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Sample records for 8-year clinical study

  1. Clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow: a 4- to 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos; Papastergiou, Stergios; Kazakos, Konstantinos; Poulios, Georgios; Parisis, Konstantinos

    2007-02-01

    The short-term clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow were promising. Unfavorable outcomes were reported in two studies, with longer follow-up, raising concerns about the efficacy of this device. We retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (mean age 23.7 years; range 14-37 years) that underwent all-inside meniscus repair, using the meniscus arrow. Seventeen patients had an isolated meniscus tear (ACL intact group) and 45 patients concomitant ACL rupture that was reconstructed at the same time with the meniscus repair (ACL reconstructed group). All patients followed a non-aggressive rehabilitation protocol. Follow-up was assessed by clinical examination, Lysholm and Tegner score, IKDC knee examination form and KT-2000 arthrometry for the anteroposterior laxity of the reconstructed knees. At an average follow-up of 73 months (range 49-96 months) there were three failures (4.8%), one from the ACL intact group and two from the ACL reconstructed group. One patient developed arthrofibrosis (ACL reconstructed group) that resolved conservatively. Soft tissue irritation at the repair site was noted in three patients. In two patients the symptoms were transient. In the third patient the arrow tip was cut off under local anaesthesia due to saphenous infrapatellar branch irritation and the symptoms resolved (inappropriate arrow size). KT-2000 arthrometry showed that sagittal knee laxity was less than 3 mm in all reconstructed knees. The mean Tegner activity score decreased from 6.7 (pretrauma) to 6.2 (postoperatively). The average Lysholm score was 96, with normal or nearly normal function of all success knees, according to the IKDC knee examination form. Our results show a high clinical success rate of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow. We found this device both safe and effective. PMID:16858563

  2. Clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas: an 8-year retrospective study of 240 cases in Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuneke, F N; Anyanechi, C E; Akpeh, J O; Chukwuka, A; Ekwueme, O C

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to summarise the clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas in eastern Nigeria. We organised a retrospective study of 240 patients who presented with ameloblastomas to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery units of five specialist hospitals in the eastern states of Nigeria over an eight-year period (2004-2011). We analysed the casenotes, and categorised the cases by site of tumour, age, sex, and time of presentation. There were 117 men (49%) (mean (SD) age 43 (6.2) years) and 123 women (51%) (mean (SD) age 32 (4.7) years), a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. The largest age group was 20-39 years (n=102, 43%), and the most common site was the anterior mandible (n=140, 58%). Most of the patients presented late. Our results show that the most common site of ameloblastomas in Eastern Nigeria is the anterior mandible and that women are affected more than men, which is at variance with the results of most other studies. PMID:26387072

  3. Fighting with Spirits: Migration Trauma, Acculturative Stress, and New Sibling Transition-A Clinical Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Girl with Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Bose, Ruma

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the impact of migration and acculturation processes on the cultural, personal identity, and mental health of children who immigrate to a Western, multicultural environment, and the challenges clinicians in such environments face, when confronted with non-Western idioms of distress and healing practices. We do that by presenting a challenging clinical case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with very disorganized behavior, which matches a culturally accepted construct of spirit possession, in the context of migration trauma, acculturative stress, and new sibling transition. We identify cultural conflict in school and bullying as major mediators between acculturative stress and mental distress. We also aim at identifying vulnerability, risk and protective factors, and the importance of cultural coping resources. We explore in depth the patient's cultural background and the family's belief system and culturally shaped narratives, in order to arrive at a cultural formulation, which focuses on the significance of idioms of distress in shaping psychopathology and influencing the personal and interpersonal course of trauma- and stress-related disorders. We also call attention to the finding that in children, idioms of distress may manifest themselves in a somatic manner. We argue, together with other researchers, that spirit possession deserves more interest as an idiom of distress and a culture-specific response to traumatizing events. We finally emphasize the importance of an anti-reductionist clinical stance, that is able to use different levels of understanding processes of distress and healing, and seeks to reconciliate cultural divides and integrate different explanatory frameworks and help-seeking practices. PMID:25670159

  4. Clinical and echocardiographic findings in an 8 year old Brown Swiss cow with myocardial abscess.

    PubMed

    Gerspach, C; Schwarzwald, C C; Hilbe, M; Buczinski, S

    2016-06-01

    Intramyocardial abscesses are rare in cattle and may lead to unspecific clinical signs. This case report describes the clinical and echocardiographic findings in an 8 year old Brown Swiss cow presented with an intramural myocardial abscess. The main clinical findings were anorexia, drop in milk yield, fever, tachycardia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. Neither heart murmurs nor cardiac arrhythmias were present on auscultation. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination revealed a prominent intramural mass embedded in the left ventricular free wall and bulging into the lumen of the left ventricle. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy. A culture of the abscess grew Trueperella pyogenes. PMID:26900053

  5. Solitary trichoepithelioma in an 8-year-old child: clinical, dermoscopic and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Fotiadou, Christina; Patsatsi, Aikaterini; Fotiadu, Anastasia; Kyrmanidou, Eirini; Kemanetzi, Christina; Ionnides, Demetrios

    2014-04-01

    Solitary trichoepithelioma (TE) is a rare, benign tumor of follicular origin that in certain cases is difficult to differentiate from basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with a pale pink, soft lesion on the neck. The clinical image of the lesion was equivocal, while some dermoscopic findings-blue-gray globules and arborizing vessels-could not exclude the presence of BCC from the differential diagnosis, although that would have been a very unlikely case considering the age of the patient. The histopathologic examination established the diagnosis of TE. Given the occasion of this challenging case we try to list the key clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological characteristics of TE and BCC in order to elucidate the differential diagnosis of these two entities. PMID:24855576

  6. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  7. Clinical Audits in a Postgraduate General Practice Training Program: An Evaluation of 8 Years' Experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Baho, Abeer; Serour, Maleka; Al-Weqayyn, Adnan; AlHilali, Mohammed; Sadek, Ali A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical audit can be of valuable assistance to any program which aims to improve the quality of health care and its delivery. Yet without a coherent strategy aimed at evaluating audits' effectiveness, valuable opportunities will be overlooked. Clinical audit projects are required as a part of the formative assessment of trainees in the Family Medicine Residency Program (FMRP) in Kuwait. This study was undertaken to draw a picture of trainees' understanding of the audit project with attention to the knowledge of audit theory and its educational significance and scrutinize the difficulties confronted during the experience. Methodology/Principal Findings The materials included the records of 133 audits carried out by trainees and 165 post course questionnaires carried out between 2004 and 2011. They were reviewed and analyzed. The majority of audit projects were performed on diabetic (44.4%) and hypertensive (38.3%) care. Regarding audits done on diabetic care, they were carried out to assess doctors' awareness about screening for smoking status (8.6%), microalbuminuria (19.3%), hemoglobin A1c (15.5%), retinopathy (10.3%), dyslipidemia (15.8%), peripheral neuropathy (8.8%), and other problems (21.7%). As for audits concerning hypertensive care, they were carried out to assess doctors' awareness about screening for smoking status (38.0%), obesity (26.0%), dyslipidemia (12.0%), microalbuminuria (10.0%) and other problems (14.0%). More than half the participants (68.48%) who attended the audit course stated that they ‘definitely agreed’ about understanding the meaning of clinical audit. Most of them (75.8%) ‘definitely agreed’ about realizing the importance of clinical audit in improving patients' care. About half (49.7%) of them ‘agreed’ that they can distinguish between ‘criteria’ and ‘standards’. Conclusion The eight years of experience were beneficial. Trainees showed a good understanding of the idea behind auditing the services

  8. [Typhoid fever in north Lebanon: a 8-year study (1992-1999) using the Widal test].

    PubMed

    Hamze, M; Vincent, P

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency of typhoid fever in north Lebanon over an 8-year period (1992-1999) in patients admitted with fever to the Islami de Bienfaisance Hospital in Tripoli. We analysed 7391 serum samples for Salmonella typhi infection using the Widal and Felix tests. The cut-off value for infection was an agglutinin O titre > or = 1/160 (a value validated in an earlier study in the same region). Of the 7391 samples, 1131 (15.3%) had an agglutinin O titre > or = 1/160. The 8-year surveillance showed there was a progressive decrease in the frequency of the disease. However with over 100 cases annually, typhoid is endemic in the area and could cause major outbreaks. The monthly analysis shows that we have an increase in summer, whilst a decrease is observed in winter. PMID:16201725

  9. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep

  10. [Cementless total hip arthroplasty--results of 8-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Wall, Andrzej; Dragan, Szymon

    2006-01-01

    The subjects of the clinical examinations were 382 patients who from 1994 to 1999 were treated with the method of total cementless arthroplasty. The observation time ranged from 3 to 8 years. In the examined group the secondary cause of degenerative changes was identified in 210 (55%) patients. In the remaining 172 cases (45%) the primary cause of degenerative changes in the hip was diagnosed. Four types of cementless endoprostheses, varied in their construction, structure of their surfaces and material they were made of, were used to carry out the postoperative treatment of the degenerative changes in the hip: Antega, Zweymüller SL PLUS (Endoprosthetic) or Alloclasic type of stem, GSS-CL and PM-Plasmapore. The findings of the clinical investigation made it possible to determine the probability of surviving of an endoprosthesis up to the 8th year after an operation depending on a type of implanted stem, which according to Kaplan-Meier's method, amounted to 0.9603. The results of Harris scale evaluation of the function of the operated joints demonstrated the existence of the relationship between the function and the course of bone osteointegration and growth process. The detailed analysis of the X-ray examinations, and especially of the roentgenometric ones, taking into account stability of the endoprosthesis stem enabled to distinguish two stages of the clinical and roentgenological changes: the early stage (up to 6 months after an operation) characterised by settling and micromotions of the stem and the late stage (starting 6-9 months after an operation) with slowly gradual increasing of the function and holding back of stem settling. PMID:17017478

  11. Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Retrospective Case Study With 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stobert, Julia R.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) who was initially misdiagnosed and treated for a hip flexor strain. Clinical Features A 36-year-old male patient presented with insidious onset of progressive anterior right hip and groin pain of 7 years' duration. He was diagnosed with a right-sided hip flexor muscle strain and was discharged from care 1 month later. The patient then returned to the office 8 years later for treatment of unrelated lower back pain. This time, the doctor of chiropractic learned that the patient was misdiagnosed years before. The patient's past radiographs in fact revealed FAI, including severe hip joint osteoarthritis on the right and mild osteoarthritis on the left. As a result, the patient had undergone right hip joint replacement surgery. Recent radiographs also revealed FAI in the contralateral hip. Intervention and Outcome After investigating for FAI, the doctor of chiropractic was able to identify through symptomatology, history, physical examination, and radiographs the presence of FAI in the patient's left hip. An “active surveillance” approach is being taken. Conclusion This case illustrates the importance of an increasing awareness of FAI, as doctors of chiropractic are frequently the primary contact for patients with this condition. PMID:26793042

  12. An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    de Veer, Monique W; Gallup, Gordon G; Theall, Laura A; van den Bos, Ruud; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present study, all of the chimpanzees from the 8-15-year-old group in the Povinelli et al. study (n=12) were again tested for self-recognition, 8 years later. Using the same criteria, 67% of the animals were classified the same. Although a higher proportion of the adult animals in this study (50%) exhibited self-recognition than would be inferred on the basis of the previous study (25%), all changes in self-recognition status were in the negative direction. These results show that mirror self-recognition is a highly stable trait in many chimpanzees, but may be subject to decline with age. Connections with human research are briefly discussed. PMID:12459221

  13. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  14. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4–8-year old children: Associations with temperament

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Sippel, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4–8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. PMID:21666879

  15. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Overreaching in 114 Elite Female Chinese Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; He, Zihong; Zhao, Jiexiu; Tao, Dalang; Xu, Kuiyuan; Midgley, Adrian; McNaughton, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Context: Successful training involves structured overload but must avoid the combination of excessive overload and inadequate recovery. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome in elite female wrestlers during their normal training and competition schedules and to explore the utility of blood markers for the early detection of overreaching. Classification of FOR, NFOR, and overtraining syndrome was based on the European Congress of Sports Medicine position statement. Design: Case series. Setting: China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Over an 8-year period, 114 wrestlers from the women's Asian wrestling team were monitored to help identify if and when they experienced FOR, NFOR, or overtraining syndrome. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol were measured throughout the period to identify whether wrestlers were outside the reference intervals (constructed from normal recovery data) during periods of overreaching and not overreaching. Results: Among the 114 athletes, there were 13 (3.6%) instances of FOR, 23 (6.4%) instances of NFOR, and 2 (0.6%) instances of overtraining syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity for FOR was 38%, 15%, 45%, and 18% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity for NFOR was 29%, 33%, 26%, and 35% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Specificity was 79%, 88%, 90%, and 82% for creatine kinase, hemoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol, respectively. Post hoc analysis showed no mean differences in creatine kinase (F = 0.5, P = .47), hemoglobin (F = 3.8, P = .052), testosterone (F = 0.2, P = .62), or cortisol (F = 0.04, P = .85) between monitoring periods when wrestlers were and were not diagnosed with FOR and NFOR. Conclusions: Coaches and sports scientists should not

  16. In vitro activity of tigecycline and colistin against A. baumannii clinical bloodstream isolates during an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Vamvakopoulou, Sofia; Bartzavali, Christina; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Christofidou, Myrto

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic pathogen causing bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized patients. Results of an 8-year period from a university hospital are presented. Identification of A. baumannii was performed by Gram-negative BD BBL Crystal ID and VITEK(®)2 system, whereas, susceptibility testing by VITEK2, Kirby-Bauer disc system, and Etest strips. Interpretation of results was based on CLSI criteria and, regarding tigecycline, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria. Between 2006 and 2013, 441 among 7088 BSI cases were attributed to A. baumannii. Of all isolates, 92·1% were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics and 79·4% were resistant to all but one or two categories of antimicrobials. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, and tigecycline increased during the study period (P<0·05). Although tigecycline resistance was low during the first 4 years of the study (25·5%), it increased up to 66·5% during 2010-2013. No isolate was colistin resistant. PMID:24827985

  17. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  18. Civic engagement patterns and transitions over 8 years: the AmeriCorps national study.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Flanagan, Constance; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to examine civic engagement transitions across 2 waves spanning 8 years in a sample of AmeriCorps participants and a comparison group (N = 1,344; 77% female). Latent indicators of civic engagement included volunteering, community participation, civic organizational involvement, local and national voting, civic consciousness, and perceptions of civic knowledge. Three latent statuses were identified; inactive, voting involved, and highly committed. Consistent with life cycle theories of political engagement, the inactive status was most prevalent at Wave 1 and the voting-involved status most prevalent at Wave 4. AmeriCorps members were less involved in voting at Wave 1 but, among voters, were more likely to become highly committed by Wave 4. Compared with those who did not attend college, those who did had higher levels of civic engagement initially and over time. Young participants and Asian youths demonstrated lower levels of involvement initially compared with older participants or White youths. Findings suggest that national service programs geared toward young people who are not in college may hold promise for addressing gaps in civic engagement. PMID:21910528

  19. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  20. An Exploratory Study on the Junior Brixton Spatial Rule Attainment Test in 6- to 8-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senturk, Nilay; Yeniceri, Nur; Alp, I. Ercan; Altan-Atalay, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the Junior Brixton Test (JBT), an executive function (EF) measure for children, in comparison to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in a sample of 6- to 8-year-olds, all attending the first 2 years of elementary school. Factor analyses indicated two main domains in both measures, namely concept formation and cognitive…

  1. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  2. Metal-on-Metal Hip Prostheses and Systemic Health: A Cross-Sectional Association Study 8 Years after Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Jennifer R.; Clark, Matthew J.; Hoggard, Nigel; Morton, Allison C.; Tooth, Claire; Paley, Martyn N.; Stockley, Ian; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Wilkinson, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is public concern over the long term systemic health effects of metal released from hip replacement prostheses that use large-diameter metal-on-metal bearings. However, to date there has been no systematic study to determine which organs may be at risk, or the magnitude of any effect. We undertook a detailed cross-sectional health screen at a mean of 8 years after surgery in 35 asymptomatic patients who had previously received a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) versus 35 individually age and sex matched asymptomatic patients who had received a conventional hip replacement. Total body bone mineral density was 5% higher (mean difference 0.05 g/cm2, P = 0.02) and bone turnover was 14% lower (TRAP 5b, mean difference −0.56IU/L, P = 0.006; osteocalcin, mean difference −3.08 ng/mL, P = 0.03) in the hip resurfacing versus conventional hip replacement group. Cardiac ejection fraction was 7% lower (mean absolute difference −5%, P = 0.04) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 6% larger (mean difference 2.7 mm, P = 0.007) in the hip resurfacing group versus those patients who received a conventional hip replacement. The urinary fractional excretion of metal was low (cobalt 5%, chromium 1.5%) in patients with MoMHR, but creatinine clearance was normal. Diuretic prescription was associated with a 40% increase in the fractional excretion of chromium (mean difference 0.5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence of difference in neuropsychological, renal tubular, hepatic or endocrine function between groups (P>0.05). Our findings of differences in bone and cardiac function between patient groups suggest that chronic exposure to low elevated metal concentrations in patients with well-functioning MoMHR prostheses may have systemic effects. Long-term epidemiological studies in patients with well-functioning metal on metal hip prostheses should include musculoskeletal and cardiac endpoints to quantitate the risk of clinical disease. PMID

  3. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Willich, Stefan N

    2009-01-01

    Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ≥12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ≥12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00). Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies. PMID:19635154

  4. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  5. Effects of day care on the development of cognitive abilities in 8-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Broberg, A G; Wessels, H; Lamb, M E; Hwang, C P

    1997-01-01

    In Göteborg, Sweden, 146 children (72 girls) were enrolled in a longitudinal study when they averaged 16 months of age. None of the children had experienced regular out-of-home care yet, but within 3 months, 54 entered center care and 33 entered family day care. Quality of home and out-of-home care environments, child temperament, and the development of verbal abilities were assessed regularly during preschool years. When they were 8 years old (2nd grade), cognitive ability tests were administered to the 123 children (65 girls) still in the study. Tested ability was related to the number of months children had spent in center-based day care before 3.5 years of age. Child care quality predicted cognitive abilities among children who had spent at least 36 months in out-of-home care during their preschool years. Both tested and rated cognitive abilities in 2nd grade were related to earlier measures of verbal ability and to paternal involvement during preschool years. PMID:9050391

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ

  7. Prospective study of the cementless "New Wave" total knee mobile-bearing arthroplasty: 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Normand, Xavier; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Ragot, Jean-Marie; Verdier, Régis; Aslanian, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    One of the main factors affecting the survival of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the fixation method. The constraints placed on the bone-implant interface of a mobile-bearing TKA must be taken in account during the design and evaluation phases. For more than two decades, calcium phosphate ceramics, particularly hydroxyapatitis, have been used in Europe to accelerate the bone integration of cementless implants. A prospective study of patients continuously recruited by three senior surgeons at three French private hospitals has been carried out. There were no exclusion criteria. Eighty-four (84) cementless mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis of the brand "New Wave" were implanted in 74 patients over a 2-year period (2004-2005). Implant survival at 8 years was 95% [with a confidence interval of 95%: 80.2-96.4%] when revision for any cause was defined as the endpoint. Five implants required surgical revision to exchange all or part of the implant: two for aseptic loosening of tibial component, one for osteolysis, one for persistent flessum (30°) and one for tibial periprosthetic fracture. Completely integrated implants and event-free outcomes were recorded in 91.4% of the cases at eight-year follow-up. The Hospital for Special Surgery score significantly improved from 56.8/100 points before the surgery to 83.9/100 points at the last follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiologically, only one patient had radiolucent lines around the tibial and femoral components. This cementless total knee prosthesis yielded good medium-term survival. Cementless arthroplasty can generate solid and durable bone fixation in this total weight-bearing implant, and it seems that the hidroxyapathitis surface in this series stimulate the bone integration at the bone-implant interface. PMID:24858380

  8. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  9. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  10. Prevalence and Etiology of Traumatic Injuries to the Anterior Teeth among 5 to 8 Years Old School Children in Mathura City, India: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among the 5 to 8 years old children attending the schools in Mathura city. Study design: A total of 1657 children of the age groups: 5, 6, 7 and 8 years from 20 schools situated in various parts of Mathura city were included in this study, utilizing stratified cluster random sampling method. Results: The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth in 5 to 8 years old age group was found to be 2.7%. Males accounted for 3.1% whereas females accounted for 2.3%. Overall, males experienced more traumatic injuries than the females with male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The etiology of traumatic injuries was mostly due to falls, followed by bicycle accidents, collisions, violence and bike accidents in that order. How to cite this article: Gojanur S, Yeluri R, Munshi AK. Prevalence and Etiology of Traumatic Injuries to the Anterior Teeth among 5 to 8 Years Old School Children in Mathura City, India: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):172-175. PMID:26628850

  11. Prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese population: An 8-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhen-Ya; Shao, Zhou; Li, Ya-Li; Wulasihan, Muhuyati; Chen, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1948 adults from China was followed for 8 years. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD at baseline, and then the participants were followed for 8 years to investigate risk factors for the development of NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 1948 participants were enrolled at baseline, of whom 691 were diagnosed with NAFLD. During the 8-year follow-up, 337 baseline NAFLD-free participants developed NAFLD. They had a greater increase in body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid, fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a considerable decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 123 participants who had NAFLD at baseline lost NAFLD during the 8-year follow-up period. They had a greater decrease in BMI, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. CONCLUSION: NAFLD is prevalent in Chinese population with a rapidly increasing tendency. It can be reversed when patients lose their weight, control their hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and reduce the liver enzyme levels. PMID:27053858

  12. Health Risk Factor Modification Predicts Incidence of Diabetes in an Employee Population: Results of an 8-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Elasy, Tom; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 Diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Methods Annual Health Risk Assessment (HRA) data (n=3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Results Employees who reduced their BMI from ≥30 to < 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (OR 8.85, 95% CI 2.53 to 31.0). Conclusions Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. PMID:23532193

  13. Effect of Walking Distance on 8-Year Incident Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Men With and Without Chronic Disease: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Toby L.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Fong, Kaon; Abbott, Robert D.; Ross, George W.; Petrovitch, Helen; Blanchette, Patricia L.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease Design Prospective cohort study Setting The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study Participants Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 years at baseline Measurements Physical activity was assessed by self-reported distance walked per day. Depressive symptoms were measured with an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the 4th exam (n=3196) and again at the 7th exam 8 years later (1999-2000, n=1417). Presence of incident depressive symptoms was defined as CESD-11 score ≥ 9 or taking anti-depressants at Exam 7. Subjects with prevalent depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Results Age adjusted 8-year incident depressive symptoms were 13.6%, 7.6% and 8.5% for low (< ¼ miles/day), intermediate (¼ to 1.5 miles/day) and high (> 1.5 miles/day) walking groups at baseline, p=0.008. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, marital status, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent diseases and functional impairment found that those in the intermediate and highest walking groups had significantly lower odds for developing 8-year incident depressive symptoms (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.32-0.83, p=0.006; and OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.39-0.97, p=0.04 respectively). Analysis found that this association was only significant in those without chronic diseases (CHD, CVA, Cancer, PD, Dementia or cognitive impairment) at baseline. Conclusion Daily physical activity (≥¼ mile/day) is significantly associated with a lower risk for 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men who do not have chronic disease at baseline. PMID:20670378

  14. Clinical and Organizational Factors Related to the Reduction of Mechanical Restraint Application in an Acute Ward: An 8-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Miani, Fiorenza; Formicola, Vitantonio; Ferri, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of mechanical restraint use in an acute psychiatric ward and to analyze which variables may have significantly influenced the use of this procedure. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Servizio Psichiatrico di Diagnosi e Cura (SPDC) of Modena Centro. The following variables of our sample, represented by all restrained patients admitted from 1-1-2005 to 31-12-2012, were analyzed: age, gender, nationality, psychiatric diagnoses, organic comorbidity, state and duration of admission, motivation and duration of restraints, nursing shift and hospitalization day of restraint, number of patients admitted at the time of restraint and institutional changes during the observation period. The above variables were statistically compared with those of all other non-restrained patients admitted to our ward in the same period. Results: Mechanical restraints were primarily used as a safety procedure to manage aggressive behavior of male patients, during the first days of hospitalization and night shifts. Neurocognitive disorders, organic comorbidity, compulsory state and long duration of admission were statistically significantly related to the increase of restraint use (p<.001, multivariate logistic regression). Institutional changes, especially more restricted guidelines concerning restraint application, were statistically significantly related to restraint use reduction (p<.001, chi2 test, multivariate logistic regression). Conclusion: The data obtained highlight that mechanical restraint use was influenced not only by clinical factors, but mainly by staff and policy factors, which have permitted a gradual but significant reduction in the use of this procedure through a multidimensional approach. PMID:25320635

  15. A study on the incidence, microbiological analysis and investigations on the source of infection of postoperative infectious endophthalmitis in a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital: An 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Jambulingam, Malathi; Parameswaran, Suresh Kumar; Lysa, Sagar; Selvaraj, Margarita; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was the determination of the incidence of culture-proven postoperative endophthalmitis and probable sources of infection. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study on the microbiology, incidence and probable sources of infection in patients with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis carried out in a tertiary care eye hospital. Consecutive patients diagnosed with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis during the years 2000-2007 were investigated for the causative infective agent and possible sources of infection. The surgical data and microbiological data including the investigations performed to trace the source were recorded in a specific formatted form and were gathered and compiled for analysis. Results: Data of analysis showed that 98 (0.042%) out of 2,31,259 patients who underwent intra-ocular surgery developed infectious endophthalmitis. Among these, 70 (0.053%) occurred after cataract, 10 (0.5%) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and 18 (0.018%) following other types of intra-ocular surgeries. The predominant infectious agents isolated were bacteria (89.7%), with equal proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Polymicrobial infection was noted in four and fungi in seven patients. Occurrence of postoperative endophthalmitis was sporadic and not related to any specific part of period in a year. Sources of infection were donor corneal rim in six post-PK patients and phaco probe in one who had postphacoemulsification endophthalmitis Conclusions: Overall incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis over an 8-year period was quite low. The sources of infection could be established in six post-PK endophthalmitis patients and in a postcataract surgery. PMID:20534919

  16. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  17. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  18. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  19. Behavior in children with Prader-Willi syndrome before and during growth hormone treatment: a randomized controlled trial and 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sin T; Siemensma, Elbrich P C; Festen, Dederieke A M; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-09-01

    Information on behavior of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment is scarce. Parents report less problem behavior during GH treatment. Forty-two pre-pubertal children, aged 3.5-14 years were studied in a randomized controlled GH trial (RCT) during 2 years, followed by a longitudinal study during 8 years of GH treatment. Behavior was measured annually by the Developmental Behavior Checklist for children with intellectual disability (DBC) and a Dutch questionnaire to evaluate social behavioral problems in children, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ). Problem behavior measured by the DBC in children with PWS was similar compared to peers with comparable intellectual disability. Scores on 'Social disabilities' subscale were however significantly higher compared to the DBC total score (p < 0.01). A lower IQ was associated with more self-absorbed behavior, more communication problems and more problem behavior in general. Problem behavior measured by the CSBQ was similar compared to peers with a comparable intellectual disability, but children with PWS scored significantly higher on the 'Not tuned', 'Understanding', and 'Stereotyped' subscales than the CSBQ total score (p < 0.05 for all subscales and p = 0.001 for the 'Not tuned'-subscale). There were no significant effects of GH treatment during the RCT and 8 years of GH treatment. Children with PWS showed similar problem behavior as a reference population with a comparable intellectual disability. Social problems were the most pronounced within-problem behavior in PWS. In contrast to our expectations and parents reports, our study shows no improvement but also no deterioration of behavioral problems in children with PWS during long-term GH treatment. PMID:25522840

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J.; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A.; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Methods. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3–6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Results. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59–.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15–.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25–1.11). Conclusions. ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. PMID:26475931

  1. A new prognostic clinicopathological classification of pituitary adenomas: a multicentric case-control study of 410 patients with 8 years post-operative follow-up.

    PubMed

    Trouillas, Jacqueline; Roy, Pascal; Sturm, Nathalie; Dantony, Emmanuelle; Cortet-Rudelli, Christine; Viennet, Gabriel; Bonneville, Jean-François; Assaker, Richard; Auger, Carole; Brue, Thierry; Cornelius, Aurélie; Dufour, Henry; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; François, Patrick; Galland, Françoise; Mougel, François; Chapuis, François; Villeneuve, Laurent; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Raverot, Gérald; Barlier, A; Bernier, M; Bonnet, F; Borson-Chazot, F; Brassier, G; Caulet-Maugendre, S; Chabre, O; Chanson, P; Cottier, J F; Delemer, B; Delgrange, E; Di Tommaso, L; Eimer, S; Gaillard, S; Jan, M; Girard, J J; Lapras, V; Loiseau, H; Passagia, J G; Patey, M; Penfornis, A; Poirier, J Y; Perrin, G; Tabarin, A

    2013-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are currently classified by histological, immunocytochemical and numerous ultrastructural characteristics lacking unequivocal prognostic correlations. We investigated the prognostic value of a new clinicopathological classification with grades based on invasion and proliferation. This retrospective multicentric case-control study comprised 410 patients who had surgery for a pituitary tumour with long-term follow-up. Using pituitary magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of cavernous or sphenoid sinus invasion, immunocytochemistry, markers of the cell cycle (Ki-67, mitoses) and p53, tumours were classified according to size (micro, macro and giant), type (PRL, GH, FSH/LH, ACTH and TSH) and grade (grade 1a: non-invasive, 1b: non-invasive and proliferative, 2a: invasive, 2b: invasive and proliferative, and 3: metastatic). The association between patient status at 8-year follow-up and age, sex, and classification was evaluated by two multivariate analyses assessing disease- or recurrence/progression-free status. At 8 years after surgery, 195 patients were disease-free (controls) and 215 patients were not (cases). In 125 of the cases the tumours had recurred or progressed. Analyses of disease-free and recurrence/progression-free status revealed the significant prognostic value (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) of age, tumour type, and grade across all tumour types and for each tumour type. Invasive and proliferative tumours (grade 2b) had a poor prognosis with an increased probability of tumour persistence or progression of 25- or 12-fold, respectively, as compared to non-invasive tumours (grade 1a). This new, easy to use clinicopathological classification of pituitary endocrine tumours has demonstrated its prognostic worth by strongly predicting the probability of post-operative complete remission or tumour progression and so could help clinicians choose the best post-operative therapy. PMID:23400299

  2. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  3. Investigating the association between obesity and asthma in 6- to 8-year-old Saudi children: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Nahhas, Mahmoud; Bhopal, Raj; Anandan, Chantelle; Elton, Rob; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between obesity and asthma, but there remains considerable uncertainty about whether this reflects an underlying causal relationship. Aims: To investigate the association between obesity and asthma in pre-pubertal children and to investigate the roles of airway obstruction and atopy as possible causal mechanisms. Methods: We conducted an age- and sex-matched case–control study of 1,264 6- to 8-year-old schoolchildren with and without asthma recruited from 37 randomly selected schools in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skin fold thickness of the 632 children with asthma were compared with those of the 632 control children without asthma. Associations between obesity and asthma, adjusted for other potential risk factors, were assessed separately in boys and girls using conditional logistic regression analysis. The possible mediating roles of atopy and airway obstruction were studied by investigating the impact of incorporating data on sensitisation to common aeroallergens and measurements of lung function. Results: BMI was associated with asthma in boys (odds ratio (OR)=1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–1.20; adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI, 1.03–1.19) and girls (OR=1.37, 95% CI, 1.26–1.50; adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI, 1.23–1.56). Adjusting for forced expiratory volume in 1 s had a negligible impact on these associations, but these were attenuated following adjustment for allergic sensitisation, particularly in girls (girls: OR=1.25; 95% CI, 0.96–1.60; boys: OR=1.09, 95% CI, 0.99–1.19). Conclusions: BMI is associated with asthma in pre-pubertal Saudi boys and girls; this effect does not appear to be mediated through respiratory obstruction, but in girls this may at least partially be mediated through increased risk of allergic sensitisation. PMID:24899344

  4. Epidemiology of first-episode psychosis: illustrating the challenges across diagnostic boundaries through the Cavan-Monaghan study at 8 years.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Patrizia; Browne, David; Scully, Paul J; Quinn, John F; Morgan, Maria G; Kinsella, Anthony; Owens, John M; Russell, Vincent; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Waddington, John L

    2005-07-01

    The epidemiology of first-episode psychosis is poorly understood because of the paucity of systematic studies, yet it constitutes the fundamental basis for understanding the disorder and the foundations on which clinical, biological, therapeutic, and long-term outcome studies are built. A particular need is to clarify the diagnostic breadth of first-episode psychosis and, on this basis, to undertake systematic comparisons across representative populations of the psychoses, to include comparisons with first-episode mania. Considered here is the new generation of prospective studies that may be able to inform in some way on these issues. Attainment of the above goals requires prolonged accrual of "all" cases of nonaffective, affective, and any other psychotic illness, including first-episode mania, to derive the required representative populations. To illustrate some of the challenges, the structure of the Cavan-Monaghan prospective first episode study is described and its interim findings are outlined, as rural Ireland provides psychiatric care based on strict catchment areas and is characterized by substantive ethnic and socioeconomic homogeneity and stability. It is argued that there are 3 primary diagnostic nodes (schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder with psychotic features) around which there exist numerous additional, overlapping, and well-populated diagnostic categories that are distinct only in terms of their operational definition. Only through systematic, epidemiologically based studies that access this intrinsic diversity are we likely to understand fully the origins and pathobiology of first-episode psychosis. PMID:15944446

  5. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  6. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40–80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function. PMID:27115487

  7. Medical and licit drug use in an urban/rural study population with a refugee background, 7-8 years into resettlement

    PubMed Central

    Johansson Blight, Karin; Persson, Jan-Olov; Ekblad, Solvig; Ekberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Research into medical and licit drug use in resettled refugee populations is scarce, despite the fact that mental health status often has been found to be poorer than in general populations. Hence the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-rated use of medicine and licit drugs among adults who came to Sweden from Bosnia-Herzegovina (1993/94) and who in 2001 were living in either an urban (low employment context) or a rural (high employment context) region (n=4185). Methods: Prevalence was estimated from a cross-sectional questionnaire distributed to a representative sample (n=650) in 2001 (63.5% response rate). Results: The study population estimates of usage of sedatives (26.5%), sleeping tablets (26.2%) and antidepressants (22.3%) did not differ by gender but did so by region, with a higher urban prevalence. The consumption of alcohol (5.1%) and cigarettes (41.0%) did not differ by region but men reported higher alcohol consumption than women. Conclusion: The high consumption of medicine (compared with general populations) raises the question of treatment efficiency and the need for public health attention and evaluation many years after resettlement. Factors to consider for further research with analytic prerequisites concern indications that regional differences may be influenced, not only by urban employment being lower but also by urban/rural differences in prescription rates and/or access to health care; moreover, there might have been a selection to the urban region of older people, with a more vulnerable family situation, and/or poorer mental health. Finally, the overall alcohol (low) and cigarettes (high) consumption in the study population followed prevalence patterns found in Bosnia-Herzegovina rather than in Sweden. PMID:19742286

  8. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Tumati, Shankar; Burger, Huibert; Martens, Sander; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400) and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286). Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study) may be associated with better cognitive function. PMID:27115487

  9. Infliximab is the new kid on the block in Kawasaki disease: a single-centre study over 8 years from North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Dhrubajyoti; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This was a single-centre study to evaluate the usefulness of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocker, infliximab (IFX), for treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD) in children in Northern Indian. The study was carried out in the Paediatric Allergy-Immunology Unit, Advanced Paediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. The study period was January 2007 to March 2015. Review of records of 23 children with KD who had received IFX was carried out. Median age at presentation was 2 years (range 2 months to 12 years). Indications for using IFX were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) resistance (12/23 patients); severe KD especially when coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) had developed in spite of IVIg (9/23 patients); retinal vasculitis in association with KD (1 patient) and economic reasons (1 patient). Twenty one (21/23) patients had received IVIg (2 g/kg) as first line therapy. A dose of IFX was 5-7 mg/kg given intravenously. Screening tests for tuberculosis (chest xray, Tuberculin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test) were not carried out prior to IFX infusion in any patient. Duration of follow-up was 0-20 months in 13 patients; 21-40 months in 5 patients and >40 months in 6 patients. Mean follow-up was 28.78±25.49 months, range 1-84 months. Eleven of 12 patients (11/12) who had IVIg resistance showed prompt resolution with IFX. Nineteen patients (19/23) in the cohort had CAAs. Of these, 12 showed improvement over mean follow-up of 28.78±25.49 months (range 1-84 months) and 4 showed normalisation. No adverse reactions were noted during infusion of IFX. On follow-up, none of these patients has developed tuberculosis or any other significant infection over a cummulative follow-up of 662 months. IFX can be considered as a useful adjunct in treatment of children with KD. PMID:27086575

  10. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  11. Prognostic factors in non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma: An 8-year retrospective single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun; Bai, Ming; He, Chuang-Ye; Yin, Zhan-Xin; Guo, Wen-Gang; Niu, Jing; Wu, Fei-Fei; Han, Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcome of non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma and to determine the predictors for survival. METHODS: Between July 2002 and June 2010, we retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of portal cavernoma without abdominal malignancy or liver cirrhosis. The primary endpoint of this observational study was death and cause of death. Independent predictors of survival were identified using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients were enrolled in the study. During a mean follow-up period of 18 ± 2.41 mo, 7 patients died. Causes of death were pulmonary embolism (n = 1), acute leukemia (n = 1), massive esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n = 1), progressive liver failure (n = 2), severe systemic infection secondary to multiple liver abscesses (n = 1) and accident (n = 1). The cumulative 6-, 12- and 36-mo survival rates were 94.9%, 86% and 86%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of ascites (HR = 10.729, 95%CI: 1.209-95.183, P = 0.033) and elevated white blood cell count (HR = 1.072, 95%CI: 1.014-1.133, P = 0.015) were independent prognostic factors of non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma. The cumulative 6-, 12- and 36-mo survival rates were significantly different between patients with and without ascites (90%, 61.5% and 61.5% vs 97.3%, 97.3% and 97.3%, respectively, P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: The presence of ascites and elevated white blood cell count were significantly associated with poor prognosis in non-malignant and non-cirrhotic patients with portal cavernoma. PMID:24259977

  12. Improved safety of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis over the 8-year period since implementation in Japan: long-term results from a multicenter observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Nobunori; Funahashi, Koji; Asai, Shuji; Terabe, Kenya; Kaneko, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Takagi, Hideki; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Yabe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi; Shioura, Tomone; Ito, Takayasu; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hisato; Asai, Nobuyuki; Takemoto, Toki; Kojima, Masayo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the long-term safety of biologics by initiation year of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. RA patients who started their first biologics including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab between 2003 and 2008 were identified in the Tsurumai Biologics Communication Registry (TBCR), multicenter observational cohort, and followed for 2 years or until discontinuation of the drugs. We identified baseline predictors for adverse events (AEs) resulting in discontinuation of the first TNFI using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 874 cases (1,340 person-years) were observed. During the observation period, 96 AEs (4.7 events/100 person-years) occurred. From 2003 to 2008, there were significant changes in disease duration, Steinbrocker stage, and disease activity in those aged ≤64 years with no increase of incidence of AEs, whereas those aged >64 years had no significant changes in these variables. In the later initiation year of treatment with biologics, the fewer AEs were observed (log-rank, p = 0.017, 2008 vs. 2003-2005). Multivariate analysis showed that the initiation year significantly impacted the incidence of AEs 6 months into the observation period [initiation at 2008 (vs. 2003-2005): OR: 0.30, 95 % CI: (0.14-0.68)] after adjusting for variables at baseline. The decrease of AEs in the later initiation year was evident in those aged >64 years. The safety of biologic therapy improved over the course of the 8 years from its implementation in Japan. PMID:26846135

  13. Prevention of overbite and overjet development in the 3 to 8 year old by controlled nighttime guidance of incisal eruption: a study of 43 individuals.

    PubMed

    Methenitou, S; Shein, B; Ramanathan, G; Bergersen, E O

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study conducted at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine is to investigate the possibility of limiting the development of an excessive vertical overbite and horizontal overjet during sleeping hours in young children prior to and during the eruption of the permanent incisors. A sample of 43 individuals, whose mean age was 6.17 years, wore a Preventive Eruption Guidance Appliance passively only while sleeping at night for 13 months (mean) to control the development of the overbite as the permanent incisors erupted and to correct the excessive overjet. The mean initial overbite of the sample was 3.4 mm and was reduced to 1.4 mm. The mean initial overjet was 3.0 mm and was reduced to 1.4 mm. Fourteen percent (6 cases) of the sample had an open bite of 1.84 mm (mean), which was reduced to a mean open-bite of 0.81 mm. As a result of the statistical comparison between the treatment sample to the control sample of 50 non-treated individuals, it was shown that the reduction of the overbite and overjet was accomplished solely by altering the problematic dentition without affecting the normal growth pattern or facial morphology as measured from nine lineal dimensions. It was also shown that the change in overbite and overjet was a significant improvement over what would have occurred if no intervention had been instituted, and that the overbite was corrected by restricting continued excessive eruption of the maxillary incisors with only nighttime passive use of the appliance. PMID:2098075

  14. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Your Child: 8 Years Ages & Stages ... rules. But your child can learn safety rules with your help and reminders. Your child now goes out more without you ...

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  16. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4-8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months-<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  17. Neonatal emergencies associated with cardiac rhabdomyomas: an 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Gabriella; De Carolis, Maria Pia; Pardeo, Manuela; Bersani, Iliana; Tempera, Alessia; De Nisco, Alessia; Caforio, Leonardo; Romagnoli, Costantino; Piastra, Marco

    2011-01-01

    During the foetal-neonatal period, rhabdomyomas represent the majority of cardiac tumours and are closely associated with tuberous sclerosis. Cardiac rhabdomyomas may be completely asymptomatic and are incidentally discovered during an echocardiogram, or may cause cardiac dysfunctions requiring medical and/or surgical intervention. During foetal life and the early neonatal period, life-threatening conditions, mostly due to arrhythmias, cardiac failure or obstruction, do occur on rare occasions. We reviewed the medical records of all cases of cardiac rhabdomyomas diagnosed prenatally or postnatally over an 8-year period. The present study reviews 7 cases of life-threatening conditions. Arrhythmic episodes were described in 5 patients, and blood flow obstruction was reported in 2 cases. Antiarrhythmic agents successfully controlled the clinical and electrophysiological conditions. Obstructive conditions were associated with poor outcomes. In conclusion, when prenatal diagnosis of rhabdomyoma is made, appropriate planning at delivery for the management of potential haemodynamic complications may prevent adverse neonatal outcomes. The clinical outcome is more influenced by obstructive rather than by dysrhythmic complications. Appropriate antiarrhythmic treatment is of primary importance. In all cases discovered through prenatal and/or neonatal life-threatening conditions, an accurate follow-up should always be performed to anticipate the development of tuberous sclerosis. PMID:21109725

  18. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-Year Update

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Franziska J.; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the “Hispanic Paradox”). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  19. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  20. Adult intussusception: An 8 years institutional review

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Isaac Assam; Abudu, Emmanuel K.; Uduma, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Its diagnosis could be elusive based solely on clinical features because of protean presentation. Supplementary imaging allows for preoperative diagnosis, early institution of definitive management, and a better clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: Records of adults managed for intestinal obstruction by laparotomy in a surgical unit of a tertiary health facility were retrospectively examined. The subgroup having an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception was extracted and analyzed. Data obtained included age, sex, and primary symptom at presentation. Presence of intestinal perforation, the histology of the lead point of resected tissues, and the final disposition of the patients were documented. Results: Four hundred and three patients underwent surgical management of intestinal obstruction. Eight patients (2%) had an intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception at laparotomy; four males and four females (male: female = 1:1). Abdominal pain was the presentation in 7 (87.5%) and anal protrusion in 1 (12.5%). Four patients (50%) had bowel perforation with peritonitis. Seven of the resected intestines had lead points which were benign. Two patients (25%) died from sepsis. Resection and anastomosis were done for all the patients. Conclusion: Intussusception in adults is uncommon but carries a high morbidity and mortality which can be reduced with a good clinical assessment, appropriate imaging, and early laparotomy.

  1. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, P; Georgiou, G; Zevgolis, G

    1999-04-01

    The case of an ovarian cavernous hemangioma with torsion in an 8-year-old girl is described. Current literature records less than 50 cases of which only 8 are in children. The presenting symptoms of acute abdomen and the ultrasonographic study led to the preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian tumor. Salpingo-oophorectomy and appendicectomy were performed with an uneventful postoperative course. The histological pattern of the tumor was that of an entirely cavernous hemangioma. The case is reported in view of its rarity. PMID:10342121

  2. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  3. Aqua MODIS 8-Year On-Orbit Operation and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William

    2010-01-01

    Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument on-orbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products

  4. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  5. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100215.htm CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series—Check for responsiveness ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 out ...

  6. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  7. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 8 Years after High School: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Marder, Camille; Nagle, Katherine; Shaver, Debra; Wei, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) funded by the National Center for Special Education Research at the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they…

  8. Are Clinical Studies for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page > Participate in Clinical Studies If you are thinking about participating in a Clinical Study at NIH, ... medical care and activities of daily living. In thinking about the risks of research, it is helpful ...

  9. Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: An 8-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Hung, Peir-Haur; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The long-term survival of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who received interferon treatment has not been extensively evaluated.The HCV cohort was the ESRD patients with de novo HCV infection from 2004 to 2011; they were classified into treated and untreated groups according to interferon therapy records. Patients aged <20 years and those with a history of hepatitis B, kidney transplantation, or cancer were excluded. The control cohort included ESRD patients without HCV infection matched 4:1 to the HCV cohort by age, sex, and year of ESRD registration. We followed up all study participants until kidney transplantation, death, or the end of 2011, whichever came first. We assessed risk of all-cause mortality by using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate.In the HCV cohort, 134 patients (6.01%) received interferon treatment. Compared with the uninfected control cohort, the treated group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.99). The untreated group had a 2.62-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.24-5.55) of death compared with the treated group. For the HCV cohort without cirrhosis or hepatoma, the risk of death in the treated group was further markedly reduced (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.68) compared with that in the control cohort.For ESRD patients with HCV infection, receiving interferon treatment is associated with a survival advantage. Such an advantage is more prominent in HCV patients without cirrhosis or hepatoma. PMID:26632730

  10. Learn about Clinical Studies

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the care of future patients by providing information about the benefits and risks of therapeutic, preventative, or diagnostic products or interventions. Clinical trials provide the basis for the development and marketing of new drugs, biological products, and medical devices. ...

  11. Clinical Studies with Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing company. The compound that has been most comprehensively characterized in the clinical literature is ixabepilone (BMS-247550), for which trial results have been described in a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals and which has been granted FDA approval for two clinical indications on Oct. 16, 2007. For all other compounds, most of the information on clinical trials is available only in abstract form. In all these cases it remains uncertain, whether the content of these abstracts fully reflects the content of the subsequent (poster or oral) presentations at the corresponding meeting; in fact, it seems likely that additional data will have been included in the actual meeting presentations that may not have been available at the time of abstract submission. As this is unknown to the author, such additional information cannot be considered in this chapter, which is solely based on information documented in accessible abstracts or journal publications. It should also be kept in mind that the interpretation of data from ongoing clinical trials or forward looking statements based on data from completed trials are always preliminary in character.

  12. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  13. The Association of Weight Percentile and Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Among 3 to 8 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3–8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3–8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98–11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3–8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines. PMID:21050602

  14. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  15. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  16. Adaptive Behavior of 4- through 8-Year-Old Children with Williams Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Mastin, Michelle E.

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the behavior of 41 4-through 8-year-olds with Williams syndrome. As expected, socialization and communication were relative strengths, whereas daily living skills and motor skills were relative weaknesses. Within socialization, interpersonal skills were stronger than play/leisure or coping skills. Adaptive behavior was not…

  17. Celebrating 8 Years at Mars: Repeated Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 September 2005 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) entered Mars orbit on 12 September 1997.

    Today, we celebrate the MGS's 8th anniversary!

    The 8 Earth years that MGS has been in orbit span portions of 5 martian years. One of the critical science activities that the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been engaged in for the past 8 years has been to document daily changes in the martian weather. Each day that MOC is operating, the red and blue wide angle cameras are used to build up a daily global map. These maps provide a record of the planet's changing meteorological conditions.

    One of the most exciting observations that the MOC wide angle cameras have made during these 8 years is that the red planet has very repeatable weather patterns. In light of weather-related problems and disruptions that occur every year on Earth, one can only imagine how nice it would be if our planet followed a similar, repeated pattern.

    The four pictures shown here provide an example of one of the weather phenomena that repeat each martian year. Each picture shows the north polar region of Mars during the northern summer season. Each picture is a composite of several images acquired at different visible wavelengths to give a color view of the planet. Each picture was taken about 1 Mars year apart, and each shows an annular (circular) cloud located over the same terrain each summer.

    The first picture, acquired in April 1999, is actually not from the MGS MOC instrument. It was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was originally released by the Space Telescope Science Institute on 19 May 1999. The reason there is no MOC image for April 1999 is a product of the MGS spacecraft's 8-year history at Mars. MGS was certainly in orbit at the time, and it was taking data during the month of April. However, the camera did not obtain any images between 17 and 28 April because the spacecraft encountered, and then had to be recovered

  18. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum. PMID:12427301

  19. Complicated Varicella Infection at 8-year-old Boy with Pulmonary Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hadzovic–Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Lukovac, Enra; Mehanic, Snjezana; Ahmetspahic-Begic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Varicella or chickenpox is highly contagious, childhood infectious disease caused by primary infection with varicella – zoster virus from the herpes family of viruses. Usually it has a mild clinical course, rarely with described complication, mostly affecting respiratory tract and rarely the central nervous system. Case report The case present 8 year old boy hospitalized eighth day of disease with clinical pictures of varicella complication. Upon receipt tachydyspnea, high fever, tachycardia, hypotensive with positive findings on lung auscultation in the sense of pneumonia. Extremely high values of non-specific inflammatory parameters are implied on bacterial infection which is treated using triple antimicrobial therapy and antiviral. A detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation is determined of clinical disease complication under a picture of MODS that required prolonged multidisciplinary treatment in ICU. Conclusion The disease had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of training completely without consequences but, with the detected congenital absence lower lobe of right lung and transposition of the brachiocephalic trunk. PMID:24493991

  20. Recurrent “pneumonia” in left lower lobe lasting for 8 years: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dong-Mei; Yao, Yan-Wen; Li, Qian; Liu, Chen-Yang; Li, Pei; Cao, E-Hong; Xiao, Xin-Wu; Su, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a unique lung neoplasm with variable forms, such as single nodular, multifocal and lobar pneumonic types. The pneumonic type BAC is often difficult to differentiate from pneumonia. Here we present a case of 63-year-old Chinese male, who had recurrent cough, white sputum with pneumonic lesions in left lower lobe. He suffered from lung biopsies for three times, and finally diagnosed as high differentiated adenocarcinoma 8 years later. He was treated with four cycles of pemetrexed and cisplatin, and four cycles of docetaxel and nedaplatin. However, he did not achieve disease stabilization and is still under follow up. This case suggests that, pneumonic type adenocarcinoma may radiographically and clinically resemble infectious pneumonia. Lack of fever and leukocytosis, no response to antibiotics, air bronchogram, and accompanied nodules or patches in computed tomography (CT) scans should raise suspicion about the diagnosis of pneumonia. Lung biopsy might be the only means of ruling in a diagnosis of BAC. PMID:27413717

  1. Recurrent "pneumonia" in left lower lobe lasting for 8 years: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong-Mei; Yao, Yan-Wen; Li, Qian; Liu, Chen-Yang; Li, Pei; Cao, E-Hong; Xiao, Xin-Wu; Su, Xin; Song, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a unique lung neoplasm with variable forms, such as single nodular, multifocal and lobar pneumonic types. The pneumonic type BAC is often difficult to differentiate from pneumonia. Here we present a case of 63-year-old Chinese male, who had recurrent cough, white sputum with pneumonic lesions in left lower lobe. He suffered from lung biopsies for three times, and finally diagnosed as high differentiated adenocarcinoma 8 years later. He was treated with four cycles of pemetrexed and cisplatin, and four cycles of docetaxel and nedaplatin. However, he did not achieve disease stabilization and is still under follow up. This case suggests that, pneumonic type adenocarcinoma may radiographically and clinically resemble infectious pneumonia. Lack of fever and leukocytosis, no response to antibiotics, air bronchogram, and accompanied nodules or patches in computed tomography (CT) scans should raise suspicion about the diagnosis of pneumonia. Lung biopsy might be the only means of ruling in a diagnosis of BAC. PMID:27413717

  2. [Quality assurance in heart surgery: 8 years experience with a "feedback-control" system in Heidelberg].

    PubMed

    Vahl, C F; Meinzer, P; Thomas, G; Osswald, B R; Hagl, S

    1996-12-01

    An important aspect of quality assurance in cardiac surgery covers the epidemiological analysis of patient data. After an 8 year period of clinical experience with quality assurance, we summarize and evaluate current concepts and actual experiences regarding a special type of database application and organisation ("feedback-control-system") for quality assurance. It had been developed to meet and solve the problems related to the data acquisition process, that are typically present in the clinical routine of quality assurance. In 1988 the "feedback-control-system" was designed and implemented in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Heidelberg University. Since then it had been continuously improved and adapted to satisfy current needs in cardiac surgery. More than 1500 items are now recorded routinely per patient. At present, detailed information of more than 10,000 patients is available for the specific methods of analysis in the field of quality assurance. The basic concept included 1. the integration of the data acquisition in the daily clinical routine, 2. the evaluation and improvement of collected data material by means of "output-functions", that require previously recorded reliable data (that is automatically computer generated operation reports, letters, statistics, accounting etc.), and 3. to ensure that the medical and non-medical staff members participate in the advantages and the responsibilities of the data-base system for quality assurance. Analyses of perioperative risks and results, early discovery of trends, identification of special subpopulations receiving special types of treatment in cardiac surgery etc. have now become a regularly performed tool in clinical routine. This includes the availability of "problem profiles", "trend analysis", the use of simple concluding statistics as well as the calculation of multivariable models. This internal quality assurance is completed by "multicentric" comparisons with further hospitals already using the

  3. [National registry of percutaneous mitral commissurotomy. 8-year's experience].

    PubMed

    Ledesma Velasco, M; Treviño Treviño, A; Delgado Caro, G; Martínez Ríos, M A; Murillo Márquez, H; Munayer Calderón, J; de Zatarain Rivero, R; Encarnación Muñoz, B

    1996-01-01

    From April 1986 to June 1994 we performed percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy in 689 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis in a multicenter study. Mean age was 40 +/- 11 years, of then 84.9% female, 2.7% to had previous surgical treatment and in 1.4% the procedure was performed during pregnancy. Inoue balloon was used in 89.4%, double balloon 9.7% and monoballoon 0.9%. Mitral valve area (MVA) increased from 0.93 +/- 0.20 to 1.85 +/- 0.37 cm2 (p < 0.001) and mean pulmonary artery pressure from 31.5 +/- 15.8 to 22.4 +/- 11.5 mmHg (p < 0.001), mean left atrial pressure decreased from 20.9 +/- 8.1 to 10.0 +/- 5.9 mmHg (p < 0.001), transvalvular gradient (TVG) from 15.4 +/- 6.4 to 3.4 +/- 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.001) and mean pulmonary artery pressure from 31.5 +/- 15.8 to 22.4 +/- 11.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). Complete procedure without mayor complications was achieved in 93.1%. Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) was present in 3.9%. Optimal result in 82.1%, suboptimal in 8.2% and failure in 9.7%. Major complications 4.7%. Mortality was 0.9%. Six months follow-up MVA decreased to 1.77 +/- 0.38 (p < 0.001) and no changes to 24 months (1.78 +/- 0.37 p ns). Twenty four months follow-up 93.3% are in NYHA class I. Only MVA (> 1 cm2) and good predilatation NYHA class were predictors of optimal results. Severe MR were more frecuently in patients with atrial fibrillation and with high score (> 8). Our results were similar the international experience. We conclude that the technique of PTMC is a safe and effective technique. PMID:8967819

  4. Insulin Glargine: a review 8 years after its introduction.

    PubMed

    Goykhman, Stanislav; Drincic, Andjela; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Rendell, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Insulin Glargine was the first long-acting insulin analog produced by recombinant DNA technology, approved for use by the US FDA in April 2000 and by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products in June, 2000. It has become the most widely used insulin in the USA owing to its long duration of action without a pronounced peak. The principal advantage of insulin Glargine over neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin is in a lower frequency of hypoglycemic reactions, thus affording improved safety. It is used in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, usually as a single daily dose. In type 2 patients, it is often the first insulin introduced as a single daily dose. Although insulin Glargine is typically administered as a single nighttime dose, it can be given in the morning or at any other time convenient for the patient. In labile type 1 diabetes, it is often most effective given as two daily injections. In obese, insulin-resistant patients, it may be best to administer insulin Glargine in two separate doses, owing to the high volumes of injected insulin required. Insulin Glargine does not treat postprandial hyperglycemia. It is necessary to supplement with short-acting insulin at mealtimes to control glucose surges after meals. Insulin Glargine is effective in hospitalized and postsurgical patients on account of its lack of pronounced insulin peaks and long duration of action. Although there is considerable use of Glargine in pregnant diabetic women, there is no definitive study to confirm its benefits. Insulin Glargine is thought to coprecipitate supplementary short-acting insulins when co-administered in the same syringe. Therefore, more injections are typically needed in the usual treatment regimen for insulin requiring diabetes. In many cases, constant basal insulin levels may be achieved with multiple overlapping doses of NPH insulin given together with short-acting insulin at mealtimes. Such a therapy may be less costly, but the major advantage of

  5. Use of booster seats by Michigan children 4-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Bingham, C Raymond; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Ragunathan, Trivellore

    2005-11-01

    This study reports the results of a statewide survey of restraint use by 4-8-year-old children in Michigan conducted between July 13 and 29, 2004. In this study, 3420 4-8-year-old children were observed traveling in passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks. Restraint use was estimated for children traveling in all vehicles combined, as well as for each vehicle type separately. Children's restraint use was also calculated by the sex, age, and belt use of the driver. Separate estimates were also made of the restraint use of 4-8-year-old children by the combination of sex and belt use of the driver. Overall, 8.6 +/- 5.9% of 4-8-year-old children were seated in a booster seat, 48.8 +/- 10.3% were wearing a safety belt, 5.1 +/- 3.4% were seated in a child safety seat, and the remaining 37.5 +/- 11.5% were traveling completely unrestrained. When examining the rates by vehicle type, booster seat use was highest among children riding in sport-utility vehicles and lowest for those in pickup trucks. Surprisingly, children riding in passenger cars were more likely to be completely unrestrained than those in any other type of vehicle. While the sex of the driver did not seem to influence the restraint use of target-aged children, the driver's age did seem to have an effect. Booster seat use was quite low (0.6%) for children traveling with a driver over the age of 60, compared to 7.0 and 9.1% for those riding with drivers 16-29 and 30-59 years of age, respectively. The safety belt use of the driver also had a substantial influence on children's restraint use. Irrespective of driver sex, children riding with belted drivers were traveling in booster seats about 10% of the time, while those riding with unbelted drivers were only in booster seats 1-2% of the time. PMID:16054103

  6. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  7. The Stability of Extreme Response Style and Acquiescence Over 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Eunike; Lüdtke, Oliver; Zettler, Ingo; Böhnke, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the stability of extreme response style (ERS) and acquiescence response style (ARS) over a period of 8 years. ERS and ARS were measured with item sets drawn randomly from a large pool of items used in an ongoing German panel study. Latent-trait-state-occasion and latent-state models were applied to test the relationship between time-specific (state) response style behaviors and time-invariant trait components of response styles. The results show that across different random item samples, on average between 49% and 59% of the variance in the state response style factors was explained by the trait response style factors. This indicates that the systematic differences respondents show in their preferences for certain response categories are remarkably stable over a period of 8 years. The stability of ERS and ARS implies that it is important to consider response styles in the analysis of self-report data from polytomous rating scales, especially in longitudinal studies aimed at investigating stability in substantive traits. Furthermore, the stability of response styles raises the question in how far they might be considered trait-like latent variables themselves that could be of substantive interest. PMID:25986062

  8. Perilous periodontitis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Roby V; Neelakantan, Shiba

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether periodontitis in pregnant women could be a risk factor for pre term low birth weight. The oral hygiene status, periodontal status and periodontal treatment needs of mothers who birthed infants with normal birth weight and normal gestation period (group A) and mothers who birthed pre term low birth weight infants (group B) were assessed and compared. The clinical parameters used were Oral Hygiene Index--simplified (OHI-S), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). This article presents the study and its findings and draws conclusions as to the relationship between poor periodontal condition and pre term low birth weight. PMID:22216586

  9. Groningen temporomandibular total joint prosthesis: an 8-year longitudinal follow-up on function and pain.

    PubMed

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Stegenga, Boudewijn; de Bont, Lambert G M; Spijkervet, Fred K L

    2012-12-01

    Total temporomandibular joint replacement is a surgical procedure for patients with severe temporomandibular joint afflictions affecting quality of life, which have not responded beneficially to previous conventional surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of the Groningen temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthesis in patients with chronic pain and mutilated temporomandibular joints following multiple surgical procedures, with respect to prosthesis failure, the patient's postoperative level of satisfaction and longitudinal changes in maximum mouth opening, functional mandibular impairment and pain. Eight female patients were studied in whom Groningen TMJ prostheses were inserted, two unilaterally and six bilaterally. The Groningen TMJ prosthesis was mechanically successful during 8 years of follow-up in seven out of eight patients with a disc dislocation being seen in one patient (7%). Patients were satisfied, despite the limited improvement of the maximum mouth opening, and pain scores. Although the decline of MFIQ scores during 8 years of follow-up was significant compared to baseline (p=0.027), the effects of the prosthesis on maximum mouth opening, function and pain were limited. This may be due to persistent chronic pain and the adverse effects of multiple previous surgical procedures. PMID:22484125

  10. Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

  11. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05). PMID:21467598

  12. Development of Word Reading Fluency and Spelling in a Consistent Orthography: An 8-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, development of word reading fluency and spelling were followed for almost 8 years. In a group of 115 students (65 girls, 50 boys) acquiring the phonologically transparent German orthography, prediction measures (letter knowledge, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and…

  13. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  14. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  15. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  16. The mental health of war-wounded refugees: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Ann-Charlotte; Timpka, Toomas; Thyberg, Mikael

    2002-06-01

    The complex nature of recent wars and armed conflicts has forced many war-injured persons into exile. To investigate their long-term mental health, three instruments for assessing mental health (HSCL-25, PTSS-10, and a Well-Being scale) were presented to 44 war-wounded refugees from nine different countries 8 years after arrival in Sweden. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms was high and corresponds to findings in previous studies of refugee patient populations. A lower level of mental health was associated with higher education, unemployment, and poor physical health. The findings suggest a high psychiatric morbidity and a need for psychiatric interventions in this refugee group. Methodological issues to be considered in research on sequels of war traumas are discussed. PMID:12080207

  17. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23845936

  18. Pelvic lysis and polyethylene wear at 5-8 years in an uncemented total hip.

    PubMed

    Barrack, R L; Folgueras, A; Munn, B; Tvetden, D; Sharkey, P

    1997-02-01

    The clinical and radiographic results of 160 primary, uncemented porous coated total hip replacements performed at 3 teaching hospitals were reviewed. Followup was obtained in 132 of 148 (89%) nondeceased patients. The acetabular component is a full hemisphere, fabricated of cobalt chrome with a sintered bead coating and was implanted with screws in all cases. A 32 mm cobalt chrome femoral head was used in all cases. At 2 to 4 years the incidence of pelvic lysis was 0 and no acetabular revisions had been performed. At 5 to 8 years followup, 3 of 132 (2%) femoral stems had been revised, while on the acetabulum side discrete expansile pelvic lytic lesions occurred in 15 cases (11%) with 8 cases (5%) requiring revision. Abrasion of the screwhead against the backside of the polyethylene liner was seen in all retrieved cases and may have contributed to the development of the lytic lesions seen. Use of this uncemented press fit hemispheric acetabular components, using adjunctive screw fixation resulted in an unacceptably high rate of polyethylene wear and aggressive pelvic lysis. While the results on the femoral side were good, the results with this uncemented acetabular system did not represent an improvement over previous cemented or uncemented acetabular components. PMID:9020220

  19. Clinical Mental Health Counselor Handbook & Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Bonnie; Lawless, Linda; Williams, Midge; Bergstrom, Deborah

    This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…

  20. Discoid meniscus associated with agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rayar, M; Bouillis, J; Fraisse, B; Marleix, S; Chapuis, M; Violas, P

    2011-12-01

    Among the congenital anomalies involving the lateral compartment of the knee, the combination of both a discoid meniscus and agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare and probably underestimated due to the presence of a meniscofemoral ligament often mistaken for an intact ACL. The therapeutic management of such abnormalities is not univocal and highly depends on their clinical impact. We report on the observations of an 8-year-old boy presenting with a cystic formation on a lateral discoid meniscus associated with agenesis of the ACL and the presence of an anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament. PMID:22112462

  1. Dissociating rehearsal and refreshing in the maintenance of verbal information in 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Mora, Gérome; Camos, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of working memory suggest that two systems are involved in verbal working memory: one is dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal, while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing (Camos et al., 2009; Baddeley, 2012). Previous studies provided evidence on the existence of these two maintenance systems, on their independence, and how they affect recall performance in adults. However, only one study had already explored the relationships between these two systems in children ( Tam et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to further examine how the two systems account for working memory performance in children. Eight-year-old children performed complex span tasks in which the availability of either the rehearsal or the refreshing was impeded by a concurrent articulation or an attention-demanding task, respectively. Moreover, the phonological similarity of the memoranda was manipulated. Congruently with studies showing that older children can used these maintenance systems, impeding any of the two systems reduced recall performance. Moreover, the manipulation of the two mechanisms did not interact, as previously observed in adults. This suggests that the two maintenance mechanisms are independent in 8-year-old children as they are in adults. However, the results concerning the phonological similarity effect (PSE) differed from what is observed in adults. Whereas the PSE relies only on the availability of rehearsal in adults, a more complex pattern appeared in children: the concurrent articulation as well as the concurrent task modulated the emergence of the PSE. PMID:25667577

  2. Dissociating rehearsal and refreshing in the maintenance of verbal information in 8-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Gérome; Camos, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of working memory suggest that two systems are involved in verbal working memory: one is dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal, while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing (Camos et al., 2009; Baddeley, 2012). Previous studies provided evidence on the existence of these two maintenance systems, on their independence, and how they affect recall performance in adults. However, only one study had already explored the relationships between these two systems in children ( Tam et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to further examine how the two systems account for working memory performance in children. Eight-year-old children performed complex span tasks in which the availability of either the rehearsal or the refreshing was impeded by a concurrent articulation or an attention-demanding task, respectively. Moreover, the phonological similarity of the memoranda was manipulated. Congruently with studies showing that older children can used these maintenance systems, impeding any of the two systems reduced recall performance. Moreover, the manipulation of the two mechanisms did not interact, as previously observed in adults. This suggests that the two maintenance mechanisms are independent in 8-year-old children as they are in adults. However, the results concerning the phonological similarity effect (PSE) differed from what is observed in adults. Whereas the PSE relies only on the availability of rehearsal in adults, a more complex pattern appeared in children: the concurrent articulation as well as the concurrent task modulated the emergence of the PSE. PMID:25667577

  3. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  4. Lessons from 8 years' experience of hypothalamic stimulation in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Leone, M; Proietti Cecchini, A; Franzini, A; Broggi, G; Cortelli, P; Montagna, P; May, A; Juergens, T; Cordella, R; Carella, F; Bussone, G

    2008-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies in cluster headache (CH) patients have increased understanding of attack-associated events and provided clues to the pathophysiology of the condition. They have also suggested stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior inferior hypothalamus as a treatment for chronic intractable CH. After 8 years of experience, stimulation has proved successful in controlling the pain attacks in almost 60% of chronic CH patients implanted at various centres. Although hypothalamic implant is not without risks, it has generally been performed safely. Implantation affords an opportunity to perform microrecordings of individual posterior hypothalamic neurons. These studies are at an early stage, but suggest the possibility of identifying precisely the target site by its electrophysiological characteristics. Autonomic studies of patients undergoing posterior hypothalamic stimulation provide further evidence that long-term stimulation is safe, revealing that it can cause altered modulation of the mechanisms of orthostatic adaptation without affecting the baroreflex, cardiorespiratory interactions or efferent sympathetic and vagal functions. Chronically stimulated patients have an increased threshold for cold pain at the site of the first trigeminal branch ipsilateral to the stimulated side; when the stimulator is switched off, changes in sensory and pain thresholds do not occur immediately, suggesting that long-term stimulation is required to induce sensory and nociceptive changes. Posterior inferior hypothalamic stimulation is now established as a treatment for many chronic CH patients. The technique is shedding further light on the pathophysiology of the disease, and is also providing clues to functioning of the hypothalamus itself. PMID:18547215

  5. Validation of an immunohistochemical signature predictive of 8-year outcome for patients with breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Charpin, Colette; Tavassoli, Fattaneh; Secq, Véronique; Giusiano, Sophie; Villeret, Julia; Garcia, Stéphane; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bonnier, Pascal; Lavaut, Marie-Noëlle; Boubli, Léon; Carcopino, Xavier; Iovanna, Juan

    2012-08-01

    We recently reported that standardized quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) assays allowed prediction of an adverse outcome among 572 node negative (N-) patients with breast carcinoma (BrCa). To further validate our prior findings, we repeated the IHC stains including a second series of BrCa diagnosed at Yale University. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) of two cohorts of patients with BrCa (418 Marseille University and 303 Yale University) were respectively investigated for IHC expression of 15 markers (HIF-1α, PI3K, pAKT, pmTOR, moesin, P21, 4(E) BP-1, P27, Ker5-6, pMAPKAPK-2, SHARP2, claudin-1, ALDH, AF6 and CD24). Quantitative measurements of immunoprecipitates densitometry assessed with an image analyzer were correlated with 8-year patients' outcome and compared in the two cohorts. The best predictive signature consisted of a combination of five markers that included HIF-1α, PI3K, claudin-1, AF6 and pAKT in N- BrCa. This combination permitted an accurate prediction of outcome in 92.34% (386/418) of N- patients in the first set (Marseille) and 89.8% (158/176) in the second set (Yale). The close results in both cohorts confirmed the validity of this original IHC signature predictive of prognosis in node negative BrCa. This validation suggests that in clinical practice, it would be possible with standardized kits (i) to identify patients with poor prognosis at diagnosis time, particularly in the N- BrCa subset, who would require more aggressive adjuvant therapy and (ii) to avoid useless expensive therapies and their side effects in N- patients with favorable prognosis. PMID:22120430

  6. Computer literacy in baccalaureate nursing students during the last 8 years.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Dorothea E; Ma, Xiping

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid integration of information technology in the healthcare field, equipping nurses with skills to effectively use the technology is vital. Evaluations of nursing students' nursing informatics competencies are scarce in nursing programs as reported in the literature. The current study was implemented to evaluate the self-reported nursing informatics competence of undergraduate baccalaureate students upon admission and graduation in the years from 1997 to 2005 and to compare the differences between admission and graduation. The Gassert/McDowell Computer Literacy Survey was used to survey 411 students on admission and 429 students on graduation from a baccalaureate nursing program. Results showed a significant increase during the 8-year period, both on admission and graduation, for reported level of experience with word processing, electronic mail, and World Wide Web. Areas of less experience that did not increase significantly were spreadsheet experience, database experience, and use of statistical programs. The nursing informatics competencies established for beginning nurses include databases, spreadsheets, word processing, presentation graphics, and keyboard skills. The results of this study indicate nursing education programs currently may not be providing beginning nurses with the tools needed to effectively and efficiently work in the technology-rich healthcare arena. PMID:17215673

  7. [A Critical Condition of Clinical Studies in Japan -- A Battle of Clinical Study Groups].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The post-marketing clinical study groups have been losing their activity due to stop of financial support. As the result, clinical study groups cannot achieve any EBM for treatment guidelines. Financial supports should be restarted immediately not to extinguish the post-marketing clinical studies and study groups. PMID:27220798

  8. Understanding clinical nursing education: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Sherry; O'Connor, Maureen; Hannesson, Teresa; Cheetham, Karleen

    2016-03-01

    Clinical experiences are recognized as a critical aspect of nursing education, highlighting the importance of the perspectives of those providing clinical instruction. The aim of this mixed methods descriptive study was to discover the knowledge and guidance needs of preceptors and clinical faculty who provide clinical instruction to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students. Fifteen clinical faculty and 17 preceptors were surveyed using a questionnaire developed and piloted by the researchers. Although preceptors and clinical faculty reported a high level of knowledge and confidence in their ability to guide student nurses, they also identified the need for additional support for their teaching roles. Analysis of the qualitative data provided insights into what helped and what hindered clinical instruction, as well as what could enhance clinical instruction. The development, implementation, and evaluation of formal education and mentorship processes for preceptors and clinical faculty are recommended in order to meet these knowledge and guidance gaps. Further research is also needed to explore how to clinical instruction could be tailored to the capacity of those engaged in the experiences and to clinical environments. PMID:26775165

  9. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used. PMID:24664098

  10. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  11. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain. PMID:18832336

  12. 8-year field comparison of naturally seeded to planted container `pinus taeda`, with and without release

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.; Barnett, J.P.

    1996-01-09

    A field study compared genetically improved, container loblolly pines (Pinus taedo L.) with naturally seeded loblolly pines through eight growing seasons on a cutover site in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Measurement pines on 6 of 12 plots were released from woody and herbaceous competition within a 61-cm radius of each tree stem. On natural pine plots, only 1st-year pine seedlings were selected for measurement based on quality standards and their spacing. Woody competition was controlled by hand cutting for 5 consecutive years, and herbaceous competition was controlled with herbicides for 4 consecutive years. Release treatments increased 8-year survival by 50% for natural pines and by 35% for planted pines. Greater gains (343-391%) in individual tree volumes were achieved within regeneration techniques, as a result of release, than were achieved with the two regeneration techniques. In addition, stand volume gains of 647% and 910% were achieved by planted and natural pines, respectively, as a result of release. Eight years after field establishment, stand volume index averaged 46% higher on planted plots than on natural plots. Degree of overtopping was a better predictor of pine performance than live-crown ratio.

  13. LDEF polymeric materials: 10 months versus 5.8 years of exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Chang, Alice C.

    1993-01-01

    The chemical characterization of several polymeric materials which received 10 months of exposure and 5.8 years of exposure on a Row 9 Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment (A0134) is reported. Specimens include fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) teflon film, polysulfone film, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy amd polysulfone matrix composites. The responses of these materials to the two LEO exposures are compared. The results of infrared, thermal, x-ray photoelectron, and scanning electron microscope analyses are reported. Solution property measurements of various molecular weight parameters are presented for the thermoplastic polysulfone materials. Molecular level effects attributable to exposure that were present in 10-month exposed specimens were not found in 5.8-year exposed specimens. This result suggests that increased atomic oxygen fluence toward the end of the LDEF mission may have eroded away selected environmentally induced changes in surface chemistry for 5.8-year exposure specimens.

  14. The expansion of 8-year medical training programs in China: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Yin, Zhuo; Wei, Yong-bao; Liu, Long-fei; Yang, Jin-rui

    2015-01-01

    Instituted in major medical programs only within the past decade, the advent of an ‘expanded’ 8-year medical curriculum reflects a major reformation of how physicians are trained in China. Although much remains to be done, including the refinement of associated learning objectives, instructional models, and teaching pedagogies, movement toward a longer, more standardized training framework represents a marked transition for Chinese medical practice. This article highlights the current status and anticipated future of these emerging 8-year medical training programs in modern-day China. PMID:25661499

  15. Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry S.

    A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents in the Real World: 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Denise Oliveira; Gomes, Vitor Osório; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Smidt, Luis; Azeredo, Marco Aurélio; Ledur, Priscila; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Sinnott, Leonardo; Moriguchi, Emílio; Caramori, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. Methods: We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. Results: A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. Conclusion: These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the "real world" may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results. PMID:25098375

  17. Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurring 8 years after leaving an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Szmitko, Paul E; Kohn, Magdie L; Simor, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    A 29-year-old patient who was born in Angola developed Plasmodium falciparum malaria 8 years after leaving Africa. She had not returned to a malaria-endemic area, and there were no apparent risks of local or nosocomial acquisition of malaria in Canada. She recovered after treatment with oral quinine sulfate and doxycycline. PMID:18945569

  18. Radix grafts in cosmetic rhinoplasty: lessons from an 8-year review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Justin C; Pearlman, Steven J

    2012-11-01

    We describe our experience with radix augmentation during cosmetic rhinoplasty over an 8-year period using both autologous and synthetic grafts and provide insight into maximizing success. We discuss various surgical considerations, including patient selection, graft materials, and dealing with complications. We focus on our operative technique and provide patient examples. PMID:22869164

  19. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator. PMID:25697214

  20. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  1. Predicting dyslexia at 8 years of age using neonatal brain responses.

    PubMed

    Molfese, D L

    2000-05-01

    Auditory event-related potentials recorded at birth to speech and nonspeech syllables from six scalp electrodes discriminated between newborn infants who 8 years later would be characterized as dyslexic, poor, or normal readers. These findings indicate that reading problems can be identified and possible interventions undertaken up to 9 years earlier than is currently possible. PMID:10764519

  2. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  3. Analysis of the seismicity in the region of Mirovo salt mine after 8 years monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Georgieva, Gergana

    2015-04-01

    Mirovo salt deposit is situated in the NE part of Bulgaria and 5 kilometers away from the town of Provadiya. The mine is in operation since 1956. The salt is produced by dilution and extraction of the brine to the surface. A system of chambers-pillars is formed within the salt body as a result of the applied technology. The mine is situated in a seismically quiet part of the state. The region is characterized with complex geological structure and several faults. During the last 3 decades a large number of small and moderate earthquakes (M<4.5) are realized in the close vicinity of the salt deposit. Local seismological network (LSN) is deployed in the region to monitor the local seismicity. It consists of 6 three component digital stations. A real-time data transfer from LSN stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) is implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. Common processing and interpretation of the data from LSN and the national seismic network is performed. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package. More than 700 earthquakes are registered by the LSN within 30km region around the mine during the 8 years monitoring. First we processed the data and compile a catalogue of the earthquakes occur within the studied region (30km around the salt mine). Spatial pattern of seismicity is analyzed. A large number of the seismic events occurred within the northern and north-western part of the salt body. Several earthquakes occurred in close vicinity of the mine. Concerning that the earthquakes could be tectonic and/or induced an attempt is made to find criteria to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. To characterize and distinguish the main processes active in the area we also made waveform and spectral analysis of a number of earthquakes.

  4. Aging and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes: 8 Years of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Clark, Jeanne M.; Evans, Mary; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and education (DSE). Although the current study compared treatment differences between ILI and DSE on PF, the primary goal was to examine whether this effect was moderated by age and history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Methods. Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to either ILI or DSE. The mean (±SD) age and % females in ILI was 58.9 years (±6.9) and 59.8%; it was 58.6 years (6.8) and 59.5% in DSE. Analysis in 4,998 participants assessed the differential rates of decline in PF across a period of 8 years for the ILI and DSE groups. Results. ILI resulted in improved PF compared with DSE after 1 year (p < .0001) and was maintained across time. Within the ILI, older adults experienced greater improvements than younger adults (p < .0001). By year 2, persons in ILI with preexisting cardiovascular disease were no different in PF than in DSE participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. With the exception of persons who had a history of cardiovascular disease, ILI slowed the decline in PF with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite weight regain, an effect that was stronger for older than younger participants and could translate into reductions in falls and disability. PMID:24986062

  5. Relating clinical study design to basic research.

    PubMed

    Choh, V; Priolo, S

    1999-07-01

    Devising any research study involves careful attention to its design, as well as the development of an appropriate research question and hypothesis. Together, these attributes ensure the validity of the study in question. In most clinical or epidemiological studies, the types of research designs are often explicitly noted, whereas in papers describing basic or biological research, they are couched in different terms or, more often, are ignored, thus potentially hindering communication between basic and clinical researchers. However, given that the framework for all valid scientific research is based on sound logic, it is proposed that for each study design, a direct homology exists between clinical and basic research paradigms, despite the problem of relating epidemiological vernacular to basic research. By applying examples of basic research protocols to traditional clinical study designs, this paper shows that parallels can be drawn between the two strategies, suggesting that in the absence of a conventional nomenclature to describe basic research study designs, the use of traditional clinical design jargon is valid in describing basic research protocols. PMID:10445637

  6. The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Bladen, Catherine L.; Mayhew, Anna; James, Meredith; Bettinson, Karen; Moore, Ursula; Smith, Fiona E.; Rufibach, Laura; Cnaan, Avital; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana X.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Bravver, Elena; Carlier, Pierre G.; Day, John W.; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Eagle, Michelle; Grieben, Ulrike; Harms, Matthew; Jones, Kristi J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Paradas, Carmen; Pegoraro, Elena; Pestronk, Alan; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Semplicini, Claudio; Spuler, Simone; Stojkovic, Tanya; Straub, Volker; Takeda, Shin'ich; Rocha, Carolina Tesi; Walter, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. Methods: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. Results: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression. No factor, such as mutation class, protein expression, or age at onset, accounted for this variability. Among patients with clinical diagnoses of Miyoshi myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, clinical presentation and examination was not strikingly different. Respiratory impairment and cardiac dysfunction were observed in a minority of patients. A substantial delay in diagnosis was previously common but has been steadily reducing, suggesting increasing awareness of dysferlinopathies. Conclusions: These findings highlight crucial issues to be addressed for both optimizing clinical care and planning therapeutic trials in dysferlinopathy. This ongoing longitudinal study will provide an opportunity to further understand patterns and variability in disease progression and form the basis for trial design. PMID:27602406

  7. Penile dermatoses: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Walker, M M; Harris, J R; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the spectrum of genital dermatological conditions affecting men and compare the clinical and histopathological diagnoses. DESIGN--Prospective study over a one year period. SETTING--A central London teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Seventy one patients with unresponsive penile dermatoses attending a specific internal referral clinic within the department of genitourinary medicine and 36 patients undergoing penile biopsy following attendance at other departments within the same hospital. METHODS--Full dermatological assessment of patients attending the specific clinic. Standard histopathological methods were used in the diagnosis of biopsy specimens. OUTCOME MEASURED--Clinico-pathological diagnosis of cutaneous penile abnormalities. RESULTS--Description of the range and relative frequency of penile dermatological conditions. The most common histopathological diagnosis was of non specific dermatitis. Twenty seven percent (16 of 61) of patients attending the specific clinic and 33% (12 of 36) of men attending other departments had conditions requiring long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS--The ranges of penile dermatoses presenting to the different departments were broadly similar. Penile biopsy was shown to be a safe and clinically informative procedure. In the genitourinary clinic setting, clinical diagnosis prior to biopsy was found frequently to be inaccurate. Images PMID:1607192

  8. Embedding clinical interventions into observational studies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Anderson, Garnet; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Wm James; Krucoff, Mitchell; Kuller, Lewis H; Lewis, Cora E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Taylor, Herman; Treviño, Roberto P; Weintraub, William

    2016-01-01

    Novel approaches to observational studies and clinical trials could improve the cost-effectiveness and speed of translation of research. Hybrid designs that combine elements of clinical trials with observational registries or cohort studies should be considered as part of a long-term strategy to transform clinical trials and epidemiology, adapting to the opportunities of big data and the challenges of constrained budgets. Important considerations include study aims, timing, breadth and depth of the existing infrastructure that can be leveraged, participant burden, likely participation rate and available sample size in the cohort, required sample size for the trial, and investigator expertise. Community engagement and stakeholder (including study participants) support are essential for these efforts to succeed. PMID:26611435

  9. IS CIGARETTE SMOKING RELATED TO ALCOHOL USE DURING THE 8 YEARS FOLLOWING TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE?

    PubMed Central

    MYERS, MARK G.; DORAN, NEAL M.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims The present study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol use outcomes over an 8-year period following treatment for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. Methods The present study was based on a sample of 166 adolescents recruited during inpatient AOD abuse treatment. Included in this study were 123 (74% of the full sample) participants, of whom 41% were female, 81% identified themselves as White and who averaged 15.9 years of age (SD = 1.3) when entering treatment. Data for the present study were drawn from interviews conducted at the time of treatment and 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-years post-treatment. Results Twenty six percent of participants had quit smoking for >1 year at the 8-year assessment, while 44% reported persistent smoking over time. Overall smoking rates decreased significantly over time. Subjects associated with the highest alcohol involvement trajectory reported significantly greater likelihood of persistent smoking as well as higher current smoking and cigarette consumption across time points. Conclusions The significant declines observed in smoking from adolescence into young adulthood were contrary to expectations, indicating that this behaviour may be less stable than previously thought among adolescent AOD abusers. Smoking involvement over time was greater within the highest alcohol use trajectory, consistent with previous evidence for a positive relationship between these behaviours. However, when compared with the general population smoking rates remained very high regardless of alcohol involvement. Thus, individuals treated for AOD abuse as adolescents remained at elevated risk for tobacco related disease regardless of post-treatment AOD use outcomes. PMID:17526632

  10. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  11. PPB | What is a Clinical Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study ‹an observational clinical research study‹is enrolling children with PPB and their families. In an observational study, investigators assess health outcomes in groups of participants according to a protocol or research plan.

  12. Single radius total knee arthroplasty: PCL sacrifice without substitution yields excellent outcomes minimum 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Harwin, Steven F; Kester, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is bone conserving and relies on the retained ligament to provide posterior stability. PCL sacrifice allows for easier correction of deformity, a better range of motion, and predictable kinematics. It was hypothesized that using a novel single radius TKA design, coupled with a double-dished articular geometry, would yield satisfactory stability and outcomes by sacrificing the PCL without substitution. A consecutive series of 94 cemented Scorpio (Stryker Orthopaedics) single radius PCL retaining total knee arthroplasties using that strategy, with a minimum 8-year follow-up, is presented. An early return of range of motion and extensor mechanism function was also demonstrated. No cases of instability and no revisions related to the technique occurred. As predicted, clinical and radiographic outcomes were excellent regarding pain relief and functional activities. PMID:20437364

  13. Facilitated Eruption of an Impacted Premolar 8 Years Post-eruption Timing- Think before You Treat!!!

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Singh, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    The treatment planning of impacted teeth usually involves surgical intervention for bringing about its eruption with traction. But a thoughtful analysis in such cases looking at the possible aetiology may save the complexity of therapy. The present case demonstrates the importance of correct diagnosis in resolving impaction wherein an impacted mandibular second premolar was made to erupt using a simple removable appliance 8 years after its normal range of eruption timing. PMID:26557628

  14. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies. PMID:23116307

  15. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors. PMID:18028537

  16. Case Studies: Windows onto Clinical Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    By examining the structures and activities common to six case studies of clinical teacher supervision, this article identifies five conditions that facilitate changes in teacher thinking and behavior: development of a supportive, collegial relationship; teacher control over supervision products; continuity over time; focused, descriptive records…

  17. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  18. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  19. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

    2013-01-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls’ group. PMID:24049233

  20. Solitary parotid metastasis 8 years after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Faiz; Yedavalli, Nina; Loeffler, David; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer, known for its aggressive behavior and ability to metastasize nearly every organ system in the body. While the cancer commonly spreads to a select few organs and metastasis usually develops within 5 years of diagnosis, there have been numerous case reports of atypical sites of metastasis and cases of relapse up to decades after treatment. We present a case a 65-year-old male who presented with right preauricular swelling 8 years after the initial diagnosis and right nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell cancer. We take a look at previous case reports with similar presentations. PMID:27609721

  1. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist. PMID:24867130

  2. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    PubMed

    Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

    2013-04-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls' group. PMID:24049233

  3. Disconnective Hemispherotomy for Medically Intractable Status Epilepticus in an 8-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Lucas; Bahgat, Diaa; Sharp, Gregory; Willis, Erin; Ocal, Eylem; Albert, Gregory; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-10-01

    We report here the unusual case of an 8-year-old child with left hemispheric focal epilepsy secondary to a perinatal infarction who presented with new onset absence seizures and eventual nonconvulsive status epilepticus that was refractory to medical management. Following review at our multidisciplinary Epilepsy Surgery conference, the patient underwent disconnective surgical hemispherotomy with immediate cessation of his seizures; and has remained seizure-free at 4 months following surgery. In this context, we present here an overview of hemispherectomy and related procedures, including peri-insular disconnective hemispherotomy, and we discuss the efficacy of surgery for challenging hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:26552284

  4. Visual working memory capacity increases between ages 3 and 8 years, controlling for gains in attention, perception, and executive control.

    PubMed

    Pailian, Hrag; Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Research in adults has aimed to characterize constraints on the capacity of Visual Working Memory (VWM), in part because of the system's broader impacts throughout cognition. However, less is known about how VWM develops in childhood. Existing work has reached conflicting conclusions as to whether VWM storage capacity increases after infancy, and if so, when and by how much. One challenge is that previous studies did not control for developmental changes in attention and executive processing, which also may undergo improvement. We investigated the development of VWM storage capacity in children from 3 to 8 years of age, and in adults, while controlling for developmental change in exogenous and endogenous attention and executive control. Our results reveal that, when controlling for improvements in these abilities, VWM storage capacity increases across development and approaches adult-like levels between ages 6 and 8 years. More generally, this work highlights the value of estimating working memory, attention, perception, and decision-making components together. PMID:27225467

  5. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed Central

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth. PMID:12948893

  6. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  7. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  8. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  9. The Existence of Trust in the Relationship of Parents and District Administration in the Placement Process of 3- to 8-Year-Old Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which trust-building variables exist between public school districts and parents of 3- to 8-year-old children with autism during the initial placement process in the perception of special education administration. Additional purposes of the study were to identify barriers and…

  10. Reversal of dental fluorosis: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dhaval N.; Shah, Jigna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical reversal of dental fluorosis with various combinations of calcium, vitamin D3, and ascorbic acid, along with changes in levels of certain biochemical parameters concerned with dental fluorosis. The role of fluoride level of drinking water in the etiology of dental fluorosis and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in both dentitions and teeth were also assessed. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 patients with clinical features of dental fluorosis without trauma and any adverse habits were selected. Of these, in 30 co-operative patients, estimation of water fluoride level and pretreatment and post-treatment serum and urine fluoride levels were done with ion selective electrode method. The selected 30 patients were divided into three groups, that is, group A, group B, and group C, and were given various combinations of medications like calcium with vitamin D3 supplements, ascorbic acid with vitamin D3 supplements, and chlorhexidine mouthwash (placebo) for three months, respectively. These 30 patients were assessed for any change in the clinical grading of dental fluorosis. Results: No change in clinical grading of dental fluorosis was noted. Considerable reduction in serum and urine fluoride levels was noted in both group A and group B patients. Dental fluorosis was noted in permanent teeth more commonly than deciduous teeth, and permanent maxillary central incisors had the highest prevalence rate. Conclusion: This study comprises only 30 patients with three months of follow-up. So, this sample of patients and duration of follow-up period are conclusive to observe changes in biochemical parameters but not sufficient to observe changes in clinical grading. PMID:23633850

  11. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  12. The Development of Attitudes About Physical Punishment: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined young adolescents’ endorsement of parental use of corporal punishment to elucidate processes underlying the intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies. The community sample was ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Mothers completed interviews and questionnaires when the target children were entering kindergarten (n = 566) and in 6th and 8th grades. Adolescents completed questionnaires when they were in 8th grade (n = 425). Adolescents’ attitudes about corporal punishment varied widely. Those adolescents who had been spanked by their own mothers were more approving of this discipline method, regardless of the overall frequency, timing, or chronicity of physical discipline they had received. However, there was no correlation among adolescents for whom physical maltreatment in early or middle childhood was suspected. PMID:14562459

  13. Seasonal variation and dynamics of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma, after 8 years of Cassini in orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn orbits the Sun with a period of nearly 29.5 years and has an obliquity of 26.73°. As a result, Saturn presents seasonal variations similar to Earth's, but with much longer seasons, as the tilt between the planet's spin axis and the solar wind vary (approximately sinusoidally) with time between solstices. Saturn was close to its equinox (tilt below 8.1°) during the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 flybys that took place between September 1979 and August 1981, so any seasonal effects would have been relatively hard to see in the limited data from these missions. More than 2 decades later, on July 4, 2004, Cassini began orbiting Saturn, returning a variety of in situ and remote measurements. During the last 8 years, Cassini covered a large part of the Saturnian system and offered the opportunity of sampling the planetary magnetosphere not just at different seasons, but also at seasonal phases that are symmetric to the Saturnian equinox (August 2009). In this talk, we focus on the seasonal effects seen in the magnetosphere of Saturn as the angle between the solar wind flow and the Saturn-Sun direction changes from +23.7° (northern hemisphere winter) at the arrival of Cassini, to -14.9° (northern hemisphere summer) on July 2012. Particle and magnetic field data taken from a extensive set of equatorial and high latitude orbits of Cassini, at various distances and local times, show that: (a) the plasma sheet of Saturn has the form of a magnetodisk, with an energy-dependent vertical structure, being thicker by a factor of ~2 in the energetic particle range than in the electron plasma, and (b) it exhibits intense dynamical behavior, evident in in-situ particle measurements but also in energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. The study of the pre-equinox high latitude orbits revealed that the night side plasma sheet was tilted northward beyond a radial distance of ~15 Rs (1Rs=60,258 km). As equinox approached, Cassini observed a clear decrease in the tilt of the

  14. Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor presenting in an 8-year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Hussa; Azouz, Haya; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors are uncommon benign lesions. Accurately diagnosing hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor can be very challenging because the clinical presentation and radiological appearances are nonspecific and cannot be certainly distinguished from malignant neoplastic processes. Herein, we present a case of hepatic IPT in an 8-year-old boy who presented to clinic with a 3-mo history of a tender hepatic mass, fever of unknown origin, and 9-kg weight loss. The physical examination was notable for tender hepatomegaly. Laboratory investigations were notable for a normal hepatic profile and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A T2-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen showed a 4.7 cm × 4.7 cm × 6.6 cm, contrast-enhancing, hyper-intense, well-defined lesion involving the right hepatic lobe. In view of the unremitting symptoms, tender hepatomegaly, thrombosed right hepatic vein, nonspecific radiological findings, and high suspicion of a deep-seated underlying infection or malignancy, a right hepatic lobectomy was recommended. Microscopically, the hepatic lesion exhibited a mixture of inflammatory cells (histiocytes, plasma cells, mature lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells) in a background of dense fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemically, the cells stained negative for SMA, ALK-1, CD-21 and CD-23, diffusely positive for CD-68, and focally positive for IgG4. The final histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hepatic IPT. At the postoperative 4-mo follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic without radiological evidence of recurrence. PMID:26229415

  15. Clinical Scores for Dyspnoea Severity in Children: A Prospective Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Brand, Paul; Reimink, Roelien; Bekhof, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute dyspnoeic children, assessment of dyspnoea severity and treatment response is frequently based on clinical dyspnoea scores. Our study aim was to validate five commonly used paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods Fifty children aged 0–8 years with acute dyspnoea were clinically assessed before and after bronchodilator treatment, a subset of 27 children were videotaped and assessed twice by nine observers. The observers scored clinical signs necessary to calculate the Asthma Score (AS), Asthma Severity Score (ASS), Clinical Asthma Evaluation Score 2 (CAES-2), Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) and respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, decreased breath sounds (RAD). Results A total of 1120 observations were used to assess fourteen measurement properties within domains of validity, reliability and utility. All five dyspnoea scores showed overall poor results, scoring insufficiently on more than half of the quality criteria for measurement properties. The AS and PRAM were the most valid with good values on six and moderate values on three properties. Poor results were mainly due to insufficient measurement properties in the validity and reliability domains whereas utility properties were moderate to good in all scores. Conclusion This study shows that commonly used dyspnoea scores show insufficient validity and reliability to allow for clinical use without caution. PMID:27382963

  16. Clinical orofacial characteristics associated with risk of first-onset TMD: the OPPERA prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ohrbach, Richard; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B.; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon M.; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ron; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad; Slade, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies have documented clinical manifestations of chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD), whereas clinical predictors of TMD development are largely unknown. We evaluated 41 clinical orofacial characteristics thought to predict first-onset TMD in a prospective cohort study of U.S. adults aged 18-44 years. During the median 2.8-year follow-up period, 2,737 people completed quarterly screening questionnaires. Those reporting symptoms were examined and 260 people were identified with first-onset TMD. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models quantified associations between baseline clinical orofacial measures and TMD incidence. Significant predictors from baseline self-report instruments included oral parafunctions, prior facial pain and its life-impact, TMJ noises and jaw locking, and non-specific orofacial symptoms. Significant predictors from the baseline clinical examination were pain on jaw opening and pain from palpation of masticatory, neck, and body muscles. Examiner assessments of TMJ noise and tooth wear facets did not predict incidence. In multivariate analysis, non-specific orofacial symptoms, pain from jaw opening and oral parafunctions predicted TMD incidence. The results indicate that only a few orofacial examination findings influenced TMD incidence, and only to a modest degree. More pronounced influences were found for self-reported symptoms, particularly those that appeared to reflect alterations to systems beyond the masticatory tissues. PMID:24275222

  17. Prostaglandins: a report on early clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The prostaglandins are a unique group of pharmacologically active lipids which are widely distributed in mammalian tissues and body fluids. The chemistry of this family of compounds has been established in elegant detail. Research quantities of these highly active natural compounds were obtained by enzymatic bioconversion of essential fatty acids and now studies devoted to the elucidation of their physiological roles and their clinical potential are progressing rapidly. Fields of greatest current interest in clinical medicine include renal-cardiovascular research, induction of labour and therapeutic abortion, control of the reproductive cycle (including fertility control), bronchodilation, enhancement of nasal patency and antisecretory activity. Results available to date are too preliminary for many conclusions to be drawn, but are sufficiently encouraging to assure continued and expanding efforts in several fields. PMID:4098885

  18. Dietary Patterns and Their Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants in 6- to 8-Year-Old Portuguese Children.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Muc, M; Rodrigues, P R M; Pinto, A Mota; Padez, C

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to a healthier diet is declining, with children consuming more saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. Factors influencing this choice were studied using a cross-sectional study with children (6 to 8 years old) living in Coimbra. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors were obtained from the parents. Dietary patterns of 1,063 children were identified: Mediterranean (MedDiet), saturated fats (SFatDiet), and base of Portuguese diet (BPDiet). Their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioral determinants was analyzed. SES determined strongly the dietary choices with lower SES being associated with higher consumption of SFatDiet and higher SES with BPDiet. Worse diet quality was shown to coexist with other unhealthy behaviors. PMID:27398743

  19. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages. PMID:26133805

  20. Posterior fossa giant tumefactive perivascular spaces: 8-year follow-up in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Byron C.; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit; Altmeyer, Wilson; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cystic masses in the posterior fossa are ominous appearing lesions with broad differential diagnosis. Giant tumefactive perivascular spaces (GTPS) are rarely occurring pathological findings in the posterior fossa with unclear etiology and ill-defined long-term prognosis. Case Description: We present a case of a 15-year-old male diagnosed with posterior fossa GTPS. The patient remained asymptomatic during the 8-year follow-up after diagnosis with the serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing no change in the size and morphology of the lesion. Conclusion: This case supports prior literature on supratentorial GTPS suggesting that the natural history of GTPS is mostly benign. Identification of GTPS in the posterior fossa could prevent the patient from unnecessary surgery or other aggressive treatment modalities. PMID:25657855

  1. A treatable metabolic cause of encephalopathy: cobalamin C deficiency in an 8-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Jena M; Piantino, Juan; Smith, Craig M; Angle, Brad; Venkatesan, Charu; Wainwright, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Neurologic regression in a previously healthy child may be caused by metabolic or neurodegenerative disorders, many of which have no definitive treatment. We report a case of a previously healthy 8-year-old boy who presented with a month-long history of waxing and waning encephalopathy and acute regression, followed by seizures. Evaluation for a metabolic disorder revealed methylmalonic acidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia of the cobalamin C type due to a single, presumed homozygous pathogenic c.394 C>T mutation in the MMACHC gene. With the appropriate diet restrictions and vitamin replacement, he improved significantly and returned to his premorbid level of behavior. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of a treatable metabolic disorder and highlights the need to consider cobalamin defects in the differential diagnosis of healthy children with neurologic regression. PMID:25511120

  2. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  3. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B

    2013-08-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings. PMID:24765504

  4. What Is the Status of High School Athletes 8 Years after Their Senior Year? Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Scott, Leslie; Planty, Michael; Thompson, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the status of high school athletes 8 years after their senior year in high school. Using a representative sample of 10th-graders in 1990, who were seniors in 1992, from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief provides information on the 1990-1992 high school athletes' educational,…

  5. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  6. Schooling, Values, Objective Life Conditions and Social Support: Their Predictive Power in the Reported Use of Coercive Behaviors by Mothers of 6- to 8-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Camil

    This study was undertaken to identify the relative contribution of personal and environmental variables to the reported frequency of use of coercive control behaviors in a nonclinical sample of mothers. Seventy mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children participated; half were from single-parent families. Results of analysis of variance indicate that…

  7. An 8 Year Follow-Up of a Specialist Supported Employment Service for High-Ability Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the…

  8. Clinical studies with tumour necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, D R; Sherman, M L; Frei, E; Kufe, D W

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cytotoxicity remains unknown. The in vivo antitumour effects of TNF may be related to direct cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory effects or endothelial effects on tumour vasculature. Phase I and early Phase II clinical trials of human recombinant TNF are under way in Japan, the USA, the UK and Germany. The maximum Phase II dose for TNF has not been established. The clinical toxicity of TNF is generally similar to that of other biological agents. Systemic toxicity, including fever, chills, anorexia and nausea, has been seen in most patients treated with TNF and has not been clearly related to dose. Other toxicities have included liver function abnormalities, hypotension, transient neurological changes and haematological abnormalities. Few clinical responses have been reported but organized Phase II testing remains to be completed. Combination trials with interferons have recently been initiated. Phase II efficacy studies of TNF as a single agent and in combination are needed for an assessment of the value of this agent in cancer therapy. PMID:3330011

  9. Clinical studies in lysosomal storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boudes, Pol F

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) consist of over 40 diseases, some of which are amenable to treatment. In this review, we consider the regulatory context in which LSDs studies are performed, highlight design specificities and explore operational challenges. Orphan drug legislations, both in Europe and US, were effective to stimulate LSDs drug development. However, regulators flexibilities toward approval vary leading to global discrepancies in access to treatments. Study designs are constrained because few patients can be studied. This implies LSDs treatments need to demonstrate large levels of clinical efficacy. If not, an appropriate level of evidence is difficult to achieve. While biomarkers could address this issue, none have been truly accepted as primary outcome. Enrichment of study population can increase the chance of success, especially with clinical outcomes. Adaptive designs are operationally challenging. Innovative methods of analysis can be used, notably using a patient as his/her own control and responder analysis. The use of extension phases and patient registries as a source of historical comparison can facilitate data interpretation. Operationally, few patients are available per centers and multiple centers need to be initiated in multiple countries. This impacts time-lines and budget. In the future, regulators flexibility will be essential to provide patients access to innovative treatments. PMID:25003011

  10. Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2002-04-01

    A burgeoning number of clinical studies have evaluated the immediate and long-term neurobiological effects of early developmental stress, eg, child abuse and neglect or parental loss, in the past years. This review summarizes and discusses the available findings from neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other neuroendocrine axes), neurochemical (catecholamines, serotonin, other neurotransmitters), psychophysiological (autonomic function, startle reactivity, brain electrical activity) and neuroimaging studies (brain structure, function) conducted in children or adults with a history of early life stress, with or without psychiatric disorders. Early developmental stress in humans appears to be associated with neurobiological alterations that are similar to many findings in animal models of early life stress, and likely represent the biological basis of an enhanced risk for psychopathology. Clinical studies are now beginning to explore potentially differential neurobiological effects of different types of early life stress and the existence of critical developmental periods, which may be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of specific stressors. In addition, the role of a multitude of moderating and mediating factors in the determination of individual vulnerability or resilience to the neurobiological effects of early life stress should be addressed. Findings from such studies may ultimately help to prevent the deleterious neurobiological and psychopathological consequences in the unacceptably high number of children exposed to early life stress in modern society. PMID:11953939

  11. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  12. The End-State Comfort Effect in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children in Two Object Manipulation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Birgit; Henning, Anne; Wunsch, Kathrin; Weigelt, Matthias; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare 3- to 8-year-old children’s propensity to anticipate a comfortable hand posture at the end of a grasping movement (end-state comfort effect) between two different object manipulation tasks, the bar-transport task, and the overturned-glass task. In the bar-transport task, participants were asked to insert a vertically positioned bar into a small opening of a box. In the overturned-glass task, participants were asked to put an overturned-glass right-side-up on a coaster. Half of the participants experienced action effects (lights) as a consequence of their movements (AE groups), while the other half of the participants did not (No-AE groups). While there was no difference between the AE and No-AE groups, end-state comfort performance differed across age as well as between tasks. Results revealed a significant increase in end-state comfort performance in the bar-transport task from 13% in the 3-year-olds to 94% in the 8-year-olds. Interestingly, the number of children grasping the bar according to end-state comfort doubled from 3 to 4 years and from 4 to 5 years of age. In the overturned-glass task an increase in end-state comfort performance from already 63% in the 3-year-olds to 100% in the 8-year-olds was significant as well. When comparing end-state comfort performance across tasks, results showed that 3- and 4-year-old children were better at manipulating the glass as compared to manipulating the bar, most probably, because children are more familiar with manipulating glasses. Together, these results suggest that preschool years are an important period for the development of motor planning in which the familiarity with the object involved in the task plays a significant role in children’s ability to plan their movements according to end-state comfort. PMID:23112786

  13. Doxofylline and Theophylline: A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Akram, MD Faiz; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Ahmad, Zuber; Ali Khan, Rahat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives COPD is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Theophylline has been used in the treatment of COPD for decades. Doxofylline a new theophylline congener has been claimed to have better safety profile. The study was undertaken to compare theophylline and doxophylline at doses recommended and commonly used in clinical practice. Methods The study was conducted in patients of COPD in TB chest department of a medical college hospital. It was randomized, prospective and open label. A total of 154 patients were divided in two group .Group I was administered 400 mg theophylline SR once daily and group II was administered doxofylline 400 mg twice a day orally. Spirometric variables symptom score, and adverse effects were recorded on day 0, 7 and 21 of therapy. Data were compared and analysed using SPSS version 16. Results Results of the study showed that there was no statistically significant difference with respect to spirometric variables and symptom score in the two groups and there was no significant difference in two groups with respect to side effects (p>0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that doxophylline has no advantage over theophylline in terms of either efficacy or safety on the doses commonly used in current clinical practice. PMID:23373027

  14. Plantago ovata: Clinical study of overuse.

    PubMed

    Agha, Rukh-e-Nasreen; Saeed, Aftab; Nazar, Halima

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to undertake evidence-base study to evaluate clinical manifestation of the over-estimated use of herbal drug Plantago ovata and to compare it with placebo for the efficacy and adverse effects. The patients of both genders were included. Blood urea, creatinine, ALT, Serum B12, CP, ESR and liver function tests were performed. The data was statistically analyzed in both groups for differential symptomatology. In anorexia test verses control results showed that Plantago ovata husk and placebo showed the affected ratio as 81 percent and 50 percent, correspondingly. Whereas in clinical performance of heart burning, pain in epigastrium, low libido, body pain, dyspepsia, fever, burning sensation in palm and sole in test drug showed affected response as adverse effect 90%, 88% and as control drug, 36%, 29%, 22%, 25%, 38%, 30%, 33%, 57%, respectively. The results were highly marked in test drug i.e. in comparison with placebo. This is clearly evident from data analysis that effect observed in test arm is far more superior hence null hypothesis was rejected clearly. Similarly serological and biochemical reports study i.e. (ALT, Vit. B1 and Vit A) revealed that there is no hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effect found in both the drugs. PMID:27087080

  15. Clinical laboratory studies in Barth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Hilary J; Sandlers, Yana; McClellan, Rebecca; Kelley, Richard I

    2014-06-01

    Barth Syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized principally by dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia and caused by defects in tafazzin, an enzyme responsible for modifying the acyl chain moieties of cardiolipin. While several comprehensive clinical studies of Barth Syndrome have been published detailing cardiac and hematologic features, descriptions of its biochemical characteristics are limited. To gain a better understanding of the clinical biochemistry of this rare disease, we measured hematologic and biochemical values in a cohort of Barth Syndrome patients. We characterized multiple biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acids, plasma 3-methylglutaconic acid, cholesterol, cholesterol synthetic intermediates, and red blood cell membrane fatty acid profiles in 28 individuals with Barth Syndrome from ages 10 months to 30 years. We describe a unique biochemical profile for these patients, including decreased plasma arginine levels. We further studied the plasma amino acid profiles, cholesterol, cholesterol synthetic intermediates, and plasma 3-methylglutaconic acid levels in 8 female carriers and showed that they do not share any of the distinct, Barth Syndrome-specific biochemical laboratory abnormalities. Our studies augment and expand the biochemical profiles of individuals with Barth Syndrome, describe a unique biochemical profile for these patients, and provide insight into the possible underlying biochemical pathology in this disorder. PMID:24751896

  16. Successful treatment for ulcerative proctitis with rectal tacrolimus in an 8-year-old girl with intolerance to mesalamine.

    PubMed

    Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Girón Fernández-Crehuet, Francisco; Serrano Nieto, Maria Juliana; Gallego-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Luque Pérez, Silvia; Sierra Salinas, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition causing continuous mucosal inflammation of the colon without granulomas on biopsy. It affects the rectum, and, to a variable extent, the colon in continuity and is characterized by a relapsing and remitting course. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) regimens are recommended as first-line induction therapy for mild to moderately active pediatric UC and for maintenance of remission regardless of other initial treatments. In large clinical trials in adults, mesalamine intolerance was found in 2-5 % of the patients. We present a case of an 8-year-old female patient with intolerance to mesalamine and proctitis resistant to conventional therapy who responded to rectal tacrolimus treatment. The patient started with a dose of 2 mg/day at night with an excellent response. She reported feeling better than any of the previously prescribed treatments and without feeling the discomfort of previously administered enemas. After four weeks of treatment, the dose was reduced to 2 mg/week with no relapses. Tacrolimus suppositories were very well tolerated, and no adverse effects have been reported. Although only very little data has been published, rectal tacrolimus seems to be safe and of efficacy in ulcerative proctitis resistant to standard therapy. PMID:26185880

  17. Clinical studies of neuroinflammatory mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Crystal C; Andrews, Sarah Ramsay

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that appears to result from genetic and environmental factors. Although the dopamine hypothesis is the driving theory behind the majority of translation research in schizophrenia, emerging evidence suggests that aberrant immune mechanisms in the peripheral and central nervous system influence the etiology of schizophrenia and the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms that define the illness. The initial interest in inflammatory processes comes from epidemiological data and historical observations, dating back several decades. A growing body of research on developmental exposure to infection, stress-induced inflammatory response, glial cell signaling, structural and functional brain changes and therapeutic trials demonstrates the impact that inflammation has on the onset and progression of schizophrenia. Research in animal models of psychosis has helped to advance clinical and basic science investigations of the immune mechanisms disrupted in schizophrenia. However, they are limited by the inability to recapitulate the human experience of hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder that define psychosis. To date, translational studies of inflammatory mechanisms in human subjects have not been reviewed in great detail. Here, we critically review clinical studies that focus on inflammatory mechanisms in schizophrenia. Understanding the neuroinflammatory mechanisms involved in schizophrenia may be essential in identifying potential therapeutic targets to minimize the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenia by interrupting disease development. PMID:26235751

  18. Weight change in the first two months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jeffery, Robert; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between 1- and 2-month weight loss (WL) and 8-year WL among participants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Design & Methods 2290 Look AHEAD participants (BMI: 35.65±5.93kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes received an intensive behavioral WL intervention. Results 1 and 2-month WL were associated with yearly WL through Year 8 (p’s<0.0001). At Month 1, participants losing 2-4% and >4% had 1.62 (95% CI:1.32,1.98) and 2.79 (95% CI:2.21,3.52) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 and 1.28 (95% CI:1.05,1.58) and 1.77 (95% CI:1.40,2.24) times higher odds of achieving a ≥5% at Year 8, compared to those losing <2% initially. At Month 2, a 3-6% WL resulted in greater odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=1.85; CI:1.48,2.32) and a >6% WL resulted in the greatest odds of achieving a ≥5% WL at Year 4 (OR=3.85; CI:3.05,4.88) and Year 8 (OR=2.28; CI:1.81,2.89), compared to those losing <3%. Differences in adherence between WL categories were observed as early as Month 2. Conclusions 1 and 2-month WL was associated with 8-year WL. Future studies should examine whether alternative treatment strategies can be employed to improve treatment outcomes among those with low initial WL. PMID:26110890

  19. Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements.

    PubMed

    DuVal, G

    2004-02-01

    Clinical Study Agreements (CSAs) can have profound effects both on the protection of human subjects and on the independence of investigators to conduct research with scientific integrity. Sponsors, institutions, and even investigators may fail to give adequate attention to these issues in the negotiation of CSAs. Despite the key role of CSAs in structuring ethically important aspects of research, they remain largely unregulated and unreviewed for adherence to ethical norms. Academic institutions routinely enter into research contracts that fail to meet adequate ethical standards. This is a failing that can have serious consequences. Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review. PMID:14872068

  20. Case studies in clinical practice development.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Romi; Lipman, John; Murphy, Timothy P

    2005-03-01

    By asking identical questions of several successful practitioners of clinical interventional radiology, a snapshot of the current and future status of interventional radiology as a clinical discipline is presented. PMID:21326672

  1. Endovascular Management of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: An 8-year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimidis, Thomas S.; Karkos, Christos D. Karamanos, Dimitrios G.; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O.; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios N.; Demiropoulos, Filippos P.; Malkotsis, Dimitrios P.; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G.

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to review our experience with the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). During an 8-year period, 69 patients with a RAAA presented to our department; 67 underwent assessment by computed axial tomography, and 2 died on arrival before any evaluation was possible. A total of 42 patients (63%) were suitable for stent-grafting, and all but 1 (c-arm failure) proceeded to endovascular repair. Of these, 27 underwent surgery with local anaesthesia; 3 did so under general anaesthesia; and a further 11 procedures were commenced with the patient under local anaesthesia and then converted to general anaesthesia. A total of 28 bifurcated and 14 aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafts were implanted. Aortic occlusion balloons were used in 2 (5%) patients. The in-hospital and the 30-day mortality rates were 36% and 41%, respectively. After surgery, 21 complications were encountered in 17 patients. Two patients required reintervention during their hospital stay (1 type I endoleak and 1 limb occlusion). During the follow-up (median 730 days [range 90 to 580 days]), the 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival probabilities were 53% (SE 7.9%) and 50% (SE 8.0%), respectively. Three reinterventions were necessary during follow-up (2 type I endoleaks and 1 graft occlusion). We conclude that endovascular treatment is feasible in the emergency setting, and the early experience is promising. Whether such an approach is superior to open surgery remains to be determined.

  2. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the vagina in an 8 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lin Yin; Hwang, Wei Sek; Wong, Adelina; Chan, Mei Yoke; Chui, Chan Hon

    2007-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history. We present the first reported case of PEComa of the vagina diagnosed in an 8-year-old girl. This was initially diagnosed on biopsy as an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and the patient underwent 3 cycles of chemotherapy according to the Mesenchymal Malignant Tumour 1989 protocol. A repeat scan, however, revealed an increase in tumor size. Total resection was achieved via a transvaginal (vertical sleeve) partial vaginectomy. The resected tumor had the typical appearance of a PEComa. Immunostains showed positive staining of tumor cells for HMB45, neuron-specific enolase, and calponin but were negative for S100 protein, melaninA, chromogranin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, caldesmon, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1/3, and synaptophysin. Six months after surgery, she remains free of tumor and is on follow-up with regular local examinations under anesthesia and computed tomography scans. Our case highlights the importance of an accurate initial diagnosis, and we stress the importance of regular surveillance over a significant period. PMID:17336201

  3. Clinical studies of intestinal folate conjugases.

    PubMed

    Halsted, C H; Beer, W H; Chandler, C J; Ross, K; Wolfe, B M; Bailey, L; Cerda, J J

    1986-03-01

    Clinical differences between the two human intestinal mucosal folate conjugases were assessed by measurement of their activities in normal individuals and in patients with chronic diarrhea of differing causes. Intracellular folate conjugase (ICFC) was 15-fold more active than brush border folate conjugase (BBFC) in jejunal mucosa from seven obese patients undergoing elective gastric bypass surgery. The activity of ICFC was similar among normal volunteers and patients with diarrhea of unknown origin (DUO), gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the short bowel syndrome (IBD-SBS). By contrast, BBFC, sucrase, and lactase were decreased significantly in GSE, and BBFC was increased in IBD-SBS. The activity of BBFC correlated with lactase and with sucrase in the normal subjects and in patients with DUO, whereas no correlations were found with the activity of ICFC in any group. Our clinical studies confirm that ICFC and BBFC are different enzymes. ICFC is not affected by intestinal disease, whereas the activity of jejunal BBFC, like that of other brush border enzymes, is decreased by mucosal injury and is also capable of adapting to distal small intestinal disease or surgical resection. PMID:3081671

  4. [Cardiac myxoma in the elderly. Clinical study].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L; Siuti, E; Verunelli, F; Bortolotti, U; Salvatore, L

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac mixoma in the elderly. A clinical study. The clinical features of 13 cardiac myxomas surgically resected are presented. The mean age at presentation was 68 years. Ten were in the left atrium, 5 near the fossa ovalis, 3 at the base of the atrial septum, 1 at the inferior wall and 1 on the anterior leaflet of mitral valve, 3 were in the right atrium, 1 of these was accompanied with a myxoma at the apex of left ventricle. The ECG and the chest X-ray were normal in 9 and in 8 patients, respectively. In 3 patients, the diagnosis was occasionally made by routine 2-dimensional echocardiography. 5 patients presented with fever of unknown origin, arthralgias, weakness, weight loss. None had intracardiac or extracardiac recurrence in the 73 months follow-up. The presentation with constitutional symptoms only like fever of UO, may mimic collagen and neoplastic diseases, vasculitis, lymphomas: the 2-dimensional echocardiography is mandatory to esclude a cardiac myxoma in the elderly. PMID:9213810

  5. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-08-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:24165457

  6. Clinical studies of styrene workers: initial findings.

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, W V; Lilis, R; Nicholson, W J; Anderson, H; Fischbein, A; Daum, S; Rom, W; Rice, C; Selikoff, I J

    1976-01-01

    Styrene monomer is a high volume chemical used chiefly in production of polystyrene. A clinical survey of 493 production workers was undertaken at the oldest and largest monomer production, polymerization, and extrusion facility in the U.S. Relative exposure durations and levels were obtained from occupational histories. Significant differences between the high and low exposure groups were found with regard to history of acute prenarcotic symptoms, acute lower respiratory symptoms, prevalence of FEV 1/FV less than 75 per cent, and elevated GCTP. Other liver function tests, chest x-ray, FVC less than 80 per cent, and hematological parameters showed no distinct pattern. A concomitant mortality study has been mounted and is in progress. PMID:1026403

  7. Fulminant liver failure: clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Slapak, M

    1975-11-01

    Clinical experience of some newer methods of hepatic support is described. The results are unpredictable and far from satisfactory. The need for an animal model in which potential therapeutic methods can be studied is emphasized. Such a model based on carefully imposed ischaemic insult to the liver in the absence of portacaval shunting is described. It is suggested that bacterial presence in the bowel together with a depression of the liver reticuloendothelial function plays an important part in the early and rapid mortality of acute liver failure. Temporary auxiliary liver transplantation using an allograft or a closely related primate heterograft seem to be the 2 best available methods of hepatic support for potentially reversible acute liver failure. PMID:812415

  8. [Clinical study on cefprozil in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Iwai, N; Miyazu, M; Nakamura, H; Kasai, K

    1992-11-01

    Clinical efficacy and safety of cefprozil (CFPZ, BMY-28100), a newly developed oral cephalosporin, were studied in our pediatric department. Clinical effectiveness, bacteriological effectiveness and side effects were studied in 116 pediatric patients with ages ranging 4 months to 11 years. CFPZ was given 4.6-14.1 mg/kg daily in 3 times for 3-10 days. Clinical efficacies were evaluated in 112 patients, and the therapeutic effectiveness were excellent in 1 and good in 6 for 7 patients with acute pharyngitis, excellent in 24 and good in 26 for acute purulent tonsillitis, excellent in 3, good in 8 and fair in 1 for acute bronchitis, excellent in 21, good in 7, fair in 1 and poor in 1 for acute pneumonia, excellent in 1 acute purulent parotitis, excellent in 2 and good in 7 for acute UTI, good in 1 impetigo, fair in 1 periproctal abscess and good in 1 acute enteritis. The effectiveness rate was 96.4%. Bacteriologically, 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (beta-lactamase producing strains), 1 strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (beta-lactamase producing strain), 2 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, 4 strains of beta-Streptococcus, 1 strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae (beta-lactamase producing strain) and 1 strain of Salmonella C2 were all disappeared, and of 22 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 strains were disappeared, 1 was decreased and 1 was unknown, of 5 strains of Escherichia coli (3 beta-lactamase producing strains), 4 were disappeared and 1 was decreased, of 29 strains of Haemophilus influenzae (14 beta-lactamase producing strains), 14 were disappeared, 11 were decreased, 3 persisted and 1 was unknown and of 2 strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae (1 beta-lactamase producing strain), 1 was disappeared and 1 persisted. The bacteriological eradication rates for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 97.1% and 56.8%, respectively, and the drug was especially effective against Gram-positive bacteria. No side

  9. Oncolysis by paramyxoviruses: preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Olga V; Guo, Zong S; Senin, Vyacheslav M; Senina, Anna V; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Chumakov, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that a broad spectrum of human malignant cells can be killed by oncolytic paramyxoviruses, which include cells of ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal origin. In clinical trials, significant reduction in size or even complete elimination of primary tumors and established metastases are reported. Different routes of viral administration (intratumoral, intravenous, intradermal, intraperitoneal, or intrapleural), and single- versus multiple-dose administration schemes have been explored. The reported side effects are grade 1 and 2, with the most common among them being mild fever. Some advantages in using paramyxoviruses as oncolytic agents versus representatives of other viral families exist. The cytoplasmic replication results in a lack of host genome integration and recombination, which makes paramyxoviruses safer and more attractive candidates for widely used therapeutic oncolysis in comparison with retroviruses or some DNA viruses. The list of oncolytic paramyxovirus representatives includes attenuated measles virus (MV), mumps virus (MuV), low pathogenic Newcastle disease (NDV), and Sendai (SeV) viruses. Metastatic cancer cells frequently overexpress on their surface some molecules that can serve as receptors for MV, MuV, NDV, and SeV. This promotes specific viral attachment to the malignant cell, which is frequently followed by specific viral replication. The paramyxoviruses are capable of inducing efficient syncytium-mediated lyses of cancer cells and elicit strong immunomodulatory effects that dramatically enforce anticancer immune surveillance. In general, preclinical studies and phase 1–3 clinical trials yield very encouraging results and warrant continued research of oncolytic paramyxoviruses as a particularly valuable addition to the existing panel of cancer-fighting approaches. PMID:26640815

  10. Arctic Cloud Fraction and Microphysical Characteristics from 8-year Space-based Lidar and Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Yeo, H.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, M. H.; Son, S. W.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic clouds are a key factor in determining the energy budget both at the top of the atmosphere and at the suface by modulating the long-wave and short-wave radiative fluxes, which affect the surface temperature and may effect on the growth or retreat of sea ice extent and thickness. In this work, we exmine three-dimensional geometric and microphysical properties of Arctic clouds mainly from 8-year space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). Cloud Frations (CFs) from CALIOP-CPR and MODIS show similar seasonal and inter-annual variations, but shows significant different in CF over the opened sea area (i.e., Barents and Kara Sea) and over the sea ice. High occurrences of cloud top height are found below 2 km. But comparably high presences of mid- and high-level clouds are also found, especially in winter-time. This suggests that both low- and high-level clouds over the Arctic may influence on the long-wave radiation budget both at the surface and top of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the top height of winter-time clouds looks consistent with tropopause height. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) over the Arctic shows high in summer and low in winter, which would be contrary to the seasonal/monthly variations of CF. High COD during summer can be explained by enhanced level of liquid cloud droplet number concentrations. The number concentration and effective radius (in parenthesis) of liquid cloud droplet during summner was in the range of about 30 to 80 cm-3 (about 6 ~ 16 mm).

  11. Uremic pruritus. Clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate clinical aspects of pruritus in maintenance hemodialysis patients and to evaluate factors of putative pathogenic importance. 60-65% of the patients in a maintenance hemodialysis program during a two-year period suffered from itching. Patients with pruritus tended to have been on dialysis treatment longer than those without pruritus (p = 0.05), otherwise there was no difference in clinical data or routine laboratory tests. Measurement of itch intensity continuously over one week in 28 patients using a computerized method showed that itching peaked at night after two days without dialysis, was relatively high during treatment and lowest during the day following dialysis. Our results suggest that the accumulation of pruritogens between dialysis sessions influences the intensity of itching. Most patients had "dry" skin. Recording of the stratum corneum water content by measurement of electrical capacitance, in 31 patients (19 with pruritus) and 12 controls, disclosed no significant difference between dialysis patients and controls, but a tendency that pruritic patients had a lower water content than the other subjects. In different body areas, there was a positive correlation in all groups between the clinical estimation of xerosis and hydration. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were significantly higher in dialysis patients with pruritus than in those without, but there was no correlation between the degree of symptoms and the PTH level. Indirect immunohistochemistry revealed no immunoreactivity for different parts of the PTH molecule in skin biopsies from uremic patients. Intradermal injections of PTH fragments did not evoke itching or other cutaneous reactions in patients or controls. Our results do not support PTH as a peripheral mediator of uremic itching. Flare reactions induced by intradermal histamine injections were significantly smaller in 26 dialysis patients (18 with pruritus) than in 9 healthy

  12. Treatment of Onychomycosis – a Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pajaziti, Laura; Vasili, Ermira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail unit. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the nail apparatus impose the need for long-term treatment to achieve complete cure. Goal: The main goal of this project is to study the effectiveness of several treatment protocols for onychomycosis based on Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Material and methods: The study included 133 patients with onychomycosis, diagnosed by KOH microscopy and culture. Based on disease severity, patients were grouped into groups with SCIO values: 6-9, and 12-16. These groups were randomly subdivided to 5 subgroups according to the given treatment protocols: fluconazole 150 mg 1x weekly, itraconazole continual therapy, itraconazole pulse therapy, terbinafine 250 mg/d, and terbinafine + ciclopirox 8% lacquer, respectively. The cure rate was evaluated at the end of 48 week. Results: The obtained cure rates according to the above mentioned protocols were: 92.30%, 81.81%, 83.33%, 90.90%, and 100%, respectively for groups of patients with SCIO values 6 – 9. Within patients with SCIO values 12-16, were achieved cure rates as follows: 78.57%, 78.57%, 75%, 80%, and 86.66%. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in cure rate between five treatment protocols applied in this study. In patients with high SCIO values is expected a decrease in cure rate. PMID:26261386

  13. Epidemiology of subperiodic bancroftian filariasis in Samoa 8 years after control by mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, E.; Penaia, L.; Spears, G. F. S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1979, a microfilarial prevalence study was conducted in a population of 8385 persons inhabiting 28 villages in Samoa using both the nuclepore filtration (NP) method (with 1 ml blood) and the fingerprick (FP) method (with 60 mm3 blood). The overall prevalence rate was 4.5% by the NP method and 3.8% by the FP method. The average microfilarial prevalence in males was 2.3 times higher than in females, and the rate among males aged 30 years and over was as high as 20%. The positive cases were found to be concentrated in certain households. The median microfilarial density (MfD-50) for the whole of Samoa was 18.6 using 60-mm3 blood samples (males, 21.4; females 14.2). While the MfD-50 of any village has a positive association with the microfilarial prevalence rate of that village, a relatively high MfD-50 was noticed among young people under 20 years of age together with low prevalence rates. The negative binomial distribution was fitted to the data on the distribution of microfilarial counts in Samoa and gave a better fit than the log-normal distribution. The data having been fitted to the negative binomial, the number of false negatives could be determined as 9% of the estimated number of positives in the survey population when the NP method was employed and about 25% with the FP method. Further studies revealed that 15.1% of the microfilaria carriers presented some clinical manifestation, the most common being an attack of filarial fever (13.1%). The average duration of a fever attack was 3.5 days and the total period with fever/person/year averaged 27.1 days. PMID:3912078

  14. Erythroderma: A clinical study of 97 cases

    PubMed Central

    Akhyani, Maryam; Ghodsi, Zahra S; Toosi, Siavash; Dabbaghian, Hossein

    2005-01-01

    Background Erythroderma is a rare skin disorder that may be caused by a variety of underlying dermatoses, infections, systemic diseases and drugs. Methods We reviewed the clinical, laboratory and biopsy material of 97 patients diagnosed with erythroderma who were treated in our department over a 6-year period (1996 through 2002). Results The male-female ratio was 1.85:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.2 years. The most common causative factors were dermatoses (59.7%), followed by drug reactions (21.6%), malignancies (11.3%) and idiopathic causes (7.2%). Carbamazepine was the most common drug (57.1%). The best clinicopathologic correlation was found in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and pityriasis rubra pilaris related erythroderma. Apart from scaling and erythema that were present in all patients, pruritus was the most common finding (97.5%), followed by fever (33.6%), lymphadenopathy (21.3%), edema (14.4%) and hyperkeratosis (7.2%). Conclusion This study outlines that underlying etiologic factors of erythroderma may show geographic variations. Our series had a high percentage of erythroderma secondary to preexisting dermatoses and a low percentage of idiopathic cases. There was no HIV-infected patient among our series based on multiple serum antibody tests. The clinical features of erythroderma were identical, irrespective of the etiology. The onset of the disease was usually insidious except in drug-induced erythroderma, where it was acute. The group associated with the best prognosis was that related to drugs. PMID:15882451

  15. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  16. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Gregory J

    2012-02-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  17. Gastric polyps--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Niv, Y; Bat, L

    1985-10-01

    In 72 of 13,500 patients who underwent endoscopy of the upper digestive tract during an 8-year period, 99 gastric polyps were found. All the polyps were biopsied; 18 were also removed. Histological examination of the 99 polyps showed that 25 were inflammatory, 23 hyperplastic, 17 hyperplasiogenic, 10 adenomatous, 3 hamartomatous, 3 with intestinal metaplasia and 18 with normal mucosa. The histological diagnosis was changed following polypectomy in 50% of the polyps that had been removed. Dysplasia was discovered in two adenomatous polyps; no carcinoma was found. In two cases the polyps were syncronous to carcinoma; in two other cases, they were metachronous to carcinoma. Inflammatory polyps were found in association with inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as duodenal and gastric ulcer, esophagitis, gastritis and duodenitis. No correlation was demonstrated between the symptoms and the type or location of the polyps. In 10 patients, who were under observation for an average duration of 3.5 years, 3 polyps disappeared, 1 was removed and 11 had not changed. We conclude that endoscopic polypectomy of gastric polyps may not always be indicated and should be reserved for polyps that were adenomatous, according to the biopsy, or that had grown and changed their shape in a follow-up endoscopy. PMID:4077473

  18. Bioplastique at 6 years: clinical outcome studies.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Gregory, S R; Salisbury, A V

    1997-11-01

    Bioplastique is a biphasic polymer for the permanent augmentation of some soft tissues. It was developed in 1987, and clinical studies at this institution were begun in 1990. The combination of low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone and solid polymer particles allows the implantation of permanent polymer spheres through a small needle under local anesthesia. In this study 127 cases are reviewed of consecutive patients who have received Bioplastique for scar revision, wrinkles, and augmentation for soft-tissue defects at 6 years after application. All patients who had not been in for follow-up recently were contacted by mail and questioned on the permanence of augmentation and migration of particles. About 30 percent of the patients were unreachable and had their charts reviewed for permanence and migration of particles. In eight of these cases, Bioplastique was removed because of overcorrection, two of them may have had infection. Bioplastique has gained wide use throughout the world and although some complications have been reported, in general, it functions quite well when used in selected cases. PMID:9385974

  19. Clinical study of the stunned myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sone, T; Tsuboi, H; Sassa, H

    1991-09-01

    Clinical features of 37 cases of stunned myocardium were studied. Mean duration of asynergy was 22.6 +/- 15.7 days. In all 11 cases of unstable angina without any significant serum creatine kinase leakage, the duration of asynergy was within 14 days. Related coronary lesions were reperfused (spontaneously or by interventional therapy) to TIMI grade II or higher. Transient Q waves were observed in 39% of all cases. Negative T waves tended to be prolonged, and persisted after disappearance of asynergy in 74% of all cases. 201Tl uptake in the stunned area varied widely between individual cases (ranging from "absent" to "normal"), although it became normal in all cases in the chronic stage. Mal-distribution of 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) to the endocardial side of the stunned area was observed in 33%. In 186 cases of acute coronary syndrome, we studied whether or not reversibility of ischemia-disturbed myocardium could be predicted by simultaneous dual isotope SPECT, and found that 201Tl-uptake in the chronic stage significantly improved in the region showing absence of 99mTc-PYP accumulation or maldistribution of 99mTc-PYP to the endocardial side, while reversibility of the region showing transmural 99mTc-PYP accumulation and a dought pattern was poor. Ischemia-associated myocardial damage recovered to various degrees, and dual isotope SPECT was useful in evaluating the reversibility of such damage already at the acute stage. PMID:1834873

  20. Physicochemical changes in sediments at Orplands Farm, Essex, UK following 8 years of managed realignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Cundy, A. B.; Davies-Hearn, S.; Hughes, R.; Turner, S.; MacLeod, C. L.

    2008-02-01

    Managed realignment (MR) is a 'soft' engineering technique that involves the deliberate landwards retreat of the existing line of coastal defence and subsequent tidal inundation of land. Managed realignment has been established worldwide for over 30 years and its goals may include habitat restoration, recovery of biodiversity and sustainable coastal defence. In southeast England in particular, an increasing number of MR sites (20-110 ha) have been commissioned in the last decade in response to increasing coastal habitat loss and sea-level rise. Following initial sea wall breaching and site flooding, monitoring of these sites is usually carried out for a period of 5 years and during this time changes in ecosystem structure can be easily observed. However, there is a poor understanding of the long-term effects of flooding on soil physicochemical parameters including sediment geochemistry and geochemical cycling, nutrient fluxes and soil maturation processes. Such physical and chemical changes may continue to take place over time-scales exceeding 5 years and therefore current monitoring practices may not be sufficient. This paper examines the changes in the physicochemical parameters of sediments in vertical core sections at the Orplands Farm MR site, Blackwater Estuary, Essex, 8 years after its flooding in 1995. Post-breach sediment accumulation rates at the site have been determined and a multi-proxy approach has been used to identify a pre-breach land surface. Soil development and the vertical distribution of saltmarsh plants following breaching have also been examined. The species saturation index approach has been used to provide an indication of the success of MR at this site. The pre-breach land surface was identified at 4-6 cm depth indicating a sediment accumulation rate ca. 0.75 cm a -1 since the site was breached in 1995. This sedimentation rate exceeds the regional sea-level rise of 0.1-0.3 cm a -1 and hence marsh development at the site is expected to

  1. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  2. Calcium-Enriched Mixture Pulpotomy of Primary Molar Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis. A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Fijan, Soleiman; Asgary, Saeed; Keikhaee, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of vital pulp therapy in primary teeth with irreversible pulpitis by using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement according to clinical and radiographic assessment. Participants and Methods: Fifty primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis in 50 children aged 6-8 years underwent pulpotomy using CEM cement as the dressing material. Following pulpotomy, pain intensity was evaluated by use of a visual analog scale at 1 and 7 days from the treatment and in clinical appointments at 3, 6 and 12 months after baseline. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 6 and 12 months. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test. Results: A total of 42 children (mean age 7.26 ± 0.82 year) completed the study. After one day treatment 56 % of children reported complete relief of pain and after 7 days 62% reported the same. However, two children complained of increased pain 1 day after treatment. None of the children reported pain in the subsequent appointments. One child complained of tenderness in percussion after 6 months. Pulp canal obliteration was the most common change in the radiographic assessment. There was no significant difference between clinical (92.8%) and radiographic (90.4%) success (p=0.990). Conclusion: Pulpotomy using CEM cement could present a successful treatment in primary molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27326265

  3. From numeracy to arithmetic: Precursors of arithmetic performance in children with cerebral palsy from 6 till 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Van Rooijen, M; Verhoeven, L; Steenbergen, B

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are generally delayed in arithmetic compared to their peers. The development of early numeracy performance in children with CP is not yet evident, nor have the factors associated with change over time been identified. Therefore, we examined the development of numeracy in children with CP over a two year period and studied which cognitive factors were predictive of arithmetic performance. A longitudinal study with three measurement waves separated by one year was conducted. 56 children participated (37 boys, M=6.0 years, SD=.58). Standardized tasks were used to assess verbal- and visual-spatial working memory, executive functioning, fine motor skills and early numeracy performance. In addition, experimental tasks were developed to measure counting and arithmetic. The results showed that early numeracy performance of children with CP increased between 6 and 8 years of age. Structural equation modelling showed that early numeracy was strongly related to arithmetic performance at the consecutive year. Working memory, counting and fine motor skills were all positively related to early numeracy performance a year later. Furthermore, working memory and fine motor skills were precursors of the development of early numeracy. Considering the importance of numeracy and arithmetic in daily life and in academic and work success, children with CP could substantially benefit from intervention programs aimed at increasing working memory and early numeracy performance. PMID:26209773

  4. Impact of an 8-Year-Old Transgenic Poplar Plantation on the Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Armand; Bérubé, Jean A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term impact of field-deployed genetically modified trees on soil mutualistic organisms is not well known. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of poplars transformed with a binary vector containing the selectable nptII marker and β-glucuronidase reporter genes on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi 8 years after field deployment. We generated 2,229 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR products from 1,150 EM root tips and 1,079 fungal soil clones obtained from the organic and mineral soil horizons within the rhizosphere of three control and three transformed poplars. Fifty EM fungal operational taxonomic units were identified from the 1,706 EM fungal ITS amplicons retrieved. Rarefaction curves from both the root tips and soil clones were close to saturation, indicating that most of the EM species present were recovered. Based on qualitative and/or quantitative α- and β-diversity measurements, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between EM fungal communities associated with transformed poplars and the untransformed controls. However, EM communities recovered from the root tips and soil cloning analyses differed significantly from each other. We found no evidence of difference in the EM fungal community structure linked to the long-term presence of the transgenic poplars studied, and we showed that coupling root tip analysis with a soil DNA cloning strategy is a complementary approach to better document EM fungal diversity. PMID:19801471

  5. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Eisenmann, Joey C; Froberg, Karsten; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing accuracy test was used to assess MP. PA was not correlated with %BF, but was significantly correlated with MP. The strongest correlations existed between %BF and MP. Low %BF/High PA had higher MP scores compared with High %BF/Low PA, and within the High %BF groups MP was higher in the High PA versus Low PA group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood. PMID:22728412

  6. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  7. Trends in Indications and Techniques of Corneal Transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Motevasseli, Tahmineh; Chamani, Tahereh; Rezaei Kanavi, Mahnoush; Kheiri, Bahareh; Safi, Sare

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report changing trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran. Methods: We reviewed eye bank records of 47,129 patients who had undergone corneal transplantation between 2006 and 2013 at different eye centers throughout Iran. Results: The most common indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (KCN, n = 21,350 eyes, 45.3%), followed by bullous keratopathy (BK, n = 8,566 eyes, 18.2%), corneal opacity and scar (COS, n = 7,158 eyes, 15.2%), graft failure (n = 3,252 eyes, 6.9%), corneal dystrophies (n = 2,553 eyes, 5.4%), and infectious keratitis (n = 2,238 eyes, 4.7%). Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the frequency of BK (P = 0.001) and graft failure (P = 0.025), and a significant decrease in the relative frequency of COS (P = 0.012). The prevalence of KCN (P = 0.172), infectious keratitis (P = 0.107), and corneal dystrophies (P = 0.836) remained unchanged. The most common technique of corneal transplantation was penetrating keratoplasty (PKP, n = 33,476 eyes, 71.0%), followed by deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, n = 8,363 eyes, 17.7%), Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 3,516 eyes, 7.5%), tectonic (n = 1752, 3.7%), and keratolimbal allograft (KLAL, n = 19 eyes, 0.1%). Regarding the shift in surgical techniques, a significant increase was observed in DSAEK (P < 0.001), whereas PKP was significantly decreased (P = 0.005) over the 8-year period. No significant change was seen in the rates of DALK (P = 0.354), tectonic graft (P > 0.999) and KLAL (P = 0.151). Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease.

  8. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Decline in Walking Speed Over 8 Years Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Danit R.; Houston, Denise K.; Hue, Trisha F.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Sahyoun, Nadine R.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Geva, Diklah; Vardi, Hillel; Harris, Tamara B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Walking speed is an indirect marker of overall mobility performance. Data regarding its association with diet is lacking. Objectives To determine the association between the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) score with 20m walking-speed over 8 years. Design Health-ABC cohort study beginning in 1997–1998. Setting and participants We analyzed data of 2,225 well-functioning participants aged ≥70y. Measurements Walking-speed was assessed in relation to low, medium, and high adherence to the MedDiet (0–2, 3–5, 6–9 points, respectively). Results Individuals in the highest vs. the lowest MedDiet adherence groups were more likely to be men, less likely to be smokers, with lower BMI, higher energy intake and physical activity (p<0.05). Usual and rapid 20m walking speed were highest in the high MedDiet adherence group compared with the other groups, 1.19±0.19, 1.16±0.21, and 1.15±0.19m/s, respectively, (p=0.02) for usual speed and 1.65±0.30, 1.59±0.32, and 1.55±0.30m/s, respectively (p=0.001) for rapid speed. Over 8y, both usual and rapid 20m walking speed declined in all MedDiet adherence groups. Higher MedDiet adherence was an independent predictor of less decline in usual 20m walking speed (p=0.049) in Generalized Estimating Equations adjusted for age, race, gender, site, education, smoking, physical activity, energy intake, health status, depression, and cognitive score. The effect decreased after adding total body-fat-percent to the model (p=0.134). Similar results were observed for MedDiet adherence and rapid 20m walking speed; the association remained significant after adjustment for total body-fat-percent (p=0.012). In all models the interaction between time and MedDiet adherence was not significant. Conclusion Walking speed over 8 years was faster among those with higher MedDiet adherence at baseline. The differences remained significant over 8y, suggesting a long-term effect of diet on mobility performance with aging. PMID:23035758

  9. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  10. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case…

  11. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009) reveals distinct transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ederth, Josefine; Jern, Camilla; Norder, Helené; Magnius, Lars; Alm, Erik; Rognsvåg, Björg Kleverman; Sundin, Carl-Gustaf; Brytting, Mia; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county). The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557) of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp) was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL) was used to analyze trends over time. Results The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38%) and 3a (34%). Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered), while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered), possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions. PMID:26854010

  12. Surgery for Wrist Ganglia: One-Hundred and Twenty-Two Patients Reviewed 8 Years After Operation

    PubMed Central

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Håberg, Øyvind; Borchgrevink, Grethe Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Wrist ganglia give few symptoms, but are a common reason for referral to a hand surgeon. We studied patient long-term satisfaction after operation. We reviewed 122 patients, who were operated for dorsal (n=82) and volar (n=40) wrist ganglia 8 years before (range 3-11). Three radial arteries were injured during surgery for volar a ganglion. By the time of review 33 patients (27%) had a recurrence or had been re-operated. Radical surgery did not reduce the recurrence rate significantly. Reported general complaints from the wrist improved from a mean visual analogue scores (VAS, 0=best; 100= worst) of 56 before surgery to VAS 14 at review and unsightliness from VAS 50 to VAS 14. Patients were equally happy with transverse and longitudinal scars. Ten patients (8%) stated that they would not have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that, in spite of a high recurrence rate, most patients are happy with the results of surgery. PMID:24744838

  13. [Attempt to standardize clinical tests for the purpose of quality management in the field of clinical studies and clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Midori; Komiyama, Yasushi; Furuta, Koh

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the quality management in the fields of clinical studies and clinical trials. To accomplish this purpose we tried to make guidelines for nationwide standardization of clinical tests. This study was performed by multidisciplinary personnel such as medical doctors, medical technologist, CRC, and representatives of pharmaceutical companies and/or clinical laboratory testing companies. The study was also focused on two fields of clinical tests such as pre-analytical and post-analytical phase. Each member shared various incidents and tried to make solutions. In post-analytical area in particular, further discussion concerning CDISC and SS-MIX was done. Based on these efforts, a tentative guideline was made. PMID:22184881

  14. [Clinical studies of pediatric malabsorption syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Takashi

    2006-11-01

    Multiple cases with various types of pediatric malabsorption syndromes were evaluated. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, pathophysiology, and histopathological descriptions of each patient were analyzed in an effort to clear the pathogenesis of the malabsorption syndromes and the treatments were undertaken. The cases studied, included one patient with cystic fibrosis, two with lactose intolerance with lactosuria (Durand type), one with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, two with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, one with Hartnup disease, one with congenital chroride diarrhea, one with acrodermatitis enteropathica, one with intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), five with intractable diarrhea of early infancy and four with glycogenosis type Ia. Each case description and outcome is described below: 1. A 15-year-old Japanese boy with cystic fibrosis presented with severe symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bronchiectasis, pneumothorax and hemoptysis. His prognosis was poor. Analysis of the CFTR genes of this patient revealed a homozygous large deletion from intron 16 to 17b. 2. In the sibling case of Durand type lactose intolerance, the subjects'disaccaridase activity of the small bowel, including lactase, were within normal limits. The results of per oral and per intraduodenal lactose tolerance tests confirmed lactosuria in both. These observations suggested, not only an abnormal gastric condition, but also duodenal and intestinal mucosal abnormal permeability of lactose. 3. In the case of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, the subject had a lymphedematous right arm and hand, a grossly coarsened mucosal pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (identified via radiologic examination) and the presence of lymphangiectasia (confirmed via duodenal mucosal biopsy). The major laboratory findings were hypoalbuminemia, decreased immunoglobulin levels and lymphopenia resulting from loss of lymph fluid and protein into the gastro

  15. Pitavastatin: clinical effects from the LIVES Study.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Tamio

    2011-11-01

    Although clinical trials provide useful information on drug safety and efficacy, results do not always reflect those observed in the real world. The Japanese long-term prospective post-marketing surveillance LIVALO Effectiveness and Safety (LIVES) Study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of pitavastatin in clinical practice in ~20,000 patients. After 104 weeks, pitavastatin was associated with significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (29.1%) that largely occurred within 4 weeks of treatment initiation. In patients with abnormal triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline, pitavastatin reduced TG and increased HDL-C by 22.7% and 19.9%, respectively. Overall, 88.2% of the primary prevention low-risk patients attained their Japan Atherosclerosis Society LDL-C target, compared with 82.7% of intermediate-risk patients, 66.5% of high-risk patients and 50.3% of secondary prevention patients. Only 10.4% of pitavastatin-treated patients experienced adverse events (AEs), of which approximately 84% were mild and around 1% was severe. Increases in blood creatine phosphokinase (2.7%), alanine aminotransferase (1.8%), myalgia (1.1%), aspartate aminotransferase (1.5%) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (1.0%) were the most common AEs and only 7.4% of patients discontinued pitavastatin due to AEs. Regression analysis demonstrated that age was not a significant factor for the incidence of any AE or myopathy-associated events. A subanalysis of initial LIVES data focussing on the effects of pitavastatin on HDL-C levels showed that HDL-C was elevated by 5.9% in all patients and by 24.6% in those with low (studies have shown that other statins have inconsistent effects on HDL

  16. Triptan nonresponder studies: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Dodick, David W

    2005-02-01

    The maximum absolute response rate with oral triptans, as measured in clinical trials by the incidence of relief from migraine pain at 2 hours after taking medication, is approximately 70%. Therefore around 30% of patients fail to respond to a particular triptan. Nonresponse is likely to be due to a variety of factors, including low and inconsistent absorption, use of the medication late in an attack, inadequate dosing, and variability in individual response. Evidence from recent clinical trials, however, confirms the common clinical observation that patients with a poor response to one triptan can benefit from subsequent treatment with a different triptan. Two-hour pain-relief rates of 25% to 81% using alternative triptans (naratriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan, zolmitriptan, and rizatriptan) have been reported in patients who were described as poor responders to sumatriptan. Physicians should remain vigilant in assessing the response to acute therapy and take advantage of simple clinical questionnaires that have been developed to facilitate the recognition of those patients who require and may benefit from a change in acute therapy. PMID:15705122

  17. A study of clinically related open source software projects.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Michael A; Turner, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Open source software development has recently gained significant interest due to several successful mainstream open source projects. This methodology has been proposed as being similarly viable and beneficial in the clinical application domain as well. However, the clinical software development venue differs significantly from the mainstream software venue. Existing clinical open source projects have not been well characterized nor formally studied so the 'fit' of open source in this domain is largely unknown. In order to better understand the open source movement in the clinical application domain, we undertook a study of existing open source clinical projects. In this study we sought to characterize and classify existing clinical open source projects and to determine metrics for their viability. This study revealed several findings which we believe could guide the healthcare community in its quest for successful open source clinical software projects. PMID:16779056

  18. Midterm survivorship and clinical outcome of INDUS knee prosthesis: 5 year followup study

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Kantilal H; Sancheti, Parag K; Joshi, Rajeev S; Patil, Kailash R; Shyam, Ashok K; Bhaskar, Raja R

    2016-01-01

    Background: INDUS knee implant has been designed as per the anatomical morphology of the Indian population and has shown good clinical outcome in short term studies. The purpose of the present study was to report the midterm survivorship and clinical outcome of this implant. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty three primary total knee arthroplasties in 209 consecutive patients using the INDUS knee prosthesis were prospectively enrolled. There were 145 females (155 knees) and 64 males (68 knees) with a mean age of 69.95 years (range 42–86 years). Annual followup with clinical and radiological examination was conducted, and a survivorship analysis was done using the Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: Mean followup was 5.8 years (range 5–6.5 years). Eleven patients died while eight were lost to followup and a total of 204 knees were available for followup. The mean knee flexion improved from preoperative 110.4° ± 11.24° (range 60°–130°) to 128.17° ± 8.32° (range 100°–140°) at the final followup. The mean knee score improved from 40.1 ± 10.7 to 90.3 ± 5.34 while the function score improved from 44.35 ± 12.9 to 89.58 ± 7.43. Two patient developed infection and required revision. The Kaplan–Meier analysis reported a survivorship of 98.6% (confidence interval 95.7–99.6%) at the end for 5 years for INDUS knee prosthesis. Conclusion: INDUS knee prosthesis has excellent survivorship with a good clinical outcome and low failure rate. PMID:27053801

  19. Cementless cup fixation in total hip arthroplasty after 5-8 years.

    PubMed

    Spicer, D D; Schaper, L A; Pomeroy, D L; Badenhausen, W E; Curry, J I; Suthers, K E; Smith, M W

    2001-01-01

    A series of 199 total hip arthroplasties was performed using a porous-coated, hemispherical press-fit acetabular cup. At a mean follow-up of 91.5 months 158 cups were available for clinical and radiological review. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was 62.5 years. The mean Harris Hip score at final follow-up was 87.3. No shells were revised although eccentric polyethylene wear prompted liner replacement in two cases. Osteolysis was noted in six cases but predominantly in relation to the femoral stem. Focal pelvic osteolytic lesions were rare. All the cups were classified as stable on radiography. PMID:11794260

  20. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  1. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  2. Changing attitudes toward needle biopsies of breast cancer in Shanghai: experience and current status over the past 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuang; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Ling, Hong; Chen, Jia-Jian; Shen, Ju-Ping; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic patterns in breast cancer have greatly changed over the past few decades, and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become a reliable procedure for detecting breast cancer without invasive surgery. To estimate the changing diagnostic patterns of breast cancer in urban Shanghai, 11,947 women with breast lesions detected by preoperative needle biopsy between January 1995 and December 2012 were selected from the Shanghai Cancer Data base, which integrates information from approximately 50% of breast cancer patients in Shanghai. The CNB procedure uses an automated prone unit, biopsy gun, and 14-gauge needles under freehand or ultrasound guidance and was performed by experienced radiologists and surgeons specializing in needle biopsies. Diagnosis and classification for each patient were independently evaluated by pathologists. Over the indicated 8-year period, biopsy type consisted of 11,947 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies (UCNBs), 2,015 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (UVABs), and 654 stereotactic X-ray-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (XVABs). For all the 11,947 women included in this study, image-guided needle biopsy was the initial diagnostic procedure. Approximately 81.0% of biopsied samples were histopathologically determined to be malignant lesions, 5.5% were determined to be high-risk lesions, and 13.5% were determined to be benign lesions. The number of patients choosing UCNB increased at the greatest rate, and UCNB has become a standard procedure for histodiagnosis because it is inexpensive, convenient, and accurate. The overall false-negative rate of CNB was 1.7%, and the specific false-negative rates for UCNB, UVAB, and XVAB, were 1.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This study suggests that the use of preoperative needle biopsy as the initial breast cancer diagnostic procedure is acceptable in urban Shanghai. Preoperative needle biopsy is now a standard procedure in the Shanghai Cancer Center because it may reduce the number of surgeries

  3. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  4. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights,…

  5. [Clinical studies of cefoperazone in neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Shimizu, T; Abe, H; Suzuki, J; Tanaka, R; Nagai, H; Yamamoto, S; Handa, H; Nishimoto, A; Matsuoka, K

    1986-01-01

    A multicenter trial consisting of 164 institutions through out Japan, has been conducted to study the transfer of cefoperazone (CPZ) into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the clinical effectiveness of CPZ as a therapeutic or prophylactic agent in neurosurgery. The levels of CPZ in serum and CSF were determined in 96 patients. After initial dose of 2 g CPZ (intravenous drip infusion for 30 minutes), the serum level of CPZ after 1 hour was 124.5 +/- 6.6 micrograms/ml (Mean +/- S.E.), and even after 6 hours, it maintained as high as 47.8 +/- 16.6 micrograms/ml. The peak CPZ levels in CSF in patients with normal or minimal impairment in blood-CSF-barrier (BCB) (group I) and in those of localized impairment in BCB (group II) were 1.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml at 2 hours and 3.0 +/- 1.8 micrograms/ml at 3 hours, respectively. The highest CSF level was seen in patients with meningitis (group III) and showed 5.0 +/- 2.4 micrograms/ml at 6 hours. After multiple dose of 2 g CPZ (intravenous drip infusion for 30 minutes), the serum kinetics of CPZ were not significantly different from those obtained after initial dose. However, the CPZ levels in CSF were higher than those observed after initial dose in all 3 groups and were higher than MIC75 against relevant pathogens for meningitis such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, in group III peak level of CPZ in CSF exceeded the MIC75 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is also frequently isolated from patients with meningitis in neurosurgery. As a therapeutic agent CPZ administered as sole agent was effective in 42 out of 55 cases (76.4%) in meningitis, in 78 out of 116 cases (67.2%) in pneumonia and in 36 out of 47 cases (76.6%) in urinary tract infection (UTI). Its efficacy rate against all infections treated was 72.2% (184/255). Regarding CPZ's prophylactic use, 39 out of 514 cases (7.6%) were judged as having or possibly having infections as follows; meningitis (13/514, 2

  6. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stewart, Christine P.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. PMID:24763111

  7. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  8. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Case Report: Self-Documented Over 8 Years with the Author's Observations.

    PubMed

    Elsabbagh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is an almost curable disease, but the results of management are still not encouraging owing to the deceptive nature of the disease and its sensitivity to treatment. This has made the management of the disease controversial. The following self-documented report clarifies this. I have reported my experience in a scientific manner so that my colleagues can understand thoroughly certain facts related to intracranial hypertension. Achieving the optimal adjustment of the valve is a real challenge. I describe in detail the adjustment criteria I discovered. I believe that the use of biofeedback waves are almost the best way to make a proper adjustment of the valve, that is, if waves come from this machine and show increased tension of the facial muscles (high spiky waves) the valve adjustment has to be reduced without risking overdrainage. I have been observing my symptoms in some detail, which led me to a better understanding of the clinical pictures related to cerebrospinal fluid changes. I hope that uncovering my story can help with further research and improve management in this important and interesting field. PMID:27165936

  9. Sports Neurology in Clinical Practice: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Tad

    2016-08-01

    With regard to persistent posttraumatic headache, there is legitimate concern that duration of symptoms may have an impact on the efficacy of future treatment attempts. Without neuropathologic confirmation, a clinical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy cannot be made with a high degree of confidence. Sport-related headaches are challenging in a return-to-play context, because it is often unclear whether an athlete has an exacerbation of a primary headache disorder, has new-onset headache unrelated to trauma, or is in the recovery phase after concussion. Regular physical exercise may prove beneficial to multiple neurologic disease states. PMID:27445251

  10. Document Clustering of Clinical Narratives: a Systematic Study of Clinical Sublanguages

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Olga; Hurdle, John F.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that different clinical domains use their own sublanguage in clinical notes, complicating natural language processing, but this has never been demonstrated on a broad selection of note types. Starting from formal sublanguage theory, we constructed a feature space based on vocabulary and semantic types used in 17 different clinical domains by three author types (physicians, nurses, and social workers) in both the in- and outpatient settings. We supplied the resulting vectors to CLUTO, a robust clustering tool suitable for this high-dimensional space. Our results confirm that note types with a broad clinical scope, e.g, History & Physicals and Discharge Summaries, cluster together, while note types with a narrow clinical scope form surprisingly pure, disjoint sublanguages. A reasonable conclusion from this study is that any tool relying on term statistics or semantics trained on one clinical note type may not work well on any other. PMID:22195171

  11. A clinical study of Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sharland, M; Burch, M; McKenna, W M; Paton, M A

    1992-01-01

    Clinical details are presented on 151 individuals with Noonan syndrome (83 males and 68 females, mean age 12.6 years). Polyhydramnios complicated 33% of affected pregnancies. The commonest cardiac lesions were pulmonary stenosis (62%), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (20%), with a normal echocardiogram present in only 12.5% of all cases. Significant feeding difficulties during infancy were present in 76% of the group. Although the children were short (50% with a height less than 3rd centile), and underweight (43% with a weight less than 3rd centile), the mean head circumference of the group was on the 50th centile. Motor milestone delay was usual, the cohort having a mean age of sitting unsupported of 10 months and walking of 21 months. Abnormal vision (94%) and hearing (40%) were frequent findings, but 89% of the group were attending normal primary or secondary schools. Other associations included undescended testicles (77%), hepatosplenomegaly (50%), and evidence of abnormal bleeding (56%). The mean age at diagnosis of Noonan syndrome in this group was 9.0 years. Earlier diagnosis of this common condition would aid both clinical management and genetic counselling. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1543375

  12. Assessment of Relational Reasoning in Children Aged 4 to 8 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda

    This study examined the hypothesis that age-related increases in reasoning ability are associated with the ability to represent relations of increasing complexity, defined as the number of entities related. The study's purpose was to determine the extent to which this ability to process relations with three entities increased between ages 4 and 8…

  13. Congenital myopathies: clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Thaha, Fazil; Gayathri, N; Nalini, A

    2011-01-01

    Congenital myopathies (CMs), a group of relatively non-progressive disorders presents with weakness and hypotonia of varying severity, morphologically recognized by specific structural abnormalities within the myofiber. This report presents the clinical and Histopathological features of 40 patients with CMs. Centronuclear myopathy was the commonest (40%) followed by congenital fiber type disproportion (37.5%). Other less common CMs included: myotubular myopathy (5%), nemaline myopathy (5%), central core disease (5%), multicore disease (2.5%) and congenital myopathy with tubular aggregate (5%). Immunolabeling to desmin corresponded to morphological changes within the myofibers while vimentin was negative in all the patients. There is no combined role of these proteins in the disease process. PMID:22234203

  14. Allan-Herndon syndrome. I. Clinical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, R E; Goodman, H O; Schwartz, C E; Simensen, R J; McLean, W T; Herndon, C N

    1990-01-01

    A large family with X-linked mental retardation, originally reported in 1944 by Allan, Herndon, and Dudley, has been reinvestigated. Twenty-nine males have been affected in seven generations. Clinical features include severe mental retardation, dysarthria, ataxia, athetoid movements, muscle hypoplasia, and spastic paraplegia with hyperreflexia, clonus, and Babinski reflexes. The facies appear elongated with normal head circumference, bitemporal narrowing, and large, simple ears. Contractures develop at both small and large joint. Statural growth is normal and macroorchidism does not occur. Longevity is not impaired. High-resolution chromosomes, serum creatine kinase, and amino acids are normal. This condition, termed the Allan-Herndon syndrome, appears distinct from other X-linked disorders having mental retardation, muscle hypoplasia, and spastic paraplegia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2393019

  15. Identifying the Basis for Clinical Decisions - A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hurlen, Petter; Ofstad, Eirik; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of defining a set of terms to describe and identify the basis for clinical decisions in a set of transcriptions from clinical encounters with previously identified decisions. The paper presents the considerations behind the exploratory study and considerations for further work. PMID:27577435

  16. An Alternative Study of Transfer of Learning in Clinical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vimla; Cranton, Patricia A.

    The use of an alternative methodology to study transfer of learning in clinical instruction during medical school was investigated. The environment in which clinical instruction takes place was examined, after which hypotheses were proposed and tested in a quasi-experimental design. The first phase of the study, an ethnographic analysis of the…

  17. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  18. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  19. Playful Fostering of 6- to 8-Year-Old Students' Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Gyongyver

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a training program in inductive reasoning for first-grade students and presents the direct results as well as the longitudinal effects of the evaluation study. The training is based on Klauer's theory of inductive reasoning and on his "Cognitive training for children" concept (Klauer, 1989a). The training program consists of…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Reading Development and Impairment from Ages 3 to 8 Years in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Lin; Pan, Jinger; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Lang; Tardif, Twila; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early prediction of reading disabilities in Chinese is important for early remediation efforts. In this 6-year longitudinal study, we investigated the early cognitive predictors of reading skill in a statistically representative sample of Chinese children from Beijing. Method: Two hundred sixty-one (261) native Chinese children were…

  1. Explaining Variability: Numerical Representations in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine relations between number representations and various sources of individual differences within early stages of development of number representations. The mental number line has been found to develop from a logarithmic to a more linear representation. Sources under investigation are counting skills and executive…

  2. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  3. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  4. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH-study

  5. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems. PMID:26842856

  6. Programming for survival: a meeting system that survives 8 years later.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, T M; Miller, L K; Altus, D E

    1994-01-01

    Effective and useful interventions often deteriorate when researchers withdraw their direct supervision. We tested the survival of an intervention designed to produce effective weekly meetings in a student housing cooperative without direct researcher supervision. Chairperson performance, proposals completed per hour, and ratings of chairperson performance all increased when resident staff used a training manual, prompting checklist, and performance reviews. Eight years of follow-up revealed continuing high levels of meeting effectiveness. This study demonstrates a methodology for the direct observation and experimental analysis of intervention survival. PMID:7928787

  7. Impacts of curricular change: Implications from 8 years of data in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics classes at the University of Colorado Boulder were significantly transformed beginning in 2004. They now regularly include: interactive engagement using clickers in large lecture settings, Tutorials in Introductory Physics with use of undergraduate Learning Assistants in recitation sections, and a staffed help-room setting where students work on personalized CAPA homework. We compile and summarize conceptual (FMCE and BEMA) pre- and post-data from over 9,000 unique students after 16 semesters of both Physics 1 and 2. Within a single institution with stable pre-test scores, we reproduce results of Hake's 1998 study that demonstrate the positive impacts of interactive engagement on student performance. We link the degree of faculty's use of interactive engagement techniques and their experience levels on student outcomes, and argue for the role of such systematic data collection in sustained course and institutional transformations.

  8. Vertebral augmentation by kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty: 8 years experience outcomes and complications

    PubMed Central

    Yaltirik, Kaan; Ashour, Ahmed M; Reis, Conner R; Özdoğan, Selçuk; Atalay, Başar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Context: Minimally invasive percutaneous vertebral augmentation techniques; vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty have been treatment choices for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty regarding complications, correction of vertebral body height, kyphosis angle and pain relief assessment using visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the hospital records for 100 consecutive patients treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in our department database. Patients with osteoporotic compression fractures, traumatic compressions, and osteolytic vertebral lesions, including metastases, hemangiomas, and multiple myeloma, were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative VAS pain scores, percentages of vertebral compression and kyphotic angles were measured and compared as well as demographic characteristics and postoperative complications. Mobilization and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were treated by 110 procedures. 64 patients were operated on due to osteoporosis (72 procedures). Twelve patients were operated on because of metastasis (13 procedures), 8 patients were operated on because of multiple myeloma (9 procedures). Five patients had two surgeries, 1 patient had 3 surgeries, and 1 patient had 5 surgeries. The mean preoperative VAS was 74.05 ± 9.8. In total, 175 levels were treated, 46 levels by kyphoplasty and 129 by vertebroplasty. The mean postoperative VAS was 20.94 ± 11.8. Most of the patients were mobilized in the same day they of surgery. Mean LOS was 1.83 days. Six patients had nonsymptomatic leakage of polymethlymethacrylate, and patient had epidural hematoma, which was operated on performing hemi-laminectomy. Conclusions: Percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are both effective and safe minimally invasive procedures for the

  9. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  10. [Occupational uroepithelial cancer: current status in Wakayama city and clinical study].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Uekado, Y; Aoshi, H; Hirano, A; Shinka, T; Ohkawa, T; Fujinaga, T; Nakamura, J

    1989-12-01

    According to the records of Wakayama Labor Standard Office, at least 1,085 workers had been exposed to benzidine or beta-naphthylamine in the dyestuff factories in Wakayama City. By October 1988, 101 of them (9.3%) were confirmed to have urinary tract tumors. Including 2 other cases exposed in Osaka, a total of 103 cases of occupational uroepithelial cancer were studied here clinically. Site of tumors was bladder in 91 cases, renal pelvis in 2, ureter in 5 and papillomatosis type in 5. The age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 25 to 87 years with a mean of 53.8 years. The average latent period was 22.7 years, but the older the age of the worker at the start of exposure, the shorter was the latent period. In Wakayama, the proper system of healthy examination for chemical workers using urinary cytology was begun in 1970. Since then, more tumor cases have been discovered in comparison to the patients admitted with subjective symptoms of hematuria. The effectiveness of this group examination was significant in the incidence of total cystectomy in surgical treatment and in survival rate. In the comparative study between the groups of patients with occupational and spontaneous bladder cancer, the average age at diagnosis in the former was about ten years younger. Although the histological grade of tumor was not different between the two groups, the incidence of total cystectomy was lower and the survival rate was significantly higher in the occupational group. PMID:2618900