct open-cycle OTEC experiments. After initial debugging, it produced 350 gallons per hour of potable water having a salinity of 86 ppM, one-fifth that of local tap water available at the test site.

  8. Fresh water and power from the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment--the Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus--was built to obtain design data for a larger test that will assess the technical feasibility of the open-cycle OTEC process. (This closed-cycle concept was successfully demonstrated in 1979.) The project is a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The apparatus was erected at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii and became operational in the summer of 1987. It is used by both ANL and SERI to conduct open-cycle OTEC experiments. After initial debugging, it produced 350 gallons per hour of potable water having a salinity of 86 ppM, one-fifth that of local tap water available at the test site. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Method and plant for storing fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkers, K.R.

    1988-04-05

    A tank for storage of a confined quantity of freshwater in a large body of saltwater is described comprising an upper annular support having flotation means so that the annular support can freely float in the body of salt water, vertically supported only by the flotation means; a non-expandable flexible skirt of sheet material extending downwardly from the annual support to define an open-bottomed storage tank; means on the skirt to maintain the skirt in a generally vertical downward orientation from the annual support while the support floats in the saltwater.

  10. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  11. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  12. Design and performance of a parachute recovery system to recover 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Peterson, C.W.; Botner, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A parachute recovery system has been developed and demonstrated for the recovery of 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells. The recovery system functions after being subjected to gun launch accelerations of up to 18,000 g's axially and up to 400,000 rad/sec/sup 2/ radially. The parachute is deployed while the shell is still spinning at about 250 revolutions per second. To deploy the parachute while the shell is spinning, a double-swivel system was developed. The deployment signal for the recovery system is provided by an electronic timer. Over 250 tests have been performed on both the 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shell. Impact velocities are between 100 and 120 feet per second. The latest version of the recovery systems has been proven to be over 95% successful for the recovery of 8-inch-diameter artillery shells and over 85% successful for the recovery of 155-mm-diameter artillery shells.

  13. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  15. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  16. Fresh Water Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.

  17. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  18. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  19. A simple method for locating the fresh water-salt water interface using pressure data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kue-Young; Chon, Chul-Min; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is a key issue in dealing with exploitation, restoration, and management of fresh ground water in coastal aquifers. Constant monitoring of the fresh water-salt water interface is necessary for proper management of ground water resources. This study presents a simple method to estimate the depth of the fresh water-salt water interface in coastal aquifers using two sets of pressure data obtained from the fresh and saline zones within a single borehole. This method uses the density difference between fresh water and saline water and can practically be used at coastal aquifers that have a relatively sharp fresh water-salt water interface with a thin transition zone. The proposed method was applied to data collected from a coastal aquifer on Jeju Island, Korea, to estimate the variations in the depth of the interface. The interface varied with daily tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall in the rainy season. The estimated depth of the interface showed a good agreement with the measured electrical conductivity profile. PMID:17973750

  20. Am/Cm TTR testing -- 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5[Technical Task Request

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-20

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2.

  1. As Leaching into Fresh Water from Highly Contaminated Hawaiian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklis, N. J.; Rubin, K. H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of current and former agricultural soils in Hawaii is an unfortunate legacy of plantation era agricultural practices. Here, we report an investigation of As mobility in fresh water from highly contaminated (0.8 % As) A-zone Hawaiian andisols from the Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawai’i. Aliquots of the same acidic soil (pH= 5.0) were exposed to fresh water for varying lengths of time and analyzed to quantify the fraction of As and other elements leached from the soil relative to concentrations determined by total digestion. A maximum of 0.04% of As and 0.05% of Fe were removed from the soils in initial rinses and multi-day leaches using 18 megaohm Millipore water, in experiments lasting up to 35 days. Arsenic concentrations were highest in initial soil rinses, indicating that a small fraction of the total As in the soil is either loosely bound or present as a fine-grained, soluble As-bearing phase. During subsequent leaching experiments, arsenic and most other inorganic ions that we analyzed for reached equilibrium after 3 days; Fe reached equilibrium concentrations after 10 days. All soil solutions contained As levels that exceeded the EPA acceptable drinking water limit of 0.01 ppm. However, contaminant transport modeling suggests that As contaminated leachates would not migrate substantially from this site, so that local isolation and storage of contaminated soils would likely be an acceptable containment method.

  2. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  3. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in fresh waters of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichimatsu, T; Mizuki, E; Nishimura, K; Akao, T; Saitoh, H; Higuchi, K; Ohba, M

    2000-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis was recovered at a relatively high frequency from both running and still fresh waters in natural environments of Kyushu, Japan. Of 107 water samples examined, 53 (49.5%) contained this organism. The frequency of B. thuringiensis colonies was 4.4% among 4414 colonies of the Bacillus cereus/B. thuringiensis group. The density of this bacterium in fresh waters averaged 0.45 cfu/ml. Serologically, B. thuringiensis isolates were assigned to 26 H serotypes. Of these, H14/36 (H serovar israelensis/malaysiensis) was the predominant, followed by the serotypes H3abc (kurstaki), H27 (mexicanensis), H3ad (sumiyoshiensis), and H35 (seoulensis). Of 195 isolates, 52 (26.7%) exhibited larvicidal activity against aquatic Diptera; 21 killed Culex pipiens molestus (Culicidae) only, and 31 were active on both the culicine mosquito and the moth-fly, Clogmia albipunctata (Psychodidae). The Diptera-toxic isolates produced spherical or irregularly pointed parasporal inclusions. PMID:10688688

  4. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  5. Status of fresh water mussel research in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In addition to the previously described mussel research projects in Virginia, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has undertaken a wide-ranging Cumberlandian Mollusc Conservation Program to (a) accumulate information on the present distribution, life histories, and ecological requirements of the Cumberlandian mussel fauna and (b) conserve or increase populations of these species in the Tennessee River drainage. This TVA program has contributed greatly toward a better understanding of species status, water quality problems, and research needs for this unique faunal group. The attention currently being given to fresh water mussels in the upper Tennessee River system is unprecedented, and participating State and Federal agencies are to be commended for supporting conservation activities far beyond what is legally required. The success of a mollusk conservation effort will depend on public awareness, not of mussels in and for themselves but as indicators of riverine degradation and its effect on environmental health and recreational opportunities for man.

  6. WATER, ENERGY AND LIFE: FRESH VIEWS FROM THE WATER'S EDGE.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G H

    2010-12-01

    Recent observations have shown an unexpected feature of water adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces: the presence of wide interfacial zone that excludes solutes. The exclusion zone is charged, while the water beyond is oppositely charged, yielding a battery-like feature. The battery is powered by absorbed radiant energy. Implications of this energetic feature are discussed. It appears that the presence of this 'exclusion zone' may play an important role in the behavior of aqueous systems. PMID:22977460

  7. Water dynamics in fresh and frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Simon M; Huang, Victor T; Reid, David S; Winger, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    Water is an integral part of wheat flour dough-the amount, physical state, and location of water are crucial to the formation of a dough that will hold gas and produce an open, aerated crumb structure in the final product. This has been understood for centuries by craft bakers, who were highly attuned to the "feel" of dough in their hands. In the 20th century, empirical instruments were invented that simulated part of the breadmaking process, and their limited predictive capacity made them valuable quality control tools. During the latter decades of the 20th century the cost and availability of advanced instrumental methods for characterizing foods improved dramatically, and facilitated a "fundamental science" approach to food research. The physicochemical mechanisms by which water exerts such a strong influence on the character of dough are now better understood. This review contrasts the empirical and fundamental view points, and summarizes recent knowledge about the roles of water in the manufacture of fresh and frozen yeasted dough. PMID:22369259

  8. Moisture Advection and Fresh Water Flux over Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Moisture transport in the atmosphere is one of the most significant components in the hydrological cycle. Under stationary condition, ocean surface fresh water flux, which is the difference between precipitation (P) and evaporation (E), is balanced by the divergence of column-integrated moisture transport (IMT) in the atmosphere. Characterizing accurately a global picture of IMT from observation is a difficult task. It requires measurements of vertical profiles for wind vector and humidity. More specifically, IMT can be defined as the integration in pressure coordinates the product of specific humidity q and wind vector u, where g is the gravitational acceleration, and p, is the atmospheric pressure at ocean surface.In this study, a statistical relationship is derived between u, and u(sub)s using data from numerical weather prediction model. The relationship is then validated using surface and vertical profile from radiosonde data, before applied to spacebased measurements.

  9. UPCONING OF A SALT-WATER/FRESH-WATER INTERFACE BELOW A PUMPING WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical solutions for the upconing of an abrupt salt-water/fresh-water interface beneath a pumping well and for the concentration profile across a moving interface are developed for two types of upconing problems. The first considers the position of the interface and the salin...

  10. Application of tidal energy for purification in fresh water lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Rho-Taek; Isshiki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In order to preserve the quality of fresh water in the artificial lake after the reclamation of an intertidal flat at the mouth of a river, we suggest two novel methods of water purification by using tidal potential energy and an enclosed permeable embankment called an utsuro (Akai et al., 1990) in the reclaimed region. One method uses an inflatable bag on the seabed within an utsuro, while the other uses a moored floating barge out of a dyke. Each case employs a subsea pipe to allow flow between the inside and outside of the utsuro. The change in water level in the utsuro, which is pushed through the pipe by the potential energy outside, caused circulation in the artificial lake. In this paper, we analyzed the inflatable bag and floating barge motion as well as the pipe flow characteristics and drafts as given by a harmonic sea level, and compared the theoretical value with an experimental value with a simple small model basin. The numerical calculation based on theory showed good agreement with experimental values.

  11. Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates and osmotic responses in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Patterson, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Byers, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Water flux rates and osmotic responses of Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) acutely exposed to fresh water were quantified. Salt-water adapted turtles were exposed to fresh water for 4 d before being returned to salt water. During the initial salt water phase, absolute and relative water flux rates were 1.2+/-0.1 l d(-1) and 123.0+/-6.8 ml kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. When turtles were exposed to fresh water, rates increased by approximately 30%. Upon return to salt water, rates decreased to original levels. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) decreased during exposure to fresh water, and subsequently increased during the return to salt water. The Na(+):K(+) ratio was elevated during the fresh water phase and subsequently decreased upon return to salt water. Aldosterone and corticosterone were not altered during exposure to fresh water. Elevated water flux rates during fresh water exposure reflected an increase in water consumption, resulting in a decrease in ionic and osmotic concentrations. The lack of a change in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment may be delayed in marine turtles when compared to marine mammals.

  12. Assessing the Natural Values of Fresh Waters: Science or Art?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, C. M.; Boon, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    If conservation is to be effective, there needs to be agreement on how priorities are assessed - especially among scientists, resource managers, and policy-makers. Although tensions remain between some sectors, considerable progress has been made. In the UK, for example, the recent implementation of the EC Water Framework Directive has brought the aspirations of 'freshwater management' and 'freshwater conservation' closer, although there are still legitimate differences between the two. Effective conservation also requires robust and objective methods of assigning 'value' to fresh waters. To compare approaches used in the UK and the US, a survey was conducted among selected individuals, classified within three broad affiliations: universities and research institutes, conservation bodies, and resource managers. Respondents assigned scores to reflect the importance attached to each of 27 features, grouped within broad conservation criteria. Naturalness and rarity were ranked the highest both in the UK and the US, with representativeness and diversity rated significantly lower. The naturalness of channels and banks, and littoral and shoreline zones, respectively, were considered the most important features for rivers and lakes. Results indicate much common ground between the two countries, suggesting that some 'core' features are essential components in determinations of freshwater conservation value.

  13. Fresh Waters and Fish Diversity: Distribution, Protection and Disturbance in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Pearson, Richard G.; Puschendorf, Robert; Rayner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the globally poor protection of fresh waters for their intrinsic ecological values, assessments are needed to determine how well fresh waters and supported fish species are incidentally protected within existing terrestrial protected-area networks, and to identify their vulnerability to human-induced disturbances. To date, gaps in data have severely constrained any attempt to explore the representation of fresh waters in tropical regions. Methodology and Results We determined the distribution of fresh waters and fish diversity in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. We then used distribution data of fresh waters, fish species, human-induced disturbances, and the terrestrial protected-area network to assess the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas for fresh waters and fish species. We also identified human-induced disturbances likely to influence the effectiveness of freshwater protection and evaluated the vulnerability of fresh waters to these disturbances within and outside protected areas. The representation of fresh waters and fish species in the protected areas of the Wet Tropics is poor: 83% of stream types defined by order, 75% of wetland types, and 89% of fish species have less than 20% of their total Wet Tropics length, area or distribution completely within IUCN category II protected areas. Numerous disturbances affect fresh waters both within and outside of protected areas despite the high level of protection afforded to terrestrial areas in the Wet Tropics (>60% of the region). High-order streams and associated wetlands are influenced by the greatest number of human-induced disturbances and are also the least protected. Thirty-two percent of stream length upstream of protected areas has at least one human-induced disturbance present. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate the need for greater consideration of explicit protection and off-reserve management for fresh waters and supported biodiversity by showing that, even in

  14. Wet Worlds: Explore the World of Water. Marine and Fresh Water Activities for the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Gerard; And Others

    Complete with student worksheets, field trip ideas, illustrations, vocabulary lists, suggested materials, and step-by-step procedures, the document presents a compilation of ideas for teaching elementary school (K-6) students about marine and fresh water. In the first unit students build miniature monuments and observe the deterioration of…

  15. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-06-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for fresh water discharge. In this study, we investigate the influence of river discharge on tidal wave propagation in the Yangtze estuary with specific attention to residual water level slope. This is done by using a one-dimensional analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics accounting for the residual water level. We demonstrate the importance of the residual slope on tidal dynamics and use it to improve the prediction of the tidal propagation in estuaries (i.e., tidal damping, velocity amplitude, wave celerity and phase lag), especially when the influence of river discharge is significant. Finally, we develop a new inverse analytical approach for estimating fresh water discharge on the basis of tidal water level observations along the estuary, which can be used as a tool to obtain information on the river discharge that is otherwise difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  16. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-10-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for fresh water discharge. In this study, we investigate the influence of river discharge on tidal wave propagation in the Yangtze estuary with specific attention to residual water level slope. This is done by using a one-dimensional analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics accounting for the residual water level. We demonstrate the importance of the residual slope on tidal dynamics and use it to improve the prediction of the tidal propagation in estuaries (i.e. tidal damping, velocity amplitude, wave celerity and phase lag), especially when the influence of river discharge is significant. Finally, we develop a new inverse analytical approach for estimating fresh water discharge on the basis of tidal water level observations along the estuary, which can be used as a tool to obtain information on the river discharge that is otherwise difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  17. Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of slime from 25% of the body caused no deaths among smolts of coho salmon in fresh water or in seawater (28‰). Removal of slime and scales from the same percentage of body area caused no deaths in fresh water, but 75% mortality within 10 days in seawater. The 10-day median tolerance limit was 10% scale removal immediately before the smolts entered seawater. Mortality was highest when the scales were removed from the area of the rib cage. Recovery of smolts in fresh water from a loss of scales that would be lethal in seawater occurred rapidly; 90% of the fish regained tolerance to seawater within 1 day.

  18. Modeling fresh water lens damage and recovery on atolls after storm-wave washover.

    PubMed

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Terry, James P

    2012-01-01

    The principal natural source of fresh water on scattered coral atolls throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean is thin unconfined groundwater lenses within islet substrates. Although there are many threats to the viability of atoll fresh water lenses, salinization caused by large storm waves washing over individual atoll islets is poorly understood. In this study, a mathematical modeling approach is used to examine the immediate responses, longer-term behavior, and subsequent (partial) recovery of a Pacific atoll fresh water lens after saline damage caused by cyclone-generated wave washover under different scenarios. Important findings include: (1) the saline plume formed by a washover event mostly migrates downward first through the top coral sand and gravel substrate, but then exits the aquifer to the ocean laterally through the more permeable basement limestone; (2) a lower water table position before the washover event, rather than a longer duration of storm washover, causes more severe damage to the fresh water lens; (3) relatively fresher water can possibly be found as a preserved horizon in the deeper part of an aquifer after disturbance, especially if the fresh water lens extends into the limestone under normal conditions; (4) post-cyclone accumulation of sea water in the central depression (swamp) of an atoll islet prolongs the later stage of fresh water lens recovery. PMID:21883195

  19. Clear salt water above sediment-laden fresh water: Interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, B.; Konopliv, N.; Meiburg, E.

    2016-05-01

    The stability of an interface separating less dense, clear salt water above from more dense, sediment-laden fresh water below is explored via direct numerical simulations. We find that the destabilizing effects of double diffusion and particle settling amplify each other above the diffusive interface, whereas they tend to cancel each other below. For moderate settling velocities, plumes form both above and below the interface, whereas for large settling velocities plume formation below the interface is suppressed. We identify the dimensionless parameter that determines in which regime a given flow takes place, along with the critical value at which the transition between the regimes takes place.

  20. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  1. Atmospheric moisture transport and fresh water flux over oceans derived from spacebased sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, W.

    2001-01-01

    preliminary results will be shown to demonstrate the application of spacebased IMT and fresh water flux in ocean-atmosphere-land interaction studies, such as the hydrologica balance on Amazon rainfall and Indian monsoon.

  2. Effects of Basin Flux on Regional Interactions between Fresh Water and Saline Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Falta, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Saline groundwater underlies fresh water aquifers at depths of 100 m or less in the midwestern U.S. to one to several kilometers in coastal areas. The upward migration of the interface between fresh and saline water can degrade freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems if the saline water discharges to surface water. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. This research aims to evaluate the risks associated with increasing the flux from saline to fresh water aquifers as a result of CO2 storage. The research approach is to develop and evaluate simulations of fresh water aquifers overlying saline groundwater that is subjected to changes in flux. Computational codes COMSOL, SEAWAT, and TOUGH2 were verified by solving classic benchmark problems of density-dependent flow. The models were then used to analyze idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, fresh water aquifer underlain by a saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The effects of saline encroachment are evaluated using a sensitivity analysis of key parameters, and the results are formulated in both dimensioned and dimensionless form. Results indicate that the depth of the saline water-freshwater interface is closely related to the surface water circulation pattern as well as the magnitude and duration of basin encroachment. Increased upward flux of saline water will raise the interface between salt and fresh water, and it will increase the salinity of water discharging to streams. However, the expected magnitudes of these effects appear to be small when the expected changes in flux caused by CO2 storage are considered. Ongoing work is refining these analyses and verify them using field observations to further constrain risks

  3. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  4. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

  5. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  6. Magnesium-silicate scaling in mixture of geothermal water and deaerated fresh water in a district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnlaugsson, E. ); Einarsson, A. )

    1989-01-01

    The low-temperature geothermal fields in Reykjavik utilized by the Reykjavik Municipal District Heating Service are now fully exploited. Additional hot water will be obtained by heating and deaerating fresh water using high temperature geothermal fluid. The heated fresh water will mix with low-temperature geothermal water in the distribution system in Reykjavik. A pilot plant has been set up to investigate magnesium silicate scale formation when mixing of these waters occurs. Tests show that the scale formation is dependent on the severity of deaeration of the fresh water the proportion of geothermal water in the mixture. Increased deaeration and thermal water proportion increase the pH of the mixture, and this promotes scaling. The scale formed is poorly crystalline, near amorphous trioctahedral smectite close to saponite in composition. By using minimum deaeration and traces of geothermal steam to remove the last remaining dissolved oxygen, scaling in the distribution system can be avoided.

  7. Fresh-water cementation of a 1,000-year-old oolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R. B.; Harris, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Calcite cementation of aragonite ooid sand is producing oolite on Joulters Cays, Bahamas. During the last 1,000 years, calcite cement has formed at an average rate of between 27 and 55 cm3 /m3 /yr and is derived from dissolution of ooid aragonite in fresh water. The dissolution-reprecipitation of carbonate minerals in the aquifer results in ground waters of unusually high Sr content. Sea water and mixtures of fresh and sea water appear to inhibit cementation. A pronounced cement fabric change occurs across the water table and has produced an obvious petrographic record of fresh-water diagenesis. Above the water table, cement is typically near grain contact positions, where water is held by capillarity; below the water table, cement is more randomly distributed around grains. At the water table a transition zone, 1 meter thick, marks the boundary between cement textures. No porosity reduction is associated with cementation; calcite cement precipitation is apparently compensated by an equal or greater amount of aragonite dissolution in the interval undergoing cementation. Permeability is more variable above the water table than below it, reflecting early channelling of flow patterns in the vadose zone. Effective permeability below the water table is one to two orders of magnitude higher than above the water table because of entrained gas in the vadose zone. This permeability difference promotes preservation of unstable minerals above the water table and continued diagenetic alteration below the water table.

  8. Demarcation of fresh- and saline-water zones, using electrical methods (Abohar area, Ferozepur district, Punjab)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, C. L.; Bose, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of electrical resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) surveys conducted in the Abohar area, Ferozepur district, Punjab, for the demarcation of the fresh- and saline-water zones. It is brought out on the basis of the resistivity-depth probing that saline water is invariably at varying depths in the area surveyed, over which bodies of fresh water have developed, having thicknesses ranging from a few metres to more han 80 m. The area to the east and southeast of Abohar town appears to be most promising from the point of view of groundwater exploitation by tube wells. In addition, the existence of localized zones having appreciable thicknesses of fresh water bearing materials has also been indicated, and it is observed that such zones are located generally near canals and perennial tanks. It is inferred that the fresh-water bodies have developed due to the continuous percolation of rain and canal waters in the areas where coarer sediments predominate, resulting in the depression of an original saline-water table. The Em traverses conducted in selected parts of the area have indicated prominent anomalies in the out-phase component, and resistivity traverses over these zones of anomalies yielded lower resistivity values compared to those obtained in the zone where the EM profile is relatively flat. Thus the EM anomalies are attributable to the saline zones, and it is suggested that the EM method can be effectively used for delineation of fresh and saline-water zones and resistivity-depth probing can then be resorted to for quantitative estimation of the thickness of fresh water bearing material in the areas of promise, thereby considerably reducing the duration and cost of an exploitation programme.

  9. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: From Lakes to Hot Tubs.

    PubMed

    Ayi, Bertha

    2015-12-01

    This chapter is unique in its focus on infections that are acquired in water. For those who like to swim and spend time in water parks and pools, the exposure to water and therefore the risk of infection is higher. Recreational water illnesses are illnesses related to recreation in water. Of these recreational water illnesses, infections are the most common because water laden with microorganisms or contaminated by human activity gains access to healthy tissue through the skin and body orifices. Infection occurs by inhalation, ingestion, or direct invasion of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common. This chapter discusses skin and soft tissue infections, ocular infections, urinary tract infections, pulmonary infections, central nervous system infections, and disseminated infections that can occur as people come into contact with natural nonmarine water bodies as well as manmade aquatic environments. Most of these infections are mild but can occasionally be life threatening. There is a focus on the latest methods to treat these infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a very common pathogen in water. The chapter discusses P. aeruginosa dermatitis at length and also looks at keratitis and pneumonia caused by this organism. The chapter also discusses the latest treatments for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a severe life-threatening illness with a high mortality, caused by Naegleria fowleri. Finally, there is an in-depth discussion of the notorious gastrointestinal illnesses such as norovirus and Cryptosporidium parvum that can affect large numbers of people at a time. PMID:27337285

  10. Regional blending of fresh and saline irrigation water: Is it efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo; Rapaport-Rom, Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Blending fresh and saline irrigation waters is implemented in many countries facing water scarcity. However, when analyzed at the field level, previous economic studies have indicated that blending fresh and saline water is suboptimal. This paper examines the blending issue on a regional scale, where both water sources and land are concurrently allocated to crops. Regional water distribution networks that enable salinity adjustment at the field level are compared to networks that allow controlling water salinity on a regional scale only, such that salt concentrations cannot differ by crop. We characterize the conditions for blending to be an optimal strategy under regional salinity control networks, and show that these conditions can be met by an empirical water production model commonly used in the literature. Empirical analysis of 16 regions in Israel revealed optimal blending in six of them. However, regardless of whether blending is optimal or not, the optimal fresh-water application is higher under regional salinity control networks, implying that blending does not support freshwater conservation. The paper analyzes the relationship between water and land constraints' shadow values, and the properties of the two water distribution networks. We show that although farming revenues are higher under networks that allow assignment of specific water salinities to crops, regional salinity control networks can become more profitable to farmers who face prices set endogenously so as to be the binding factor on the use of constrained water and land. The implications of the network selection on intraregional water supply costs are discussed.

  11. Acid precipitation: Effects on fresh water ecosystems. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification on fresh water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water pH on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms are briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on the sensory quality of fresh tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of chilling injury during shelf-life is important for maintaining the sensory quality of fresh tomato fruit. Postharvest hot water treatments within certain limits of exposure time and water temperature have been shown to increase the resistance of tomatoes to chilling injury....

  13. Competency-Based Curriculum for Prevocational Exploration. Marine/Fresh Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Clara C.

    This competency-based curriculum is intended to help teachers of prevocational career exploration courses in West Virginia to present information about marine/fresh water occupations. The document is organized into five units: fisheries, life sciences, marine life cultivation, research, and water vehicle operation. Each unit consists of five to 15…

  14. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  15. COSOLVENT EFFECTS ON PHENANTHRENE SORPTION-DESORPTION ON A FRESH-WATER SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the effects of the water-miscible cosolvent methanol on the sorption-desorption of phenanthrene by the natural organic matter (NOM) of a fresh-water sediment. A biphasic pattern was observed in the relationship between the log of the carbon-normalized sorpti...

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    A potable water treatment plant, designed to reduce manganese and iron in well water, experienced leaks in the 16 in. (406 mm) raw water headers about nine months after startup. The material, type 304 (UNS 30403) stainless steel, was purchased to American Society of Testing Materials specification A 778, with additional stipulations governing internal finish, the use of filler metal, and pickling for scale removal. Laboratory screenings of deposits for bacteria revealed some potentially additive corrosive effects from microbial action. However, the correlation of corrosion with the presence or absence of heat tint in the heat-affected zone of the circumferential welds prevailed as a primary cause of the corrosion observed beneath an adherent manganese-iron deposit in a low chloride, high manganese, raw water.

  17. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  18. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  19. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  20. A Primer on Fresh Water: The Environmental Citizenship Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Water is the lifeblood of the environment as no organisms can survive without it. This reference booklet is designed to help people make environmentally responsible decisions. The primer is targeted at the general public (grade 8 to post-secondary) to be used by educators, communities and organizations as well as individuals, as part of a learning…

  1. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  2. Exploring the limits of the terrestrial fresh water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ent, Ruud; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation is the ultimate source of life on this planet: it makes our crops grow, provides drinking water, feeds rivers and replenishes groundwater aquifers. Climate modelling studies estimate changes in precipitation due to increased greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact studies use those estimates as input to their (hydrological) models to predict future water availability and societal impact. However, humans also significantly alter the land surface by, for example, deforestation and irrigation, which is not frequently taken into account in our climate studies. Here, we present an overview of several papers in the field of moisture recycling, published by our group, that show the extent to which terrestrial evaporation influences terrestrial precipitation. It is found that 38% of the terrestrial precipitation originates from terrestrial evaporation and that 58% of all terrestrial evaporation recycles, and return again as terrestrial precipitation. Knowing this, it is clear that evaporation is not necessary a loss to the hydrological cycle. We show that in some cases even transpiration during the dry season can act as a moisture source for a distant region. To assess the vulnerability of a region to local and remote land use changes we propose the concept of the precipitationshed, which maps out a region's precipitation sources. Our results are useful in mapping out possible land use change threats, but also opportunities to safeguard our water resources in the Anthropocene.

  3. Hygienic importance of increased barium content in some fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Havlík, B; Hanusová, J; Rálková, J

    1980-01-01

    In surface waters of the mining and processing areas of uranium ore there is an increased content of free and bound barium ions due to the use of barium salts for the treatment of waste and mine waters containing radium. In model experiments with the algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus, we studied the effect of Ba2+ on the accumulation of 226Ra. It was found that the accumulation of radium by algae is negatively influenced with barium concentrations higher than 1 mg.l-1. The accumulation of barium of organisms of primary production was studied using 133BaCl2. At a barium content in the medium of 4.0, 0.46 and 0.04 mu. l-1, the algae accumulated 30-60% of the added amount of barium during an exposure of 15 days. Biochemical analyses showed that barium is bound to the cellular membrane and to other components of the algal cell that cannot be extracted with water or alcohol. PMID:7462608

  4. Mass exchange between mobile fresh water and immobile saline water in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Haim; Paldor, Nathan; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Bachmat, Yehuda

    1988-10-01

    A profile of tritium concentrations measured in the unsaturated zone in loessial sediments in a semiarid area is interpreted in terms of mobile and immobile water domains, according to a nonequilibrium transport model. The mobile domain is represented by percolating freshwater from both rain and irrigation, and the immobile one is represented by isolated fossil saline water pockets. The two domains are connected by partially saturated narrow passages within dispersed clay minerals. The transport of the mobile water is described by convective-dispersive flow and by mass exchange between the two water domains. The relevant equations with the given initial and boundary conditions are solved numerically, and the simulated profile is adjusted to fit the measured one. In this study we concentrate on examination of the mass exchange law between the two domains. It was assumed that matrix characteristics vary in time due to the dispersion of clays at the interface between fresh and saline waters. Accordingly, a time-dependent mass exchange was adopted, which made it possible to obtain an adequate reconstruction of the measured tritium profile. By using a least squares optimization procedure it was found that the best fit between the simulated and measured profiles is attained when the fraction of mobile water is 30%, and the rate of mass exchange decreases from 0.60 to 0.01 year-1 in 26 years. The proposed model implies is that it is the immobile water domain which contains the memory of the "high tritium period" (thermonuclear tests period) of the 1960s.

  5. Quantifying the Global Fresh Water Budget: Capabilities from Current and Future Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The global water cycle is complex and its components are difficult to measure, particularly at the global scales and with the precision needed for assessing climate impacts. Recent advances in satellite observational capabilities, however, are greatly improving our knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget. Many components of the of the global water budget, e.g. precipitation, atmospheric moisture profiles, soil moisture, snow cover, sea ice are now routinely measured globally using instruments on satellites such as TRMM, AQUA, TERRA, GRACE, and ICESat, as well as on operational satellites. New techniques, many using data assimilation approaches, are providing pathways toward measuring snow water equivalent, evapotranspiration, ground water, ice mass, as well as improving the measurement quality for other components of the global water budget. This paper evaluates these current and developing satellite capabilities to observe the global fresh water budget, then looks forward to evaluate the potential for improvements that may result from future space missions as detailed by the US Decadal Survey, and operational plans. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest some priorities for the future, based on new approaches that may provide the improved measurements and the analyses needed to understand and observe the potential speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  6. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Alex; Mubako, Stanley; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2016-06-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  7. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkhuis, Henk; Schouten, Stefan; Collinson, Margaret E.; Sluijs, Appy; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Huber, Matthew; Cronin, Thomas M.; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Takahashi, Kozo; Bujak, Jonathan P.; Stein, Ruediger; van der Burgh, Johan; Eldrett, James S.; Harding, Ian C.; Lotter, André F.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Cittert, Han Van Konijnenburg-Van; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Matthiessen, Jens; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302 Scientists

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested, on the basis of modern hydrology and fully coupled palaeoclimate simulations, that the warm greenhouse conditions that characterized the early Palaeogene period (55-45Myr ago) probably induced an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation at high latitudes. Little field evidence, however, has been available to constrain oceanic conditions in the Arctic during this period. Here we analyse Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch (~50Myr ago). The Azolla and accompanying abundant freshwater organic and siliceous microfossils indicate an episodic freshening of Arctic surface waters during an ~800,000-year interval. The abundant remains of Azolla that characterize basal middle Eocene marine deposits of all Nordic seas probably represent transported assemblages resulting from freshwater spills from the Arctic Ocean that reached as far south as the North Sea. The termination of the Azolla phase in the Arctic coincides with a local sea surface temperature rise from ~10°C to 13°C, pointing to simultaneous increases in salt and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.

  8. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkhuis, H.; Schouten, S.; Collinson, M.E.; Sluijs, A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Cronin, T. M.; Onodera, J.; Takahashi, K.; Bujak, J.P.; Stein, R.; Van Der Burgh, J.; Eldrett, J.S.; Harding, I.C.; Lotter, A.F.; Sangiorgi, F.; Cittert, H.V.K.V.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Matthiessen, J.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested, on the basis of modern hydrology and fully coupled palaeoclimate simulations, that the warm greenhouse conditions that characterized the early Palaeogene period (55-45 Myr ago) probably induced an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation at high latitudes. Little field evidence, however, has been available to constrain oceanic conditions in the Arctic during this period. Here we analyse Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch (???50 Myr ago). The Azolla and accompanying abundant freshwater organic and siliceous microfossils indicate an episodic freshening of Arctic surface waters during an ???800,000-year interval. The abundant remains of Azolla that characterize basal middle Eocene marine deposits of all Nordic seas probably represent transported assemblages resulting from freshwater spills from the Arctic Ocean that reached as far south as the North Sea. The termination of the Azolla phase in the Arctic coincides with a local sea surface temperature rise from ???10??C to 13??C, pointing to simultaneous increases in salt and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, Henk; Schouten, Stefan; Collinson, Margaret E; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dickens, Gerald R; Huber, Matthew; Cronin, Thomas M; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Takahashi, Kozo; Bujak, Jonathan P; Stein, Ruediger; van der Burgh, Johan; Eldrett, James S; Harding, Ian C; Lotter, André F; Sangiorgi, Francesca; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Han; de Leeuw, Jan W; Matthiessen, Jens; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested, on the basis of modern hydrology and fully coupled palaeoclimate simulations, that the warm greenhouse conditions that characterized the early Palaeogene period (55-45 Myr ago) probably induced an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation at high latitudes. Little field evidence, however, has been available to constrain oceanic conditions in the Arctic during this period. Here we analyse Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch (approximately 50 Myr ago). The Azolla and accompanying abundant freshwater organic and siliceous microfossils indicate an episodic freshening of Arctic surface waters during an approximately 800,000-year interval. The abundant remains of Azolla that characterize basal middle Eocene marine deposits of all Nordic seas probably represent transported assemblages resulting from freshwater spills from the Arctic Ocean that reached as far south as the North Sea. The termination of the Azolla phase in the Arctic coincides with a local sea surface temperature rise from approximately 10 degrees C to 13 degrees C, pointing to simultaneous increases in salt and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. PMID:16752440

  10. The widespread threat of calcium decline in fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, Adam; Yan, Norman D; Paterson, Andrew M; Desellas, Anna M; Turner, Michael A; Jeffries, Dean S; Keller, Bill; Weeber, Russ C; McNicol, Don K; Palmer, Michelle E; McIver, Kyle; Arseneau, Kristina; Ginn, Brian K; Cumming, Brian F; Smol, John P

    2008-11-28

    Calcium concentrations are now commonly declining in softwater boreal lakes. Although the mechanisms leading to these declines are generally well known, the consequences for the aquatic biota have not yet been reported. By examining crustacean zooplankton remains preserved in lake sediment cores, we document near extirpations of calcium-rich Daphnia species, which are keystone herbivores in pelagic food webs, concurrent with declining lake-water calcium. A large proportion (62%, 47 to 81% by region) of the Canadian Shield lakes we examined has a calcium concentration approaching or below the threshold at which laboratory Daphnia populations suffer reduced survival and fecundity. The ecological impacts of environmental calcium loss are likely to be both widespread and pronounced. PMID:19039134

  11. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter. PMID:26129903

  12. Water pollution effects of metals on fresh water fish. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field studies regarding effects of metals on fresh water fish. Topics include toxicity effects on fish species, bioaccumulation, fish physiology, acidification and detoxification, aquatic ecosystems, and water quality management. Environmental monitoring systems and pollution effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Risk of otitis externa after swimming in recreational fresh water lakes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    van Asperen, I. A.; de Rover, C. M.; Schijven, J. F.; Oetomo, S. B.; Schellekens, J. F.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Collé, C.; Havelaar, A. H.; Kromhout, D.; Sprenger, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an outbreak of otitis externa was due to bathing in recreational fresh water lakes and to establish whether the outbreak was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--The Achterhoek area, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--98 cases with otitis externa and 149 controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios for type of swimming water and frequency of swimming; presence of P aeruginosa in ear swabs and fresh water lakes. RESULTS--Otitis externa was strongly associated with swimming in recreational fresh water lakes in the previous two weeks (odds ratio 15.5 (95% confidence interval) 4.9 to 49.2) compared with non-swimming). The risk increased with the number of days of swimming, and subjects with recurrent ear disease had a greatly increased risk. The lakes met the Dutch bathing water standards and those set by the European Commission for faecal pollution in the summer of 1994, but P aeruginosa was isolated from all of them, as well as from the ear swabs of 78 (83%) of the cases and 3 (4%) of the controls. CONCLUSIONS--Even when current bathing water standards are met, swimming can be associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa because of exposure to P aeruginosa. People with recurrent ear disease should take special care when swimming in waters containing P aeruginosa. PMID:8520277

  14. Fresh and saline ground-water zones in the Punjab region, West Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, W.V.

    1968-01-01

    An extensive program of test drilling and water sampling, undertaken by the Water and Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) to evaluate hydrologic problems related to waterlogging and soil salinity, has furnished data for the delineation of fresh and saline ground-water zones in the Punjab region of West Pakistan. Fresh ground water containing generally less than 500 ppm (parts per million) of total dissolved solids is found in wide belts paralleling the major rivers and in other areas of ground-water recharge. The fresh groundwater zone of upper (northeastern) Rechna Doab, where annual precipitation in places exceeds 30 inches, is the most extensive of the Punjab region and attains a depth of 1,700 feet or more below land surface near Gujranwala. Fresh ground water adjacent to the Indus River extends locally to depths of about l,500 feet. Saline ground water occurs downgradient from sources of recharge, particularly in the central parts of the interfluvial areas. Also, available data indicate a gradual increase in mineralization with depth and distance from sources of fresh-water recharge. Thus, even extensive fresh-water zones appear to be underlain, at variable depths, by saline ground water in most of the Punjab region. The saline ground waters of the Punjab region do not constitute, however, a distinct salt-water body that can be defined in terms of stratigraphic position, sea-level datum, particular lithology, or by chemical character. The ground waters of the Punjab region are characterized by a gradation from calcium magnesium bicarbonate types, near the sources of recharge, to waters containing a dominant proportion of sodium. Water containing from 500 to 1,000 ppm is commonly of the sodium bicarbonate type, or it may be of the mixed type, having about equal proportions of the common anions (bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate). With increasing mineralization from about 1,000 to 3,000 ppm

  15. Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on the sensory quality of fresh tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of chilling injury during shelf-life is important for maintaining the sensory quality of fresh tomato fruit. Postharvest hot water treatments within certain limits of exposure time and temperature have been shown to increase resistance of tomatoes to chilling injury. Mature-gr...

  16. Estimating dry matter content of fresh leaves from residuals between leaf and water reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At 1722 nm wavelength, there is an absorption feature of leaf dry matter based on a C—H stretch overtone, which is difficult to detect in fresh green leaves due to the absorption spectrum of liquid water. We applied a method originally proposed by B. -C. Gao and A. F. H. Goetz (1994, Remote Sensing ...

  17. [Underwater dive in fresh water complicated by a cardiorespiratory arrest on obstructive shock].

    PubMed

    Bourmanne, E; Jacobs, D; Caldow, M; El Kaissi, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a french patient who dived in fresh water in Lac de l'Eau d'Heure on 8 December 2014. The 35 meters deep diving was complicated by an obstructive shock resulting from lung overpressure and decompression illness. PMID:26837113

  18. Production of algal-based biofuel using non-fresh water sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Reno, Marissa Devan

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this LDRD involves development of a system dynamics model to understand the interdependencies between water resource availability and water needs for production of biofuels. Specifically, this model focuses on availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual simulation framework and historical data are based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The overall water balance ignores both transportation options and water chemistry and is broken down by county level. The resulting model contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. A user interface is also created for controlling the adjustable parameters in the model. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil- and gas-produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  19. Scenario-development to Analyze Future Fresh Water Availability in the Yellow River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Congli; van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    The Yellow River Delta is one of the youngest alluvial plains in the world. Nowadays, fresh water availability is under stress due to several reasons. First, there is the rapidly increasing upstream water demand along the Yellow River. Second, climate change causes shifts in precipitation, temperature and evaporation. Third, land use/ land cover change has a large impact on the surface runoff and groundwater recharge in the district. Finally, other anthropogenic interventions such as irrigation, inter-basin water transfer, and artificial reservoirs affect fresh water availability directly. Scenario-development is needed to examine consequences of possible developments and to improve management through better anticipation. Therefore, possible changes in all four sets of stressors (water demand, climate change, land use, anthropogenic interventions) are systematically catalogued. To assess future fresh water availability, we present and compare two methods to link the stressors. The first way is the "storyline method", as used by, for instance, the IPCC. This method is concerned with consistency within a given scenario. Typically, this method results in a small set of equally likely scenarios, running from best to worst. The second method is complete Bayesian integration. In this method, all different development pathways are taken into account. In a simple example, we may have two stressors with only high or law values, say, high or low upstream water demand and high and low irrigation development. In this case we would have four possible pathways leading to four different scenarios. Weights, or priors, are given to each branch of each path. Covariances between stressors will be accounted for as well. The likelihoods of each scenario are then calculated by simple integrating the likelihood along each pathway. The results of both methods are compared. Key words: Fresh water availability; Scenario development; Storyline Method; Bayesian Integration

  20. Renal effects of fresh water-induced hypo-osmolality in a marine adapted seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Costa, D. P.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    With few exceptions, marine mammals are not exposed to fresh water; however quantifying the endocrine and renal responses of a marine-adapted mammal to the infusion of fresh water could provide insight on the evolutionary adaptation of kidney function and on the renal capabilities of these mammals. Therefore, renal function and hormonal changes associated with fresh water-induced diuresis were examined in four, fasting northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris) (NES) pups. A series of plasma samples and 24-h urine voids were collected prior to (control) and after the infusion of water. Water infusion resulted in an osmotic diuresis associated with an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but not an increase in free water clearance. The increase in excreted urea accounted for 96% of the increase in osmotic excretion. Following infusion of fresh water, plasma osmolality and renin activity decreased, while plasma aldosterone increased. Although primary regulators of aldosterone release (Na(+), K(+) and angiotensin II) were not significantly altered in the appropriate directions to individually stimulate aldosterone secretion, increased aldosterone may have resulted from multiple, non-significant changes acting in concert. Aldosterone release may also be hypersensitive to slight reductions in plasma Na(+), which may be an adaptive mechanism in a species not known to drink seawater. Excreted aldosterone and urea were correlated suggesting aldosterone may regulate urea excretion during hypo-osmotic conditions in NES pups. Urea excretion appears to be a significant mechanism by which NES pups sustain electrolyte resorption during conditions that can negatively affect ionic homeostasis such as prolonged fasting.

  1. Effects of temperature on electrolyte balance and osmoregulation of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in fresh and sea water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Colby, Peter J.

    1971-01-01

    In the laboratory, alewife mortalities caused by increasing or decreasing temperatures were about equal in fresh water and sea water. These findings suggest that salinity does not modify the capacity of alewives to tolerate acute temperature stress.

  2. Observations of Interannual Equatorial Fresh Water Jets in the Western Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Clarke, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Using upper ocean monthly salinity and temperature data from the moored TAO/TRITON array in the western equatorial Pacific since the late 1990s, we found, consistent with previous work, that the region experiences large interannual fluctuations in salinity. On the equator at 147 degrees E, 156 degrees E and 165 degrees E the interannual sea surface salinity (SSS) has peak to peak amplitudes that often exceed 1 psu. The salinity variability, which matches well the comparatively short record of overlapping SSS estimated by the Aquarius satellite, changes little over the top 50 m of the water column. Beneath this mixed layer depth the amplitude of the salinity variability steadily decreases over the remaining part of the order 100 m thick isothermal layer. Corresponding hydrostatic estimates of dynamic height over the isothermal layer lead to interannual sea level variability of only a few cm amplitude. However, the sea level due to the fresher water is associated geostrophically with a strong fresh water zonal equatorial interannual jet that at 156 degrees E has an amplitude of about 27 cm/s. Along-track altimeter data give a geostrophic equatorial zonal interannual flow that agrees well with this, suggesting that the near-surface interannual flow in the region is due to the shallow fresh jet. A zonal momentum balance indicates that this jet is mostly due to zonal wind stress forcing. The fresh water jet is maximally correlated with the Nino3.4 El Nino index when the jet leads by 3 months.

  3. Of all the planet's renewable resources, fresh water may be the most unforgiving.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Access to water is essential to social and economic development and the stability of cultures and civilizations throughout the world historically. The UN Commission on Sustainable Development in mid-1993 emphasized the importance of transfer of technology to poor countries for improvement in water quality. Less attention has been given to the issue of water availability. The amount of fresh water is finite. The capacity for storage of water has increased over time, but commodity expansion has not improved. Salinization processes have proven to be too costly in dollars, pollution, and nonrenewable fossil fuels. As population grows, the average amount of fresh water available declines. Improvements can only be made in efficiency of usage or conservation. Per capita use of water doubled to 800 cubic meters per person per year. But global use of water increased by 4 times in 50 years. Only 2.5% of the world's 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of water is fit for drinking, crops, or most industrial uses. In Africa and the Middle East water resources are declining in availability and quality. An important feature of water resources is the extent of replenishment in the hydrologic cycle. Water availability from rain and snow amounts to about 113,000 cubic kilometers yearly, of which 72,000 evaporates. Aquifers, rivers, and oceans are renewed with the remaining 41,000 cu km. About 50% returns to oceans and 1/8 is too far from human habitation for use. Estimates of renewable freshwater average 9-14,000 cu km yearly, and a substantial amount is needed to sustain ecosystems in rivers, wetlands, and coastal waters. Internal resources within each country may amount to only about 20% of potential water resources, due to water storage suitability of the land and the extent and condition of infrastructure. PMID:12179243

  4. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  5. Sensitive water concentration mapping in thin fresh tissues using tunable THz-wave parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuye; Tang, Ming; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Ito, Hiromasa; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2011-05-01

    Sensitive water concentration mapping in thin animal tissue samples has been demonstrated using tunable monochromatic THz-wave parametric source. A novel sample preparation approach is performed to effectively preserve tissue freshness at room temperature. The time course results show the sample characteristic of water content and distribution can be well measured and excellently repeated in 70minutes with a standard deviation of less than 1%. These results suggest the method of water volume concentration and distribution measurement using THz-wave has good stability with proper sample preparation, which has great potential in the fields of medical and biological diagnosis.

  6. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  7. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    PubMed

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

  8. Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Bigarré, L; Cabon, J; Baud, M; Heimann, M; Body, A; Lieffrig, F; Castric, J

    2009-08-01

    A betanodavirus associated with a massive mortality was isolated from larvae of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, maintained in fresh water at 30 degrees C. Histopathology revealed vacuolation of the nervous system, suggesting an infection by a betanodavirus. The virus was identified by indirect fluorescent antibody test in the SSN1 cell line and further characterized by sequencing of a PCR product. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene indicated a phylogenetic clustering of this isolate within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. However, the tilapia isolate formed a unique branch distinct from other betanodavirus isolates. The disease was experimentally reproduced by bath infection of young tilapia at 30 degrees C. The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water. PMID:19500206

  9. Environmental Levels Of 129I Present In Bovine Thyroid And Fresh Water In Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Carnellia, P. F. F.; Barbara, E. de; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Heimanna, D. M.; Zalazara, L.; Fernandez Niello, J.; La Gamma, A. M.; Wallner, A.

    2010-08-04

    Concentrations of {sup 129}I in bovine thyroid and fresh water samples coming from all over Argentina were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and total iodine present in samples by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Once we complete this study, it will be the first set of data of this kind from an extended region of the south American subcontinent.

  10. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage. PMID:16222096

  11. Research of enzymatic activities of fresh juice and water infusions from dry herbs.

    PubMed

    Chudnicka, Alina; Matysik, Grazyna

    2005-06-01

    Research was done on the presence of enzymes in juice obtained from fresh plant material from Chamomilla recutita L. (Rauschel)-anthodium, Lamium album L.-flos, Calendula officinalis L.-flos, Plantaginis lanceolata L.-folium and Euphrasiae rostkoviana Hayne-herba, and in the prepared water infusion of these materials; the objective was to determine the activity of enzymes which beside biologically active substances may have an influence of the final therapeutic effect of the applied plant preparations. The research was conducted by means of the API ZYM system (bioMerieux). Higher enzymatic activities were found in fresh juices of the examined plant material than in prepared water infusions from dried plants. In both cases naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase should have highest activity. The second one in terms of activity out of 17 studied enzymes was acidic phosphatase. The highest enzymatic activity of fresh juice was found in Lamii albi flos and Calendulae officinalis flos. Water infusions showed the highest enzymatic activity in Lamii albi flos, Chamomille recutita anthodium and Plantaginis lanceolata folium. Drying the plant material resulted in decreased enzymatic activities but not in the case of naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and acidic phosphatase which showed very low activities. The complex composition of plant materials in terms of content of biologically active substances may imply that the therapeutic effect might be directly related to the quantity and activity of plant enzymes present in preparations applied in therapeutics. PMID:15894139

  12. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline

  13. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population. PMID:26440220

  14. Availability of fresh ground water, Montauk Point area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, Nathaniel Matthew; DeLuca, Frank A.

    1963-01-01

    Ground water is the only source of supply at the Montauk Air Force Station n eastern Suffolk County. The water is contained in the upper 200 feet of deposits of late Pleistocene age, which are broadly divided into an upper unit of undifferentiated till and stratified drift and a lower unit of stratified drift. Fresh water in the principal aquifer, which is in the lower unit, is a lens-shaped body, which lies above salty water containing as much as 11,300 ppm of chloride. The fresh water is under artesian pressure and has a head ranging from about sea level to 3.5 feet above sea level. Pumping rates of 50 to 100 gpm cause salty water to move toward the. supply wells from below. The optimum pumping rate of most wells is about 30 gpm. New wells should be drilled as remote as possible from existing wells, and the well screens should be set as high above the zone of diffusion as the deposits permit.

  15. Hydrochemical reactions and origin of offshore relatively fresh pore water from core samples in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Hiu Tung; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2016-06-01

    The existence of relatively fresh pore water offshore has been well recognised over the globe but studies on the chemistry of the pore water from offshore geological formations are extremely limited. This study aims to characterize the hydrochemistry of the submarine groundwater body in Hong Kong. It looks into the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water extracted from core samples from an offshore 42.30-m vibrocore in the southwestern Hong Kong waters. A minimum Cl- level of about one-third of that in typical seawater was noted in the terrestrial sediments, suggesting the presence of offshore relatively fresh water. Unexpectedly high NH4+ levels are attributed to organic matter decomposition in the terrestrial sediments. The leaching of shells due to exposure of marine sediments at sea-level low stands raises the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations. Base Exchange Indices show weak cation exchange reactions in which Na+ and K+ are released while Mg2+ and Ca2+ are adsorbed. Isotopic compositions of pore water reveal that the low-salinity water is probably the relic water sequestered in fluvial systems during relative sea-level low stands. Cores properly stored in a freezer for a long time has been used to study the pore water chemistry. For the first time, this study introduces an approach to correct the measured data by considering the possible evaporation effect during the transportation and storage of the samples. Corrections for evaporation were applied to the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water measured. It is found that the corrections determined by the Cl- mass balance approach are more reliable. The corrected measurements give more reasonable observations and hence allow sensible conclusions on the hydrochemical reactions and the origin of pore water.

  16. Delineating the physico-chemical, structural, and water characteristic changes during the deterioration of fresh noodles: Understanding the deterioration mechanisms of fresh noodles.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Ma, Meng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-02-01

    In this study, changes in fresh noodles during storage were evaluated at the physico-chemical, structural, and molecular levels. An increase in TPC and decrease in L(∗) value mostly occurred during the first 24h; the pH value significantly decreased (P<0.05) and proteins were partially depolymerized with the deterioration of fresh noodles, as evidenced by free amino acid determination and SDS-PAGE. Changes were also detected in the pasting and viscosity properties of the starch component. Moreover, the water sorption isotherm of fresh noodles decreased during storage, and the NMR transverse relaxation peak shifted right with an increased peak area between 10 and 100ms. MRI images showed that with increased storage time, the original structure was damaged and water distribution became non-uniform and migrated to the surface. TPC, pH, and L(∗) value were selected as the visualized parameters to characterize the fresh noodle deterioration, based on the correlation and factor analyses. PMID:27596433

  17. Design analysis and full scale prototype testing of Auger TLP`s 9-5/8 inch TLP production riser weld-on connector

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, S.A.; Smith, J.D.; Asbill, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, analysis, and full-scale prototype testing of a special threaded connector for use on the Auger TLP 9-5/8 inch x 0.435 inch wall production risers is summarized in this paper. A flush-bore production riser connector with internal and external metal-to-metal seals, a resilient seal between the external metal-to-metal seal and the external torque shoulder, radial thread interference, and high resistance to fatigue was developed. Finite element analyses and full-scale static, sealability, and fatigue tests verified that the connector satisfied all design requirements. The full-scale fatigue tests verified that the design fatigue curve and fatigue life prediction procedure used yield conservative results and that the fatigue life of the connector greatly exceeds the girthweld. Consideration of manufacturing methods and tolerances along with gauging, in the early stages of the design, resulted in a cost effective connector. The threaded connector was designed for the Auger Tension Leg Platform production risers. However, it is envisioned that the connector will be easily scalable to other riser diameters and wall thicknesses for other TLP`s and has applicability to catenary and top-tensioned risers and subsea flowlines. In addition to resulting in an efficient long life production riser connector design, the design process illustrated the Importance of interaction, between the designers, quality control personnel, machinist, gauge manufacturer, and end user, during the design. All made significant contributions to the success of the design.

  18. Evaluation of Multizone Inspection Variability at the Supply Base for 8 Inch-Diameter Ti-6al-4V: a Round-Robin Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Waled

    2003-03-01

    Multizone Inspection (MZI) is an ultrasonic inspection system that has been developed in response to FAA recommendations for improved inspection of titanium billet material. The system is capable of achieving ♯2 FBH sensitivity in billets up to 10 inches in diameter. Honeywell as well as other OEMs are interested in adopting this inspection technique in response to FAA recommendations and to improve the sensitivity of their inspection procedures. To achieve that goal an evaluation of the system capability and variability at the supply base is necessary. This paper summarizes the results of a round robin study conducted at the supply base to evaluate the variability of MZI for 8 inch-diameter Ti-6Al-4V. It was found that on the average there is about 27% amplitude variability and 38% Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) variability at each surveyed facility. It was also found that the variability from one facility to the other was on the average about 28% in amplitude and 30% in SNR.

  19. Resistance to fresh and salt water in intertidal mites (Acari: Oribatida): implications for ecology and hydrochorous dispersal.

    PubMed

    Pfingstl, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    The resistance to fresh water and seawater in three intertidal oribatid mite species from Bermuda, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, was tested in laboratory experiments. Larvae are more sensitive to fresh and salt water, nymphs and adults showed equal tolerances. Fortuynia atlantica and A. inexpectatus were more resistant to salt water whereas C. bermudensis survived longer in fresh water. Differences in the resistance to fresh and salt water among the three species may be related to their different vertical occurrences in the eulittoral zone but also to the ability of single species to dwell in periodically brackish waters. In all three species half of the specimens survived at least 10 days in fresh water and more than 18 days in salt water. Maximal submersion time in fresh and salt water ranged from 40 to 143 days. Based on median lethal times it could be estimated that each species would be able to survive transport in seawater along the Gulf Stream over a distance of 3,000 km, from Central America to Bermuda. Thus hydrochorous dispersal should be assumed as the most likely mode of dispersal in intertidal fortuyniid and selenoribatid mites. PMID:23456607

  20. Remote sensing of chlorophyll and temperature in marine and fresh waters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Millard, J. P.; Weaver, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne differential radiometer was demonstrated to be a sensitive, real-time detector of surface chlorophyll content in water bodies. The instrument continuously measures the difference in radiance between two wavelength bands, one centered near the maximum of the blue chlorophyll a absorption region and the other at a reference wavelength outside this region. Flights were made over fresh water lakes, marine waters, and an estuary, and the results were compared with 'ground truth' measurements of chlorophyll concentration. A correlation between output signal of the differential radiometer and the chlorophyll concentration was obtained. Examples of flight data are illustrated. Simultaneous airborne measurements of chlorophyll content and water temperature revealed that variations in chlorophyll are often associated with changes in temperature. Thus, simultaneous sensing of chlorophyll and temperature provides useful information for studies of marine food production, water pollution, and physical processes such as upwelling.

  1. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  2. Water-pollution effects of metals on fresh-water fish. January 1980-October 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field studies regarding effects of metals on fresh water fish. Topics include toxicity studies of specific species, bioaccumulation, and the distribution and fate of metals in fresh water bodies. Copper, chromium, cadmium, mercury, and zinc are among the metals considered. (Contains 175 citations with title list and subject index.)

  3. Finite-difference model to simulate the areal flow of saltwater and fresh water separated by an interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, James W.; Larson, S.P.; Faust, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Model documentation is presented for a two-dimensional (areal) model capable of simulating ground-water flow of salt water and fresh water separated by an interface. The partial differential equations are integrated over the thicknesses of fresh water and salt water resulting in two equations describing the flow characteristics in the areal domain. These equations are approximated using finite-difference techniques and the resulting algebraic equations are solved for the dependent variables, fresh water head and salt water head. An iterative solution method was found to be most appropriate. The program is designed to simulate time-dependent problems such as those associated with the development of coastal aquifers, and can treat water-table conditions or confined conditions with steady-state leakage of fresh water. The program will generally be most applicable to the analysis of regional aquifer problems in which the zone between salt water and fresh water can be considered a surface (sharp interface). Example problems and a listing of the computer code are included. (USGS).

  4. A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Essaid, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

  5. Does presence of permanent fresh water affect recruitment in prairie-nesting dabbling ducks?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, most of the Prairie Pothole Region contained limited permanent fresh water. In recent decades, permanent water bodies have been created for water-based recreation, for flood control, to increase cropland through wetland consolidation, and as part of waterfowl habitat development. We studied survival of radio-marked gadwall and mallard ducklings in wetland complexes bordering an extensive permanent water body (the McClusky Canal) in central North Dakota, and compared their survival rates (1) to those obtained on our study area before this permanent water body was created, and (2) to estimates we obtained concurrently on other study areas with little permanent water. We found that duckling survival was lower when there was substantial permanent water on the landscape, apparently because permanent water provided habitat for mink, the major predator of ducklings in our study. Permanent water allows mink populations to survive periods of drought, such as the 1988-92 drought that occurred at the beginning of our study. Environmental planners and waterfowl managers should be aware of potential risks to productivity of waterfowl and other waterbirds from development of permanent freshwater bodies in prairie pothole landscapes.

  6. Fusion of Radarsat SAR and ETM+ imagery for identification of fresh water wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Renzong; Feng, Xuezhi; She, Yuanjian

    2007-06-01

    The main aim of this paper was to identify inland fresh water wetland by using RADARSAT SAR data in combination with optical remote sensing data ETM+. The test area is a part of Hongze Lake, the fourth biggest fresh water lake in China, one of important wetlands for migratory birds in China. In this paper, two scenes of RADARSAT SAR data were acquired, one was obtained (incidence angle 39.1°) on July 9, 2003, another scene of SAR acquired on July 13, 2003(incidence angle 29.8 °). Optical remotely sensed data was Landsat ETM+ acquired on August 21, 2002. In order to explore the potential of Radarsat SAR data in the differentiation of different wetland types and wetland and upland types, two schemes were designed: one scheme was that Landsat ETM+ data and its derived data such as textural metrics were used to the classification of the study area; the other is that the Landsat ETM+ data, derived ancillary data and SAR data were used. CART algorithm was selected for the generation of decision rules, and the rules were applied to the classification of landuse/cover in the whole study area. The results showed that the combination of the SAR data and the optical remotely sensed data have achieved the highest classification accuracy (92.3% of total classification accuracy). The results also confirmed the value of classification tree in the identification of fresh water wetland. It was illustrated that radar data was a good data source for the identification of wetland.

  7. Decadal predictability of extreme fresh water export events from the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmith, Torben; Olsen, Steffen M.; Ringgaard, Ida M.; May, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt fresh water releases originating in the Arctic Ocean have been documented to affect ocean circulation and climate in the North Atlantic area. Therefore, in this study, we investigate prospects for predicting such events up to one decade ahead. This is done in a perfect model setup by a combination of analyzing a 500 year control experiment and dedicated ensemble experiment aimed at predicting selected 10 year long segments of the control experiment. The selected segments are characterized by a large positive or negative trend in the total fresh water content in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis of the components (liquid fresh water and sea ice) reveals that they develop in a near random walk manner. From this we conclude that the main mechanism is integration of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre through Ekman pumping from the randomly varying atmosphere. Therefore, the predictions from the ensemble experiments are on average not better than a damped persistence predictions. By running two different families of ensemble predictions, one starting from the 'observed' ocean globally, and one starting from climatology in the Arctic Ocean and from the observed ocean elsewhere, we conclude that the former outperforms the latter for the first few years as regards liquid fresh water and for the first year as regards sea ice. Analysis of the model experiments in terms of the fresh water export from the Arctic Ocean into Nordic seas and the subpolar North Atlantic reveals a very modest potential for predictability.

  8. The effect of microwave power and heating time pretreatment on biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Budiyono, Mardiani, Dini Tri

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of microwave pretreatment of fresh and dried water hyacinth on biogas production. The variations of microwave power levels are 240; 400; 560 and 800 W. The variations of microwave heating time are 5; 7 and 9 min. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth are used as control. The result of research showed that almost all pretreated water hyacinth produced biogas were higher compare tounpretreated water hyacinth. The maximum of biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinthwere obtained at 560 W for 7 min and 400 W for 7 min of microwave pretreatment. In this condition, pretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth resulted biogas production of 75,12 and 53,06 mL/g TS, respectively. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth produced biogas of 37,56 and 33,56 mL/g TS, respectively. The microwave pretreatment of water hyacinth improved biogas production. Microwave pretreatment had a positive impact on anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth.

  9. An Examination of the Sea Surface Salinity - Fresh Water Flux Relationship Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Kumar, A.; Xue, Y.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Relationship between the sea surface salinity (SSS) and the oceanic fresh water flux (E-P) is examined using the SSS retrievals derived from the passive microwave (PMW) observations aboard the SMOS and Aquarius satellites, the CMORPH integrated satellite precipitation estimates (P) and the evaporation data (E) produced by the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis. Preprocessing is performed to construct gridded fields of SSS, P, and E on a 1o lat/lon grid over the global oceans and at a 30-min time resolution for a 54-month period from January 2010 to June 2014. Relationships between the SSS observed at a point in time and the P, E, and P-E at the same grid box accumulated over various time periods ending at the SSS observation time are examined. As a first step, we focused our investigation on an oceanic area over the central equatorial Pacific (10oS-10oN; 180o-160oW) where SSS is not influenced by the river runoffs. Our preliminary results show clear linear relationship between the satellite-observed skin SSS and the fresh water flux over the region. The Aquarius observed instantaneous SSS presents a correlation of ~0.4 with the E-P accumulated over the 30-min period of the SSS observations. The correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P drops with the accumulation period for E-P, down to 0.36 for 6-hourly accumulated E-P. The Correlation, however, bounces back and improves with the E-P accumulation period longer than 6 hours, reaching to ~0.7 for an accumulation time period of 30 days. The existence of the minimum correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P accumulation over a 6-hour period suggests the involvement of air-sea interaction and oceanic processes on multiple time scales in the manner E-P influences to the SSS variations. Among the two primary components of the fresh water flux, precipitation dominates the influences on the SSS. Further analysis is under way to repeat the examination for different regions to examine the

  10. Methodology for modeling the migration of EOR chemicals in fresh water aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Royce, B.; Garrell, M.; Kahn, A.; Kaplan, E.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method for modeling the transport of EOR chemicals accidentally released to fresh water aquifers. Six examples involving hypothetical releases of EOR chemicals at surrogate aquifer sites are used to illustrate the application of this method. Typical injection rates and concentrations of EOR chemicals used at current or proposed projects were obtained from the literature and used as the basis for the hypothetical accidents. Four surrogate aquifer sites were selected from States where chemical flooding methods are employed. Each site is based on real hydrological data but presented in such a way to avoid identification with existing EOR fields. A significant amount of data is required to model ground water systems. The hypothetical examples help to indicate the type of data needed. The computer results illustrate that high levels of contamination are possible for many years. In addition, due to these high levels of contamination, it is possible for contaminants to migrate offsite of the EOR field. There are a variety of pathways through which EOR chemicals could be accidentally released to fresh water aquifers during normal EOR operations. There is insufficient EOR experience to date, however, to forecast risks accurately. 119 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Availability of fresh and slightly saline ground water in the basins of westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.; Ackermann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    Significant quantities of fresh ground water occur in the basin fill of the northern Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley and in the Wildhorse Flat, Michigan Flat, Lobo Flat, and Ryan Flat areas of the Salt Basin; and may occur in Red Light Draw, Presidio bolson, and Green River valley. More than 20 million acre-feet of freshwater is estimated to be in storage in the basin fill of westernmost Texas. About 12 million acre-feet, or more than half, is in El Paso County in the Hueco bolson and Mesilla Valley. In addition, the basins contain about 7 million acre-feet of slightly saline water in basin fill, in Rio Grande alluvium in the Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley, and in the Capitan Limestone in the northern Salt Basin. Ground-water pumping for municipal supply and industrial use in the El Paso area caused water-level declines of as much as 74 feet during 1903-73, and pumping for irrigation in the Salt Basin caused a maximum decline of 150 feet at Lobo Flat during 1949-73. Additional development of ground water in westernmost Texas will be accompanied by further declines in water levels, and will probably induce local migration of slightly saline or poorer quality water into freshwater areas. Land-surface subsidence could occur in local areas where water-level declines are large and the basin fill contains large amounts of compressible clay. (Kosco-USGS)

  12. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  13. Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W

    2009-10-21

    If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is

  14. Waterborne Leptospirosis: Survival and Preservation of the Virulence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Andre-Fontaine, Genevieve; Aviat, Florence; Thorin, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have implicated fresh water as a source of leptospirosis outbreaks. To estimate the survival and the preservation of the virulence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. maintained in water, we selected five still waters with various pH and mineral profiles. The water samples were artificially inoculated with a culture of a pathogenic strain belonging to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. Samples were stored for 20 months at 4, 20 or 30 °C. The survival and preservation of virulence of this pathogenic strain was estimated by subculturing these stored samples. After 14 and 20 months of storage, the strain Icterohaemorrhagiae was re-isolated, and its virulence was determined using an animal model. In these waters, the mean survival was 130 days for storage at 4 °C, 263 days at 20 °C, and 316 days at 30 °C. Unexpectedly, the mean survival was 344 days for a final pH < 7 and 129 days for pH ≥ 7. Moreover, the pathogenic strain remained fully virulent and was able to induce a lethal disease in gerbils even when the pH of the contaminated waters decreased to <6. These data showed that despite unfavourable storage conditions such as cold, nutrient-poor acidic waters, the survival and virulence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. was fully preserved over at least 20 months. PMID:26003629

  15. The behavior of heavy metals in tidal flat sediments during fresh water leaching.

    PubMed

    Li, QuSheng; Liu, YaNan; Du, YeFeng; Cui, ZhiHong; Shi, Lei; Wang, LiLi; Li, HongJie

    2011-02-01

    Many of the coastal tidal flats in China that were polluted with heavy metals are now being reclaimed for arable land. The safety of these soils for agriculture is of great concern. The present study investigated the sediment chemical properties, concentrations, and speciation of heavy metals at different levels of desalination during a controlled leaching experiment. After leaching with fresh water, the average reductions in the heavy metal species examined in 0-65 cm depth sediment were 32.1% for Pb, 26.2% for Cd, 14.0% for Zn, 13.8% for Cu, and 11.0% for Cr, while the Ni concentration in sediment did not change significantly. The amounts of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn bound to the reducible fraction, the amounts of Cd, Pb, and Zn bound to the exchangeable fraction, the amounts of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn associated with the carbonate fraction, and the Cu associated with the oxidizable fraction all decreased significantly. Complexation with salt anions, ion exchange between the cations and the metal ions, removal of SO4(2-), dissolution of carbonate, and the redox potential variations all contributed to the decreases in Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr. These results suggest that leaching with fresh water can also remove a fraction of the heavy metal contamination when it diminishes sediment salinity. PMID:21131022

  16. Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Loris; Ippolito, Antonio; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) against 14 strains of spoilage Pseudomonas of fresh cut vegetables under cold storage. The NEW, produced from solutions of potassium and sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate developed up to 4000 mg/L of free chlorine, depending on the salt and relative concentration used. The antimicrobial effect of the NEW was evaluated against different bacterial strains at 10(5) cells/ml, with different combinations of free chlorine concentration/contact time; all concentrations above 100 mg/L, regardless of the salt used, were found to be bactericidal already after 2 min. When catalogna chicory and lettuce leaves were dipped for 5 min in diluted NEW, microbial loads of mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were reduced on average of 1.7 log cfu/g. In addition, when lettuce leaves were dipped in a cellular suspension of the spoiler Pseudomonas chicorii I3C strain, diluted NEW was able to reduce Pseudomonas population of about 1.0 log cfu/g. Thanks to its high antimicrobial activity against spoilage microorganisms, and low cost of operation, the application of cycles of electrolysis to the washing water looks as an effective tool in controlling fresh cut vegetable microbial spoilage contamination occurring during washing steps. PMID:25998822

  17. [Sediment heavy metals quality criteria for fresh waters based on biological effect database approach].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Zhong, Wen-Jue; Zeng, Yi; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-09-01

    Heavy metals are the important pollutants in sediments, which can cause serious damage to benthonic organisms and aquatic ecology, while biological effect database approach (BEDA) is a widely used method for assessing sediment quality in developed countries or regions. This paper introduced the concrete steps of this approach, and built the sediment quality criteria of five heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni) for fresh waters. The comparability, reliability, and predictability of the criteria were also tested. It was shown that the threshold effect level (TEL) of the Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 3.0, 31.4, 47.3, 74.9, and 45.5 mg x kg(-1) dry mass, and the probable effect level (PEL) of the Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 19, 76.9, 204.1, 403.6, and 181.1 mg x kg(-1) dry mass basis, respectively. Except for Zn, the TEL and PEL for the Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni were consistent with the definitional biological effect of the heavy metals, being accor-dance with the demands of sediment quality criteria for protecting benthic organisms and having high reliability, and thus, could be used as the proposed sediment quality criteria for fresh waters in China. PMID:23286020

  18. Analytical approach for determining the mean water level profile in an estuary with substantial fresh water discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huayang; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Jiang, Chenjuan; Zhao, Lili; Yang, Qingshu

    2016-03-01

    The mean water level in estuaries rises in the landward direction due to a combination of the density gradient, the tidal asymmetry, and the backwater effect. This phenomenon is more prominent under an increase of the fresh water discharge, which strongly intensifies both the tidal asymmetry and the backwater effect. However, the interactions between tide and river flow and their individual contributions to the rise of the mean water level along the estuary are not yet completely understood. In this study, we adopt an analytical approach to describe the tidal wave propagation under the influence of substantial fresh water discharge, where the analytical solutions are obtained by solving a set of four implicit equations for the tidal damping, the velocity amplitude, the wave celerity, and the phase lag. The analytical model is used to quantify the contributions made by tide, river, and tide-river interaction to the water level slope along the estuary, which sheds new light on the generation of backwater due to tide-river interaction. Subsequently, the method is applied to the Yangtze estuary under a wide range of river discharge conditions where the influence of both tidal amplitude and fresh water discharge on the longitudinal variation of the mean tidal water level is explored. Analytical model results show that in the tide-dominated region the mean water level is mainly controlled by the tide-river interaction, while it is primarily determined by the river flow in the river-dominated region, which is in agreement with previous studies. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the effect of the tide alone is most important in the transitional zone, where the ratio of velocity amplitude to river flow velocity approaches unity. This has to do with the fact that the contribution of tidal flow, river flow, and tide-river interaction to the residual water level slope are all proportional to the square of the velocity scale. Finally, we show that, in combination with extreme

  19. Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on the reduction of nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Huiying; Wan, Yangfang; Liu, Haijie

    2015-03-01

    Leafy vegetables are the major source of nitrite intake in the human diet, and technological processing to control nitrite levels in harvested vegetables is necessary. In the current work, the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage was studied. EOW treatment, including slightly acidic electrolyzed water and acidic electrolyzed water, was found to effectively reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach during storage; levels in the late period were 30 to 40% lower than that of the control. However, the nitrate levels in fresh spinach during storage were not influenced by EOW treatment. The reduction of nitrite levels in EOW-treated fresh spinach during storage can be attributed to the inactivation of nitrate reductase directly and to the reduction of bacterial populations. Our results suggest that treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water may be a better choice to control nitrite levels in fresh vegetables during storage. This study provided a useful method to reduce nitrite levels in fresh spinach. PMID:25719879

  20. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  1. Influence of fresh water, nutrients and DOC in two submarine-groundwater-fed estuaries on the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aisling M; Cave, Rachel R

    2012-11-01

    Coastal fresh water sources, which discharge to the sea are expected to be directly influenced by climate change (e.g. increased frequency of extreme weather events). Sea-level rise and changes in rainfall patterns, changes in demand for drinking water and contamination caused by population and land use change, will also have an impact. Coastal waters with submarine groundwater discharge are of particular interest as this fresh water source is very poorly quantified. Two adjacent bays which host shellfish aquaculture sites along the coast of Co. Galway in the west of Ireland have been studied to establish the influence of fresh water inputs on nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in each bay. Neither bay has riverine input and both are underlain by the karst limestone of the Burren and are susceptible to submarine groundwater discharge. Water and suspended matter samples were collected half hourly over 13 h tidal cycles over several seasons. Water samples were analysed for nutrients and DOC, while suspended matter was analysed for organic/inorganic content. Temperature and salinity measurements were recorded during each tidal station by SBE 37 MicroCAT conductivity/temperature sensors. Long-term mooring data were used to track freshwater input for Kinvara and Aughinish Bays and compare it with rainfall data. Results show that Kinvara Bay is much more heavily influenced by fresh water input than Aughinish Bay, and this is a strong source of fixed nitrogen to Kinvara Bay. Only during flood events is there a significant input of inorganic nitrogen from fresh water to Aughinish Bay, such as in late November 2009. Fresh water input does not appear to be a significant source of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) to either bay, but is a source of DOC to both bays. C:N ratios of DOC/DON show a clear distinction between marine and terrestrially derived dissolved organic material. PMID:23000715

  2. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  3. Potential transient liquid water flow features in fresh craters on Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, J. E.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Reddy, V.

    2012-12-01

    Observations made by the Dawn spacecraft reveal unexpected potential transient liquid water flow features (PTFs) in fresh craters on Vesta. The PTFs have features similar to the headward alcoves, channels and distal aprons of the Martian gullies and related features on Earth (e.g. Malin & Edgett 2000), and have been identified in multiple Vestan craters. All of the craters have relatively fresh rims, which suggests that they, and the PTFs, formed relatively recently in the history of Vesta's evolution. There is some correlation between craters that contain PTFs and craters that contain pitted terrain, which Denevi et al. (2012) propose formed as volatile-bearing material degassed after being heated by an impact. Cornelia crater contains good examples of PTFs and a geological map was made of Cornelia crater based on ~20 m/pixel resolution images. Cross-cutting relationships derived from the map make it is possible to discern a geological history: firstly, an early damp stage, during which the PTFs formed; secondly, a transitional damp to dry stage, during which the pitted terrain formed and thirdly, a dry stage. There is considerable morphological evidence that the formation of the PTFs in Cornelia was by flow of liquid water and not by dry granular flow, flow of impact melt or flow of liquid CO2. The channels are not as sinuous as those on the Earth and Mars, but the fact that the PTFs formed on the relatively high slopes of the crater walls and under conditions of Vesta's low gravity, means that the channels may not need to divert around obstacles. The PTFs in Cornelia crater tend to form in the dark material dominated areas of the crater, which Reddy et al. (2012) conclude has a composition similar to carbonaceous chondrite (CC) and think originates from the impactor that formed Vesta's Veneneia impact basin. Vesta's current surface temperatures and pressures make it an inhospitable environment for liquid water. But, energy from a high velocity impactor that

  4. Method validation for norovirus detection in naturally contaminated irrigation water and fresh produce.

    PubMed

    El-Senousy, Waled Morsy; Costafreda, M Isabel; Pintó, Rosa M; Bosch, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Human enteric viruses are shed in extremely high numbers in the feces of infected individuals, becoming environmental contaminants and eventually leading to contamination of a variety of foodstuffs at the pre-harvest stage. Among these foods at risk is fresh produce and irrigation water is a major vehicle for crop contamination. In the present study, a standardized molecular method for quantitative virus assay has been evaluated in different types of fresh produce and in irrigation water for human norovirus (NoV) detection. Two different virus concentration procedures, polyethylene-glycol precipitation (PEG) and organic flocculation (OF), were employed. The procedures were initially assayed in spiked samples and later validated on naturally contaminated samples from the Nile Delta in Egypt. Overall, PEG provided significantly (p<0.05) better virus recoveries than OF for both irrigation water and salad vegetable virus analysis. NoV GI and GII recoveries in spiked irrigation water ranged from 22.0% to 43.3% and from 12.6% to 16.4% with the PEG and OF methods, respectively. In experimentally contaminated salad vegetables, virus recoveries ranged from 28.0% to 48.0% and from 14.0% to 18.8% by PEG precipitation and OF, respectively. Using PEG precipitation, NoV was found in 31.9% of naturally contaminated irrigation water samples. Both NoV GI and GII were detected in these samples with genome copy numbers of around 10(2) per liter. Virus analyses performed in naturally contaminated fresh produce that included green onion, watercress, radish, leek, and lettuce show that NoV GI was present in 20.8%-34.0% of the samples with genome copy numbers of around 10(2) per gram. When OF was employed, NoV was found in 25.0% of the irrigation water samples. Both genogroups could be found in these samples with genome copy numbers of around 10 per liter. In fresh produce, GI was present in 16.0%-25.7% of the samples with genome copy numbers per gram of around 10. Surprisingly, NoV GII

  5. The deglaciation over Laurentian Fan: History of diatoms, IRD, ice and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Isabelle M.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Abrantes, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    A high-resolution diatom census coupled with other proxy data from Laurentian Fan (LF) provides a detailed description of the last deglaciation, bringing new insight to that period by revealing directly the timing of sea-ice formation and melting. Cold events Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD) were multiphase events. H1 (˜16.8-15.7 cal kyr BP) was defined by a two-pulse release of icebergs promoting sea-ice formation. Melting of sea-ice after H1 corresponds to a cold and fresh anomaly that may have kept the Bølling colder than the Allerød. At ˜13.6 cal kyr BP, a cooling trend culminated with sea-ice formation, marking the YD onset (˜12.8 cal kyr BP). The decrease in sea-ice (˜12.2 cal kyr BP) led to a YD second phase characterized by very cold winters. However, the contribution of warm water diatoms tends to increase at the same time and the YD gradual end (˜11.6 cal kyr BP) contrasts with its abrupt end in Greenland ice cores. The YD cannot be regarded as an event triggered by a fresh water input through the Laurentian Channel since only one weak brief input nearly 1000 yrs after its onset is recorded. Very cold and cool conditions without ice mark the following Preboreal. A northward heat flux between 10.8 and 10.2 cal kyr BP was interrupted by the increased influence of coastal waters likely fed by inland melting. There was no further development of sea-ice or ice-drift then.

  6. Acid precipitation: effects on fresh-water ecosystems. January 1978-September 1988 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification of fresh-water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival, and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid-lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water ph on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms is briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification is excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 290 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Water from land - fresh water outflow from glaciated and non-glaciated catchments into the Hornsund fjord, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrot, Adam; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz; Walczowski, Waldemar; Osuch, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater processes in South Spitsbergen catchments are facing climate related alterations and issues, such as prolongation of the ablation seasons, water level changes and droughts. Snow accumulation and duration of snow cover in high latitude areas largely determine hydrological and periglacial processes, influencing flora, fauna and their ecology. Hydrological data from this part of the Arctic so far were sparse and major gaps remained in our understanding of freshwater distribution, regime, status and threats. From 2013 to 2015 as part of multidisciplinary and complex investigations within the framework of "AWAKE2 - Arctic Climate System Study of Ocean, Sea Ice and Glaciers Interactions in Svalbard Area" project, field measurements were conducted around Hornsund, the southernmost fjord of Spitsbergen. This was the first study of the fresh water and snow cover in such scale in this area and included spatial distribution of snow, together with water balance measurements in non-glaciated and glaciated catchments. During the fieldwork in Hornsund Fjord area, snow thickness and snow density have been measured in 350 and 50 points, respectively. Precipitation was measured in 6 points. Runoff was measured on 7 rivers in different glaciated (Ariedalen, Sofiedalen, Lorchbreen, Bautabreen, Gashamna) and non-glaciated (Fuglebekken, Lisbetdalen) catchments. Meteorological observations were conducted at the Hornsund Polish Polar Station and in the in the surroundings of Hornsund fjord. The results of this investigation show response of the freshwater hydrological processes to observed seasonal climatic variations in this area. Approximated water balance and known volume of fresh water outflow to the sea are the key components of understanding Arctic fjord ecosystem mechanisms. This is the first comprehensive investigation of the water balance in this region. Project AWAKE2 is funded by Norway Grants.

  8. Biological differences between brackish and fresh water-derived Aedes aegypti from two locations in the Jaffna peninsula of Sri Lanka and the implications for arboviral disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2014-01-01

    The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats. PMID:25170879

  9. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally

  10. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting icebergs for fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hult, J. L.; Ostrander, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation explores the applicability of ERTS to: (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery sampling in the western Antarctic between the Peninsula and the Ross Sea is used in the analysis. It is found that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea-ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means for harmonizing entitlements to iceberg resources.

  11. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting sea ice for fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation explorers the applicability of ERTS to (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery has shown that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means of harmonizing entitlements of iceberg resources. The valuable ERTS services will be more cost effective than other means will be easily justified and borne by the iceberg harvesting operations.

  12. Comment on "The deglaciation over the Laurentide Fan: History of diatoms, IRD, ice and fresh water"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Anders E.; Clark, Peter U.; Leydet, David J.; Rayburn, John A.

    2016-05-01

    Gil et al. (2015) present new and existing data in core OCE326 GGC14 from the Laurentian Fan off of the Laurentian Channel. In their study, they criticize data published from the same core by Obbink et al. (2010) and from a nearby core by Carlson et al. (2007). One major conclusion of Gil et al. (2015) is that "The YD [Younger Dryas cold event; 12.9-11.7 ka; Rasmussen et al., 2006] cannot be regarded as an event triggered by a fresh water input through the Laurentian Channel since only a weak brief input nearly 1000 yrs after its onset is recorded." Here we show that their study misrepresents existing data, and ignores their own data and its uncertainty, which leads to different conclusions than in Gil et al. (2015).

  13. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  14. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. PMID:25976800

  15. Use of electrolyzed water ice for preserving freshness of pacific saury (Cololabis saira).

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Tae; Lim, Yeong-Seon; Shin, Il-Shik; Park, Hoon; Chung, Donghwa; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2006-09-01

    The effects of electrolyzed water ice (EW-ice), compared with traditional tap water ice (TW-ice), on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) stored for a period of up to 30 days at 4 degrees C were evaluated. EW-ice with active chlorine at a concentration of 34 mg/kg was prepared from weak acidic electrolyzed water, whose pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and chlorine content were 5, 866 mV, and 47 mg/liter, respectively. Microbiological analysis showed that EW-ice, compared with TW-ice, markedly inhibited the growth of both aerobic and psychrotrophic bacteria in saury flesh during refrigerated storage, primarily because of the action of active chlorine. Chemical analysis revealed that EW-ice retarded the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced the accumulation of alkaline compounds in the fish flesh in comparison with TW-ice. Sensory analysis confirmed that the freshness of saury was better preserved in EW-ice than in TW-ice and showed that the saury stored in EW-ice had a shelf life that was about 4 to 5 days longer than the fish stored in TW-ice. PMID:16995524

  16. Field determination of trace iron in fresh water samples by visual and spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Susumu; Naito, Ayako; Fujihara, Asuka; Iwatsuki, Masaki

    2004-08-01

    Sensitive visual and micro spectrophotometric methods have been developed for field determination of trace iron in fresh water samples. For the visual method, a water sample (0.45-microm filtrate acidified to 0.1 M HCl) was placed in a glass vial and mixed with a reagent solution containing 1,10-phenanthroline, sodium thiocyanate and 0.1 M HCl. Iron was extracted as pink ferroin thiocyanate with 1 ml of 4-methy-2-pentanone. The sample up to 20 ml was added step-by-step, until the color of the extract was detected visually. Without any special instrument or color standard, iron down to 0.001 mg 1(-1) (0.025 microg) in a sample can be determined with an error of 20% in the field. For the micro spectrophotometric method, the extract for 20 ml of sample was separated by capillary suction in a column (micro pipette chip) with acrylic fibers. A part of the extract was pushed out into a micro cell for the absorbance measurement at 525 nm. The column was re-usable after washing with ethanol. This method had a detection limit of 0.001 mg 1(-1) and allowed determinations within an error of 5%. The proposed methods were applied to deionized-, tap-, river-, lake- and reservoir-water samples. PMID:15352504

  17. Interaction of a fresh water lake and a karstic spring via a syncline fold.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolfazl; Zare, Mohammad; Raeisi, Ezzatollah; Ghanbari, Reza Namdar

    2013-03-01

    Kaftar Lake is a high-altitude fresh water lake located in High Zagros, south of Iran. Despite the high annual evaporation to precipitation ratio in the area, lake water electrical conductivity is usually lower than 1000 µS/cm, this may be due to high seepage from the floor of the lake. Therefore, the hypothesis of possible underground connections between Namdan Basin, where the lake is located, and the surrounding basins with lower elevation (Aspas and Dehbid Basins) was investigated. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotopes data of the lake and surrounding basins along with the lake water balance study were applied to test the hypothesis. Results indicate that Kaftar Lake has no connection with Aspas Basin in south, but it is hydraulically connected to Dehbid Basin. In Dehbid Basin, "Ghasr_e_Yaghoob spring" (average discharge ≅1200 L/s) emerges from a small outcrop (about 0.8 km(2) ) of Daryan limestone Formation, where this outcrop is much smaller than the required recharge area for such average discharge rate. The study shows that this spring is recharged by Kaftar Lake and Namdan Basin aquifer, through Daryan Formation of Gandboee Syncline located to the northern part of the lake. PMID:22880946

  18. Experimental evaluation of four infiltration models for calcareous soil irrigated with treated untreated grey water and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Eltaif, N. I.; Alrababah, M. A.; Alhamad, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Infiltration is vital for both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. The knowledge of infiltration characteristics of a soil is the basic information required for designing an efficient irrigation system. The objective of the present study was to model soil infiltration using four models: Green and Ampt, Horton, Kostaikov and modified Kostiakov. Infiltration tests were conducted on field plot irrigated with treated, untreated greywater and fresh water. The field water infiltration data used in these models were based on double ring infiltrometer tests conducted for 4 h. The algebraic parameters of the infiltration models and nonlinear least squares regression were fitted using measured infiltration time [I (t)] data. Among process-based infiltration models, the Horton model performed best and matched the measured I (t) data with lower sum of squares (SS).

  19. Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    PubMed

    Kilbride; Paveglio; Altstatt; Henry; Janik

    1998-08-01

    Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we determined loading rates for contaminants dissolved in water and those incorporated by drifting material for drainage (Diagonal Drain) as well as fresh (S-Line Canal) water used for wetland management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Nevada during the early, middle, and late periods of the irrigation season (June through mid-November) in 1993. We found loading rates for trace elements throughout the irrigation season were almost entirely (> 98%) associated with contaminants dissolved in the water rather than incorporated by drift. Although drift contributed little to the total loading for trace elements to SNWR wetlands, contaminant concentrations were much greater in drift compared with those dissolved in water. Loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, and total dissolved solids (TDS) differed among periods for the Diagonal Drain. Along the Diagonal Drain, loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, Mo, unionized ammonia (NH3-N), TDS, and Zn differed among its three sampling sites. B was the only trace element with differences in loading rates for drift among periods from the Diagonal Drain. In contrast, loading rates for As, B, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn in drift differed among periods for the S-Line Canal. Along Diagonal Drain, loading rates in drift for B (middle and late periods), Cr, Cu, and Zn differed among sites. Hg (x- >/= 12.0 ng/L) and NH3-N (x- >/= 0.985 mg/L) dissolved in water as well as B (x- >/= 97.4 µg/g DW) and Hg (x- >/= 0.461 µg/g DW) in drift from the Diagonal Drain and S-Line Canal exceeded screening levels (SLs

  20. The effect on slurry water as a fresh water replacement in concrete properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Hai Yee, Lau; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used engineering material in the world and one of the largest water consuming industries. Consequently, the concrete manufacturer, ready mixed concrete plant is increased dramatically due to high demand from urban development project. At the same time, slurry water was generated and leading to environmental problems. Thus, this paper is to investigate the effect of using slurry water on concrete properties in term of mechanical properties. The basic wastewater characterization was investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 300.0) while the mechanical property of concrete with slurry water was compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentage of wastewater replaced in concrete mixing was ranging from 0% up to 50%. In addition, the resulted also suggested that the concrete with 20% replacement of slurry water was achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other percentages. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete with slurry water mix have better compressive strength compared to control mix concrete.

  1. Dynamic mechanical measurements on fresh-water ice during freezing and thawing: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, E. R.

    2003-01-01

    An automated measurement system for elastic (J' ) and viscous (J'' ) components of complex shear compliance, J* = J' - iJ'', and the elastic (G' ) and viscous (G'' ) components of complex shear modulus, G* = G' + iG'' = 1/J*, has been used to obtain these material parameters for fresh-water ice during freezing and thawing. The system is reviewed briefly and yields mechanical loss tangents, J''/J' = G''/G', the shear-wave velocity and attenuation, in addition to shear compliance and modulus, at sinusoidal vibration frequencies from 2 to 10 000 Hz at temperatures between -25 and 150degreesC. Results reported here are chiefly at temperatures from 10 to -10degreesC. The required sample disk pairs, which are clamped to a central drive plate, are prepared outside the apparatus for solids and gels. Liquids of known volume are inserted between the drive plate and surrounding clamps at a separation distance, h, by a syringe to form sample disks of area, A = Volume / h. Measurements at 58 frequencies between 2 and 10 000 Hz require 3.5 min; several measurements at each temperature were made to test for equilibrium. Results for both tap and distilled water above freezing revealed high values of elastic (J' ) compliance that decreased sharply at 100 Hz and higher frequencies. Tap-water samples with 4 to 6% by volume air bubbles were less compliant ("stiffer") above freezing than samples with 0 to 1% by volume air, but when frozen, the samples with the smaller volume of air bubbles were less compliant, that is, had higher modulus values than the samples with high air-bubble volumes. Dynamic mechanical property changes in the transition from water to ice are compared to changes previously found during phase transitions in other materials. Further investigation on the effects of air-bubble volumes on dynamic mechanical properties of both water and ice is planned.

  2. Ecological impact of a fresh-water ``reef kill'' in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokiel, P. L.; Hunter, C. L.; Taguchi, S.; Watarai, L.

    1993-11-01

    Storm floods on the night of December 31, 1987 reduced salinity to 15‰ in the surface waters of Kaneohe Bay, resulting in massive mortality of coral reef organisms in shallow water. A spectacular phytoplankton bloom occurred in the following weeks. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by high concentrations of plant nutrients derived partially from dissolved material transported into the bay by flood runoff and partially by decomposition of marine organisms killed by the flood. Within two weeks of the storm, chlorophyll a concentrations reached 40 mg m-3, one of the highest values ever reported. The extremely rapid growth rate of phytoplankton depleted dissolved plant nutrients, leading to a dramatic decline or “crash” of the phytoplankton population. Water quality parameters returned to values approaching the long-term average within 2 to 3 months. Corals, echinoderms, crustaceans and other creatures suffered extremely high rates of mortality in shallow water. Virtually all coral was killed to depths of 1 2m in the western and southern portions of the bay. Elimination of coral species intolerant to lowered salinity during these rare flood events leads to dominance by the coral Porites compressa. After a reef kill, this species can eventually regenerate new colonies from undifferentiated tissues within the “dead” perforate skeleton. Catastrophic flood disturbances in Kaneohe Bay are infrequent, probably occurring once every 20 to 50 years, but play an important role in determination of coral community structure. The last major fresh water reef kill occurred in 1965 when sewage was being discharged into Kaneohe Bay. Coral communities did not recover until after sewage abatement in 1979. Comparison between recovery rate after the two flood events suggests that coral reefs can recover quickly from natural disturbances, but not under polluted conditions.

  3. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea−Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

  4. Carbon cycle. Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Cory, Rose M; Ward, Collin P; Crump, Byron C; Kling, George W

    2014-08-22

    Carbon in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change; however, the factors that control its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Although both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, we found that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70 to 95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one-third of the total CO2 released from surface waters and is thus an important component of the arctic carbon budget. PMID:25146289

  5. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  6. Risk assessment of cryptosporidium and giardia in water irrigating fresh produce in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mota, Alain; Mena, Kristina D; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Tarwater, Patrick M; Cháidez, Cristóbal

    2009-10-01

    A rise in foodborne outbreaks in the United States associated with fresh produce has resulted in increased concerns with the importation of fruits and vegetables. Mexico is a major exporter of produce to the United States, particularly tomatoes and bell peppers. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted to evaluate the public health impact of protozoan-laden water irrigating produce in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Specifically, a QMRA was conducted to address the human health impact associated with consumption of tomatoes, bell peppers, cucumbers, and lettuce irrigated with water contaminated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Yearly infection risks were estimated and assumed a 120-day exposure in a given year. Annual risks range from 9 x 10(-6) for Cryptosporidium at the lowest concentration associated with bell peppers to almost 2 x 10(-1) for exposure to Giardia on lettuce at the highest detected concentration. With the relatively high number of illnesses resulting from produce-related outbreaks, addressing pre- and postharvest points of contamination for fruits and vegetables consumed raw should be a food industry priority. This research shows how QMRA can be used to interpret microbial contamination data for public health significance and subsequently provide the foundation for guideline development. PMID:19833043

  7. Chemical characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in fresh and marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeta, Daniel J.; Quan, Tracy M.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Accardi, AmyMarie

    2002-03-01

    The high molecular weight fraction of dissolved organic matter in a suite of lakes, rivers, seawater, and marine sediment interstitial water samples was collected by ultrafiltration and characterized by molecular level and spectroscopic techniques. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of all samples show a high degree of similarity, with major contributions from carbohydrates, bound acetate, and lipids. Molecular level analyses of neutral sugars show seven monosaccharides, rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, to be abundant, and to occur in comparable relative amounts in each sample. Previous studies have emphasized the distinctive composition of dissolved humic substances in fresh and marine waters, and have attributed these differences to sources and transformations of organic matter unique to each environment. In contrast we find a large fraction of freshwater high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM; > 1kD) to be indistinguishable from marine HMWDOM in bulk and molecular-level chemical properties. Aquatic HMWDOM is similar in chemical composition to biologically derived acylated heteropolysaccharides isolated from marine algal cultures, suggesting a biological source for some fraction of persistent HMWDOM. High molecular weight DOC contributes 51 ± 26% of the total DOC, and monosaccharides 18 ± 8% of the total HMWDOC in our freshwater samples. These contributions are on average higher and more variable, but not significantly different than for surface seawater (30% and 16% respectively). Biogeochemical processes that produce, accumulate, and recycle DOM may therefore share important similarities and be broadly comparable across a range of environmental settings.

  8. Adsorption and desorption kinetics of (60)Co and (137)Cs in fresh water rivers.

    PubMed

    Fiengo Pérez, Fabricio; Sweeck, Lieve; Bauwens, Willy; Van Hees, May; Elskens, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides released in water systems--as well as heavy metals and organic toxicants--sorb to both the suspended solid particles and the bed sediments. Sorption is usually represented mathematically by the distribution coefficient. This approach implies equilibrium between phases and instantaneous fixation (release) of the pollutant onto (from) the surface of the soil particle. However, empirical evidence suggests that for some radionuclides the fixation is not achieved instantaneously and that the reversibility of the process can be slow. Here the adsorption/desorption kinetics of (60)Co and (137)Cs in fresh water environments were simulated experimentally and later on modelled mathematically, while the influence of the most relevant factors affecting the sorption were taken into account. The experimental results suggest that for adsorption and the desorption more than 24 h are needed to reach equilibrium, moreover, It was observed that the desorption rate constants for (60)Co and (137)Cs lie within ranges which are of two to three orders of magnitude lower than the adsorption rate constants. PMID:26218323

  9. Coupling reverse osmosis with electrodialysis to isolate natural organic matter from fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Koprivnjak, J F; Perdue, E M; Pfromm, P H

    2006-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) has proven to be an effective method for the concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) from fresh waters, but an undesirable consequence of this process is the co-concentration of some inorganic solutes. Accordingly, current practice yields solutions of NOM that, upon desalting and freeze-drying, are converted into dry solids containing finely dispersed sulfuric acid and silicic acid (H(4)SiO(4)). These acids will contribute to the apparent carboxylic and phenolic contents of NOM, leading to an overestimation of both. NOM may also be chemically altered by sulfuric acid, which reacts strongly with many classes of organic compounds. The sulfur content and ash content of NOM will be elevated in the presence of sulfuric acid and H(4)SiO(4). The goal of this study is to develop and test a method in which the removal of water by RO is coupled with the removal of salts by electrodialysis (ED). Like RO, ED is a relatively mild treatment that enables the desalting of NOM solutions without subjecting those samples to conditions of extremely high or low pH. The end product of the coupled process is a desalted, concentrated liquid sample from which low-ash NOM can be obtained as a freeze-dried solid material. In this study, the efficacy of ED for desalting NOM is evaluated using concentrated synthetic river waters and actual concentrated (by RO) river waters. Under optimal operating conditions, both sulfate and silica can be largely removed from RO-concentrated solutions of riverine NOM with only an average loss of 3% of total organic carbon. PMID:16952387

  10. Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dall, W.H.

    1925-01-01

    In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

  11. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, F.

    2015-04-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area.

  13. Hot water treatment reduces microbial growth and improves quality of packaged fresh-cut tables grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Packaged fresh-cut table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has emerged as a popular snack food because it offers freshness, nutrition, and convenience. However, tissue injury sustained during stem removal, and the openings created after stem removal make grapes susceptible to microbial growth, product deca...

  14. Impact of global and climate stresses on fresh water resources in the coastal zone: a Dutch example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Essink, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal groundwater systems throughout the world are under stress. It is expected that fresh water resources in these systems will be jeopardized by a combination of climate change, sea level rise and especially anthropogenic activities, such as increasing extraction rates. In addition, operational water management and man-induced land-subsidence will indirectly lead to upconing of saline groundwater and salinisation of fresh water aquifers and surface water systems. As such, sectors such as agriculture, drinking water supply and nature are threatened. In this presentation, the focus is on a coastal groundwater system that is already be jeopardized by a relatively high sea water level: the low-lying Dutch Delta. This delta can be considered as a blueprint for other deltas in future times as ground surface is already some meters below mean sea level. Numerical variable-density groundwater models are made for national, regional and local salinisation problems, related top sea level rise. They are used to quantify possible effects of sea level rise on hydraulic heads, seepage fluxes, salt loads to surface waters, and changes in fresh groundwater resources as a function of time. Our results show that the impact of sea level rise is limited to areas within 10 km of the coastline and main rivers because the increased head in the groundwater system at the coast can easily be released though the highly permeable Holocene confining layer. In addition, measures to compensate the effects of salinisation are shown. The solutions will be in delta, water as well as agro technologies.one of influence of a sea level rise in the groundwater system, South-Holland, The Netherlands odelling results show that a drier climate in combination with a sea level rise will reduce the fresh water resources in the Dutch coastal lowlands

  15. Improved method for measuring transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors in fresh and saline water.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, Loreen O; Ekowati, Yuli; Calix-Ponce, Helga N; Schippers, Jan C; Amy, Gary L; Kennedy, Maria D

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors produced by phyto-/bacterio-planktons in fresh and marine aquatic environments are increasingly considered as a major contributor to organic/particulate and biological fouling in micro-/ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis membrane (RO) systems. However, currently established methods which are based on Alcian blue (AB) staining and spectrophotometric techniques do not measure TEP-precursors and have the tendency to overestimate concentration in brackish/saline water samples due to interference of salinity on AB staining. Here we propose a new semi-quantitative method which allows measurement of both TEP and their colloidal precursors without the interference of salinity. TEP and their precursors are first retained on 10 kDa membrane, rinsed with ultra-pure water, and re-suspended in ultra-pure water by sonication and stained with AB, followed by exclusion of TEP-AB precipitates by filtration and absorbance measurement of residual AB. The concentration is then determined based on the reduction of AB absorbance due to reaction with acidic polysaccharides, blank correction and calibration with Xanthan gum standard. The extraction procedure allows concentration of TEP and their pre-cursors which makes it possible to analyse samples with a wide range of concentrations (down to <0.1 mg Xeq/L). This was demonstrated through application of the method for monitoring these compounds in algal cultures and a full-scale RO plant. The monitoring also revealed that concentrations of the colloidal precursors were substantially higher than the concentration of TEP themselves. In the RO plant, complete TEP removal was observed over the pre-treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration and ultrafiltration) but the TEP precursors were not completely removed, emphasising the importance of measuring this colloidal component to better understand the role of TEP and acidic polysaccharides in RO membrane fouling. PMID

  16. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  17. In-Situ Ion Analysis of Fresh Waters via an ISE Multiprobe and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological and geochemical sciences stand to substantially gain from capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and in-lab analysis. In-situ chemical instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, by reducing the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. We have pursued in-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup (>99%) of oxic natural fresh waters via an instrument combining an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) hardware with an appropriate multivariate signal processing architecture. Commercially available electrochemical sensors promote low cost and a fast development schedule, as well as easy maintenance and reproduction. Data processing techniques are adapted from artificial intelligence and chemometrics to extract accurate information from the corresponding in-situ data matrix. This architecture takes into account temperature, conductivity, and non-linearity effects, as well as taking advantage of sensor cross-selectivities traditionally considered as interferences. Chemical and mathematical constraints, e.g. charge balance and total ionic strength, provide further system-level information. Maximizing data recovery from the sensor array allows use of the instrument without the standard additions or ionic strength adjustment traditionally-required with use of ISEs. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium ) and hydrogen ion in a simplified

  18. Strains of toxic and harmful microalgae, from waste water, marine, brackish and fresh water.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palacio, M C; Crisóstomo-Vázquez, L; Alvarez-Hernández, S; Lozano-Ramírez, C

    2012-01-01

    Some microalgae are economically important in Mexico and the world because they can be potentially toxic. Algal explosive population growths are named harmful algal blooms and are frequently recorded in Mexico. The authors set up potentially toxic microalgae cultures from the Gulf of Mexico (Garrapatas tideland, Barberena river, Carpintero lagoon in Tamaulipas State; Chalchoapan and Catemaco lakes in Veracruz State), from the Mexican Pacific Ocean, Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán States, and from interior water bodies such as Vicente Aguirre dam, Chapultepec lake and several waste water treatment plants. This research is about the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in relation a specific site because of harmful algal bloom events. Microalgae cultures are useful in order to solve taxonomic problems, to know life cycles, molecular studies, for the study of toxic species, and the isolation of useful metabolites. The cultures for this research are clonal, non-axenic, semi-continuous, 12:12 light/dark photoperiod, 20 ± 1 °C temperature and 90.5 µmol m(-2)s(-1) illumination. Four different culture media were used. This collection is open to the worldwide scientific community as a source of organisms in controlled conditions that can be used as a useful tool for microalgae research work. PMID:21815840

  19. Application of Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Inference System for Predicting the Microbiological Pollution in Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouharati, S.; Benmahammed, K.; Harzallah, D.; El-Assaf, Y. M.

    The classical methods for detecting the micro biological pollution in water are based on the detection of the coliform bacteria which indicators of contamination. But to check each water supply for these contaminants would be a time-consuming job and a qualify operators. In this study, we propose a novel intelligent system which provides a detection of microbiological pollution in fresh water. The proposed system is a hierarchical integration of an Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This method is based on the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth. The instantaneous result obtained by the measurements of the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth-temperature, pH, electrical potential and electrical conductivity of many varieties of water (surface water, well water, drinking water and used water) on the number Escherichia coli in water. The instantaneous result obtained by measurements of the inputs parameters of water from sensors.

  20. Elimination of free-living amoebae in fresh water with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Vernhes, M C; Benichou, A; Pernin, P; Cabanes, P A; Teissié, J

    2002-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of pulsed electric fields on the inactivation of trophozoite form of Naegleria lovaniensis Ar9M-1 in batch and flow processes, systematically examining the lethal effect of field strength, pulse duration, number of pulses, and pulse frequency. Our results show that amoebae eradication is modulated by pulse parameters, composition of the pulsing medium, and physiological state of the cells. Cell survival is not related to the energy delivered to the cell suspension during the electrical treatment. For a given energy a strong field applied for a short cumulative pulse duration affects viability more than a weak field with a long cumulative pulsation. We also determine the optimal electrical conditions to obtain an inactivation rate higher than 95% while using the least energy. Flow processes allow to treat large-scale volumes. Our results show that the most efficient flow process for amoeba eradication requires a field parallel to the flow. Pulsed electric fields are a new and attractive method for inactivating amoebae in large volumes of fresh water. PMID:12230188

  1. Emticicia aquatica sp. nov., a species of the family Cytophagaceae isolated from fresh water.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yochan; Seo, Mi-Ae; Kang, Heeyoung; Kim, Haneul; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Joh, Kiseong

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-gliding, orange-pigmented bacterial strain, designated HMF2925T, was isolated from fresh water in Korea. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HMF2925T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Emticicia. Strain HMF2925T was closely related to Emticicia oligotrophica DSM 17448T (95.5 %) and Emticicia ginsengisoli Gsoil 085T (94.1 %). The major fatty acids of strain HMF2925T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and C16 : 0.The major polar lipids of strain HMF2925T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain HMF2925T was 36.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain HMF2925T represents a novel species of the genus Emticicia, for which the name Emticicia aquatica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HMF2925T ( = KCTC 42574T = CECT 8858T). PMID:26346054

  2. Structural and optical characterization of fresh water diatoms (Cyclotella sp.): nature's nanoporous silica manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Gogoi, Ankur; Buragohain, Alak K.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-02-01

    Siliceous frustules were extracted from a representative fresh water diatom species (Cyclotella sp.) by treating with aqueous hydrochloric (HCl) acid. The structural characterizations of cleaned frustules were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microscopy images showed that the diatoms have a regular circular shape and are of almost equal size (average length is 9μm and average width is 3 μm). From energy dispersive X -ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) spot analysis it was confirmed that the frustules isolated from diatoms are composed mainly of silicon in the form of amorphous silica (SiO2). The bond information of chemical substances of diatom frustules was carried out at ambient temperature by means of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. FTIR spectrum as recorded in transmittance mode showed the characteristic peaks for diatom biosilica, including for Si-O-Si stretching vibration at 1057 and 776 cm-1. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of diatom frustules were performed at room temperature and it was observed that they emitted strong blue PL centered at 440nm when excited with ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  3. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823)

    PubMed Central

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested. PMID:25610565

  4. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823).

    PubMed

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested. PMID:25610565

  5. A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

  6. Prevalence and site preferences of heterophyid metacercariae in Tilapia zilli from Ismalia fresh water canal, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M M; Soliman, M F M

    2010-09-01

    Factors affecting prevalence and site preferences of heterophyid metacercariae (MC) were investigated in this study. A total of 173 specimens of a freshwater fish, Tilapia zilli were collected during autumn 2008, winter 2009 and summer 2009, from Ismailia fresh water canal, Egypt. Results showed that the total prevalence of heterophyid MC was 95.37%. The heterophyid MC consisted of Haplorchis yokogawi (47.4%), Pygidiopsis genata (21.4%), and Phagicola ascolonga (93.64%). H. yokogawi MC was detected in striated muscles, P. ascolonga in liver and kidney while, P. genata was detected in muscles, liver and kidney. The aggregation indices showed that all MC were aggregated and the P. genata was the most highly aggregated followed by H. yokogawi and then P. ascolonga. Responses of the heterophyid MC to host sex, weight and season greatly varied according to species of MC. Different responses of interaction for heterophyid MC intensity were found by GLIM analysis and this variation dependant on the type of infection (single or mixed infections). Factors affecting site preference of heterophid MC infection were discussed and further studies in other locations are required to examine the factors affecting site preference. PMID:21073146

  7. Ionoregulatory responses of the crayfish Orconectes immunis to selenium in fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Short, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of selenium on fluid and tissue electrolyte balance of the crayfish Orconcectes immunis. An ionic profile of O. immunis was obtained from measurements of hemolymph sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and copper in several populations of crayfish in eastern Colorado. The bioassay portion of the study consisted of groups of crayfish maintained in reconstituted fresh water while exposed for 30 days to concentrations of 0.01 mg/liter, 0.10 mg/liter, or 1.00 mg/liter selenium as sodium selenite. Exposure to selenium resulted in various branchial histopathologies to include hypertrophy, necrosis, and sloughing of the cuticular membrane. Hemolymph potassium and copper, however, were significantly reduced in crayfish exposed for 10 days to 1.00 mg/liter selenium and 30 days to 0.10 mg/liter selenium. Copper appeared to be the more responsive to selenium toxicity with reductions of 47.4%-53.7% in hemolymph levels after exposure for 30 days to 1.00 mg/liter selenium. Selenium-induced changes in tissue ionic content (abdominal muscle and carapace) were most evident with respect to muscle levels of potassium and calcium. It is suggested that the observed alterations in fluid and tissue ionic content are largely in response to changes in concentration or electrochemical potential gradients brought about by selenium-induced disturbance of membrance permeability and ionic transport characteristics.

  8. NEURAL RECONNECTION IN THE TRANSECTED SPINAL CORD OF THE FRESH-WATER TURTLE Trachemys dorbignyi

    PubMed Central

    Rehermann, María Inés; Marichal, Nicolás; Russo, Raúl E.; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first evidence that fresh water turtles are able to reconnect their completely transected spinal cord leading to some degree of recovery of the motor functions lost after injury. Videographic analysis showed that some turtles (5 out of 11) surviving more than 20 days after injury were able to initiate stepping locomotion. However the stepping movements were slower than those of normal animals and swimming patterns were not restored. Even though just 45% of the injured turtles recovered their stepping patterns, all showed axonal sprouting beyond the lesion site. Immunocytochemical and electron microscope images revealed the occurrence of regrowing axons crossing the severed region. A major contingent of the axons reconnecting the cord originated from sensory neurons lying in dorsal ganglia adjacent to the lesion site. The axons bridging the damaged region traveled on a cellular scaffold consisting of BLBP and GFAP positive cells and processes. Serotonergic varicose nerve fibers and endings were found at early stages of the healing process at the epicenter of the lesion. Interestingly, the glial scar commonly found in the damaged central nervous system of mammals was absent. In contrast GFAP and BLBP positive processes were found running parallel to the main axis of the cord accompanying the crossing axons. PMID:19418545

  9. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges. PMID:27321139

  10. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26372939

  11. Antioxidant properties in some selected cyanobacteria isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Fuad; Ratnayake, R R; Meerajini, Kirisnashamy; Wasantha Kumara, K L

    2016-09-01

    Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp., showed highest TPC (5.02 ± 0.20 mg/g), TFC (664.07 ± 19.76 mg/g), and total PBPs (127.01 mg/g) value. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was recorded highest in Oscillatoria sp. (39.63 ± 7.02), whereas the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was also reported the highest in Oscillatoria sp. (465.31 ± 25.76) followed by Lyngbya sp. (248.39 ± 11.97). In FTIR spectroscopy, Lyngbya sp. does not show any N-H stretching band which is ultimately responsible for the inhibition of antioxidant activity. The study revealed that Lyngbya sp. and Oscillatoria sp. can be an excellent source for food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial uses. PMID:27625779

  12. Scanning electron microscopic investigations of fresh mortars: Well-defined water-filled layers adjacent to sand grains

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S. Kjellsen, K.O.

    2008-04-15

    SEM examinations are reported of freshly-mixed and early age mortar specimens prepared by fast freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by epoxy impregnation, and of companion specimens of early aged mortars prepared conventionally. Freshly-mixed mortars reveal complex features that appear to influence subsequent development of the hardened state microstructure. In particular, layers of entirely water-filled space a few micrometers thick are found adjacent to many of the sand grain surfaces. After a few hours sparse deposits of calcium hydroxide crystals (and later C-S-H) are found within these layers, but the layers persist as recognizable features for at least 12 h. The layers are identically recognizable in both fast-frozen and conventionally-prepared specimens. Another feature found in freshly-mixed mortars is the existence of patchy local areas of sparsely-packed and other areas of densely-packed cement particles.

  13. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska's oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near‐surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow‐control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009, 2010

  14. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir

  15. Fresh-water lenses and practical limitations of their three-dimensional simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, F.; Alam, K.; Howard, K. W. F.

    2000-08-01

    Fresh-water lenses are the major sources of water supply in many atoll islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, particularly in dry seasons. Several two- and three-dimensional models are currently available for the simulation of atoll-island aquifers; however, 2D models cannot include 3D spatial variability of material properties, they must simplify the boundary conditions, and they cannot correctly simulate pumping wells. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, a 3D model, SALTFLOW, was adopted for the simulation of Home Island in the Indian Ocean. This exercise required a discretisation on the order of a few metres and time steps of a few hours requiring significantly high CPU times. High CPU demand proved to be a difficult challenge but cannot be considered a serious practical limitation with today's advanced computers. The exhaustive data demands of the model (e.g., 3D distributions of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, dispersivities, and spatial and temporal variations of recharge and extraction rates) proved to be more problematical. Although the Home Island data set is unusually comprehensive by any standards, nonetheless the quality and quantity of the available data proved inadequate to meet the calibration needs of a highly karstic aquifer system. The Home Island modeling demonstrates the practical limitations of 3D models. It raises the concern that our ability to develop computer codes capable of simulating complex systems now exceeds our ability to supply the input data necessary for reliable calibration. Finally, the paper demonstrates the importance of the transient calibration in reliable simulation of various management options and emphasises that transient calibration should be considered as an integral part of any similar 2D or 3D modeling.

  16. Detection of fresh ground water and a contaminant plume beneath Red Brook Harbor, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, Timothy D.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected in ground water in a vertical interval from about 68 to 176 feet below sea level beneath the shoreline where the contaminant plume emanating from a capped landfill on the Massachusetts Military Reservation intersects Red Brook Harbor. The highest concentrations at the shoreline, about 15 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene and 1 microgram per liter of tetrachloroethene, were measured in samples from one well at about 176 feet below sea level. The concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrate and ammonium, and trace metals, such as iron and manganese, in these same samples are typical of uncontaminated ground water on Cape Cod. Fresh ground water (bulk electrical conductance less than 100 millisiemens per meter) is present beneath the harbor at 40 of 48 locations investigated within about 250 feet of the shoreline. Fresh ground water also was detected at one location approximately 450 feet from shore. The harbor bottom consists of soft sediments that range in thickness from 0 to greater than 20 feet and overlie sandy aquifer materials. Trichloroethene was detected at several locations in fresh ground water from the sandy aquifer materials beneath the harbor. The highest trichloroethene concentration, about 4.5 micrograms per liter, was measured about 450 feet from shore.

  17. The effect of soil water repellency on water and chemicals distribution in the soil profile for effluent and fresh water irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallach, Rony; Rahav, Matan; Brindt, Naaran; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency (WR) has been reported for many vegetation types and soils and for effluent irrigation. Citrus trees have been found in a previous and in the current study to render sandy soils hydrophobic. The presented study focuses on the synergistic effect of the uneven wetting patterns and preferential flow pathways, known to occur in WR soils, and irrigation water quality on the spatial distribution of salinity and nutrients in the citrus trees' root zone. The study was performed in a commercial grapefruit orchard that is located at the coastal plain of Israel. The soil is sandy (80 % sand, 9 % silt and 11% clay). An experimental orchard area of 1500 m2 was divided into ten plots - five are irrigated with fresh water and five with secondary treated sewage water (effluent) using a drip irrigation system. Each plot contains 12 trees with spacing of 2x6 m. Soil texture, water repellency persistence (WDPT), and OM were measured for all 10 plots. The spatial and temporal water content distribution in the trees' root zone during and between subsequent irrigation events was measured undisturbedly by the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method. Soil water content within the root zone was indeed found highly heterogeneous in space and in time. Using ERT scans, two sites with relatively wet soil underneath and two with relatively dry soil underneath were chosen in each plot for further investigation. Disturbed soil samples from two depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, were taken from each site and tested in the laboratory for weight-based saturation, current water content, pH, EC, Cl, Na, Mg, NO3, P, K, and OM. The overall finding was that the uneven distribution of water content in the water repellent soil has a substantial effect on the salinity and nutrients distribution in the soil profile. Higher salinity and nutrients concentrations were found in the effluent irrigated plots compared to the fresh water plots. In particular, salinity was higher in the dry spots and

  18. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF ENTEROCOCCI FROM MARINE AND FRESH WATER BEACHES BY A 30,000 MOLECULAR WEIGHT CUTOFF HOLLOW FIBER ULTRAFILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafiltration systems have been used to concentrate pathogens from various types of fresh water samples. However, less work has been done with marine waters for the concentration of pathogens or indicator bacteria. An ultrafiltration approach to concentrate indicator bacteria...

  19. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients. PMID:26315386

  20. Biochemical composition of some small indigenous fresh water fishes from the River Mouri, Khulna, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, D; Khan, A N; Rahman, M A; Ahamed, F

    2007-05-01

    Biochemical composition of seven small indigenous fresh water fishes namely Magur (Clarias batrachus), Shingi (Heteropneustes fossilis), Koi (Anabas testudineus), Foli (Notopterus notopterus), Royna (Nandas nandas), Taki (Channa punctatus) and Tangra (Mystus vittatus) from the Mouri river Khulna, Bangladesh was studied in order to evaluate their nutritional values. The mean value of protein, fat, moisture and ash content was found as 14.87 +/- 0.63, 7.90 +/- 1.91, 73.49 +/- 0.69 and 3.74 +/- 0.46% in C. batrachus; 17.34 +/- 0.51, 3.45 +/- 0.92, 76.06 +/- 2.24 and 3.15 +/- 0.25% in H. fossilis; 19.63 +/- 0.5, 7.79 +/- 2.73, 69.27 +/- 1.04 and 3.31 +/- 0.83% in A. testudineus; 18.30 +/- 0.79, 4.98 +/- 1.71, 72.68 +/- 1.08 and 5.82 +/- 0.82% in N. notopterus; 16.09 +/- 2.66, 7.34 +/- 0.49, 75.75 +/- 0.78 and 5.19 +/- .029% in N. nandas; 19.13 +/- 2.40, 4.55 +/- 1.18, 70.55 +/- 1.89 and 6.81 +/- 0.94% in C. punctatus and 15.62 +/- 0.32, 7.53 +/- 1.10, 73.99 +/- 3.13 and 6.50 +/- 0.63% in M. vittatus. Considering the result of the present study, it can be concluded that all the species are rich in food value. PMID:19069978

  1. Determination of trace vanadium (V) in seawater and fresh water by the catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Sha, Yuanyuan; Xin, Huizhen; Li, Shuang

    2010-12-01

    A new kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of vanadium (V). The method is based on the catalytic effect of vanadium (V) on the oxidation of weak acid brilliant blue dye (RAWL) by KBrO3 using the citric acid as activation reagent. The obtained optimum conditions are: c (RAWL) = 1×10-4 molL-1, c (KBrO3) = 3×10-2 molL-1, c (citric acid) = 9×10-3 molL-1, pH = 2.50, the reaction time being 7.0 min and the temperature being 25.0°C. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the determination of vanadium (V) in the range of 0-70.0 ng mL-1 and the detection limit is down to 0.407 ng mL-1. For standard vanadium (V) solution determination, the recovery efficiency is in the range of 98.5%-102% and the RSD ranges from 0.76%-1.25%. Moreover, it is demonstrated that most cations and anions do not interfere with the determination of vanadium (V) under the analytical condition. The new method was successfully applied in the determination of vanadium (V) in fresh water and seawater samples with satisfactory results. Vanadium (V) in the seawater samples from Qingdao offshore was determined using the method and the distribution of vanadium (V) was mapped. Compared with other instrumental analytical methods, the proposed method shows good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity, lower cost and rapidity. It can be employed on shipboard easily.

  2. Water in barnacle muscle. III. NMR studies of fresh fibers and membrane-damaged fibers equilibrated with selected solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, E E; Clark, M E; Hinke, J A; Chapman, N R

    1981-01-01

    Water in barnacle muscle has been studied using NMR techniques. Fresh fibers are compared with membrane-damaged fibers treated with solutes that greatly alter fixed charge and total water content. Both water (97%) and solute (3%) protons are visible in continuous wave spectra of oriented fresh fibers. No local field inhomogeneities were detected, nor are cell solutes significantly bound. In pulse experiments, all cell water is visible and exhibits a single exponential decay. In fresh fibers, T2 approximately or equal to 40 ms; faster decaying signals are assigned to immobile and mobile protons on macromolecules. T1 and T1p are frequency dependent. Using equations derived for a two-compartment model with fast exchange, we calculate the following: tau b, the correlation time for anisotropic rotational motion of bound water; Sb, its order parameter; tau ex, the correlation time for exchange between bound and free fractions; f, the fraction of water bound; and Hr, the grams of water bound per gram of macromolecule. Whereas f varies inversely with total water content, the other parameters are virtually constant, with values: tau b approximately or equal to 1.3 X 10(-8) S; tau ex approximately or equal to 8 X 10(-6) s; Sb approximately or equal to 0.06; and Hr approximately or equal to 0.1g H2O/g macromolecule. Thus, the NMR relaxation detectable properties of water bound to macromolecules are unaffected by solutes that greatly alter the macromolecular surface charge. PMID:7272435

  3. Influence of conjunctive use of coffee effluent and fresh water on performance of robusta coffee and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Salakinkop, S R; Shivaprasad, P

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of treated coffee effluent irrigation on performance of established robusta coffee, nutrient contribution and microbial activities in the soil. The results revealed that the field irrigated with coffee effluent from aerobic tank having COD of 1009 ppm, did not affect the yield of clean coffee (1309 kg/ha) and it was statistically similar (on par) with the plots irrigated with fresh water (1310 kg/ha) with respect to clean coffee yield. Effluent irrigation increased significantly the population bacteria, yeast, fungi, actinomycetes and PSB (122, 52, 12, 34 and 6 x 104/g respectively)) in the soil compared to the soil irrigated with fresh water (87, 22, 5, 24 and 2 x 10(4)/g respectively). The organic carbon (2.60%), available nutrients in the soil like P (57.2 kg/ha), K (401.6 kg/ha, Ca (695.3 ppm), S (5.3 ppm),Cu (4.09 ppm) and Zn(4.78 ppm) were also increased due to effluent irrigation compared to fresh water irrigation. Thus analysis of coffee effluent for major and minor plant nutrients content revealed its potential as source of nutrients and water for plant growth. PMID:23741860

  4. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  5. Analysis of the thickness of a fresh water lens and of the transition zone between this lens and upwelling saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeman, S.; Leijnse, A.; Raats, P. A. C.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2011-02-01

    In regions with saline groundwater, fresh water lenses may develop due to rainwater infiltration. The amount of fresh water that is available for e.g. agricultural crops depends on the thickness of the lens and the extent of mixing between fresh and saline water. In this paper, we consider the mixing of fresh water and upward moving saline ground water in low-lying deltaic areas. The parameters that dominate the flow and transport problem are investigated using dimensionless groups and scaled sensitivities. We characterize the numerically simulated thicknesses of the lens and of the mixing zone by spatial moments. Rayleigh number and mass flux ratio, which is the ratio of the salt water seepage and the precipitation, determine the thickness of the fresh water lens. The local thickness of the mixing zone is mainly influenced by the dispersive/diffusive groups and the mass flux ratio. In addition, convergence of streamlines towards an outflow boundary affects the thickness, particularly in the vicinity of this boundary. Analytical and numerical steady state solutions for lens thickness are compared, taking into account upward seepage, for the two cases with and without a density difference between lens and underlying groundwater. Agreement between the numerical and analytical solutions for the lens thickness is good except when the mass flux ratio becomes small. For zero mass flux ratio, it is implicitly assumed in the analytical solution that salt water is stagnant, and that is unrealistic. Relative contributions of longitudinal and transversal hydrodynamic dispersion and diffusion to the thickness of the mixing zone are quantified numerically for different phases of lens formation. Longitudinal dispersion dominates in the early stages of lens formation, while diffusion and transversal dispersion dominate at steady state.

  6. Bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and the surrounding brackish waters and sediment.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Azokpota, Paulin; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at determining bacterial concentration and diversity in fresh tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) and their surrounding brackish waters and sediment. Freshly caught shrimp, water and sediment samples were collected in Lakes Nokoue and Aheme in Benin (West Africa) during two periods with different water salinity and temperature. We used complementary culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for microbiota analysis. During both sampling periods, total mesophilic aerobic counts in shrimp samples ranged between 4.4 and 5.9 log CFU/g and were significantly higher than in water or sediment samples. In contrast, bacterial diversity was higher in sediment or water than in shrimps. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in shrimps, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in water, and Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi in sediment. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water and shrimps sampled at the same site the same day. The study suggests that the bacterial community of tropical brackish water shrimps cannot be predicted from the microbiota of their aquatic environment. Thus, monitoring of microbiological quality of aquatic environments might not reflect shrimp microbiological quality. PMID:26656527

  7. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: a mission concept to study the world's oceans and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaze, Parag; Albuys, Vincent; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Lafon, Thierry; Lambin, Juliette; Mallet, Alain; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2010-10-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is a planned satellite mission to study the world's oceans and terrestrial surface water bodies. The SWOT mission concept has been proposed jointly by the global Hydrology and Oceanography science communities to make the first global survey of the Earth's surface water, observe the fine details of the ocean's surface topography, and measure how water bodies change over time. SWOT was one of 15 missions listed in the 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Earth science as a mission that NASA should implement in the incoming decade. This mission concept builds upon the heritage of prior missions and technologies such as Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1/ 2, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and the initial development of the Wide Swatch Ocean Altimeter intended for the Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2. The key measurement capability for SWOT is provided by a Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (KaRIn). With an orbit altitude of 970 km, the KaRIn instrument provides a high-resolution swath width of 120 km enabling global coverage (~90%) of the world's ocean's and fresh water bodies. The KaRIn measurement is being designed to provide a spatial resolution of 1 km for the oceans (after on-board processing), and 100 m for land water, both at centimetric accuracy. An additional instrument suite similar to the Jason series will complement KaRIn: a Ku-band nadir altimeter, a Microwave Radiometer and Precision Orbit Determination (POD) systems. To enable this challenging measurement performance, the SWOT mission concept is designed to overcome several challenges, such as very high raw data rate (320 Mbps), large on-board data volumes, high power demand, stringent pointing and stability requirements, and ground data processing systems, to produce meaningful science data products to our user community. The SWOT mission concept is being developed as a cooperative effort between NASA and CNES. This

  8. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G.

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  9. Harvesting fresh water and marine algae by magnetic separation: screening of separation parameters and high gradient magnetic filtration.

    PubMed

    Cerff, Martin; Morweiser, Michael; Dillschneider, Robert; Michel, Aymeé; Menzel, Katharina; Posten, Clemens

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the focus is on magnetic separation of fresh water algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris as well as marine algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis salina by means of silica-coated magnetic particles. Due to their small size and low biomass concentrations, harvesting algae by conventional methods is often inefficient and cost-consuming. Magnetic separation is a powerful tool to capture algae by adsorption to submicron-sized magnetic particles. Hereby, separation efficiency depends on parameters such as particle concentration, pH and medium composition. Separation efficiencies of >95% were obtained for all algae while maximum particle loads of 30 and 77 g/g were measured for C. reinhardtii and P. tricornutum at pH 8 and 12, respectively. This study highlights the potential of silica-coated magnetic particles for the removal of fresh water and marine algae by high gradient magnetic filtration and provides critical discussion on future improvements. PMID:22705536

  10. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  11. Dietary sodium requirement determined for juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus) reared in fresh water and seawater.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Shi-Yen; Lu, Li-Shan

    2004-04-01

    Two 8-week feeding trials were conducted to determine the dietary Na requirement for juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus) reared in fresh water and seawater. In each experiment, NaCl was added to the basal diet at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 g Na/kg diet (fresh water) and at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 1.5, 2, or 3 g Na/kg diet (seawater). Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of fish, individual fish initially weighing 0.69 (se 0.01) g, in a closed, recirculating rearing system. In fresh water, the tilapia fed the diet supplemented with 2 g Na/kg diet had significantly (P<0.05) greater weight gain than the fish fed the diets supplemented with >/=3 and fresh water, indicated that the adequate dietary Na concentration for tilapia is about 1.5 g/kg diet. The present study also suggests that no dietary Na is required for tilapia reared in seawater. PMID:15035685

  12. Acidic Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Transmitting Medium for High Hydrostatic Pressure Reduction of Bacterial Loads on Shelled Fresh Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Du, Suping; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xiao, Lili; Lou, Yang; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP) processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products. PMID:27014228

  13. Acidic Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Transmitting Medium for High Hydrostatic Pressure Reduction of Bacterial Loads on Shelled Fresh Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Du, Suping; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xiao, Lili; Lou, Yang; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP) processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products. PMID:27014228

  14. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  15. Effect of ozonated water and chlorine water wash on the quality and microbial de-contamination of fresh-cut carrot shreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists regarding how wash operations affect water quality and the efficacy of sanitizers on quality and microbial reduction of fresh-cut carrot shreds. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine and ozone on reducing microbial loads and maintaining quality of ca...

  16. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P <0.05) with maximum in A. pinnata reactor (number 343.3 ± 10.23 %; weight 98.62 ± 4.23 % ) and minimum in submerged macrophytes mixture reactor (number 105 ± 5.77 %; weight 41.07 ± 3.97 % ). ANOVA showed significant variation in cocoon production (F4 = 15.67, P <0.05) and mean body weight (F4 = 13.49, P <0.05) among different reactors whereas growth rate (F3 = 23.62, P <0.05) and relative growth rate (F3 = 4.91, P <0.05) exhibited significant variation during different fortnights. Reactors showed significant variation (P <0.05) in pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Organic carbon (OC), Organic nitrogen (ON), and C/N ratio during different fortnights with increase in pH, EC, N, and K whereas decrease in OC and C/N ratio. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped five substrates (weeds) into three clusters-poor vermicompost substrates, moderate vermicompost substrate, and excellent vermicompost substrate. Two principal components (PCs) have been identified by factor analysis with a cumulative variance of 90.43 %. PC1 accounts for 47.17 % of the total variance represents "reproduction factor" and PC2 explaining 43.26 % variance representing "growth factor." Thus, the nature of macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida. PMID:23589265

  17. Contrasting patterns in genetic diversity following multiple invasions of fresh and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David W; Muirhead, James R; Heath, Daniel D; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2006-10-01

    of the two invading clades were found principally at recently invaded fresh and brackish water sites in Eastern Europe, and were characterized by higher genetic diversity than putative source populations. Further studies are required to determine if these represent novel genotypes. Our results confirm that biological invasions need not result in diminished genetic diversity, particularly if multiple source populations, each with distinctive genetic composition, contribute to the founding populations. PMID:17032263

  18. Antimicrobial Activities and Water Vapor Barrier of Starch-Lipid Based Edible Coatings on Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uses of edible antimicrobial films or coatings have been proven to be a novel way of suppressing pathogen contaminations of fresh foods where physical barriers alone aren’t enough. In the present study, we embedded essential oils into a proprietary starch-lipids composite, called Fantesk, to in...

  19. Wash operations affect water quality and packaged fresh-cut romaine lettuce quality and microbial growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washing during the preparation of fresh-cut produce is an important step to maintaining the quality and safety of the finished products. It is often the only step aimed at reducing microbial populations and removing tissue fluids from cut produce. However, little is known about the effects of washi...

  20. Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs. PMID:25560259

  1. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, S.K.; Gingerich, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized.

  2. Lead uptake and lead loss in the fresh water field crab, Barytelphusa guerini, on exposure to organic and inorganic lead

    SciTech Connect

    Tulasi, S.J.; Yasmeen, R.; Reddy, C.P.; Rao, J.V.R.

    1987-07-01

    Lead is a heavy metal which is widely used in paint industry, pigments, dyes, electrical components and electronics, plastic chemicals and in various other things. Since some of the lead salts are soluble in water, lead presents a potential threat to aquatic organisms. Studies dealing with invertebrates include those on mortality, growth and lead uptake in Lymnaea palustris and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters and mussels. Little information exists regarding the effect of lead on the fresh water crustaceans. Hence the present investigation has been undertaken to study the uptake and loss of lead on exposure to subtoxic levels or organic and inorganic lead.

  3. Effect of Water Stress and Storage Time on Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics of Different Genotypes of Fresh Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Luna, María C; Bekhradi, Farzaneh; Ferreres, Federico; Jordán, María J; Delshad, Mojtaba; Gil, María I

    2015-10-28

    This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health. PMID:26473474

  4. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  5. Dynamics of the iodine-goitrogen balance in the thyroid status of catfish from selected fresh and brackish water bodies.

    PubMed

    Akindahunsi, A A; Salawu, S O; Adu, O C

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the dynamics of the goitrogen-iodine balance in Igbokoda brackish and Ogbese fresh water bodies in Ondo State, Nigeria. The parameters determined include iodine, thiocyanate, chloride, nitrate, calcium, magnesium hardness, calcium hardness, total hardness, and total coliform counts in water, sediment and/or fish (flesh and serum). The fish were subjected to a number of treatments (boiling with water or sodium chloride solution, frying or roasting) prior to analysis. The iodine level (microg I/100g) in the flesh of fish varied with size, treatment and location; it increased with size, was reduced by some treatments (boiling with either water or NaCl solution), while frying and roasting did not affect the level. The least values were 93.45 (Ogbese fish boiled with NaCl solution) and 160.94 (Igbokoda fish boiled with either water or NaCl solution). On the whole, Igbokoda (160.94-314.08) had higher values than Ogbese (93.45-205.06). Serum iodine (microg I/100mL) was equally higher in Igbokoda (5.00-9.00) compared to Ogbese (2.80-5.00). Only the large sized fish of Ogbese recorded a value of 5.00 micromol/L for thiocyanate while this parameter was not detected in other samples. The calculated I/goitrogen ratios (I/Ca, I/NO3, I/Cl and I/SCN) were higher for Igbokoda water than Ogbese water with the exception of I/Mg. This was equally reinforced by the total count of coliforms (goitrogenic), which was higher in Ogbese (3.0 x 10(3)) than in Igbokoda (2.7 x 10(3)). These results indicate that the Igbokoda brackish water body would be a better source of iodine than Ogbese fresh water body for the population dependent on them. PMID:15174737

  6. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  7. Taphonomy of deciduous leaves and changes in the d13C signal after deposition in fresh water settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Simon; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Nebelsick, James; Grein, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotopic signals from fossil plant material are an important source of information for palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. Usually, the 13C isotope is depleted in plant material, compared to the atmospheric 13C content, because 13C is discriminated against 12C during the process of photosynthesis. The degree of 13C discrimination depends on the photosynthetic pathway (C3, C4 and CAM) and is substantially affected by environmental factors (for example, water stress). Various plant material components, however, differ also with respect to their 13C content. It is generally assumed that the d13C signal found in fossil plants reflects that of the living plant to a sufficient degree. Obtaining information on possible alterations during the taphonomic process is, however, desirable. In this study, changes in d13C of deciduous leaves are monitored, from the living leaf still attached to the tree to leaves deposited in fresh water setting for one or more years, thus focusing on early stages of taphonomy. The considered taxa are species from Quercus (oak) and Fagus (beech). Deposited leaves from three fresh water environments in Southwestern Germany were studied: active stream in a forest, still water pond in a forest, and a waterlogged moor environment. Additionally to the isotope measurements, the degree of leaf tissue degradation and colonization with degrading organisms were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  8. The Mysidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Mysida) in fresh and oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean. Taxonomy, biogeography, and bioinvasion.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Karl J; Ariani, Antonio P; Daneliya, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    A census of Mysidae yielded a total of twelve species plus two non-nominotypical subspecies found so far in fresh and oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean, all belonging to the subfamily Mysinae. Among the nine species in fresh-waters, three are stenoendemics, namely of a single lake (Diamysis lacustris), of two neighbouring river systems (Paramysis kosswigi) or of karstic cave waters (Troglomysis vjetrenicensis). Four species-T. vjetrenicensis, D. lacustris, D. fluviatilis, and Paramysis adriatica sp. nov. described in this paper-are confined to freshwater tributaries of the Adriatic Sea (NE-Mediterranean). This strengthens previous findings about the outstanding role of the Adriatic basin for the endemic diversity of freshwater Mysidae within the Mediterranean. This is possibly related to alternating marine and freshwater-terrestrial phases during the Pliocene-Pleistocene in this semi-enclosed basin. Based on current knowledge, freshwater populations of D. mesohalobia heterandra are also confined to the Adriatic basin; this taxon, however, shows many more populations in brackish waters of the E-Mediterranean and Marmora basins. Two freshwater species (Limnomysis benedeni, Hemimysis anomala) are wide-range invaders of Ponto-Caspian origin, with recent expansion into fresh and brackish waters of the NW-Mediterranean. A further immigrant to this part of the Mediterranean, Neomysis integer, is of NE-Atlantic origin and occurs only marginally in fresh-water.        Five among the nine species found at least once in fresh-water were also reported in oligohaline conditions, mostly also at even higher salinities. A total of eight species plus two subspecies were recorded in oligohaline waters (S = 0.5-5). Among these, only one oligohalobious stenoendemic, Diamysis hebraica, inhabits streams at the Levantine coast.        In the historical biogeographical context, the current distribution of only one out of nine indigenous species in an- to oligohaline

  9. An Examination of the Sea Surface Salinity - Fresh Water Flux Relationship Using Satellite Observations from SMOS and Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pingping; Kumar, Arun; Xue, Yan; Liu, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Relationship between the sea surface salinity (SSS) and the oceanic fresh water flux (E-P) is examined using the SSS retrievals derived from the passive microwave (PMW) observations aboard the SMOS and Aquarius satellites, the CMORPH integrated satellite precipitation estimates (P) and the evaporation data (E) produced by the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis. Preprocessing is performed to construct gridded fields of SSS, P, and E on a 1o lat/lon grid over the global oceans and at a 30-min time resolution for a 54-month period from January 2010 to June 2014. Relationships between the SSS observed at a point in time and the P, E, and P-E at the same grid box accumulated over various time periods ending at the SSS observation time are examined. As a first step, we focused our investigation on an oceanic area over the central equatorial Pacific (10oS-10oN; 180o-160oW) where SSS is not influenced by the river runoffs. Our preliminary results show clear linear relationship between the satellite-observed skin SSS and the fresh water flux over the region. The Aquarius observed instantaneous SSS presents a correlation of ~0.4 with the E-P accumulated over the 30-min period of the SSS observations. The correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P drops with the accumulation period for E-P, down to 0.36 for 6-hourly accumulated E-P. The Correlation, however, bounces back and improves with the E-P accumulation period longer than 6 hours, reaching to ~0.7 for an accumulation time period of 30 days. The existence of the minimum correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P accumulation over a 6-hour period suggests the involvement of air-sea interaction and oceanic processes on multiple time scales in the manner E-P influences to the SSS variations. Among the two primary components of the fresh water flux, precipitation dominates the influences on the SSS. Further analysis is under way to repeat the examination for different regions to examine the

  10. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  11. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  12. Collection of fission and activation product elements from fresh and ocean waters: a comparison of traditional and novel sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bryce E.; Santschi, Peter H.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Douglas, Matthew; Davidson, Joseph D.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring natural waters for the inadvertent release of radioactive fission products produced as a result of nuclear power generation downstream from these facilities is essential for maintaining water quality. To this end, we evaluated sorbents for simultaneous in-situ large volume extraction of radionuclides with both soft (e.g., Ag) and hard metal (e.g., Co, Zr, Nb, Ba, and Cs) or anionic (e.g., Ru, Te, Sb) character. In this study, we evaluated a number of conventional and novel nanoporous sorbents in both fresh and salt waters. In most cases, the nanoporous sorbents demonstrated enhanced retention of analytes. Salinity had significant effects upon sorbent performance and was most significant for hard cations, specifically Cs and Ba. The presence of natural organic matter had little effect on the ability of chemisorbents to extract target elements.

  13. Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, R. H.; Bobrovitskaya, N. N.; Babkin, V. I.

    2000-08-01

    Of the world's great rivers, the Ob and Yenisey rank among the largest suppliers of fresh water and among the smallest suppliers of suspended sediment to the coastal ocean. Sediment in the middle reaches of the rivers is mobilized from bordering terraces and exchanged between channels and flood plains. Sediment in the lower reaches of these great rivers is deposited and stored (permanently, on a millennial time scale) in flood plains. Sediment discharges, already small under natural conditions, are diminished further by large manmade reservoirs that trap significant proportions of the moving solids. The long winter freeze and sudden spring breakup impose a peakedness in seasonal water runoff and sediment discharge that contrasts markedly with that in rivers of the tropics and more temperate climates. Very little sediment from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is being transported to the open waters of the Arctic Ocean under present conditions.

  14. Fresh-water lenses and practical limitations of their three-dimensional simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, F.; Alam, K.; Howard, K. W. F.

    2000-08-01

    Fresh-water lenses are the major sources of water supply in many atoll islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, particularly in dry seasons. Several two- and three-dimensional models are currently available for the simulation of atoll-island aquifers; however, 2D models cannot include 3D spatial variability of material properties, they must simplify the boundary conditions, and they cannot correctly simulate pumping wells. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, a 3D model, SALTFLOW, was adopted for the simulation of Home Island in the Indian Ocean. This exercise required a discretisation on the order of a few metres and time steps of a few hours requiring significantly high CPU times. High CPU demand proved to be a difficult challenge but cannot be considered a serious practical limitation with today's advanced computers. The exhaustive data demands of the model (e.g., 3D distributions of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, dispersivities, and spatial and temporal variations of recharge and extraction rates) proved to be more problematical. Although the Home Island data set is unusually comprehensive by any standards, nonetheless the quality and quantity of the available data proved inadequate to meet the calibration needs of a highly karstic aquifer system. The Home Island modeling demonstrates the practical limitations of 3D models. It raises the concern that our ability to develop computer codes capable of simulating complex systems now exceeds our ability to supply the input data necessary for reliable calibration. Finally, the paper demonstrates the importance of the transient calibration in reliable simulation of various management options and emphasises that transient calibration should be considered as an integral part of any similar 2D or 3D modeling. Résumé. Les lentilles d'eau douce sont la source essentielle d'eau potable pour l'alimentation de nombreux atolls du Pacifique et de l'Océan Indien, notamment au cours des saisons sèches. Plusieurs

  15. A novel reflectance-based model for evaluating chlorophyll concentration of fresh and water-stressed leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Popescu, S. C.; Huang, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, P. T.; Wen, H. L.

    2013-11-01

    Water deficit can cause chlorophyll degradation which decreases foliar chlorophyll concentration (Chls). Few studies investigated the effectiveness of spectral indices under water stress conditions. Chlorophyll meters have been extensively used for a wide variety of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen estimations. Since a chlorophyll meter works based on the sensing of leaves absorptance and transmittance, the reading of chlorophyll concentration will be affected by changes in transmittance as if there is a water deficit in leaves. The overall objective of this paper was to develop a novel and reliable reflectance-based model for estimating Chls of fresh and water stressed leaves using the reflectance at the absorption bands of chlorophyll a and b and the red edge spectrum. Three independent experiments were designed to collect data from three leaf sample sets for the construction and validation of Chls estimation models. First, a reflectance experiment was conducted to collect foliar Chls and reflectance of leaves with varying water stress using the ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer. Second, a chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502) experiment was carried out to collect foliar Chls and meter reading. These two datasets were separately used for developing reflectance-based or absorptance-based Chls estimation models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Suitable models were suggested mainly based on the coefficient of determination (R2). Finally, an experiment was conducted to collect the third dataset for the validation of Chls models using the root mean squared error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE). In all of the experiments, the observations (real values) of the foliar Chls were extracted from acetone solution and determined by using a Hitachi U-2000 spectrophotometer. The spectral indices in the form of reflectance ratio/difference/slope derived from the chlb absorption bands (ρ645 and ρ455) provided Chls estimates with RMSE around 0.40-0.55 mg g-1 for both

  16. A novel reflectance-based model for evaluating chlorophyll concentrations of fresh and water-stressed leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Popescu, S. C.; Huang, S. C.; Chang, P. T.; Wen, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Water deficits can cause chlorophyll degradation which decreases the total concentration of chlorophyll a and b (Chls). Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of spectral indices under water-stressed conditions. Chlorophyll meters have been extensively used for a wide variety of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen estimations. Since a chlorophyll meter works by sensing leaves absorptance and transmittance, the reading of chlorophyll concentration will be affected by changes in transmittance as if there were a water deficit in the leaves. The overall objective of this paper was to develop a novel and reliable reflectance-based model for estimating Chls of fresh and water-stressed leaves using the reflectance at the absorption bands of chlorophyll a and b and the red edge spectrum. Three independent experiments were designed to collect data from three leaf sample sets for the construction and validation of Chls estimation models. First, a reflectance experiment was conducted to collect foliar Chls and reflectance of leaves with varying water stress using the ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer. Second, a chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502) experiment was carried out to collect foliar Chls and meter readings. These two data sets were separately used for developing reflectance-based or absorptance-based Chls estimation models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Suitable models were suggested mainly based on the coefficient of determination (R2). Finally, an experiment was conducted to collect the third data set for the validation of Chls models using the root mean squared error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE). In all of the experiments, the observations (real values) of the foliar Chls were extracted from acetone solution and determined by using a Hitachi U-2000 spectrophotometer. The spectral indices in the form of reflectance ratio/difference/slope derived from the Chl b absorption bands (ρ645 and ρ455) provided Chls estimates with RMSE around 0

  17. DNA-based real-time detection and quantification of aeromonads from fresh water beaches on Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Khan, Izhar U H; Loughborough, Alyssa; Edge, Thomas A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was designed to develop a novel, rapid, direct DNA-based protocol to enumerate aeromonads in recreational waters. An Aeromonas genus-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) protocol was developed and optimized using newly designed genus-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from the gyrase B subunit (GyrB) gene. A standard curve was developed based on the PCR protocol with a minimum quantification limit of 10 cell equivalents ml(-1) achieved using an autoclaved water sample from recreational water spiked with known quantities of an Aeromonas ATCC strain. The Q-PCR protocol was validated and applied to detect and quantify the total number of aeromonads in water samples collected from two fresh water beaches on Lake Ontario. The Q-PCR protocol revealed significantly higher numbers of aeromonads in all water samples than a culture-based assay at both beaches. Foreshore sand was found to serve as a reservoir of high concentrations of Aeromonas similar to this phenomenon noted for enteric bacteria like Eschershia coli. The new real-time Q-PCR protocol facilitated the rapid quantification of total numbers of Aeromonas cells present in recreational water samples in <3 hours without culturing. PMID:19240357

  18. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

  19. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized. PMID:26291676

  20. Uranium Series Diagenesis in Corals Exposed to Fresh Water: Toward Better Prospecting for Closed System Samples for High Accuracy Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mey, J.; Fairbanks, R.; Mortlock, R.; Bradtmiller, L.

    2005-12-01

    A better understanding of U-series diagenesis in corals exposed to the vadose and phreatic freshwater environments is required to help prospect for closed-system samples needed for high-accuracy dates. Disequilibrium U-series are common in corals exposed to fresh water and a priori screening is generally insufficient to reject samples prior to dating. As a result, a vast number of U-series dates reported in the literature are open system and numerous authors have resorted to various correction models (Bender et al., 1979; Gallup et al., 1994; Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003; and Scholz et al., 2004). The majority of studies assumes or models continuous or episodic addition of 234U and/or 230Th over time and relies on the low solubility of 230Th and/or 234Th. Several recent studies emphasize progressive production of 234U via α-recoil (Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003), however the application of these models may lead to over-parameterization and are mainly idiosyncratic to host sample locations (Scholz et al., 2004). Already, some studies make model corrections to open system ages and draw critical conclusions about sea level change (e.g. Scholz et al., 2004; Thompson and Goldstein, 2005). Characteristic of all of these studies is a general correlation between the 234U/238U activity ratio and the 230Th/238U activity ratio between intra-reef samples. On Barbados, the largest activity ratio offsets appear in the youngest samples exposed to fresh water; just the opposite finding of most diagenesis models. Our measurements are consistent with the observations of Scholz et al. (2004) from the Red Sea. The greatest addition of 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa to the Barbados samples occurred during the first exposure to fresh water, in this case Marine Isotope State 3 (MIS3), when 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa are added to samples in similar proportions, but varying amounts. The bulk of reef sands and rubble is aragonite, which releases U

  1. The fresh water-seawater contact in coastal aquifers supporting intensive pumped seawater extractions: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorreto, Sara; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Gisbert, Juan; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Francés, Isaac

    2009-12-01

    The construction of desalination plants along the Mediterranean coast that are supplied with seawater via pumped boreholes in coastal aquifers has given rise to novel hydrogeological situations. At the experimental site on the Andarax delta (SE Spain), a monitoring system has been set up, consisting of piezometer clusters. Piezometric level and electrical conductivity are monitored continuously at various depths in the aquifer. The data obtained allow the response of the aquifer to the intensive saltwater extraction to be assessed. Under a natural regime, the situation is highly stable and only the influence of the tides is detected. Under a regime of seawater extraction, the response becomes very dynamic, with pronounced falls in water level in the deepest piezometers and a marked descent in the position of the interface (25 m). This leads to a gradual decline in electrical conductivity in the slotted piezometers situated at the interface as a result of ingress of fresh water via slotted portions of the production boreholes.

  2. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, p<0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, p<0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. PMID:26360459

  3. On variable density surface water groundwater interaction: A theoretical analysis of mixed convection in a stably-stratified fresh surface water saline groundwater discharge zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Simmons, Craig; Love, Andrew; Ward, James; James-Smith, Julianne

    2006-10-01

    SummaryUnderstanding the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into fresh surface water can be critical for the effective management of water resources. While variable density flow has been studied intensely in a number of settings, the role it plays on the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into freshwater streams is often neglected when calculating salt loads into a stream. The aim of this study was to determine what role variable-density flow behaviour plays in surface water/groundwater interaction in a stably-stratified fresh surface water/saline groundwater interface. The mixed convection ratio M, a measure of the ratio of density driven flow to advective driven flow, was defined for a matrix of one-dimensional numerical simulations that employed both varying hydraulic and density gradients. Vertical salt breakthrough into the surface water only occurred in the advection dominated cases ( M < 1) and the salt flux into the surface water increased with increasing groundwater concentration until M reached a value of 1. Beyond this, when the flow was driven by the density difference between the two fluids ( M > 1) vertical discharge of salt into surface water did not occur and the saltwater/freshwater interface migrated downwards with increasing density differences between the two fluids. This study therefore shows that there is a critical concentration difference that maximises salt loads to a surface water body and that a density-invariant approach to estimate the salt flux into the surface water (as the product of flow velocity determined through a potentiometric analysis and groundwater concentration) may be inadequate, especially where large density differences exist between the fresher surface water body and the underlying saline groundwater. The study is a purely theoretical approach and conclusions were drawn from simplified 1D simulations. Hence, further laboratory and modelling work is needed to confirm and test the plausibility of these

  4. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. PMID:21621904

  5. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

  6. Analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in fish and the fresh water bodies directly affected by reclaimed water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Gardinali, Piero R

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method for the analysis of 11 target pharmaceuticals representing multiple commonly used therapeutic classes was developed for biological tissues (fish), reclaimed water, and the surface water directly affected by irrigation with reclaimed water. One gram of fish tissue homogenate was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with methylene chloride followed by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to previously reported methods, the protocol produces cleaner extracts resulting in lower method detection limits. Similarly, an SPE method based on Oasis HLB cartridges was used to concentrate and cleanup reclaimed and surface water samples. Among the 11 target compounds analyzed, trimethoprim, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, carbamazepine, erythromycin, and fluoxetine were consistently detected in reclaimed water. Caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine were consistently detected in fish and surface water samples. Bioaccumulation factors for caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine in mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) were calculated at 29 ± 26, 821 ± 422, and 108 ± 144, respectively. This is the first report of potential accumulation of caffeine in fish from a water body directly influenced by reclaimed water. Figure The pharmaceuticals detected in reclaimed water and the fresh water directly affected by reclaimed water. PMID:22678759

  7. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in a high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    In March of 1993, about two years after startup in early 1991, pinhole leaks were found in the 16 in. (406 mm) type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) raw water piping at the Brunswick-Topsham Water District (BTWD) Potable Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) in Brunswick, Maine. The low chloride manganese-containing well water is chlorinated in the pump house. After reaching the plant, the raw water is handled in type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) piping. It was initially felt that the corrosion might be the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) type corrosion described by Tverberg, Pinnow, and Redmerski. Investigation showed that the role of manganese and chlorine differed, in important respects, from that described by Tverberg et. al., and that heat tint scale may have played a significant role in the corrosion that occurred at the BTWD plant.

  8. The Use of Landsat 8 for Monitoring of Fresh and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Javier A.

    The most interaction between humankind and water occurs in coastal and inland waters (Case 2 waters) at a scale of tens or hundred of meters, but there is not yet an ocean color product (e.g. chlorophyll-a product) at this spatial scale. Landsat 8 could potentially address the remote sensing of these kinds of waters due to its improved features. This work presents an approach to obtain the color producing agents (CPAs) chlorophyll-a, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM) and suspended material (SM) from water bodies using Landsat 8. Adequate atmospheric correction becomes an important first step to accurately retrieving water parameters since the sensor-reaching signal due to water is very small when compared to the signal due to the atmospheric effects. We developed the model-based empirical line method (MoB-ELM) atmospheric correction method. The Mob-ELM employs pseudo invariant feature (PIF) pixels extracted from a reflectance product along with the in-water radiative transfer model HydroLight. We used a look-up-table-based (LUT-based) inversion methodology to simultaneously retrieve CPAs. The LUT of remote-sensing reflectance spectra was created in Hydrolight using inherent optical properties (IOPs) measured in the field. The retrieval algorithm was applied over three Landsat 8 scenes. The CPA concentration maps exhibit expected trends of low concentrations in clear waters and higher concentrations in turbid waters. We estimated a normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) of about 14% for Chlorophyll-a, 11% for the total suspended solid (TSS), and 7% for colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) when compared with in situ data. These results demonstrate that the developed algorithm allows the simultaneous mapping of concentration of all CPAs in Case 2 waters and over areas where the standard algorithms are not available due to spatial resolution. Therefore, this study shows that the Landsat 8 satellite can be utilized over Case 2 waters as long as a careful

  9. Accumulation and distributions of 137Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-01

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of 137Cs . Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K+ in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K+ concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated 137Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g-1. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K+ in water.

  10. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.