Kohorn, E. I.
The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913
Schabert, F A; Engel, A
Crystalline membranes reconstituted from Escherichia coli OmpF porin and phospholipids were adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica and imaged in solution by the atomic force microscope. The extracellular as well as the periplasmic side of the porin trimers could be identified and the conditions to record topographs at 1-nm lateral and 0.1-nm vertical resolution were established. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:7696479
Bywaters, E G L
Erosion and inflammatory changes in the carpus, fingers and toes of a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, are described; this was one of 152 animals in each of which four fixed limbs were available for examination. The histological changes resembled closely those found in adult human rheumatoid arthritis. The limited literature is reviewed (including cases with amyloid disease). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:7299780
Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.
Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059
Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David
Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909
Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.
Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218
Nassif, Paul S.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Horn, Karl L.
Surgical access to lesions of the temporal bone anterior to the internal auditory canal and medial to the petrous carotid artery has concerned surgeons for nearly a century. A variety of approaches have been developed to gain access to this region. We report our experience with the middle fossa transpetrous approach for the treatment of a variety of petroclival and/or prepontine lesions. Tentorial transection and the retrolabyrinthine approach to extend this technique is also discussed. In properly selected cases, the middle fossa transpetrous approach is successful in maintaining hearing, labyrinthine and facial function without compromising surgical exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171001
Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.
This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822
Nation, P. Nick; Williams, Elisabeth S.
Based upon what is known about the habits of common carrion eaters in Alberta, we review the patterns of postmortem scavenging of carcasses of cattle. We then compare with these patterns those reported in the lay press and by veterinarians investigating cattle mutilations in Alberta. We conclude that the so-called “mutilation” of cattle in Alberta was due to scavenging of carcasses and further conclude that claims of human involvement in such incidents require, as a first condition, that postmortem scavenging of the carcass be excluded. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17423422
Dearden, L. C.; Fairshter, R. D.; McRae, D. M.; Smith, W. R.; Glauser, F. L.; Wilson, A. F.
The pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of a case of human paraquat poisoning is investigated and compared with normal human pulmonary ultrastructure. Alveoli in the paraquat patient are numerically reduced in comparison to the control. They are filled with edematous proteinaceous plasma-like fluid containing erythrocytes, macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblast-like cells, platelets, and fibrin. These alveoli are lined by granular pneumocytes. Interstitial areas in the paraquat patient are greatly expanded and there are no alveolar septums. Interstitial areas contain proteinaceous plasma-like material, collagen, fibrin, platelets, mature fibroblasts, plasma cells, many leukocytes, numerous erythrocytes, and capillaries. Capillary permeability seems to be enhanced in the paraquat patient either by vesicles forming transendothelial channels or pores or by disruption of endothelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 3-7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:213978
Rafferty, T. D.; Tousignant, G.
We have previously reported a standardized stepwise transesophageal echocardiography transverse plane (monoplane) patient examination sequence suitable for intraoperative use. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography furnishes images of the heart and great vessels in both transverse and vertical planes. This report describes a seven-step vertical plane examination, the completion component of a comprehensive intraoperative biplane evaluation. Each step is illustrated by presentation of a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. Examples of clinical presentations complete the report. Images Figure 2 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14a Figure 14b Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21a Figure 21b Figure 21c PMID:8792603
Biglan, A W
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031
Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.
A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815
Little, P. B.
The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153
Dummett, C. O.
Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678
Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.
The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507
Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E
A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740
Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D
In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813
Clare, V.; Ashman, W.; Broome, P.; Jameson, J.; Lewis, J.; Merkler, J.; Mickiewicz, A.; Sacco, W.; Sturdivan, L.
Wound ballistics assessments traditionally have been based on correlations between some quantification of “ballistic dose” and an empirical/subjective medical quantification of human functional degradation. Although complicated by the highly inhomogeneous nature of the human body and by the voluminous data handling requirements these correlation values were obtained by manual methods. The procedure required a substantial commitment of time and resources, thereby restricting the data base from which incapacitation evaluations were made. The obvious advantages of automated wound ballistics analyses have been realized in the ARRADCOM Computer Man System, capable of duplicating the results of the manual system while reducing the time required for each analysis from three months to less than one day. The versatility of the system also makes it readily adaptable to other ballistic, medical, and paramedical assessment tasks. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9FIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12FIGURE 13
Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.
Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561
The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637
Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.
The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16
House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.
Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154
Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.
Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285
Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.
Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874
Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.
A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447
Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L
A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664
Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.
Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339
Asher, S A; Pershan, P S
The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691
Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797
Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.
The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962
Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S
PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680
Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Ahmed, A.; Soudry, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Kopp, F.; Franquin, J. C.; Martin, P. M.
The differentiation of myofibroblastic cells from normal human gingival fibroblasts in vitro has been established by transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by immunohistochemistry, using antigelsolin monoclonal antibodies. Untreated control cultures were compared to cultures exposed to Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation. A direct and massive transformation of the cultured fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was observed as early as 24 hours after laser treatment, whereas control cultures were comprised of only resting fibroblasts and active fibroblasts. This in vitro induction of myofibroblasts may be analogous to that which occurs in vivo. Therefore we undertook a similar study using biopsies from gingival tissues after wisdom tooth extraction. Myofibroblasts were present in the connective tissue of laser-treated gums 48 hours after irradiation, but not in untreated contralateral control tissues. These data provide evidence that the primary biologic effect of the Helium-Neon laser on connective tissue is the rapid generation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts. The induction of a phenotype with contractile properties may have clinical significance in the acceleration of the wound-healing process. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2372040
Leadbetter, Wyland F.
From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394
Kuzela, D. C.; Huffer, W. E.; Conger, J. D.; Winter, S. D.; Hammond, W. S.
Autopsy protocols and microscopic slides of 56 dialyzed and 18 nondialyzed chronically uremic patients were reviewed to assess the presence, extent, and severity of extraosseous soft tissue calcification. Calcification was identified in 79% of the dialysis patients and 44% of the nondialysis patients (P iss less than .025). Soft tissue calcification most frequently involved the heart, lungs, stomach, and kidneys. Lesions were severe in 36% of the dialysis patients and, when strategically located within the myocardium, were life-threatening. The deaths of 6 dialysis patients were attributed to severe calcification of the cardiac conduction system and/or myocardium. The presence and severity of soft tissue calcification was not related to duration of dialysis, patients' age, degree of parathyroid gland hyperplasia, radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification, serum calcium and phosphate levels, Ca X P products, or type or severity of metabolic bone disease. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:836675
Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.
A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726
Osborn, K. G.; Prahalada, S.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gardner, M. B.; Maul, D. H.; Henrickson, R. V.
A syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the California Primate Research Center. The cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. In many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Candida albicans. Septicemias due to usually innocuous agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Alcaligenes faecalis were seen. Two animals developed cutaneous fibrosarcomas. Affected animals had generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, with depletion of T-cell populations, initially follicular hyperplasia followed by depletion, and absence of plasma cells. This spontaneous disease syndrome in nonhuman primates has similarities to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, providing an animal model for the study of the complex factors modulating the immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6691418
Anderson, P. G.; Bishop, S. P.; Digerness, S. B.
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and morphologic changes that occur during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Hearts from Sprague-Dawley, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were evaluated using a modified Langendorff perfusion apparatus. After obtaining control data, hearts were potassium-arrested, made ischemic, and studied at various time points. Regional coronary flow was assessed with the use of radiolabeled microspheres or Microfil dye infusion, and morphologic changes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy. Sarcomere length changes and qualitative morphologic changes during global ischemia demonstrate a transmural progression of ischemic damage starting at the endocardium and extending, with time, epicardially. The progression of ischemic changes in hypertrophied hearts of SHRs was similar to that of normal hearts; however, hypertrophied hearts developed ischemic contracture sooner than normal hearts. In addition, the development of contraction band change after ischemic contracture occurred only when hearts were reperfused and was related to the development of no-reflow. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2959155
Fobi, M. A. L.
Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355
Harris, G J
The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703
Coltoff-Schiller, B.; Goldfischer, S.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sclerotic vascular disease. The localization of GAGs in the rat aorta was examined by two different ultrastructural cytochemical approaches. These procedures are believed to demonstrate 1) anionic sites, with fixatives that contain either toluidine blue or ruthenium red, both cationic dyes, and 2) polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, with an osmium--ferrocyanide mixture that binds to vicinal diols. Both procedures stain a network of insoluble, 2--8-nm filaments that bridge collagen fibers, elastin, basement membranes, and plasma membranes. These structures resist digestion with chondroitinase ABC and appear to be identical to the filaments that have previously been demonstrated with ruthenium red. Focal 6--12-nm densities are present where filaments intersect. However, the large granules that are made visible with ruthenium red are not seen in toluidine blue or osmium--ferrocyanide preparations. A soluble and relatively amorphous component surrounds the tightly packed bundles of collagen in the media and is preserved and stained by toluidine blue and osmium--ferrocyanide mixtures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6172040
McNutt, N. S.; Fletcher, V.; Conant, M. A.
An aggressive variant of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has appeared in young homosexual men with evidence of systemic immunosuppression. The ultrastructure in biopsy specimens from 8 KS cases in young homosexual men has been compared with that in biopsy specimens from 4 KS cases in elderly heterosexuals and with that in biopsy specimens from 23 cases of benign vascular disorders of skin. In all cases of KS the small blood vessels lacked a prominent investment of pericytes and their processes, had a fragmented and often absent basal lamina, had frequent discontinuities in the endothelial lining, and had only a few small junctional densities between endothelial cells. Some clinically aggressive cases of KS also had necrosis of individual endothelial cells and had prominent cytoplasmic processes entrapping individual collagen fibers. The benign disorders lacked these features. These differences in the structure of the small vessels may be of diagnostic value in some early cases of KS. The loss of dendritic pericytes in blood capillaries in KS might relate to the telangiectasia which is a prominent feature of the early lesions of KS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6301283
Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.
A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101
Parmley, R. T.; Barton, J. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Austin, R. L.
Lead is a universal environmental contaminant absorbed largely through the gastrointestinal tract by unknown mechanisms. Because lead absorption is influenced by iron content in the body and diet, we used ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry to study absorption of physiologic lead doses in the rat duodenal epithelial cell and compared these findings to those previously reported for iron absorption. Rat duodenal loops exposed in vivo to 210Pb for 1 minute demonstrated the majority of labels on the microvilli, terminal web, and apical cytoplasm. Specimens exposed to radiolead for 10 minutes demonstrated more abundant labeling with a relative increase in labeling of epithelial cell mitochondria, nuclei and basal cytoplasm, as well as phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and circulating erythrocytes of the lamina propria. Timm's sulfide-silver method localized trace metals in epithelial cells. After administration of lead, a significant increase in staining was observed in microvilli, mitochondria, non-membrane-bound cytoplasm, and nuclear chromatin. The rapid appearance of absorbed lead in epithelial cell mitochondria and nuclei, as well as phagocytic cells in the lamina propria, was distinctly different from that reported for absorbed iron and suggests different mechanisms for the subcellular transport of these cations. The combination of radioautography and Timm's sulfide-silver staining provides the specificity and resolution needed for ultrastructural evaluation of lead absorption and should be useful in further studies of lead metabolism. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figures 1-2 PMID:464028
Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.
The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490
Gulizia, J. M.; Cunningham, M. W.; McManus, B. M.
Association of group A streptococci with acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease is well established; however the basis of valve injury remains unclear. In this study, anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cross-reactive with myocardium were reacted with sections from 22 rheumatic valves, nine normal, five endocarditic, one 'floppy,' and one Marfan valve. In immunohistochemical studies, MAb reactivity was observed with cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, cell surface and cytoplasm of endothelial cells lining valves, and valvular interstitial cells. Endothelial basement membrane and elastin fibrils reacted with the MAbs, whereas collagen was unreactive. Similar reactivity was seen with sera from acute rheumatic fever patients. The anti-streptococcal MAbs reacted with intravalvular myosin and vimentin in Western blots, and purified elastin competitively inhibited the binding of the anti-streptococcal MAbs to whole group A streptococci. The data show that human heart valves have numerous sites of immunoreactivity with anti-streptococcal MAbs and acute rheumatic fever sera of potential importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatic valvular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1704188
Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021
Jauregui, H. O.; Bradford, W. D.; Arstila, A. U.; Kinney, T. D.; Trump, B. F.
The morphologic characteristics of acute iron loading were studied in HeLa cells incubated in an iron-enriched Eagle's medium containing 500 mug/ml of iron. Chemical studies showed that ferritin synthesis was rapidly induced and the concentration of intracellular ferritin increased up to 72 hours. Closely coupled with an increase in HeLa cell ferritin was a marked decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. The significant ultrastructural findings of iron-induced HeLa cell injury are characterized by the appearance of both autophagic multivesicular and residual bodies over the first 72 hours of iron incubation. The prominence of multivesicular bodies was noted after only 4 hours' incubation, with iron and myelin figures first appearing after 6 hours. Thus, the partial arrest of cell multiplication was associated with an increase in cytoplasmic residual bodies containing iron and other debris. The distribution of intracellular ferritin within HeLa cells differs significantly from the distribution described previously in hepatic parenchymal cells. In HeLa cells, ferritin particles were confined to lysosomal vesicles and were not identified in cell sap, endoplasmic reticulum, or Golgi apparatus. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1155583
Discher, D E; Mohandas, N
Maps of fluorescing red cell membrane components on a pipette-aspirated projection are quantitated in an effort to elucidate and unify the heterogeneous kinematics of deformation. Transient gradients of diffusing fluorescent lipid first demonstrate the fluidity of an otherwise uniform-density bilayer and corroborate a "universal" calibration scale for relative surface density. A steep but smooth and stable gradient in the densities of the skeleton components spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1 is used to estimate large elastic strains along the aspirated skeleton. The deformation fields are argued to be an unhindered response to loading in the surface normal direction. Density maps intermediate to those of the compressible skeleton and fluid bilayer are exhibited by particular transmembrane proteins (e.g., Band 3) and yield estimates for the skeleton-connected fractions. Such connected proteins appear to occupy a significant proportion of the undeformed membrane surface and can lead to steric exclusion of unconnected integral membrane proteins from regions of network condensation. Consistent with membrane repatterning kinematics in reversible deformation, final vesiculation of the projection tip produces a cell fragment concentrated in freely diffusing proteins but depleted of skeleton. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889146
Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.
Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720
Povlishock, J. T.; Rosenblum, W. I.; Sholley, M. M.; Wei, E. P.
Those microvascular endothelial events that parallel the evolution of platelet aggregation were evaluated in a well-controlled animal model. Cat pial microvessels were observed through a cranial window while local platelet aggregation was produced by intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein and simultaneous exposure of the pial vessels to light from a filtered mercury lamp that excited the fluorescein. The vessels were fixed in situ when the in vivo observations of a preselected vessel indicated early, intermediate, or advanced aggregation in that vessel. The preselected vessel was then harvested for ultrastructural study together with adjacent vessels from the illuminated field. These vessels and appropriate controls were compared in semiserial thin sections. The onset of platelet aggregation in both venules and arterioles was accompanied by focal endothelial lucency, vacuole formation, luminal membrane rupture, and swelling of the nuclear envelope. These changes were not found in control material. With intermediate aggregation these changes were more common, while with advanced aggregation these abnormalities occurred together with focal endothelial denudation. Thus, in this model denudation occurred only with advanced aggregation and was not a prerequisite for aggregation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6824062
Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.
Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983
Segalla, A.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Capraro, H. G.; Isele, U.; Schieweck, K.
Ge(IV) phthalocyanine (GePc) with two axially ligated cholesterol moieties was prepared by chemical synthesis and incorporated in a monomeric state into small unilamellar liposomes (CGP 55398). Upon photoexcitation with light wavelengths around its intense absorption peak at 680 nm, GePc shows an efficient photosensitising activity towards biological substrates through a mechanism which largely involves the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. GePc injected systemically into mice bearing an intramuscularly implanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma is quantitatively transferred to serum lipoproteins and localises in the tumour tissue with good efficiency: at 24 h post injection the GePc content in the tumour is 0.74 and 1.87 micrograms per g of tissue with a tumour/peritumoral ratio of 4.35 and 5.67 for injected doses of 0.76 and 1.52 mg kg-1 respectively. At this time the red-light irradiation of the GePc-loaded fibrosarcoma causes a fast and massive tumour necrosis involving both malignant cells and blood vessels. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8180009
Bussolati, G.; Cassoni, P.; Ghisolfi, G.; Negro, F.; Sapino, A.
Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin (OT), in addition to the induction of myometrial and myoepithelial cell contraction, can influence proliferation and differentiation in developing mammary glands and in breast cancer cells, hence the interest in detecting and locating OT receptors (OTRs). We produced rabbit antisera and a monoclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the predicted OTR sequence. We tested their specificity in immunoblasts and immunocytochemical tests. All of the antibodies specifically stained myometrium (at term of pregnancy). In the human breast, OTRs were detected in myoepithelial cells along ducts of normal lobules and in sclerosing adenosis. Intraductal cells in benign hyperplastic lesions were also positive. OTRs were demonstrated in cases of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the breast. In the same tissues, OTR gene expression was shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedures detecting the specific mRNA. These results suggest that the interaction between OT and its receptors might play a role in the origin and evolution of non-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas of the breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8669475
Newhall, C G; Fruchter, J S
Volcanoes erupt magma (molten rock containing variable amounts of solid crystals, dissolved volatiles, and gas bubbles) along with pulverized pre-existing rock (ripped from the walls of the vent and conduit). The resulting volcanic rocks vary in their physical and chemical characteristics, e.g., degree of fragmentation, sizes and shapes of fragments, minerals present, ratio of crystals to glass, and major and trace elements composition. Variability in the properties of magma, and in the relative roles of magmatic volatiles and groundwater in driving an eruption, determine to a great extent the type of an eruption; variability in the type of an eruption in turn influences the physical characteristics and distribution of the eruption products. The principal volcanic hazards are: ash and larger fragments that rain down from an explosion cloud (airfall tephra and ballistic fragments); flows of hot ash, blocks, and gases down the slopes of a volcano (pyroclastic flows); "mudflows" (debris flows); lava flows; and concentrations of volcanic gases in topographic depressions. Progress in volcanology is bringing improved long- and short-range forecasts of volcanic activity, and thus more options for mitigation of hazards. Collaboration between health professionals and volcanologists helps to mitigate health hazards of volcanic activity. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:3946726
Cantin, M.; Solymoss, B.; Benchimol, S.; Desormeaux, Y.; Langlais, J.; Ballak, M.
Partial ligation of the aorta between the renal arteries in the rat induces malignant hypertension, metaplasia of smooth-muscle cells of arterioles and arteries into juxtaglomerular cells, and a complex series of events in tubular cells at all levels of the ischemic kidney. The tubular cells of the outer cortex, particularly the proximal convoluted cells, show a very rapid and progressive simple atrophy. In contrast, necrosis of individual cells is followed by mitotic activity in atrophic tubular cells of the inner cortex, medulla, and papilla. Subsequently, polyploidy and hyperplasia occur in the inner cortex. At the same time, hypertrophy of the protein-synthesizing apparatus and an increase in protein, DNA, and RNA, followed by a decrease in the protein content, are seen in the tubular cells of the inner cortex. In the medulla and papilla, necrosis of individual cells proceeds side by side with waves of mitotic activity. These events take place, albeit to a lesser degree, even in cases of very mild renal ischemia. While they may by unrelated to hypertension, these changes are probably involved in the increase in hydrolytic enzyme activity characteristic of the ischemic renal cortex. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:474709
Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.
Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693
Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.
N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191
Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin
Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644
Dawe, C. J.; Freund, R.; Mandel, G.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Talmage, D. A.; Benjamin, T. L.
The authors have explored the effects of variations in mouse polyoma virus genotype on patterns of tumor formation in the mouse. Four "wild type" virus strains were surveyed. Two were highly oncogenic, inducing multiple tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, at high frequency and with short latency. The other two strains were weakly oncogenic, inducing fewer tumors, solely of mesenchymal origin, and after a long latency. These sharply contrasting tumor profiles were reproduced with virus stocks derived from molecularly cloned viral genomes. Though vastly different in their oncogenic properties, these cloned viruses proved equally effective in transforming established rat fibroblasts in culture and showed the same patterns of tumor antigen expression in cultured mouse cells. Complexes of polyoma middle T antigen and pp60c-src were demonstrated in extracts of epithelial tumors induced by a highly oncogenic virus strain. It is concluded that polyoma viral genetic determinants for tumor induction in the mouse are more complex than those previously defined by the use of cell transformation systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2437801
Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T. B.; Klevjer-Anderson, P.
Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6990770
Lindsay, S M; Tao, N J; DeRose, J A; Oden, P I; Lyubchenko YuL; Harrington, R E; Shlyakhtenko, L
We describe a procedure for reversible adsorption of DNA onto a gold electrode maintained under potential control. The adsorbate can be imaged by scanning probe microscopy in situ. Quantitative control of a molecular adsorbate for microscopy is now possible. We found a potential window (between 0 and 180 mV versus a silver wire quasi reference) over which a gold (111) surface under phosphate buffer is positively charged, but is not covered with a dense adsorbate. When DNA is present in these conditions, molecules adsorb onto the electrode and remain stable under repeated scanning with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). They become removed when the surface is brought to a negative charge. When operated at tunnel currents below approximately 0.4 nA, the STM yields a resolution of approximately 1 nm, which is better than can be obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at present. We illustrate this procedure by imaging a series of DNA molecules made by ligating a 21 base-pair oligonucleotide. We observed the expected series of fragment lengths but small fragments are adsorbed preferentially. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:1617139
Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.
The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774
Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Torikata, C.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from North American (N = 12) and Japanese (N = 11) patients with lung carcinomas were stained by the immunoperoxidase method for surfactant-specific apoprotein. Cytoplasmic and focal nuclear staining was seen in three "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" occurring in Japanese patients. We refer to these three tumors as carcinomas of Type II pneumocytes. These neoplasms formed discrete masses with minimal growth along the alveolar septa at margins of the tumors. Papillary growth with lymphocytic infiltrates in the stalks of the papillary processes was the usual growth pattern. Focal noncaseating granulomas were seen in the stroma of 2 cases, and similar granulomas in the draining lymph nodes were noted in 1. The abundant cytoplasm was foamy, and the nuclei were generally vacuolated with frequent eosinophilic inclusions in the vacuoles. By electron microscopy, osmiophilic lamellar bodies or whorled lamellas were seen in the cytoplasm of the 3 tumors staining for surfactant apoprotein. The nuclei in 2 of the 3 cases contained tubular inclusions; the tubules had a diameter of 60 nm and a 20-nm core. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 and 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6258440
Richards, R J; Curtis, C G
The sequence of cellular and biochemical events in response to the deposition of dust particles in lung tissue is described. Primary reactions at the lung surface include changes in the free cell population, the alveolar surface protein and in the quantity of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein-rich material secreted by Type II cells. The relationship between these changes and lung fibrogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that such primary changes are protective mechanisms which may assist in the prevention of fibrogenesis rather than lead to an increase in collagen formation and deposition. If these primary defenses are overcome, then the interstitial fibroblastlike cell may have a prominent role in fibrogenesis. Therefore detailed observations of the interaction between lung fibroblasts and mineral dusts in vitro are described. As fibrogenesis may be arrested in vivo, or possibly reversed, and does not always progress to fibrosis, final consideration is given to the step from fibrogenesis to fibrosis. It is suggested that this step may involve other tissue proteins apart from collagen and that the irreversible nature of fibrosis can be explained by the formation of strong intermolecular crosslinks between different proteins. The types of crosslinks that may be involved are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of calcium-dependent transglutaminases in fibrosis, as these enzymes have hitherto received little attention. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. FIGURE 23. PMID:6376109
Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.
A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212
Keating, Joseph C
This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e
Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.
In 1971, radiographic anatomy of the human body was added to the gross anatomy course at UCLA. Radiographic contrast studies and plain anatomical displays were formulated into teaching packages for all organ systems. Residents presented each package to first-year medical students in the dissection laboratory to augment the teaching of anatomy. In November 1984, magnetic resonance imaging was instituted in the radiology department. Imaging the chest produced coronal and axial planes which displayed the muscles and soft tissues of the thorax. In 1986, the authors presented their study of MR anatomy of the chest and shoulder girdle to the American Association of Anatomists. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the anatomy of the thorax and shoulder girdle as displayed by magnetic resonance, correlated with regional anatomy, with emphasis on soft tissue structures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1994062
Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M
An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1808804
Sadler, T W
One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854
Leggett, R W
with data on human subjects exposed to lead under a variety of experimental and natural conditions. Images p598-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. D Figure 7. E Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 11. Figure 12. p613-a PMID:8143593
Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.
The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746
Albert, D M
Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833
Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.
Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection. The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle. ImagesFigure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6.Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., Figure 10.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:17422683
Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P
An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522
Abramowsky, C. R.; Powers, K. G.; Aikawa, M.; Swinehart, G.
Fourteen beagles infected with larvae (microfilariae) of Dirofilaria immitis, were randomly selected from another study in which the toxic effects of subfilaricidal doses of diethylcarbamazine were being evaluated. This group of 14 dogs, together with 4 uninfected control animals, were variably sacrificed between 14 and 25 months after larval inoculations, and the ensuing renal lesions were studied by light and ultrastructural microscopy and by immunofluorescence and antibody elution techniques. On the basis of these studies, two groups of animals were distinguished. The first group was characterized by a striking pattern of linear fluorescence and fine ultrastructural dense deposits along the glomerular basement membrane, poor antibody response, and an inability to clear microfilariae from the tissues and circulation. The second group, with a nonlinear pattern of fluorescence, was characterized by a strong immune response, efficient elimination of microfilariae, and immunofluorescence and ultrastructural evidence of predominantly mesangiopathic immune complex renal disease. In both groups, elution studies demonstrated tissue deposits of antiworm antibodies, suggesting a filaria-antibody immune-complex nephropathy. No evidence was found for the presence of anti-basement-membrane antibodies. On the basis of a previous experimental model, it is postulated that in the first group of animals with linear fluorescence, the observed lesions may represent a natural form of an immunopathogenic mechanism of glomerular damage in which filarial antigen becomes uniformly localized in the glomerulus and elicits an autologous antibody response. The possible role of the drug diethylcarbamazine in inducing this mechanism of immune injury is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7020425
Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.
Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451
Strayer, D. S.; Skaletsky, E.; Sell, S.
The pathogenic effects of plaque-purified Boerlage and Patuxent strains of Shope fibroma virus (SFV) in neonatal rabbits are compared with results of previous reports which used nonpurified SFV. Clinically, the Boerlage strain produced large tumors; whereas the same dose of Patuxent strain SFV induced much smaller tumors locally. Neither virus caused metastatic or extensively invasive local spread in our study. Some Patuxent recipients died of respiratory infections prior to sacrifice. However, both groups of rabbits handled the tumor well; the tumor began regressing 15-20 days after inoculation. Histologically, the tumors produced by those viruses were identical. Patuxent strain recipients were otherwise normal. Boerlage strain recipients showed increased persistence of extramedullary hematopoiesis and scattered foci of parenchymal necrosis in their livers. They also showed considerable cell death in thymic lobules. In rabbits given Patuxent strain SFV, virus antigens were detected only in the tumor by immunohistologic examination. Boerlage viral antigens were found in the tumor and overlying skin. We also detected virus systemically in Boerlage recipients: it was present in fixed tissue phagocytes in the spleen and liver and also in parenchymal cells of the lungs, liver, and kidney. Boerlage strain SFV recipients also showed detectable virus in their thymus, both at the periphery of the thymic lobules and in the connective tissue separating thymic lobules from each other. Despite the disseminated nature of the infection, rabbits that received the latter strain fared as well as those receiving Patuxent strain SFV. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 p-a Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 p345-a Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:6087669
Chander, P.; Soni, A.; Suri, A.; Bhagwat, R.; Yoo, J.; Treser, G.
Renal tissues from two groups of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were examined: Group A had severe proteinuria and varying degrees of renal insufficiency, designated AIDS-associated nephropathy (AAN), and Group B had no renal involvement. Control Group C consisted of patients with heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) with proteinuria comparable to patients in Group A but without AIDS or its related complex (ARC). The most frequent finding, common to both AAN and HAN, was focal glomerular sclerosis. In contrast to HAN, AAN tissue showed mesangial hypocellularity, sparse interstitial infiltrates, severe tubular degenerative changes, tubular microcystic ectasia, Bowman's space dilatation, and presence of multiple complex inclusions both in the nuclei and cytoplasm in a variety of cells. Abundant tubuloreticular inclusions were found in the endothelial and occasionally in the interstitial cell cytoplasm. Nuclear bodies (NBs) were seen in greater frequency, complexity, size, and heterogeneity, and of budding configuration in Group A as compared with Groups B and C; NBs in Group C were mostly of simple types (I and II). In addition, a peculiar granulofibrillary transformation in many tubular and interstitial cell nuclei was observed in Group A. This transformation was rarely present in Group B and was never seen in Group C. Because complex NBs (Types III to V) and various intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions present in Group A are often associated with viral invasion, their presence in kidneys of AIDS patients with proteinuria suggests a viral etiology for AAN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3548410
Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.
The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981
In vivo expression of monokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimentally induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation. Evidence for sequential production of interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor.
Tsuji, M.; Dimov, V. B.; Yoshida, T.
The present study examined the temporal pattern and localization of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue undergoing foreign body granuloma formation. Pulmonary granulomas were induced by the intratracheal injection of dextran beads into genetically high granuloma responder, carrying Bcgs (BALB/c), and low responder, carrying Bcgr (C3H/HeJ and DBA/2), mice. There was a pattern of sequential expression of these molecules in BALB/c mice. Thus, interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase were induced mostly in the cells accumulated around the beads and also in some bronchiolar epithelial cells during the early phase (1 to 3 days), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced in the cells around the beads at the later resolution phase (3 to 7 days). By contrast, in low responder mice, an increase in the expression of interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in lung macrophages as well as in alveolar cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells on day 1, but that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not detected throughout the period. These results together with our previous findings on cytokine activity in granuloma extract suggest that interleukin-1 and nitric oxide produced by recruited macrophages may take part in the early, macrophage-dependent phase of granuloma formation whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be more crucial as a mediator responsible for the difference in innate resistance or susceptibility to granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7573346
Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.
-infected subjects with cognitive and motor dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8780406
Robenek, H.; Herwig, J.; Themann, H.
Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7395970
Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y
Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236
Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F
The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636
van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.
The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140
Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.
involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768
Giacomelli, F.; Anversa, P.; Wiener, J.
Acute hypertension has been produced in rats by the intravenous infusion of angiotensin amide for 4 hours. Both control and hypertensive animals were injected intravenously prior to sacrifice with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or colloidal carbon. Epicardial arteries and blocks of ventricular myocardium containing intramyocardial arteries and arterioles have been processed for electron microscopy. HRP appears to penetrate the endoethelium of epicardial arteries from control animals within vesicles that bypass endothelial junctions and empty into interendoethelial clefts. Peroxidase does not traverse the endothelium of intramural arteries and arterioles of controls over the 10-minute period of observation. There is acceleration of lateral vesicular transport in the endothelium of epicardial arteries after angiotensin infusion and direct permeation of interendothelial clefts of intramural arterial vessels. Medial fragmentation and more extensive necrosis are observed in intramyocardial but not in epicardial arterial vessels. Foci of myocardial damage resembling irreversible ischemic or anoxic injury followed by reflow are described. It is suggested that the increased permeability of epicardial arteries may be due to elevated pressure, while the altered permeability and vascular lesions of intramural arteries and arterioles are more readily attributable to the vasoconstriction produced by angiotension. The vascular and myocardial lesions are also discussed in relation to the regional actions of angiotensin on the coronary circulation and known effects of this vasoactive peptide on myocardium. Images Figure 19 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 20 and 21 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5-8 Figure 9 Figure 22 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:937512
Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.
Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411
Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A
A finite element network model has been developed to predict the macroscopic elastic shear modulus and the area expansion modulus of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton on the basis of its microstructure. The topological organization of connections between spectrin molecules is represented by the edges of a random Delaunay triangulation, and the elasticity of an individual spectrin molecule is represented by the spring constant, K, for a linear spring element. The model network is subjected to deformations by prescribing nodal displacements on the boundary. The positions of internal nodes are computed by the finite element program. The average response of the network is used to compute the shear modulus (mu) and area expansion modulus (kappa) for the corresponding effective continuum. For networks with a moderate degree of randomness, this model predicts mu/K = 0.45 and kappa/K = 0.90 in small deformations. These results are consistent with previous computational models and experimental estimates of the ratio mu/kappa. This model also predicts that the elastic moduli vary by 20% or more in networks with varying degrees of randomness. In large deformations, mu increases as a cubic function of the extension ratio lambda 1, with mu/K = 0.62 when lambda 1 = 1.5. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE A1 FIGURE A2 FIGURE A3 PMID:8770194
Jakobiec, F A; Font, R L; Zimmerman, L E
Eight adult patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit are described. Only two of the patients were known to have von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. The typical clinical history included the development of a mass in the superonasal quadrant of the orbit, which was palpable immediately beneath the skin of the lid. There was a definite tendency for the lesions to arise in, or grow along, the supraorbital nerve--including posteriorly through the superior orbital fissure to the Gasserian ganglion, and even as far posteriorly along the trigeminal rootlets to the pons. Delays in pathologic diagnosis, which beclouded the true nature of the process, led to multiple recurrences, eventuating in five known fatalities out of the eight patients. In addition to intracranial extension, pulmonary metastases and regional cervical metastases were encountered. Once recognized for their diagnostic value, the histopathologic patterns are highly distinctive: biphasic populations of spindled and epithelioid cells; sheets of epithelioid cells or clusters demarcated by delicate reticulin fibers or thicker collagenous trabeculae; malignant plexiform patterns; and neurotubular patterns. Pure spindle cell populations were encountered only in the two patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, and in each, either a pre-existent benign neurofibroma or a coexistent plexiform neurofibroma was found in the pathology specimens. The best management of this condition depends upon early clinical and pathological recognition, leading to radical surgery, which usually consists of orbital exenteration combined with intracranial extirpation of as much of the trigeminal nerve as possible. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy after radical surgery might also be advisable. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:3938581
Geer, J. C.; Crago, C. A.; Little, W. C.; Gardner, L. L.; Bishop, S. P.
atherosclerosis are distinctive and can be distinguished from myocardial necrosis or fibrosis associated with acute total occlusion of a coronary artery. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7361850
Ometto, C.; Fabris, C.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Cook, M. J.; Russell, D. A.
1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octadecylphthalocyaninato zinc(II), ZnODPc, incorporated into a Cremophor emulsion, was assayed for its pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic properties in Balb/c mice bearing an intramuscularly transplanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma. The phthalocyanine was injected intravenously (i.v.) in three doses, i.e. 1.46, 0.73 and 0.37 mumol kg-1 body weight. In all cases, the octadecyl-substituted phthalocyanine showed an unusually high affinity for serum low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and a high efficiency and selectivity of tumour targeting: the maximum accumulation in the tumour occurred at 24 h after injection, whereas no detectable amount of phthalocyanine was recovered from the muscle, i.e. the peritumoral tissue, between 1 h and 1 week after injection. At the same time, low amounts of phthalocyanine were recovered from skin and then only at short times after injection, with skin photosensitivity rapidly disappearing and the phthalocyanine present in the serum only. Tumour photosensitisation studies were carried out at 24 h after administration of 1.46 mumol kg-1 ZnODPc and showed that this phthalocyanine has a very high phototherapeutic efficiency; this is probably a consequence of the multiple mechanisms by which the phthalocyanine induces tumour damage, involving both direct modification of malignant cells and impairment of blood flow, as well as the alteration of a variety of subcellular components, such as mitochondria, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear membrane and, occasionally, cell nuclei. Tumour necrosis appears to be the consequence of both random cell death and apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8980387
Dorfman, R. F.; Gatter, K. C.; Pulford, K. A.; Mason, D. Y.
The immunoreactivity of six different monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies (Leu M1, TG1, 3C4, BY/87a, BY/37a, and 3CD1) has been evaluated in 23 cases of Hodgkin's disease (7 lymphocyte predominant, 12 nodular sclerosing, and 5 mixed cellularity); in a variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in a series of reactive and benign lesions of lymph nodes. Applying a monoclonal antibody (PD7/26) to leukocyte common antigen (T200), we have also investigated reports that the L&H variants in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease are strongly immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen in contrast to the lack of reactivity of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and variants thereof in other forms of Hodgkin's disease. All six monoclonal anti-granulocyte antibodies reacted against RS cells and "Hodgkin's cells" in the nodular sclerosing (NSHD) and mixed cellularity (MCHD) types, with strong cell membrane and juxtanuclear (Golgi) staining. In contrast an anti-leukocyte antibody PD7/26 was unreactive with RS cells and variants thereof in NSHD and MCHD. On the other hand, RS cells and L&H variants thereof in the nodular L&H form of Hodgkin's disease (nodular lymphocyte predominant type) showed reactivity with PD7/26 but not with the anti-granulocyte markers. Rare L&H cells in 2 cases of diffuse lymphocyte predominant type showed reactivity with some, but not all, of the anti-granulocyte antibodies. These findings provide further support for the concept that the nodular L&H type of Hodgkin's disease represents an entity distinct from other forms of this disorder. Our studies also demonstrate the usefulness of these immunoperoxidase techniques when applied to formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5A and B Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3717303
Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.
Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487
Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R
This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485
Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.
In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432
Kawanami, Oichi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Fulmer, Jack D.; Crystal, Ronald G.
Ultrastructural study of pulmonary biopsy specimens from patients with fibrotic lung disease disclosed the presence of nuclear inclusions in 1% or less of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells in 9 of 19 patients, including 6 of 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2 of 3 patients with collagen-vascular disease, and 1 of 3 patients with sarcoidosis. Nuclear inclusions were not observed by ultrastructural study in 5 control patients. The inclusions consisted of masses or aggregates of tubules which probably were derived from the inner nuclear membranes. These tubules were smooth-walled, showed branchings and bifurcations, were composed of single trilaminar membranes, usually had a clear content, and ranged from 500 to 1000 Å in diameter. They resembled nuclear tubules which occur in other cell types under conditions of rapid growth or specific hormonal stimulation. Statistically significant differences between the groups of patients with and without nuclear inclusions in cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells were not found with respect to smoking history, degree of fibrosis in the lung biopsy specimen, or the degree of pulmonary physiologic impairment. However, the average age of the patients having nuclear inclusions was significantly greater than that of patients not having nuclear inclusions. In addition, the frequency of indentations in the nuclei of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells was greater in patients with nuclear inclusions than in patients without nuclear inclusions. Highly significant correlations were observed between the presence of nuclear inclusions and the presence of a) anchoring fibrils and hemidesmosomes along the basal surfaces of alveolar epithelial cells and b) multilayering of the alveolar epithelium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 10Figure 8Figure 9Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figures 11 and 12Figure 15Figure 16Figure 6Figures 17 through 20 PMID:426030
Shabo, A L; Maxwell, D S; Kreiger, A E; Straatsma, B R
There are important similarities between human and experimental monkey rubeosis iridis. We believe that we have developed a useful primate model to study iris neovascularization and that the possible role of immunity to insulin in the pathogenesis of human diabetic rubeosis iridis warrants further detailed consideration. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 1. 1 FIGURE 1. 2 FIGURE 1. 3 FIGURE 1. 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:405785
Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.
The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068
Bailey, G S; Williams, D E; Hendricks, J D
fish models can serve as highly useful adjuncts to conventional rodent models in the study of environmental carcinogenesis and its modulation. For some problems, fish models can provide wholly unique approaches. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8722107
Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.
demonstrable in lesions. Histologically more neutrophils were present in the hyperimmunized than in the normal rabbits, but this difference was striking when normal animals were compared with leukopenic animals, in some of which only very occasional small accumulations of neutrophils were present. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6336905
Goody, R S; Reedy, M C; Hofmann, W; Holmes, K C; Reedy, M K
The binding of rabbit muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to glycerinated insect flight muscle fibers has been studied by low-angle x-ray diffraction, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, quantitative interference microscopy, and electron microscopy. Changes induced in the rigor x-ray diffraction pattern are consistent with the idea that vacant myosin-binding sites on thin filaments are filled by exogenous S1. Electron microscopy indicates that S1 permeates and labels fibers and fibrils completely. Electron micrographs also show that cross-bridges are not displaced by exogenous S1 under the conditions used, and this is supported by the unchanged mechanical stiffness of the S1-labeled fibers. The amount of bound S1, as measured by gel electrophoresis and interference microscopy, together with the magnitude of the intensity changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern, is consistent with a thick filament structure that contains four molecules of endogenous myosin per 14.5 nm of its length, but does not agree well with earlier estimates of six myosins per crown. Lack of information on possible inhibition of S1-binding by factors other than the presence of cross-bridges, e.g., troponin, render uncertain calculations of the number of attached cross-bridges in the rigor state. However, it appears that at least 75% of the endogenous myosin heads are attached. Occupancy of binding sites on thin filaments after incubation with S1 is high, probably greater than 85%, so that x-ray scattering from those parts of the structure that adhere to the symmetry of the thin filaments can be treated as diffraction from S1-decorated thin filaments. In addition, we show in thin flared X cross sections that exo-S1 heads bind to actin with the geometry described in decorated actin by Taylor, K.A., and L.A. Amos. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:3978197
for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478
Meyers, S M
; this included the one dizygotic pair which was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The data of this study strongly suggest a genetic predisposition to AMD. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 (cont.) FIGURE 2 FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 (cont.) FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 6 FIGURE 6 (cont.) FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 (cont.) FIGURE 8 FIGURE 8 (cont.) FIGURE 9 FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10 (cont.) FIGURE 11 FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 12 FIGURE 12 (cont.) FIGURE 12 (cont.) PMID:7886884
Grossniklaus, H E
metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307
Nork, T M
FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:11190032
Gilmore, L. B.; Talley, F. A.; Hook, G. E.
alveoli and distal airways of patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3189505
Chandrasekar, B.; Melby, P. C.; Troyer, D. A.; Colston, J. T.; Freeman, G. L.
Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:9546353
Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.
a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439
Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341
Rossi, M. A.
months after transplantation, the myocytes of heterotopic hearts were smaller in size in comparison to those after 2 or 6 months. The graft cells were separated from each other by fibrous tissue and mononuclear cells and were not aligned in parallel within the tissue; often, they appeared to have lost their connections with adjacent cells. The myofibrils within cells were strikingly disorganized, coursing in different directions. Severely degenerated myocytes were commonly seen. These results, without precluding the possible role of neural and hormonal stimuli, clearly indicate that hemodynamic work load regulates the developmental growth of newborn mouse heart transplanted into the pinna of the ear of isogeneic adult recipient mice. In other words, the mass of cardiac tissue would be adjusted to meet the prevailing hemodynamic demands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1632462
Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.
application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631
Fritz, O G
The diffusion coefficient of erythrocytes was measured using quasi-elastic light-scattering (QELS) techniques. The cells were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solutions with and without a macromolecule, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In the presence of the PVP(360) an anomalously high diffusion coefficient was measured for metabolizing cells with a normal transmembrane potential. The results are in agreement with experiments on rouleau formation by red blood cells and are supportive of the hypothesis of a long-range coherent interaction between metabolically active biological cells. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:6478035
Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.
Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215
Zheng, Y; Doerschuk, P C; Johnson, J E
The capsid is modeled as a region of constant electron density located between inner and outer envelopes that exhibit icosahedral symmetry. For computational purposes the envelopes are represented as truncated sums of weighted icosahedral harmonics. Methods are described for estimating the weights from x-ray solution scattering patterns based on nonlinear least squares, and two examples of the procedure, for viruses with known atomic-resolution structures, are given. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 PMID:8527677
Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H
The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612
What is root-canal treatment? This article shows how endodontic treatment (root-canal therapy) can preserve teeth that would otherwise be extracted, and how tooth-pulp pathology can be diagnosed. Some clinical examples illustrate how non-dental infections can masquerade as dental problems, and vice versa. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3aFigure 3bFigure 3cFigure 4aFigure 4bFigure 4cFigure 5Figure 6aFigure 6bFigure 7Figure 8aFigure 8bFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11aFigure 11b PMID:21253195
Haik, B G
further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814
. ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310
Krachmer, J H
endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130
Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.
seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254
Jakobiec, F A
melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936
Ludwig, I H
limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52
Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J
the absorption or uptake of lead from dietary sources is similar in adult females and children of the age in this study. In spite of lower bone lead and faster bone remodeling and recycling in children compared with adult females, we see no differences between the mothers and their children in overall contribution of tissue lead to blood lead. Results from this study suggest that fractional absorption of ingested lead by children 6-11 years of age is comparable with absorption patterns observed among adult females in the 29-37-year-old age range. Because pharmacokinetic models apply a 40-50% absorption even for 7-year-old children, further investigations on fractional absorption of ingested lead by young children are warranted.Further investigations are especially needed in younger children than those who were subjects in the current study, particularly children in the 1-3-year-old age range. In addition, the effect of nutritional status and patterns of food intake on children's lead absorption require investigation, particularly given the increased prevalence of marginal nutritional status among low-income populations that are at increased risk of elevated blood lead levels. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. PMID:9405326
Smith, D. R. K.; Leach, D. H.; Bell, R. J.
Anatomical anomalies in the hind feet of a seven month old Appaloosa foal were identified and investigated through the use of gross anatomical dissection, radiography and angiography. Abnormalities were restricted to the distal aspect of both hind legs, the right hind leg being more severely affected. Anatomically the right foot resembled that of an equine fetus of approximately 120 days gestational age. Disruption of vascular perfusion to hoof structures was evident in both hind legs and was related to areas of abnormal bone conformation as well as to areas of abnormal ossification and calcification. Phalangeal and navicular bone hypoplasia were apparent as were soft tissue and joint anomalies. Although the etiology of the defects identified remains obscure, several theories are suggested, namely heritability, acquired defects and the possible teratogenic effects of clenbuterol. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422612
Barth, Albert D.
The knobbed acrosome defect was found at levels of 25 to 100 percent of spermatozoa from 16 of 2054 beef bulls. The incidence of this defect appeared to be particularly high in the Charolais breed. Pedigree analysis of some of the affected Charolais bulls indicated there may be a genetic predisposition for this sperm defect. In eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears the most common form of the abnormality was a flattened or indented apex of the sperm head. A refractile bead at the apex of the sperm head was seen less commonly. Electron microscopy of the spermatozoa from one bull showed that the abnormality was similar to the knobbed sperm defect previously described in Friesian bulls. A breeding trial confirmed that bulls producing spermatozoa with a high incidence of knobbed acrosomes are infertile. ImagesFigure 2 and 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6 and 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422706
Allen, D. G.
Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196
Luxenberg, M N; Guthrie, T H
Eight patients with nine histologically proven BCC or SCC involving the eyelids and periorbital tissues were treated with systemic and/or local (iontophoresis) chemotherapy using cisplatin and doxorubicin. All patients had either refused surgery, would have required extensive procedures, or had medical problems contraindicating surgery. Systemic chemotherapy induced a CR or PR in eight of nine lesions. No patient has required maintenance chemotherapy and no significant toxic side effects were encountered. The length of follow-up ranges from 2 to 50 months. Iontophoretic therapy with cisplatin was used to treat five small foci of new, recurrent or persistent tumor(s) in three of these patients, and resulted in a partial response in all five lesions. Systemic or local chemotherapy offers an alternative to current standard forms of treatment for BCC and SCC in selected cases. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:3832525
Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.
Schecter, A; Tiernan, T
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358
Cassidy, J. D.; Potter, G. E.; Kirkaldy-Willis, W. H.
The authors see a large number of back problems, many with complicating features, and are involved in an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of various treatment modalities, particularly spinal manipulation. This paper deals with spondylolisthesis. Included is a discussion of the definition, classification, etiology and epidemiology of spondylolisthesis. Pain mechanisms are discussed along with the role of conservative and surgical management. Results are presented in a series of cases managed by manipulative methods. The authors conclude that spinal manipulation is of great value in selected cases of back pain in which there is radiographic evidence of spondylolisthesis. No claim is made that such treatment is influencing the spondylolisthesis itself, but that in most cases the spondylolisthesis is an incidental finding, and no contraindication to manipulative therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10
Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Scott, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Allan J.; Rojas, John
More than 40 patients with gynecological, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal malignancies, both primary and recurrent but confined to the pelvis, were treated with interstitial irradiation over a four-year period. Interstitial irradiation was the choice of treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate, carcinoma of the anal canal less than T2, recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and carcinoma of the cervical stump. The authors' experience in treating recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix with interstitial irradiation is the basis for the indications for selecting the technique of interstitial irradiation presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:6471113
Alper, M G
Seven examples of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus have been described. The characteristic symptoms and signs have been described, and the diagnostic neuroradiologic features have been demonstrated. The condition is not a benign one, as is demonstrated by total blindness which occurred in one patient (Case 2). A high index of suspicion for this condition with early referral for neuroradiologic diagnosis leads to proper management and treatment which is usually successful. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 PMID:867637
Keating, Joseph C
Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24
Shaw, C. M.; Mottet, N. K.; Body, R. L.; Luschei, E. S.
Acute and chronic intoxications of rhesus monkeys with methylmercury produced lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) with different distributions. Neuronal degeneration and astroglial proliferation predominated in the dentate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, thalamus and pontine nuclei in 2 monkeys that received 2 mg/kg/day for 17 and 18 days, whereas pseudolaminar necrosis and astroglial proliferation were observed in the cerebral crotex, maximally in the calcarine and insular regions, in 4 monkeys that received 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg/day for 3 to 8.5 months. Mercury concentrations in the CNS were much higher in the acutely intoxicated animals than in the chronically intoxicated animals, but the correlation between concentrations of mercury and the histologic destruction was not precise. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:821350
The nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus and the Fanconi syndrome show characteristic changes with electron microscopy. Experimental studies of animals were carried out to determine the significance of such changes by observing reactions that occur under carefully controlled conditions. A lesion with collagen deposition that was found in the centrolobular region of glomeruli sheds new light on the function of this region. This evidence must be considered in developing an understanding of how the production of urine is controlled. Fluid-filled compartments and various bodies associated with the ultrastructure of tubule cells can be produced under conditions which suggest that these structures play a role in tubular resorption. ImagesFigure 1, 2.Figure 3.Figure 4, 5.Figure 6, 7.Figure 8, 9.Figure 10.Figure 11, 12.Figure 13, 14.Figure 15, 16.Figure 17. PMID:13759386
Haller, J A
Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713
O'Neill, J F
and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309
Wright, K W
forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149
Harris, G J; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K
intrinsic damage and subsequent fibrosis, appear to result in poorer motility outcomes. Although this retrospective study does not conclusively prove its benefit, an urgent surgical approach to selected injuries should be considered. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:10360296
Slauson, D. O.; Hahn, F. F.; Benjamin, S. A.; Chiffelle, T. L.; Jones, R. K.
The histopathologic events in the developing acute pulmonary inflammatory reaction to inhaled particles of Yttrium 90 are detailed. In animals that died or were sacrificed during the first year after inhalation exposure, microscopic findings of acute inflammation predominated and included vascular congestion; stasis, focal hemorrhage; edema; various inflammatory cell infiltrates; cytolysis and desquamation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium followed by regeneration; vascular injury and repair; and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. Accumulation of alveolar fibrin deposits was an additional characteristic, though not a constant feature of the early stages of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to the direct effects of radiation on pulmonary cell populations, the histopathologic findings were suggestive of diverse activation of various cellular and humoral mediation systems in their pathogenesis. The potential interrelationships of systems responsible for increased vascular permeability, coagulation and fibrinolysis, chemotaxis, and direct cellular injury were discussed and related to the pathogenesis of the microscopic findings characteristic of early pulmonary radiation injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1258976
Caspar, D L
Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706
Morimoto, Tadashi; Sasaki, Tomio; Takakura, Kintomo; Ishida, Tsuyoshi
Five patients with chondrosarcoma, grade I or II, and one with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the skull base were treated at our clinic between 1967 and 1991. The patients were three men and three women who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years. The presenting symptoms were diplopia, decreased visual acuity, or symptoms of involvement of VIIIth and lower cranial nerves. The duration of the symptoms ranged from 18 months to 14 years. A plain skull x-ray and tomography of the skull, computed tomographic (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a calcified mass. Angiograms showed an occlusion of the arteries or venous sinuses, or both, in four patients, and a distinct tumor stain in one. The tumors were subtotally removed in all six cases. Two patients received postoperative irradiation for the residual tumor. In one patient, extraocular movement was compromised postoperatively, although in the other five patients there was no aggravation of the neurologic signs. Follow-up CT scans and MRI demonstrated no recurrent tumors nor any enlargement of residual tumors. Based on these findings, we advocate aggressive surgical removal of these tumors, which should be augmented by radiation therapy if the postoperative CT scans or MRI reveal residual tumors. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17170863
Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W
Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth and unilamellar vesicles is large at all times and in all dispersions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9414216
Nukada, H.; Dyck, P. J.
Polystyrene microspheres, the size chosen to plug capillaries and precapillaries, were injected into the arterial supply of rat sciatic nerves. They produced widespread segmental occlusion of capillaries in lower limb nerves. The clinical and pathologic effect was dose-related. One million microspheres produced selective capillary occlusion but no nerve fiber degeneration; approximately 6 million microspheres also produced selective capillary occlusion and associated foot and leg weakness, sensory loss, and fiber degeneration, beginning in a central core of the distal sciatic nerve; 30 million microspheres caused both capillary and arterial occlusion and a greater neuropathologic deficit. From these observations it is inferred that 1) occlusion of isolated precapillaries and capillaries does not produce ischemic fiber degeneration; 2) occlusion of many microvessels results in central fascicular fiber degeneration, indicating that these cores are watershed regions of poor perfusion; and 3) stereotyped pathologic alterations of nerve fibers and Schwann cells are related to dose, anatomic site, and time elapsed since injection. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6326580
Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.
Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301
Localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. Comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.
Nayak, N. C.; Sachdeva, R.
Hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. Complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. The antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. Certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Results of immunostaining procedures indicate that the antigen demonstrated in this study consists entirely of surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). This seems to be the only component revealed by orcein staining. The latter is considered to be a good marker of the surface antigen and to have certain advantages over immunostaining. It is suggested that suitability of conventional paraffin sections for the detection of HBAg has wide and important implications. Images Figures 1-5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:55076
Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.
Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962
Cooper, W C
The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:3938582
Bartley, G B
PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687
Peters, D. N.; Steinberg, H.; Anderson, W. I.; Hornbuckle, W. E.; Cote, P. J.; Gerin, J. L.; Lewis, R. M.; Tennant, B. C.
Retrospective analysis of necropsy findings of 705 woodchucks was performed to determine the prevalence and morphology of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, its relationship to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection, and the presence of major WHV antigens. Twenty-six woodchucks had glomerular lesions. Renal tissue of the 26 animals was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically for immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Of these 26 animals, immune-mediated glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in six, all of which were chronic WHV carriers. Membranous glomerulonephritis was identified in three animals, two of which also had mesangial proliferation. Host immunoglobulin was present within the mesangium and along capillary loops in all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg) was present along capillary loops of two of these animals, one membranous and one mixed, and in the mesangium of all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg) deposition was similar to WHcAg deposition but was only present along capillaries in those animals with mixed nephritis. The remaining three animals had mesangial proliferation. WHsAg and host immunoglobulin deposition were predominately mesangial; WHcAg was not detected. Transmission electron microscopy showed thickening of the capillary loop basement membranes and subepithelial electron-dense deposits in animal one, and deposits in the mesangium in animal six. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1632459
Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111
Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.
OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224
Weis, L M; Rummel, A M; Masten, S J; Trosko, J E; Upham, B L
Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9417772
Fredrickson, T. N.; Morse, H. C.; Yetter, R. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Pattengale, P. K.
Mouse strains congenic for ecotropic retrovirus genes have a much higher frequency of spontaneous lymphomas than the background NFS/N strain. In this study, most of these lymphomas have been identified as B-cell in origin by morphologic features, identification of immunoglobulin class, and cell-surface antigens. The classification suggested by Pattengale and Taylor proved to be applicable to the lymphomas studied. Most were of large follicular center cells and are considered typical of the type formerly designated as "reticulum cell sarcoma, type B." Many lymphomas contained a large proportion of nonneoplastic cells which partially obscured their neoplastic component. The role of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses as etiologic agents for B-cell lymphomas remains equivocal. However, because the only difference between the NFS/N and congenic mice is the expression of viruses in the latter, it appears that these viruses are somehow involved in induction of B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2998195
Toyokuni, S.; Okada, S.; Hamazaki, S.; Fujioka, M.; Li, J. L.; Midorikawa, O.
Rats intraperitoneally injected with a daily dose of cupric nitrilotriacetate (Cu-NTA), which contained 4 to 7 mg of copper/kg body weight, showed submassive liver necrosis, hemolytic anemia, and acute renal tubular necrosis at the beginning of the experiment and intermittently after 4 weeks of injections. All rats that survived over 8 weeks exhibited liver fibrosis with portal-portal, portal-central, and central-central bridging. In all rats that survived over 16 weeks, micronodular cirrhosis of the liver or extensive liver fibrosis was observed. The copper content of the cirrhotic/fibrotic liver was above 250 micrograms/g dry weight. Electron-microscopic x-ray analysis at day 93 revealed that copper stored in secondary lysosomes was always accompanied by a proportional amount of sulfur (correlation coefficient, 0.98; P less than 0.005). An experimental model of copper toxicosis in terms of copper-induced cirrhosis of the liver was established with exogenous copper chelated by nitrilotriacetate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2757117
Cordasco, Frank A.
Objective: To provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of the patient with multidirectional shoulder instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE for the years from 1980 to 2000 using the key words “shoulder joint,” “instability,” “dislocation,” “multidirectional shoulder instability,” and “inferior capsular shift.” Data Synthesis: Multidirectional instability is symptomatic glenohumeral subluxation or dislocation in more than 1 direction: anterior, inferior, or posterior. The primary pathology is a loose and patulous capsule, and the entity is more common than previously recognized. Multidirectional instability affects young, sedentary patients with generalized ligamentous laxity, often with bilateral symptoms and an atraumatic history, but it also affects athletes, many of whom have sustained injuries. Patients with multidirectional instability may also have Bankart lesions and humeral head impression defects. Conclusions/Recommendations: Patients with multidirectional instability must be identified before appropriate treatment can be initiated. If a course of rehabilitation fails to improve the patient's symptoms, an inferior capsular shift procedure has been demonstrated to be an effective surgical option. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:16558641
Cayler, Glen G.
The death rate among neonates with cardiovascular disease is 50 percent during the first six months, with the majority dying during the first month. With early diagnosis most of these babies could be saved. In approaching the diagnosis of cardiac distress in the newborn, it is important to remember that the types of cardiovascular disease which cause symptoms and death early in life are quite different from those in older children. Lesions such as hypoplasia of the left heart, transposition of the great arteries, endocardial fibroelastosis, pulmonary atresia, mitral atresia, tricuspid atresia and truncus arteriosus are common, not rare, causes of cardiac distress in the newborn. A classification of neonatal cardiovascular diseases into seven pathophysiological groups is presented as a basis for an effective, practical approach to the differential diagnosis of the potentially lethal lesions. This approach is simplified further since over 90 percent of babies with cardiac distress have one of three lesions: (1) Large left-to-right shunt (characterized by the presence of massive plethora on the chest roentgenogram), (2) Large right-to-left shunt (association with intense cyanosis) or (3) Severe obstruction (including hypoplasia of the left heart, which is the most common cause of death due to cardiac distress during the first week of life). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4867629
Hoh, J H; Sosinsky, G E; Revel, J P; Hansma, P K
The extracellular surface of the gap junction cell-to-cell channels was imaged in phosphate-buffered saline with an atomic force microscope. The fully hydrated isolated gap junction membranes adsorbed to mica were irregular sheets approximately 1-2 microns across and 13.2 (+/- 1.3) nm thick. The top bilayer of the gap junction was dissected by increasing the force applied to the tip or sometimes by increasing the scan rate at moderate forces. The exposed extracellular surface revealed a hexagonal array with a center-to-center spacing of 9.4 (+/- 0.9) nm between individual channels (connexons). Images of individual connexons with a lateral resolution of < 3.5 nm, and in the best case approximately 2.5 nm, were reliably and reproducibly obtained with high-quality tips. These membrane channels protruded 1.4 (+/- 0.4) nm from the extracellular surface of the lipid membrane, and the atomic force microscope tip reached up to 0.7 nm into the pore, which opened up to a diameter of 3.8 (+/- 0.6) nm on the extracellular side. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8396452
Moll, R.; Löwe, A.; Laufer, J.; Franke, W. W.
The authors have recently identified a new cytokeratin (CK) polypeptide, CK 20, whose expression is almost entirely confined to the gastric and intestinal epithelium, urothelium, and Merkel cells. Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for CK 20 were raised and characterized by applying immunoblotting and immunocytochemical screening. All of them reacted on frozen tissue sections. A further MAb, IT-Ks20.8, recognized CK 20 in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. A total of 711 cases of primary and metastatic cancer, mostly carcinomas, were analyzed immunohistochemically for CK-20 expression, using CK-20 specific guinea-pig antibodies and MAbs. The expression spectrum of CK 20 in carcinomas resembled that seen in the corresponding normal epithelia of origin. CK-20 positivity was seen in the vast majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon (89/93 cases), mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional-cell and Merkel-cell carcinomas and frequently also in adenocarcinomas of the stomach, bile system, and pancreas. Most squamous cell carcinomas in general and most adenocarcinomas from other sites (breast, lung, endometrium), nonmucinous tumors of the ovary, and small-cell lung carcinomas were essentially or completely negative. The authors propose to use CK 20 as a diagnostic marker valuable in distinguishing different types of carcinomas, notably when presenting as metastases. Images Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1371204
Mark, D. A.; Alonso, D. R.; Quimby, F.; Thaler, H. T.; Kim, Y. T.; Fernandes, G.; Good, R. A.; Weksler, M. E.
Mice of the autoimmune, lymphoproliferative strain MRL/lpr and the congenic, nonlymphoproliferative strain MRL/n were fed one of six diets from weaning on-ward. These mice were sacrificed at 3 or 5 months of age. Low fat diets resulted in lower cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels than did cholesterol-containing high-fat diets. Caloric restriction of MRL/lpr mice was associated with an increased plaque-forming cell response to trinitrophenylated polyacrylamide beads, less lymphoproliferation, and less severe glomerulonephritis. Diet did not affect the incidence of autoimmune vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice sacrificed at 5 months. MRL/lpr mice fed a low-fat, calorically restricted diet from 5 months of age to death lived longer than mice which were fed ad libitum a cholesterol-containing, high-fat diet. At death, MRL/lpr mice fed the former diet had the autoimmune vasculitis which had been evident in mice killed at 5 months, whereas mice fed the latter diet, in addition to the vasculitis, had a high incidence of atherosclerotic lesions of intrarenal and aortic branch arteries. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6333184
Clark, R. A.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Gailit, J.; Cheresh, D. A.
During early granulation tissue formation of wound repair, new capillaries invade the fibrin clot, a process that undoubtedly requires an interaction of vascular cells with the wound provisional matrix composed mainly of fibrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. Integrin alphaVbeta3 is the vascular cell receptor for these wound-associated adhesive proteins. Therefore, we investigated the expression of this receptor on new capillaries of healing full-thickness cutaneous porcine wounds. During granulation tissue formation, alphaVbeta3 was expressed specifically on capillary sprouts invading the central fibrin clot whereas the closely related integrin alphaVbeta5 failed to localize to these cells. Cyclic peptides or antibody antagonists of alphaVbeta3 specifically inhibited granulation tissue formation in a transient manner during the period of invasive angiogenesis. Immunolocalization studies revealed that alphaVbeta3 became aggregated and lost from sprouting vessels after treatment with a peptide antagonist. In contrast, beta 1 integrins were not modulated by this treatment. Once granulation tissue filled the wound and invasive angiogenesis terminated, the alphaVbeta3 showed little or no expression in the granulation tissue microvasculature. These data demonstrate that integrin alphaVbeta3 plays a fundamental, but transient, role during invasive angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in a healing wound. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8623913
Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.
Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565
Schecter, A; Tiernan, T; Schaffner, F; Taylor, M; Gitlitz, G; VanNess, G F; Garrett, J H; Wagel, D J
A subset of workers was followed after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in an occupational medicine clinic setting. Patterns of PCBs found in adipose tissue resembled the pattern seen when soot from the incident or Aroclor 1254 was examined by GC-MS. Adipose tissue also revealed levels of hepta- and octachlorinated furans and dioxins as high as 8400 ppt in one repeatedly exposed worker. Control fat from patients with no known exposure to furans or dioxins was usually in the several hundred parts per trillion range for these isomers, but slightly over 2000 ppt in one sample. Electron microscopic analysis of liver biopsies from three patients who developed mild elevations of hepatic enzymes in their serum revealed morphologic alterations in some ways similar to those seen in animals after feeding experiments with PCBs, dioxins or the Binghamton State Office Building soot. These include pleomorphic mitochondria, giant mitochondria, prominent dense mitochondrial granules, cristae parallel to the long axis of the mitochondria and crystalline structure within same mitochondria as well as lipid droplets in liver cells and slightly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. PMID:3928350
Clark, N A; Rothschild, K J; Luippold, D A; Simon, B A
The orientation of membrane fragments into a lamellar array by a flat surface is analyzed. This analysis includes processes such as centrifugation and drying and physical effects due to membrane fragment steric interactions, finite size, elasticity, and thermal fluctuations. Several model calculations of optimal orientational order in multilayer membrane arrays are presented. The predictions of a smectic A model agree quantitatively with the measured spatial dependence of the fluctuations in layer orientation in a multilamellar arrays. A new technique, based in part on this analysis, for the preparation of well-oriented multilamellar arrays of natural and artificial membranes, isopotential spin-dry centrifugation, is described. The method involves the use of specially designed inserts for the buckets of a standard vacuum ultracentrifuge. The membrane fragments to be oriented are sedimented from solution or suspension onto a substrate of a convenient material which forms a gravitational isopotential surface at high g. Sedimentation is accompanied by removal of the suspending medium at high g to produce oriented films with a selected degree of solvation. In addition, a method is described whereby small solute molecules can be maintained in constant concentration with the membrane fragments during this process. Initial application of the method to the orientation of purple membrane fragments is described. The degree of orientation obtained in this system is evaluated using freeze-fracture and scanning electron microscopy, optical birefringence, linear dichroism, and microscopy. Images FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 15 PMID:7272434
Keating, Joseph C
John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38
Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R
The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029
Kodama, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Naoto; Watanabe, Akira; Komamine, Atsushi
This study shows an overall analysis of gene expression during the cell cycle in synchronous suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus cells. First, the cellular cytoplasmic proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by staining with silver. Seventeen polypeptides showed qualitative or quantitative changes during the cell cycle. Second, the rates of synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins were also investigated by autoradiography by labeling cells with [35S]methionine at each phase of the cell cycle. The rates of synthesis of 13 polypeptides were found to vary during the cell cycle. The silverstained electrophoretic pattern of proteins in the G2 phase in particular showed characteristic changes in levels of polypeptides, while the rates of synthesis of polypeptides synthesized during the G2 phase did not show such phase-specific changes. This result suggests that posttranslational processing of polypeptides occurs during or prior to the G2 phase. In the G1 and S phases and during cytokinesis, several other polypeptides were specifically synthesized. Finally, the variation of mRNAs was analyzed from the autoradiograms of in vitro translation products of poly(A)+ RNA isolated at each phase. Three poly(A)+ RNAs increased in amount from the G1 to the S phase and one poly (A)+ RNA increased preferentially from the G2 phase to cytokinesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:16666641
Fisher, Donald B.; Wu, Yujia; Ku, Maurice S. B.
Although the enucleate conducting cells of the phloem are incapable of protein synthesis, phloem exudates characteristically contain low concentrations of soluble proteins. The role of these proteins and their movement into and out of the sieve tubes poses important questions for phloem physiology and for cell-to-cell protein movement via plasmodesmata. The occurrence of protein turnover in sieve tubes was investigated by [35S]methionine labeling and by the use of aphid stylets to sample the sieve tube contents at three points along a source-to-sink pathway (flag leaf to grains) in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.). Protein concentration and composition were similar at all sampling sites. The kinetics of 35S-labeling of protein suggested a basically source-to-sink pattern of movement for many proteins. However, an appreciable amount of protein synthesis and, presumably, removal also occurred along the path. This movement appeared to be protein specific and not based on passive molecular sieving. The results have important implications for the transport capacities of plasmodesmata between sieve tubes and companion cells. The observations considerably expand the possible basis for ongoing sieve tube-companion cell interactions and, perhaps, interaction between sources and sinks. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:16653142
DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Popescu, Nicolae C.
chromosome number or structure. Our studies indicate that chromosome changes are not essential for establishment of neoplasms but that karyotypic instability may result in response to selective growth pressures. ImagesFigure 2Figure 11Figure 3Figure 12Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 1Figure 10 PMID:826168
Rice, D; Barone, S
Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851
Marin, M L; Veith, F J; Cynamon, J; Sanchez, L A; Lyon, R T; Levine, B A; Bakal, C W; Suggs, W D; Wengerter, K R; Rivers, S P
OBJECTIVES: Complex arterial occlusive, traumatic, and aneurysmal lesions may be difficult or impossible to treat successfully by standard surgical techniques when severe medical or surgical comorbidities exist. The authors describe a single center's experience over a 2 1/2-year period with 96 endovascular graft procedures performed to treat 100 arterial lesions in 92 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients had 36 large aortic and/or peripheral artery aneurysms, 48 had 53 multilevel limb-threatening aortoiliac and/or femoropopliteal occlusive lesions, and 11 had traumatic arterial injuries (false aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas). Endovascular grafts were placed through remote arteriotomies under local (16[17%]), epidural (42[43%]), or general (38[40%]) anesthesia. RESULTS: Technical and clinical successes were achieved in 91% of the patients with aneurysms, 91% with occlusive lesions, and 100% with traumatic arterial lesions. These patients and grafts have been followed from 1 to 30 months (mean, 13 months). The primary and secondary patency rates at 18 months for aortoiliac occlusions were 77% and 95%, respectively. The 18-month limb salvage rate was 98%. Immediately after aortic aneurysm exclusion, a total of 6 (33%) perigraft channels were detected; 3 of these closed within 8 weeks. Endovascular stented graft procedures were associated with a 10% major and a 14% minor complication rate. The overall 30-day mortality rate for this entire series was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This initial experience with endovascular graft repair of complex arterial lesions justifies further use and careful evaluation of this technique for major arterial reconstruction. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 11. PMID:7574926
Markaverich, B M; Webb, B; Densmore, C L; Gregory, R R
Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subsequent effects on uterine growth suggest these compounds are less active estrogens than estradiol and therefore may reduce the risk of developing breast or prostate cancer in humans by preventing estradiol binding to ER. With the renewed interest in the relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer cause and prevention, we assessed the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on uterotropic response in the immature, ovariectomized rat. Our studies demonstrated that in this animal model, coumestrol is an atypical estrogen that does not stimulate uterine cellular hyperplasia. Although acute (subcutaneous injection) or chronic (multiple injection or orally via drinking water) administration of coumestrol significantly increased uterine wet and dry weights, the phytoestrogen failed to increase uterine DNA content. The lack of true estrogenic activity was characterized by the inability of this phytoestrogen to cause cytosolic ER depletion, nuclear ER accumulation, or the stimulation of nuclear type II sites which characteristically precede estrogenic stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and proliferation. In fact, subcutaneous or oral coumestrol treatment caused an atypical threefold induction of cytosolic ER without corresponding cytosolic depletion and nuclear accumulation of this receptor, and this increased the sensitivity of the uterus to subsequent stimulation by estradiol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p574-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:7556010
Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083
Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M
. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:9684044
McDougall, I. Ross
Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886
Collard, J M; Romagnoli, R; Otte, J B; Kestens, P J
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the denervated stomach as an esophageal substitute is an inert conduit or a contractile organ. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The motor response of gastric transplants to deglutition suggests that the stomach pulled up to the neck acts as an inert organ. METHODS: The gastric motility of 11 healthy volunteers and 33 patients having either a gastric tube (GT) (n = 10) or their whole stomach (WS) (n = 23) as esophageal replacement was studied with perfused catheters during the fasting state, after a meal, and after intravenous administration of erythromycin lactobionate. A motility index was established for each period of recording by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of all contractions of >9 mmHg by the time of recording. RESULTS: Over years, the denervated stomach recovers more and more motor activity, even displaying a real phase 3 motor pattern in 6 of the 10 WS patients and 1 of the 7 GT patients with >3 years of follow-up. Erythromycin lactobionate generates a phase 3-like motor pattern regardless of the length of follow-up. Extrinsic denervation of the whole stomach does not significantly modify the fasting motility index established >3 years after surgery (+17% on average, p > 0.05), but it reduces that in the fed period by an average of 62% (p = 0.0016). Tubulization of the denervated whole stomach lowers the fasting motility index by an average of 60% (p = 0.0248) and further impairs that in the fed period by an average of 67% (p = 0.0388). CONCLUSIONS: The denervated stomach as an esophageal substitute is a contractile organ that may even generate complete migrating motor complexes. Motor recovery is better in the fasting than in the fed period, and it is more marked in WS patients than in GT patients. Images Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:9445107
Yamamoto, T.; Naito, M.; Moriyama, H.; Umezu, H.; Matsuo, H.; Kiwada, H.; Arakawa, M.
Kupffer cells were selectively eliminated in mice by the intravenous administration of liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate. At 5 days, small peroxidase-negative and acid-phosphatase-weakly-positive macrophages appeared, increased in number, and differentiated into peroxidase- and acid-phosphatase-positive Kupffer cells. Repopulating small macrophages actively proliferated, and the number of Kupffer cells returned to the normal level by day 14. The numbers of macrophage precursors in the liver as detected by the monoclonal antibodies ER-MP20 and ER-MP58 increased after liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate injection. ER-MP58-positive cells proliferated and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells and eventually into BM8-positive Kupffer cells in the liver. Bone-marrow-derived ER-MP58-positive cells were also detectable in the liver and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells, but they did not become BM8-positive macrophages. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA expression was enhanced in the liver 1 day after injection. The administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not shorten the period of Kupffer cell depletion but increased the number and the proliferative capacity of repopulating Kupffer cells. These findings implied that repopulating Kupffer cells are derived from a macrophage precursor pool in the liver rather than from bone-marrow-derived monocytes. Local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the liver plays a crucial role in the differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 18 PMID:8863675
Brett, Jerold; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shi Du; Zou, Yu Shan; Weidman, Elliott; Pinsky, David; Nowygrod, Roman; Neeper, Michael; Przysiecki, Craig; Shaw, Alan; Migheli, Antonio; Stern, David
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the final products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, are found in the plasma and accumulate in the tissues during aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A novel integral membrane protein, termed receptor for AGE (RAGE), forms a central part of the cell surface binding site for AGEs. Using monospecific, polyclonal antibody raised to human recombinant and bovine RAGE, immunostaining of bovine tissues showed RAGE in the vasculature, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells and in mononuclear cells in the tissues. Consistent with these data, RAGE antigen and mRNA were identified in cultured bovine endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and monocyte-derived macrophages. RAGE antigen was also visualized in bovine cardiac myocytes as well as in cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and in neural tissue where motor neurons, peripheral nerves, and a population of cortical neurons were positive. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of RAGE mRNA in the tissues, and studies with rat PC12 pheochromocytes indicated that they provide a neuronal-related cell culture model for examining RAGE expression. Pathological studies of human atherosclerotic plaques showed infiltration of RAGE-expressing cells in the expanded intima. These results indicate that RAGE is present in multiple tissues and suggest the potential relevance of AGE-RAGE interactions for modulating properties of the vasculature as well as neural and cardiac function, prominent areas of involvement in diabetes and in the normal aging process. ImagesFigure 9Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 10 PMID:8256857
Ghosh, R N; Webb, W W
We have developed a technique to detect, recognize, and track each individual low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) molecule and small receptor clusters on the surface of human skin fibroblasts. Molecular recognition and high precision (30 nm) simultaneous automatic tracking of all of the individual receptors in the cell surface population utilize quantitative time-lapse low light level digital video fluorescence microscopy analyzed by purpose-designed algorithms executed on an image processing work station. The LDL-Rs are labeled with the biologically active, fluorescent LDL derivative dil-LDL. Individual LDL-Rs and unresolved small clusters are identified by measuring the fluorescence power radiated by the sub-resolution fluorescent spots in the image; identification of single particles is ascertained by four independent techniques. An automated tracking routine was developed to track simultaneously, and without user intervention, a multitude of fluorescent particles through a sequence of hundreds of time-lapse image frames. The limitations on tracking precision were found to depend on the signal-to-noise ratio of the tracked particle image and mechanical drift of the microscope system. We describe the methods involved in (i) time-lapse acquisition of the low-light level images, (ii) simultaneous automated tracking of the fluorescent diffraction limited punctate images, (iii) localizing particles with high precision and limitations, and (iv) detecting and identifying single and clustered LDL-Rs. These methods are generally applicable and provide a powerful tool to visualize and measure dynamics and interactions of individual integral membrane proteins on living cell surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8061186
Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.
Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L
mutation yet reported in type II procollagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7741714
Siegel, D P; Green, W J; Talmon, Y
The lamellar/inverted hexagonal (L alpha/HII) phase transition can be very fast, despite the drastic change in the topology of the lipid/water interfaces. The first structures to form in this transition may be similar to those that mediate membrane fusion in many lipid systems. To study the transition mechanism and other dynamic phenomena in membrane dispersions, we constructed an apparatus to rapidly trigger the transition and then vitrify the specimens to preserve the structure of transient intermediates. The apparatus applies millisecond-long temperature jumps of variable size to aqueous dispersions of lipids on electron microscope grids at times 9-16 ms before specimen vitrification. The vitrified specimens are then examined by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Dispersions of egg phosphatidylethanolamine completed the transition within 9 ms when superheated by 20 K. Similar transition times have been observed in dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine via time-resolved x-ray diffraction. N-monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine dispersions superheated to lesser extent exhibited slower transitions and more complex morphology. The structure of the first intermediates to form in the transition process could not be determined, probably because the intermediates are labile on the time scale of sample cooling and vitrification (< 1 ms) and because of the poor contrast developed by some of these small structures. However, the results are more compatible with a transition mechanism based on "stalk" intermediates than a mechanism involving inverted micellar intermediates. Temperature-jump cryo-transmission electron microscopy should be useful in studying dynamic phenomena in biomembranes, large protein complexes, and other colloidal dispersions. It should be especially helpful in studying the mechanism of protein-induced membrane fusion. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8161694
Shekels, L L; Lyftogt, C; Kieliszewski, M; Filie, J D; Kozak, C A; Ho, S B
Mucins protect gastric epithelium by maintaining a favourable pH gradient and preventing autodigestion. The purpose of this study was to clone a mouse gastric mucin which would provide a foundation for analysis of mucin gene regulation. Mucin was purified from the glandular portion of gastric specimens and deglycosylated by HF solvolysis. Antibodies against native and deglycosylated mouse gastric mucin (MGM) were raised in chickens. Screening of a mouse stomach cDNA library with the anti-(deglycosylated MGM) antibody yielded partial clones containing a 48 bp tandem repeat and 768 bp of non-repetitive sequence. The 16-amino-acid tandem repeat has a consensus sequence of QTSSPNTGKTSTISTT with 25% serine and 38% threonine. The MGM tandem repeat sequence bears no similarity to previously identified mucins. The MGM non-repetitive region shares sequence similarity with human MUC5AC and, to a lesser extent, human MUC2 and rat intestinal mucin. Northern blot analysis reveals a polydisperse message beginning at 13.5 kb in mouse stomach with no expression in oesophagus, trachea, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, lung or kidney. Immunoreactivity of antibodies against deglycosylated MGM and against a synthetic MGM tandem repeat peptide was restricted to superficial mucous cells, antral glands and Brunner's glands in the pyloric-duodenal region. DNA analysis shows that MGM recognizes mouse and rat DNA but not hamster, rabbit or human DNA. The MGM gene maps to a site on mouse chromosome 7 homologous to the location of a human secretory mucin gene cluster on human chromosome 11p15. Due to sequence similarity and predominant expression in the stomach, the MGM gene may be considered a MUC5AC homologue and named Muc5ac. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7487932
Howe, Gregg; Merchant, Sabeeha
In this study, we have addressed the capacity of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to produce metal-binding peptides in response to stress induced by the heavy metals Cd2+, Hg2+, and Ag+. Cells cultured in the presence of sublethal concentrations of Cd2+ synthesized and accumulated oligopeptides consisting solely of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine in an average ratio of 3:3:1. Cadmium-induced peptides were isolated in their native form as higher molecular weight peptide-metal complexes with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 6.5 × 103. The isolated complex bound cadmium (as evidenced by absorption spectroscopy) and sequestered (with a stoichiometry of 0.7 moles of cadmium per mole of cysteine) up to 70% of the total cadmium found in extracts of cadmium-treated cells. In Hg2+-treated cells, the principal thiol-containing compound induced by Hg2+ ions was glutathione. It is possible that glutathione functions in plant cells (as it does in animal cells) to detoxify heavy metals. Cells treated with Ag+ ions also synthesized a sulfur-containing component with a charge to mass ratio similar to Cd2+-induced peptides. But, in contrast to the results obtained using Cd2+ as an inducer, these molecules did not accumulate to significant levels in Ag+-treated cells. The presence of physiological concentrations of Cu2+ in the growth medium blocked the synthesis of the Ag+-inducible component(s) and rendered cells resistant to the toxic effects of Ag+, suggesting competition between Cu2+ and Ag+ ions, possibly at the level of metal uptake. ImagesFigure 2Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11 PMID:16668603
Sundberg, J. P.; Boggess, D.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, B. A.; Rourk, M. H.; Harris, B.; Johnson, K.; Dunstan, R. W.; Davisson, M. T.
Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:9212754
Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.
, endothelial cell junctions, and cytoplasm. ImagesFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 1 and 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7294155
Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.
Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135
Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.
Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617
Moore-Stovall, J.; Venkatesh, R.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from clinical experience has proven to be superior to all other diagnostic imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT) in the detection of intracranial neoplasms. Although glioblastoma multiforme presents a challenge for all diagnostic imaging modalities including MRI, MRI is paramount to CT in detecting subtle abnormal water accumulation in brain tissue caused by tumor even before there is disruption of the blood brain barrier. Currently, clinical research and investigational trials on nonionic gadolinium contrast agents have proven that nonionic gadolinium HP-DO3A (ProHance) contrast agents have lower osmolality and greater stability, which make them superior compounds to gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Therefore, the nonionic gadolinium contrasts have been safely administered more rapidly, in higher or multiple doses for contrast enhanced MRI without adverse side effects or changes in serum iron or total bilirubin, and the intensity of the area of enhancement and number of lesions detected were superior to that of Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) at the standard dose (0.1 mmol/Kg). Perhaps if the nonionic gadolinium contrast agent, ProHance, had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when this MRI was performed in 1990 it would have aided in providing contrast enhancement and visualization of the tumor lesion to assist in patient diagnosis and management. Magnetic resonance imaging also provides unique multiplanar capabilities that allow for optimal visualization of the temporal and occipital lobes of the brain without bone interference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9A Figure 9B Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8382751
Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.
Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748
Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Richardson, Ken
Since 1915, statisticians have been applying Fisher's Z-transformation to Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. We offer new geometric interpretations of this transformation. (Contains 9 figures.)
Iliff, N T
enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE20 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:1808816
Croute, F; Beau, B; Arrabit, C; Gaubin, Y; Delmas, F; Murat, J C; Soleilhavoup, J P
maximum allowable biologic exposure limit should be lowered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10620524
Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Allman, R. M.; Goode, P. S.; Serdar, C. M.; Morris, B.; Mustoe, T. A.; Vande Berg, J.
Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7992843
Slezak, J.; Tribulova, N.; Pristacova, J.; Uhrik, B.; Thomas, T.; Khaper, N.; Kaul, N.; Singal, P. K.
support a significant increase in myocardial H2O2 during both the phase of ischemia and the first few minutes of reperfusion. A stronger reaction on the sarcolemma and abluminal side of endothelial cells may also indicate enhanced H2O2 accumulation as well as vulnerability of these sites to oxidative stress injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7677188
Hully, J. R.; Su, Y.; Lohse, J. K.; Griep, A. E.; Sattler, C. A.; Haas, M. J.; Dragan, Y.; Peterson, J.; Neveu, M.; Pitot, H. C.
stainable amounts of the p53 gene product; by contrast, normal hepatocytes express only very low levels of the T antigen within their nuclei and no demonstrable p53. All of the animals develop hepatic lesions, and approximately one-third also develop adenomas and carcinomas derived from the islet cells of the pancreas. Although there are differences in the morphology, biology, and genetic expression in early and late hepatic lesions in this strain of transgenic rat, many similarities also occur, making this a potential model system with which to study the interactions of environmental factors with a genetic program for hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8053496
Muro, H.; Shirasawa, H.; Kosugi, I.; Nakamura, S.
.e., capillarization of the sinusoids. These phenotypical changes in SECs may reduce the capacity of FcR-mediated IgG-IC metabolism in diseased livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7686339
Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott
aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10
Chen, J.; Myllärniemi, M.; Akyürek, L. M.; Häyry, P.; Marsden, P. A.; Paul, L. C.
the graft vessel wall and dispersed in the intima, media, and adventitia. The question remains as to which of these genes are critically relevant in the pathogenesis of graft vasculopathy and whether they serve as targets for therapeutic interventions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8701998
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... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...
Runge, P E
PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE
Ishijima, A; Kojima, H; Higuchi, H; Harada, Y; Funatsu, T; Yanagida, T
and the needle displacement increased. At near zero load, the mean size of single displacement spikes, i.e., the unitary steps caused by correctly oriented myosin, which were corrected for the stiffness of the needle-to-myosin linkage and the randomizing effect by the thermal vibration of the needle, was approximately 20 nm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:8770215
Rich, L F
PURPOSE: To investigate whether applications of current technology, such as cryolathe and excimer laser, might improve outcomes and increase use of lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: Six studies were performed, beginning with animals and progressing to human subjects. The first study compared cryolathed with hand-dissected rabbit corneas to ascertain which created a smoother donor interface. The second animal pilot study was done to determine whether thickness of donor cornea resection could be accurately predicted with the cryolathe. A prospective animal trial was then undertaken to compare lamellar keratoplasty outcomes using cryolathed versus hand-dissected tissue. The fourth work extrapolated previous animal findings to lamellar keratoplasty in human disease. Finally, two ongoing studies are described. The first explores the possibility of sutureless lamellar keratoplasty. The second utilizes the excimer laser to dissect the recipient stromal bed. RESULTS: The initial animal pilot study demonstrated a clearer stromal surface in cryolathed versus hand-dissected corneal tissue. The second pilot showed that plano-powered donor tissue could be generated to predetermined thickness. The prospective animal trial revealed that clear grafts of intended thickness could be obtained with cryolathing. Human studies suggested that lamellar keratoplasty using cryolathe-prepared donor tissue may offer superior results to free-hand dissection. Finally, one ongoing study indicates that sutureless lamellar keratoplasty is untenable, and the other shows that clear grafts can be obtained by combining cryolathed donor tissue with recipient photoablation. CONCLUSION: This body of work demonstrates that use of new lamellar keratoplasty technology may offer expanded scope and better outcomes than traditional lamellar keratoplasty techniques. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13
Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.
tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1281619
Picker, L. J.; Michie, S. A.; Rott, L. S.; Butcher, E. C.
lymphocytes, the preferential expression of the HECA-452 determinant by cutaneous T cells supports the hypothesis that the skin constitutes a immunologically unique lymphoid tissue and suggests that this molecule may play a role in either lymphocyte homing to skin or in lymphocyte interactions with the epidermis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1693467
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...