In the phase transfer system solid calcium carbonate--acetonitrile per acetylated O-beta-D-glucosaminides of 8-quinolinol, 2-methyl-8-quinolinol and 5-chloro-8-quinolinol were synthesized. Zemplen deacetylation was led to corresponding trioles. Obtained O-beta-D-glucosaminides were identified with 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of deacetylated forms has been studied in a test of inhibition of bioluminescence of marine luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri F1 and method of the serial breeding on the museum steams of Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus. It was established that glycosylation decrease antimicrobial activity in comparison with non-glycosilated 8-quinolinols. PMID:23189563
Chupakhina, T A; Katsev, A M; Kur'ianov, V O
A method for the sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric determination of ; uranium in ores using 8-quinolinol was developed. Uranium is separated by ; extraction with tributylphosphate-kerosene from nitric acid solution. After the ; back-extraction of uranium with ammonium carbonate solution, uranium is ; determined spectrophotometrically with 8-quinolinol. When 1 gram of sample is ; taken, as little as 0.005% of
K. Motojima; H. Yoshida; T. Imahashi
The poly(ester amide) (PEA) was prepared by polycondensation of 1,4-phenylenebisphthalamic acid and the epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A. The PEA was then treated with 5-chloromethyl-8-quinolinol hydrochloride. The resultant oligomer, designated as PEA-8-quinolinol (PEAQ), was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral studies and thermogravimetry. The metal chelates of PEAQ with Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Co metal ions were prepared
Arun Singh; Jayesh Bhanderi
S>The thermal decomposition of the 5,7-dichloro-, 5,7dibromo- and 5,7-; diiodo-8-quinolinol chelates of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, and Y was investigated on the ; thermobalance. The chelates decomposed in the temperature range from 65 to 125 ; deg C while the oxide levels were obtained from 395 to 805 deg C. Although the ; chelate thermal stability temperatures varied little
Extraction of cobalt(II) with 7-(1-decenyl)-8-quinolinol (HRql) into chloroform was examined. The best cobalt extraction occurs\\u000a in the pH region 5.5–9. In this region several other cations are extracted. The values of Kex and pH0.5 for cobalt extraction were found to be ?8.6 and 3.19 respectively. The composition of the extracted complex was found to\\u000a be Co(Rql)3. Cobalt is poorly reextracted
M. Kosta?ski; W. Mendyk
Three complexes of the form [Ln(III)3(OQ)9] (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy; OQ = 8-quinolinolate) have been synthesized and their magnetic properties studied. The trinuclear complexes adopt V-shaped geometries with three bridging 8-quinolinolate oxygen atoms between the central and peripheral eight-coordinate metal atoms. The magnetic properties of these three complexes differ greatly. Variable-temperature direct-current (dc) magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the gadolinium and terbium complexes display weak antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions. This was quantified in the isotropic gadolinium case with an exchangecoupling parameter of J = -0.068(2) cm(-1). The dysprosium compound displays weak ferromagnetic exchange. Variable-frequency and -temperature alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements on the anisotropic cases reveal that the dysprosium complex displays single-molecule-magnet behavior, in zero dc field, with two distinct relaxation modes of differing time scales within the same molecule. Analysis of the data revealed anisotropy barriers of Ueff = 92 and 48 K for the two processes. The terbium complex, on the other hand, displays no such behavior in zero dc field, but upon application of a static dc field, slow magnetic relaxation can be observed. Ab initio and electrostatic calculations were used in an attempt to explain the origin of the experimentally observed slow relaxation of the magnetization for the dysprosium complex. PMID:24520896
Chilton, Nicholas F; Deacon, Glen B; Gazukin, Olga; Junk, Peter C; Kersting, Berthold; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Schleife, Frederik; Shome, Mahasish; Turner, David R; Walker, Julia A
Triton X-100, a non-ionic surfactant, has been used to sensitize the reaction of 5-(2-carboxyphenyl)azo-8-quinolinol with uranium in aqueous medium at pH 5.2–6.1 to form a wine red coloured complex. The micellar sensitization results in two and a half-times enhanced molar absorptivity enabling the determination of uranium in rock samples at ppm level, stability of the complex enhanced from 4 hours
R. Saran; N. K. Baishya
A new sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method has been suggested for the determination of uranium in soils, stream sediments and rock samples using 5-(2-carboxyphenyl)azo-8-quinolinol (R). Uranyl nitrate is extracted in isobutylmethyl ketone (MIBK) at pH 5.2–6.1 in presence of saturated ammonium nitrate solution. The aqueous solution of R is shaken with MIBK containing uranyl nitrate. R forms almost instantaneously an amber
R. Saran; N. K. Baishya
Geometries of three [Ru(OAc)(2cqn)2NO] (H2cqn=2-chloro-8-quinolinol) isomers were fully optimized with density functional theory (DFT), and compared with their crystal structures. Their electronic spectra, infrared and NMR spectra were also calculated at the B3LYP level with Lanl2dz and 6-311G(d,p) as the basis set. And good agreement had been achieved between experimental and theoretical values of structural parameter, UV-vis absorption and scaled vibration frequency. With the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method, chemical shifts in (1)H and (13)C NMR of these isomers were also calculated, which could reasonably match with the experimental data. The calculated frontier molecular orbitals suggested that the electronic transition from a ligand-based orbital to an antibonding overlap of the Ru(d) and ?(?) NO(p) control the photo-induced reactivity of [Ru(OAc)(2cqn)2NO] complexes. PMID:24334066
Wang, Jianru; Zhao, Yan; Jin, Xiaowei; Yang, Li; Wang, Hongfei
The on-line column pre-concentration technique with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed using micro-column of 8-quinolinole-immobilized fluorinated metal alkoxide glass (MAF-8HQ). The aim of method was to determine rare earth elements (REEs) (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) in seawater. A 6.4 ml of seawater sample was passed through the column for 2 min, after washing the column with ultrapure water, the adsorbed REEs were subsequently eluted into the plasma with 1.4 M nitric acid. Sample pH, sampling and eluting flow rates and acidity of eluent were optimized. Detection limits (3 ?) based on three times standard deviations of water by 8 replicates were in the range from 0.11 pg ml -1 for Y to 0.30 pg ml -1 for Tb, and the precisions by a 10 pg ml -1 REEs standard solution ( n=8) were in the range from 4.7% for Tm to 8.7% for Tb and Yb. Analysis of one sample could be processed in 7 min. The proposed method was verified by determination of REEs in the two certified reference materials (CRMs) of seawater, CASS-4 and NASS-5, and the method was also applied to determine REEs in the costal seawater of Hiroshima Bay, the Seto Inland Sea, Japan.
Kajiya, Tasuku; Aihara, Masato; Hirata, Shizuko
Previously, radical cation of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq•+) has been associated with the instability of Alq films subjected to holes-only electrical current. Yet, the questions remain (i) whether Alq•+ is the primary source of the intrinsic degradation of bipolar organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq, (ii) whether Alq•+ reactions result in deep charge traps in holes-only devices as found in bipolar counterparts, and (iii) whether radical cations can be a common source of degradation of OLEDs irrespective of materials. With regards to generality of hole-current-related degradation, it is interesting to examine the behavior of 9,10-diarylanthracenes (DAAs)—the practically important class of blue-fluorescing light-emitting-layer hosts. These questions prompted our comparative study of the effects of unipolar currents in Alq and 2-t-butyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (TBADN), which was chosen as a representative material of the DAA class. First, we identified device structures allowing for rigorous and stable unipolar conduction. Interestingly, even in pristine holes-only devices, our voltammetric measurements indicated that Alq contains a substantial density of deep hole traps (far deeper than what can be explained by energetic disorder), which can be charged by passing holes-only current and seemingly discharged by exposure to white light. As for aged holes-only Alq devices, they exhibited symptoms qualitatively matching those of aged bipolar Alq devices, viz., photoluminescence (PL) loss, transition voltage (V0) rise, and drive voltage (Vd) rise. Notably, PL and V0 are linearly correlated in both holes-only and bipolar devices, which reinforces the supposed link between Alq•+ and the degradation in both types of devices. Yet, there are indications the Alq•+ instability may not be the only degradation pathway in bipolar devices. Even though our observations for holes-only Alq devices agree qualitatively with previously reported ones, we observe far slower degradation rates [Alq PL fades up to ˜500 times slower in holes-only devices, while Alq electroluminescence (EL) fades ˜50 times slower in bipolar control devices]. It is possible that impurities play a significant, perhaps crucial role in the degradation mechanism of both bipolar and holes-only devices, especially the relatively shorter-lived ones. In sharp contrast to Alq, all three observables (PL, V0, and Vd) indicate that holes-only current in TBADN (neat or doped with a perylene-based blue dopant) does not result in degradation in the time that is sufficient for the corresponding bipolar control devices to lose 60%-80% of EL and 20%-30% of PL. We find that the electrons-only current in Alq or TBADN does not result in degradation either. Thus, the degradation of Alq and DAA bipolar devices may be caused by fundamentally dissimilar mechanisms: while hole current may damage the former, it does not appear to affect the latter, suggesting that the initiation step is different.
Jarikov, Viktor V.; Kondakov, Denis Y.
Seventy-seven compounds were screened by the disc-plate method against strains of five bacteria and five fungi. A new constant was proposed to describe the antimicrobial activity of a compound in a defined system of organisms. This constant includes not only the inhibitory level of activity of the material but also the number of organisms inhibited. This constant, the antimicrobial spectrum index, was compared with the antimicrobial index of Albert. PMID:13898066
Gershon, Herman; Parmegiani, Raulo
A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous extraction of heavy metals using a new reagent 5-(2?-carbomethoxyphenyl; azo-8-quinolinol(R) into methyl isobutyl. ketone (MIBK) and their subsequent determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method has been applied to the determination of Cu. Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Mo in drinking and bore well waters. The extraction has
R. Saran; T. S. Basu Baul; P. Srinivas; D. T. Khathing
The new title tetradentate ligand (SPAHQS), containing both phenylazo and 8-quinolinol fragments, was prepared. Proton-dissociation processes of the ligand and complexing equilibria with Fe(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and VO(IV) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Coordination modes of SPAHQS with these metal ions have been investigated by means of polarography and Raman spectroscopy in aqueous solution. It was established that the coordination selectivity of SPAHQS for such metal ions is mainly dependent on steric factors in the chelate ring formed, not on HSAB properties. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Huang, Hu; Kai, Fumiaki; Hirohata, Masaaki; Nakamura, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Susumu; Komori, Kenji; Tsunematsu, Yuriko [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)
This paper presents a selective iodate separation of thorium from nitric acid medium containing d-tartaric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is prevented by the use of 8quinolinol. A few micrograms of thorium are separated sufficiently clean from 30 mg. of such oxides as cerium, zirconium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, scandium, or iron with one iodate precipitation to allow an accurate determination of thorium with the thoronmesotartaric acid spectrophotometric method. The method is successful for the determination of 0.001% or more of thorium dioxide in silicate rocks and for 0.01% or more in black sand, monazite, thorite, thorianite, eschynite, euxenite, and zircon.
Deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nearly 5% external quantum efficiency were demonstrated using a 1,4-(dinaphthalen-2-yl)-naphthalene (DNN) host. The 4,4'-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazovinylene)-1,1'-biphenyl (BCzVBi) dopant that was used in this experiment effectively accepted energy from the DNN host via Förster energy transfer because the photoluminescence spectrum of the DNN host showed better spectra overlap with the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrum of the BCzVBi dopant than the photoluminescence spectrum of the 2-methyl-9,10-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracene host did. Moreover, the DNN host had a higher energy bandgap (3.5 eV) than the BCzVBi dopant did (3.0 eV), while the MADN host had the same energy bandgap as the BCzVBi dopant. The optimized deep-blue device also had ETL of bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinolate)-4-(phenylphenolato)aluminium which showed smoother sigma of 0.6 nm and higher Tg of 92 degrees than those of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (14.8 nm and 62 degrees C). The deep-blue device exhibited a peak current efficiency of 5.68 cd/A, a peak external quantum efficiency of 4.89%, and Commission Internationale d' Eclairage coordinates of (0.15, 0.13). PMID:22121612
Seo, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seok Jae; Hyung, Gun Woo; Lee, Kum Hee; Park, Jung Keun; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan
We describe a synergistic effect of a lifetime-extending light-emitting-layer (LEL) additive and improved electron injection and transport in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Previously reported di(2-naphthyl)perylene (DNP) serves as the LEL additive capable of extending the operating lifetime of OLEDs by over two orders of magnitude. Using 2-phenyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (PADN) as an electron-transport layer (ETL) and a separate layer of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as an electron-injection layer (EIL) significantly improves electron delivery into the charge recombination zone relative to traditional ETL made of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq). This ETL?EIL combination not only results in approximately seven times lower electric field in the ETL and, thus, lower drive voltage and higher efficiency devices, but can also increase device lifetime substantially. In a representative device containing a red-emitting LEL dopant [Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1931 2° color chromaticity coordinates (CIEx ,y) of 0.65, 0.35], the external quantum efficiency, electroluminescence yield, drive voltage, and operating half-life (t50) can reach 5.8%, 6.5cd/A, 4.5V, and ˜1000000h, respectively, all at 20mA/cm2 current density.
Jarikov, Viktor V.; Kondakov, Denis Y.; Brown, Christopher T.
A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.
Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.
Chinosol (8-quinolinol sulfate), which is employed as an antimicrobial agent in tuberculin PPD solutions used for the Mantoux test, is known to disappear from these solutions after storage. It has been established that the loss of this preservative from tuberculin solutions dispensed in glass vials is caused by the rubber stoppers used to seal the vials. All the rubber stoppers tested absorbed Chinosol very readily. The nature of the binding of Chinosol by a rubber stopper is both chemical (irreversible) and physical (reversible). The capacity to bind Chinosol chemically was determined for 12 types of rubber stopper, and was found to vary from 0 to more than 25% by weight of the stopper. This phenomenon can be attributed mainly to metal ingredients in the stopper. The capacity of stoppers to bind Chinosol physically is expressed quantitatively by a partition coefficient. This was determined for 7 types of rubber stopper and found to be high when compared with the partition coefficients of other preservatives. We have shown that all stoppers presaturated in Chinosol can be equilibrated against a buffered solution containing 0.01% Chinosol. Equilibrated silicone, white, and red oxiglazed stoppers can be used satisfactorily for sealing multi-dose vials of tuberculin PPD containing 0.01% Chinosol. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5294923
Landi, S.; Held, H. R.
1–naphthol (1N), 2–naphthol (2N) and 8–quinolinol (8H) are general water pollutants. 1N and 2N are the configurational enantiomers and 8H is isoelectronic to 1N and 2N. These pollutants when ingested are transported in the blood by proteins like human serum albumin (HSA). Binding of these pollutants to HSA has been explored to elucidate the specific selectivity of molecular recognition by this multiligand binding protein. The association constants (Kb) of these pollutants to HSA were moderate (104–105 M?1). The proximity of the ligands to HSA is also revealed by their average binding distance, r, which is estimated to be in the range of 4.39–5.37 nm. The binding free energy (?G) in each case remains effectively the same for each site because of enthalpy–entropy compensation (EEC). The difference observed between ?Cpexp and ?Cpcalc are suggested to be caused by binding–induced flexibility changes in the HSA. Efforts are also made to elaborate the differences observed in binding isotherms obtained through multiple approaches of calorimetry, spectroscopy and bioinformatics. We suggest that difference in dissociation constants of pollutants by calorimetry, spectroscopic and computational approaches could correspond to occurrence of different set of populations of pollutants having different molecular characteristics in ground state and excited state. Furthermore, our observation of enhanced binding of pollutants (2N and 8H) in the presence of hemin signifies that ligands like hemin may enhance the storage period of these pollutants in blood that may even facilitate the ill effects of these pollutants. PMID:22073150
Ahmad, Ejaz; Rabbani, Gulam; Zaidi, Nida; Singh, Saurabh; Rehan, Mohd; Khan, Mohd Moin; Rahman, Shah Kamranur; Quadri, Zainuddin; Shadab, Mohd.; Ashraf, Mohd Tashfeen; Subbarao, Naidu; Bhat, Rajiv; Khan, Rizwan Hasan
In this study, the properties of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), employing quantum well-like structure (QWS) that includes four different blue emissive materials of 4,4?-bis(2,2?-diphenylyinyl)-1,1?-biphenyl (DPVBi), 9,10-di(naphth-2-yl)anthracene (ADN), 2-(N,N-diphenyl-amino)-6-[4-(N,N-diphenyl amine)styryl]naphthalene (DPASN), and bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolate)-4-(phenyl phenolato) aluminum (BAlq), were investigated. Conventional QWS blue OLEDs composed of multiple emissive layers and charge blocking layer with lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level, and devices with triple emissive layers for more significant hole-electron recombination and a wider region for exciton generation were designed. The properties of triple emissive layered blue OLEDs with the structure of indium tin oxide (ITO) /N,N?-diphenyl-N,N?-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-(1,1?-biphenyl)-4,4?-diamine (NPB) (700 ?)/X (100 ?)/BAlq (100 ?)/X (100 ?)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) (300 ?)/lithium quinolate (Liq) (20 ?)/aluminum (Al) (1,200 ?) (X?=?DPVBi, ADN, DPASN) were examined. HOMO-LUMO energy levels of DPVBi, ADN, DPASN, and BAlq are 2.8 to 5.9, 2.6 to 5.6, 2.3 to 5.2, and 2.9 to 5.9 eV, respectively. The OLEDs with DPASN/BAlq/DPASN QWS with maximum luminous efficiency of 5.32 cd/A was achieved at 3.5 V. PMID:24940170
In this study, the properties of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), employing quantum well-like structure (QWS) that includes four different blue emissive materials of 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylyinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi), 9,10-di(naphth-2-yl)anthracene (ADN), 2-(N,N-diphenyl-amino)-6-[4-(N,N-diphenyl amine)styryl]naphthalene (DPASN), and bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolate)-4-(phenyl phenolato) aluminum (BAlq), were investigated. Conventional QWS blue OLEDs composed of multiple emissive layers and charge blocking layer with lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level, and devices with triple emissive layers for more significant hole-electron recombination and a wider region for exciton generation were designed. The properties of triple emissive layered blue OLEDs with the structure of indium tin oxide (ITO) /N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) (700 ?)/X (100 ?)/BAlq (100 ?)/X (100 ?)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) (300 ?)/lithium quinolate (Liq) (20 ?)/aluminum (Al) (1,200 ?) (X?=?DPVBi, ADN, DPASN) were examined. HOMO-LUMO energy levels of DPVBi, ADN, DPASN, and BAlq are 2.8 to 5.9, 2.6 to 5.6, 2.3 to 5.2, and 2.9 to 5.9 eV, respectively. The OLEDs with DPASN/BAlq/DPASN QWS with maximum luminous efficiency of 5.32 cd/A was achieved at 3.5 V. PMID:24940170
Yoon, Ju-An; Kim, You-Hyun; Kim, Nam Ho; Yoo, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Youn; Zhu, Fu Rong; Kim, Woo Young
From Allium stipitatum, three pyridine-N-oxide alkaloids (1-3) possessing disulfide functional groups were isolated. The structures of these natural products were elucidated by spectroscopic means as 2-(methyldithio)pyridine-N-oxide (1), 2-[(methylthiomethyl)dithio]pyridine-N-oxide (2), and 2,2'-dithio-bis-pyridine-N-oxide (3). The proposed structure of 1 was confirmed by synthetic S-methylthiolation of commercial 2-thiopyridine-N-oxide. Compounds 1 and 2 are new natural products, and 3 is reported for the first time from an Allium species. All compounds were evaluated for activity against fast-growing species of Mycobacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and a multidrug-resistant (MDR) variants of S. aureus. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-8 microg/mL against these strains. A small series of analogues of 1 were synthesized in an attempt to optimize antibacterial activity, although the natural product had the most potent in vitro activity. In a whole-cell assay at 30 microg/mL, 1 was shown to give complete inhibition of the incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into soluble fatty acids, indicating that it is potentially an inhibitor of fatty acid biosynthesis. In a human cancer cell line antiproliferative assay, 1 and 2 displayed IC(50) values ranging from 0.3 to 1.8 microM with a selectivity index of 2.3 when compared to a human somatic cell line. Compound 1 was evaluated in a microarray analysis that indicated a similar mode of action to menadione and 8-quinolinol by interfering with the thioredoxin system and up-regulating the production of various heat shock proteins. This compound was also assessed in a mouse model for in vivo toxicity. PMID:19093848
O'Donnell, Gemma; Poeschl, Rosemarie; Zimhony, Oren; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Moreira, Joao B C; Neidle, Stephen; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Bhakta, Sanjib; Malkinson, John P; Boshoff, Helena I; Lenaerts, Anne; Gibbons, Simon
Heavy metal contamination of soils or water can lead to excessive lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in rice. As cumulative poisons, consumption of Pb and Cd in contaminated rice may cause many toxic effects in humans. In the present study, Pb and Cd levels in rice samples from Hubei, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang, and Guangdong provinces in China were analyzed by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The heavy metals in the rice samples were reacted with 8-quinolinol to form a complex at pH 9.0 and 40°C. Analytes were quantitatively extracted to a surfactant-rich phase (Triton X-45) after centrifugation and analyzed by GFAAS. The effects of experimental conditions, including pH, concentration of reagents, and equilibration time and temperature, on cloud point extraction were optimized efficiently using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental designs. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was observed in the concentration ranges of 0.5-5 µg/L for Pb and 0.05-0.50 µg/L for Cd. The limits of detection were 0.043 µg/L for Pb with a concentration factor of 24.2 in a 10 mL sample and 0.018 µg/L for Cd with a concentration factor of 18.4 in a 10 mL sample. Twenty rice samples from four provinces were analyzed successfully, and the mean levels of Pb and Cd in the rice were all below their maximum allowable concentrations in China. Comparing the tolerable daily intakes given by FAO/WHO with the mean estimated daily intakes; Pb and Cd mean daily intake through rice consumption were 0.84 µg/kg bw/day and 0.40 µg/kg bw/day, which were lower than the tolerable daily intakes. PMID:25251454
Li, Shan; Wang, Mei; Yang, Bingyi; Zhong, Yizhou; Feng, Le
Heavy metal contamination of soils or water can lead to excessive lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in rice. As cumulative poisons, consumption of Pb and Cd in contaminated rice may cause many toxic effects in humans. In the present study, Pb and Cd levels in rice samples from Hubei, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang, and Guangdong provinces in China were analyzed by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The heavy metals in the rice samples were reacted with 8-quinolinol to form a complex at pH 9.0 and 40°C. Analytes were quantitatively extracted to a surfactant-rich phase (Triton X-45) after centrifugation and analyzed by GFAAS. The effects of experimental conditions, including pH, concentration of reagents, and equilibration time and temperature, on cloud point extraction were optimized efficiently using Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken experimental designs. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was observed in the concentration ranges of 0.5–5 µg/L for Pb and 0.05–0.50 µg/L for Cd. The limits of detection were 0.043 µg/L for Pb with a concentration factor of 24.2 in a 10 mL sample and 0.018 µg/L for Cd with a concentration factor of 18.4 in a 10 mL sample. Twenty rice samples from four provinces were analyzed successfully, and the mean levels of Pb and Cd in the rice were all below their maximum allowable concentrations in China. Comparing the tolerable daily intakes given by FAO/WHO with the mean estimated daily intakes; Pb and Cd mean daily intake through rice consumption were 0.84 µg/kg bw/day and 0.40 µg/kg bw/day, which were lower than the tolerable daily intakes. PMID:25251454
Li, Shan; Wang, Mei; Yang, Bingyi; Zhong, Yizhou; Feng, Le