Science.gov

Sample records for 8gr8 cygnus survey

  1. The JCMT 12CO(3-2) survey of the Cygnus X region. I. A pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, M.; Kothes, R.; Matthews, H. E.; Landecker, T. L.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Cygnus X is one of the most complex areas in the sky, rich in massive stars; Cyg OB2 (2600 stars, 120 O stars) and other OB associations lie within its boundaries. This complicates interpretation, but also creates the opportunity to investigate accretion into molecular clouds and many subsequent stages of star formation, all within one small field of view. Understanding large complexes like Cygnus X is the key to understanding the dominant role that massive star complexes play in galaxies across the Universe. Aims: The main goal of this study is to establish feasibility of a high-resolution CO survey of the entire Cygnus X region by observing part of it as a pathfinder, and to evaluate the survey as a tool for investigating the star-formation process. We can investigate the mass accretion history of outflows, study interaction between star-forming regions and their cold environment, and examine triggered star formation around massive stars. Methods: A 2° × 4° area of the Cygnus X region has been mapped in the 12CO(3-2) line at an angular resolution of 15'' and a velocity resolution of ~0.4 km s-1 using HARP-B and ACSIS on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The star formation process is heavily connected to the life-cycle of the molecular material in the interstellar medium. The high critical density of the 12CO(3-2) transition reveals clouds in key stages of molecule formation, and shows processes that turn a molecular cloud into a star. Results: We observed ~15% of Cygnus X, and demonstrated that a full survey would be feasible and rewarding. We detected three distinct layers of 12CO(3-2) emission, related to the Cygnus Rift (500-800 pc), to W75N (1-1.8 kpc), and to DR 21 (1.5-2.5 kpc). Within the Cygnus Rift, H i self-absorption features are tightly correlated with faint diffuse CO emission, while HISA features in the DR 21 layer are mostly unrelated to any CO emission. 47 molecular outflows were detected in the pathfinder, 27 of them previously

  2. An R- and I-band Photometric Variability Survey of the Cygnus OB2 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Stanek, K. Z.; Pejcha, O.; Prieto, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    We present a catalog of photometrically variable stars discovered within two 21farcm3 × 21farcm3 fields centered on the Cygnus OB2 association (Cyg OB2). There have hitherto been no deep optical variability studies of Cyg OB2, despite it being replete with early-type massive stars, likely due to the high and variable extinction (up to AV ≈ 20) that permeates much of the region. Here, we provide results of the first variability study with this combination of spatial coverage (~0.5 deg) and photometric depth (R ~ 21 mag). We find 121 stars to be variable in both R and I bands, 115 of them newly discovered. Of the 121 variables, we identify 27 eclipsing binaries and eclipsing-binary candidates, 52 pulsating variables, and 20 potential Herbig Ae/Be stars. Confirming both the status and the cluster membership of the Herbig Ae/Be stars would address the uncertainty regarding the age and star formation history of Cyg OB2. We match our catalog to known variables and binaries in the region, Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR data, and Chandra X-ray observations to find counterparts to new variables in other wavelengths. Based on observations obtained using the 1.3 m McGraw-Hill telescope at the MDM Observatory.

  3. AN R- AND I-BAND PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY SURVEY OF THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C. B.; Stanek, K. Z.; Pejcha, O.; Prieto, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    We present a catalog of photometrically variable stars discovered within two 21.'3 x 21.'3 fields centered on the Cygnus OB2 association (Cyg OB2). There have hitherto been no deep optical variability studies of Cyg OB2, despite it being replete with early-type massive stars, likely due to the high and variable extinction (up to A{sub V} {approx} 20) that permeates much of the region. Here, we provide results of the first variability study with this combination of spatial coverage ({approx}0.5 deg) and photometric depth (R {approx} 21 mag). We find 121 stars to be variable in both R and I bands, 115 of them newly discovered. Of the 121 variables, we identify 27 eclipsing binaries and eclipsing-binary candidates, 52 pulsating variables, and 20 potential Herbig Ae/Be stars. Confirming both the status and the cluster membership of the Herbig Ae/Be stars would address the uncertainty regarding the age and star formation history of Cyg OB2. We match our catalog to known variables and binaries in the region, Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR data, and Chandra X-ray observations to find counterparts to new variables in other wavelengths.

  4. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  5. The {ital ROSAT} HRI x-ray survey of the Cygnus loop

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, N.A.; Graham, J.R.; Aschenbach, B.; Blair, W.P.; Brinkmann, W.; Busser, J.; Egger, R.; Fesen, R.A.; Hester, J.J.; Kahn, S.M.; Klein, R.I. |; McKee, C.F. |; Petre, R.; Pisarski, R.; Raymond, J.C.; Snowden, S.L.

    1997-07-01

    We describe and report progress on the joint U.S. and German campaign to map the X-ray emission from the entire Cygnus Loop with the {ital ROSAT} High Resolution Imager. The Cygnus Loop is the prototype for a supernova remnant that is dominated by interactions with the interstellar medium and supplies fundamental physical information on this basic mechanism for shaping the interstellar medium. The global view that these high-resolution (FWHM{approximately}10{sup {prime}{prime}}) observations provide emphasizes the inhomogeneity of the interstellar medium and the pivotal nature of cloud{endash}blast-wave interactions in determining the X-ray morphology of the supernova remnant. While investigating the details of the evolution of the blast wave, we also describe the interstellar medium in the vicinity of the Cygnus Loop, which the progenitor star has processed. Although we do not expect the X-ray observations to be complete until 1997 September, the incomplete data combined with deep H{alpha} images provide definitive evidence that the Cygnus Loop was formed by an explosion within a preexisting cavity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  6. A Multi-Frequency VLBA Survey of Interstellar Scattering in the Cygnus X Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutel, R. L.; Molnar, L. A.; Spangler, S. R.

    1998-05-01

    We describe the results of a multi-frequency VLBA study of the scatter-broadened images of fifteen compact extragalactic sources. The sources are located along lines of sight which intercept the Cygnus X superbubble. We have used the phase structure function to determine the spatial spectrum of turbulence with high SNR on scales from 100 to 6,000 km. We will discuss evidence for detection of an inner scale length along some lines of sight as well as excess visibility amplitude for projected baseline lengths much greater than the diffractive scale. We also find that most scattered-broadened images are significantly elliptical with orientations which may be related to the large-scale magnetic field orientation in the Cygnus superbubble.

  7. TOWARD COMPLETE STATISTICS OF MASSIVE BINARY STARS: PENULTIMATE RESULTS FROM THE CYGNUS OB2 RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Álvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.; Kiminki, Daniel C. E-mail: jburke2@swarthmore.edu E-mail: kelle22e@mtholyoke.edu E-mail: emily.k.rolen@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P < 45 days, but it is not scale-free. Inflections in the cumulative distribution near 6 days, 14 days, and 45 days suggest key physical scales of ≅0.2, ≅0.4, and ≅1 A.U. where yet-to-be-identified phenomena create distinct features. No single power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ≅ –0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P ≲ 25 days are determined by local physics of disk/clump fragmentation and are relatively insensitive to environmental and evolutionary factors. Fully 30% of the unbiased parent sample is a binary with period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ≅ 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ∼30 km s{sup –1} attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  8. A WIDE-FIELD NARROWBAND OPTICAL SURVEY OF THE BRAID NEBULA STAR FORMATION REGION IN CYGNUS OB7

    SciTech Connect

    Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.; Movsessian, Tigran; Aspin, Colin; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Smith, Michael D.; Mitchison, Sharon; Davis, Chris J.; Beck, Tracy L.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H. E-mail: elena@bao.sci.am E-mail: pyo@subaru.naoj.org E-mail: smm23@kent.ac.uk E-mail: c.davis@jach.hawaii.edu E-mail: gerald.schieven@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2010-03-15

    We study the population of Herbig-Haro (HH) flows and jets in an area of Cygnus OB7 designated the Braid Nebula star formation region. This complex forms part of the L 1003 dark cloud, and hosts two FU Orionis (FUor)-like objects as well as several other active young stars. To trace outflow activity and to relate both known and newly discovered flows to young star hosts we intercompare new, deep, narrowband H{alpha} and [S II] optical images taken on the Subaru 8 m Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Our images show that there is considerable outflow and jet activity in this region suggesting the presence of an extensive young star population. We confirm that both of the FUor-like objects drive extensive HH flows and document further members of the flows in both objects. The L 1003 star formation complex is a highly kinematically active region with young stars in several different stages of evolution. We trace collimated outflows from numerous young stars although the origin of some HH objects remains elusive.

  9. A high angular resolution survey of massive stars in Cygnus OB2: Results from the Hubble space telescope fine guidance sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Gies, D. R.; Jao, W.-C. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu; and others

    2014-02-01

    We present results of a high angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the fine guidance sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space Telescope. FGS1r is able to resolve binary systems with a magnitude difference ΔV < 4 down to separations as small as 0.''01. The sample includes 58 of the brighter members of Cyg OB2, one of the closest examples of an environment containing a large number of very young and massive stars. We resolved binary companions for 12 targets and confirmed the triple nature of one other target, and we offer evidence of marginally resolved companions for two additional stars. We confirm the binary nature of 11 of these systems from complementary adaptive optics imaging observations. The overall binary frequency in our study is 22% to 26% corresponding to orbital periods ranging from 20 to 20,000 yr. When combined with the known short-period spectroscopic binaries, the results support the hypothesis that the binary fraction among massive stars is >60%. One of the new discoveries is a companion to the hypergiant star MT 304 = Cyg OB2-12, and future measurements of orbital motion should provide mass estimates for this very luminous star.

  10. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  11. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  12. The Cygnus region of the galaxy: A VERITAS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming region ("Cygnus") is the richest star-forming region within 2 kpc of Earth and is home to a wealth of potential cosmic ray accelerators, including supernova remnants, massive star clusters, and pulsar wind nebulae. Over the past five years, discoveries by several gamma-ray observatories sensitive in different energy bands, including the identification by Fermi-LAT of a potential cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays, have pinpointed this region as a unique laboratory for studying the early phases of the cosmic ray life cycle. From 2007 to 2009 VERITAS, a very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) observatory in southern Arizona, undertook an extensive survey of the Cygnus region from 67 to 82 degrees Galactic longitude and from -1 to 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. In the years since, VERITAS has continued to accumulate data at specific locations within the survey region. We will review the discoveries and insights that this rich dataset has already provided. We will also consider the key role that we expect these data to play in interpreting the complex multiwavelength picture we have of the Cygnus region, particularly in the vicinity of the Cygnus cocoon. As part of this discussion we will summarize ongoing studies of VERITAS data in the Cygnus region, including the development of new data analysis techniques that dramatically increase VERITAS' sensitivity to sources on scales larger than a square degree.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus cygnus (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Rahim Khan, Abdur; Kwon Jung, Byung; Park, Yung-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Cheon Park, Hee; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus cygnus (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was sequenced. The genome, consisting of 16 724 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and a control region (CR). Two rRNA genes for 12S rRNA (991 bases) and 16S rRNA (1608 bases) are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and divided by the tRNA-Val. The CR, of 1156 bp in length, is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. cygnus is G + C: 47.2%, A + T: 52.8%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. cygnus was closed to Cygnus columbianus. PMID:26153753

  14. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  15. Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

  16. Tour the Cygnus X Star Factory

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video opens with wide optical and infrared images of the constellation Cygnus, then zooms into the Cygnus X region using radio, infrared and gamma-ray images. Fermi LAT shows that gamma rays f...

  17. Cygnus: Electrochemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.G.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Vujic, J.; Solly, F.; Johnson, D.; Philipp, D.

    2000-07-01

    Electrochemical cleaning, commonly referred to as electropolishing, can be used to remove surface contamination by dissolving the underlying metal matrix. This is accomplished in the Cygnus process by passing an electric current through a dilute, acidic electrolyte. In the operation, the surface is polished, thereby removing contamination and irregularities to prevent recontamination. Mechanical decontamination processes, by comparison, leave the surface layer distorted, highly stressed, and contaminated with process media. Techniques employing grinding and particle impingement rework the surface of malleable metals such as stainless steel, folding the contamination into pockets where material is released for uncontrolled use. Solway, Ltd., developed the method to be more effective with respect to waste reduction and cost-effectiveness. Together with NUKEM Nuklear, the method was improved for a decontamination procedure in nuclear technology. One of the applications was the decontamination work at KRN Grundremmingen in Germany. The intensive work has shown that the method is suitable for decontamination services in both defense and commercial areas.

  18. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

  19. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.

    My thesis work consisted of the design, fabrication and launch of a sounding rocket payload to observe the spectrum of the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. This payload was designated the Cygnus X-ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) and launched from White Sands Missile Range on November 20th, 2006. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire- grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount which ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto never before flown Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 seconds of usable data between 43-49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log( T )=6.2 ( kT e =0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft x-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave with the walls of a precursor formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop.

  20. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas James; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the massive star forming Cygnus OB2. Cygnus OB2 is the northern hemisphere's most massive star forming region and hosts a tremendously rich and diverse stellar population, with thousands of OB stars. The strong and highly variable extinction in the direction of the association have hindered previous studies of the region, but recent deep photometric surveys in the optical and near-infrared are opening the region up for study. The appreciation of the pivotal status of Cyg OB2 has led to a number of recent ambitious surveys of the cluster and its setting within the Cygnus-X region at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Chandra X-ray observations of two fields in the center of the association reveal 1720 X-ray sources, which we have combined with optical and near-IR photometry from the IPHAS and UKIDSS surveys. Near-IR photometry reveals a stellar population with a spread of ages greater than previously thought, overturning the picture of coeval star formation in the region. The distribution of young sources in the region shows evidence for clustering and significant mass segregation, which we judge to be primordial given the cluster's age.

  1. Cygnus X-3 Little Friend's Counterpart, the Distance to Cygnus X-3 and Jets (Oh My!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Corrales, Lia

    2016-04-01

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature within 16" of Cygnus X-3 which varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule which is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report onobservations made with Submillimeter Array (SMA) to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's "little friend." We have found a counterpart in both 12CO and 13CO emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines we are able determine a kinematic distance to the little friend and in turn a distance to Cygnus X-3. The uncertainties in this distance estimate to Cygnus X-3 are less than 10%. An additional unexpected discovery was that Cygnus X-3 is not the only source to have jets!

  2. The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, William

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

  3. Search for old neutron stars in molecular clouds: Cygnus rift and Cygnus OB7.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, T.; Zampieri, L.; Campana, S.

    1997-03-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for old isolated neutron stars (ONSs) in the direction of two giant molecular clouds in Cygnus (Rift and OB7). From theoretical calculations, we expect the detection of a large number of ONSs with the PSPC on board ROSAT. By analyzing the PSPC pointings in the direction of the clouds, we find four sources characterized by count rates (~10^-3^ct/s) and spectral properties consistent with the hypothesis that the X-ray radiation is produced by ONSs and also characterized by the absence of any measurable optical counterpart within their error circle in the digitized red plates of the Palomar All Sky Survey. The importance of follow-up deep observations in the direction of these ONS candidates is discussed. The observational and theoretical approach presented here could be fruitfully applied also to the systematic search for ONSs in other regions of the Galaxy.

  4. CYGNUS X-3's LITTLE FRIEND

    SciTech Connect

    McCollough, M. L.; Smith, R. K.; Valencic, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique X-ray imaging capabilities of the Chandra X-ray observatory, a 2006 observation of Cygnus X-3 has provided insight into a singular feature associated with this well-known microquasar. This extended emission, located {approx}16'' from Cygnus X-3, varies in flux and orbital phase (shifted by 0.56 in phase) with Cygnus X-3, acting like a celestial X-ray 'mirror'. The feature's spectrum, flux, and time variations allow us to determine the location, size, density, and mass of the scatterer. We find that the scatterer is a Bok Globule located along our line of sight, and we discuss its relationship to Cygnus X-3. This is the first time such a feature has been identified with Chandra.

  5. Cygnus X-3's Little Friend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollough, M. L.; Smith, R. K.; Valencic, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the unique X-ray imaging capabilities of the Chandra X-ray observatory, a 2006 observation of Cygnus X-3 has provided insight into a singular feature associated with this well-known microquasar. This extended emission, located approx.16" from Cygnus X-3, varies in flux and orbital phase (shifted by 0.56 in phase) with Cygnus X-3, acting like a celestial X-ray "mirror." The feature s spectrum, flux, and time variations allow us to determine the location, size, density, and mass of the scatterer. We find that the scatterer is a Bok Globule located along our line of sight, and we discuss its relationship to Cygnus X-3. This is the first time such a feature has been identified with Chandra.

  6. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  8. Search for UHE emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.J.; The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been searched for evidence of ultra high energy (UHE) emission from Cygnus X-3. An upper limit to continuous flux from the source is given. In addition, we find no evidence for episodic emission from Cygnus X-3 on any time scale from 3.3 minutes to 4 years. The results of searches for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 will be presented at the conference.

  9. Search for UHE emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been searched for evidence of ultra high energy (UHE) emission from Cygnus X-3. An upper limit to continuous flux from the source is given. In addition, we find no evidence for episodic emission from Cygnus X-3 on any time scale from 3.3 minutes to 4 years. The results of searches for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 will be presented at the conference.

  10. Cygnus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Swan; abbrev. Cyg, gen. Cygni; area 804 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cepheus and Vulpecula, and culminates at midnight in late July. Its origin is uncertain, though it was known to the ancient Greeks, who identified it with one of the forms assumed by Zeus during his amorous pursuits, or with other mythological swans. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c....

  11. The dependence of protostellar luminosity on environment in the Cygnus-X star-forming complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, Howard A.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bontemps, S.; Schneider, N.; Kraemer, K.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.

    2014-07-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming complex is one of the most active regions of low- and high-mass star formation within 2 kpc of the Sun. Using mid-infrared photometry from the IRAC and MIPS Spitzer Cygnus-X Legacy Survey, we have identified over 1800 protostar candidates. We compare the protostellar luminosity functions of two regions within Cygnus-X: CygX-South and CygX-North. These two clouds show distinctly different morphologies suggestive of dissimilar star-forming environments. We find the luminosity functions of these two regions are statistically different. Furthermore, we compare the luminosity functions of protostars found in regions of high and low stellar density within Cygnus-X and find that the luminosity function in regions of high stellar density is biased to higher luminosities. In total, these observations provide further evidence that the luminosities of protostars depend on their natal environment. We discuss the implications this dependence has for the star formation process.

  12. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, R. L.; Cash, W.

    2008-06-01

    The Cygnus X-Ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) sounding rocket payload was launched from White Sands Missile Range on 2006 November 20 and obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant in the soft X-ray. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire-grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount that ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 s of usable data between 43 and 49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first-order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log (T) = 6.2 (kTe = 0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave and the walls of a precursor-formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop and that this interaction can be described using equilibrium conditions.

  13. THE TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mark J.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2011-12-01

    We report a direct and accurate measurement of the distance to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which contains the first black hole to be discovered. The distance of 1.86{sup +0.12}{sub -0.11} kpc was obtained from a trigonometric parallax measurement using the Very Long Baseline Array. The position measurements are also sensitive to the 5.6 day binary orbit and we determine the orbit to be clockwise on the sky. We also measured the proper motion of Cygnus X-1 which, when coupled to the distance and Doppler shift, gives the three-dimensional space motion of the system. When corrected for differential Galactic rotation, the non-circular (peculiar) motion of the binary is only about 21 km s{sup -1}, indicating that the binary did not experience a large 'kick' at formation.

  14. The violent past of Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Ulrich; Davies, Melvyn B.; King, Andrew; Ritter, Hans

    2000-09-01

    Cygnus X-2 appears to be the descendant of an intermediate-mass X-ray binary (IMXB). Using Mazzitelli's stellar code we compute detailed evolutionary sequences for the system and find that its prehistory is sensitive to stellar input parameters, in particular the amount of core overshooting during the main-sequence phase. With standard assumptions for convective overshooting a case B mass transfer starting with a 3.5-Msolar donor star is the most likely evolutionary solution for Cygnus X-2. This makes the currently observed state rather short-lived, of order 3Myr, and requires a formation rate > 10-7-10-6yr-1 of such systems in the Galaxy. Our calculations show that neutron star IMXBs with initially more massive donors (>~4Msolar) encounter a delayed dynamical instability; they are unlikely to survive this rapid mass transfer phase. We determine limits for the age and initial parameters of Cygnus X-2 and calculate possible dynamical orbits of the system in a realistic Galactic potential, given its observed radial velocity. We find trajectories which are consistent with a progenitor binary on a circular orbit in the Galactic plane inside the solar circle that received a kick velocity <=200kms-1 at the birth of the neutron star. The simulations suggest that about 7per cent of IMXBs receiving an arbitrary kick velocity from a standard kick velocity spectrum would end up in an orbit similar to Cygnus X-2, while about 10per cent of them reach yet larger Galactocentric distances.

  15. Externally Induced Disks Photoevaporation in the Massive Cluster Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, Mario

    2013-07-01

    CygnusOB2, the most massive OB association of the Cygnus-X region, hosts more than 2000 OB stars and a population of young pre-Main Sequence stars. It is 1.4kpc distant from the Sun and the best target to study star formation and disk evolution in the presence of a large number of massive stars. We present a multiwavelength study of protoplanetary disks in Cyg OB2, based on new deep optical and X-ray data obtained with OSIRIS@GTC and Chandra/ACIS-I (the Cygnus OB2 Chandra Legacy Survey), and on archival data from 2MASS, UKIDSS, IPHAS and the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus-X Region. We compare the spatial variation of disk fraction with the intensity of the ionized flux emitted by the OB members of CygOB2. We show that the disk fraction decreases gradually with increasing the intensity of the ionizing flux. The results suggests protoplanetary disks in Cyg OB2 suffer long-range photoevaporation induced by the OB star population. This is different than the results obtained in the study of NGC6611 (i.e. Guarcello et al 2007), NGC2264 (i.e. Balog et al. 2007), and the Trapezium in Orion (i.e. Storzer & Hollenbach 1999), where disk fraction drops only in the proximity of the OB stars. We discuss this difference in terms of the larger ionizing flux and older age in Cyg OB2 with respect to these other clusters and touch upon the relevance of this work for planet formation in the universe.

  16. A study of 2-20 KeV X-rays from the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two rocket-borne proportional counters, each with 650 sq c, met area and 1.8 x 7.1 deg FWHM rectangular mechanical collimation, surveyed the Cygnus region in the 2 to 20 keV energy range on two occasions. X-ray spectral data gathered on 21 September 1970 from discrete sources in Cygnus are presented. The data from Cyg X-1, Cyg X-2, and Cyg X-3 have sufficient statistical significance to indicate mutually exclusive spectral forms for the three. Upper limits are presented for X-ray intensities above 2 keV for Cyg X-4 and Cyg X-5 (Cygnus loop). A search was made on 9 August 1971 for a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 degrees. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

  17. Shocked clouds in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1994-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ROSAT PSPC and HRI images of the Cygnus Loop, an elderly supernova remnant. The project, as proposed, includes not only the usual analysis of ROSAT data; the ROSAT data is being combined with optical and UV data, and new model calculations are being performed. The status is reported on optical imagery, echelle data, IUE data, ROSAT data, and the grain model. The major question being addressed is whether the blastwave-cloud interaction in the feature known as XA is basically a converging shock in a fairly large cloud or turbulent stripping of material from the edges of a smaller cloud.

  18. Shocked clouds in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1994-02-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ROSAT PSPC and HRI images of the Cygnus Loop, an elderly supernova remnant. The project, as proposed, includes not only the usual analysis of ROSAT data; the ROSAT data is being combined with optical and UV data, and new model calculations are being performed. The status is reported on optical imagery, echelle data, IUE data, ROSAT data, and the grain model. The major question being addressed is whether the blastwave-cloud interaction in the feature known as XA is basically a converging shock in a fairly large cloud or turbulent stripping of material from the edges of a smaller cloud.

  19. X-Ray Timing Properties of Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Warren Bosworth

    Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2 are X-ray sources which are believed to be a black hole and a neutron star, respectively. We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot noise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. The detected shots are fit to several model templates. The fit shot parameters are found to be distributed. The cross spectrum of light curves from Cygnus X-1 in different energy bands is studied. Large, frequency dependent time lags are observed, along with high coherence. The high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. This implies that, if the lags are due to Compton scattering, variations in the seed intensity must originate in a region much smaller than the Comptonizing medium. The frequency dependence of the lags implies that, if they are due to Comptonization, the Comptonizing medium is nonuniform. The uniformity of the transfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. The energy spectrum of the radiation reaching us from Cygnus X-1 is found to fluctuate at the shortest timescales observable. This implies rapid changes in the geometry or temperature of some portions of the system, possibly due to dynamical instabilities of the system. The high counting rates and temporal resolution of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer allow more detailed investigation of the Horizontal Branch Oscillations (HBO) in Cygnus X-2 than has been possible previously, including observation of a second harmonic. The relations of the frequencies and widths of these peaks are investigated in order to shed light on their origin and thus the conditions in the region of their formation. The observations support the Magnetospheric Beat Frequency Modulated Accretion model for the origin of the HBO. The data indicate that neither rapid variation in the frequency of, nor short lifetime of, a locally

  20. MODELING THE INFRARED EMISSION IN CYGNUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Privon, G. C.; Baum, S. A.; Noel-Storr, J.; O'Dea, C. P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Gallimore, J.

    2012-03-01

    We present new Spitzer IRS spectroscopy of Cygnus A, one of the most luminous radio sources in the local universe. Data on the inner 20'' are combined with new reductions of MIPS and IRAC photometry as well as data from the literature to form a radio through mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). This SED is then modeled as a combination of torus reprocessed active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation, dust enshrouded starburst, and a synchrotron jet. This combination of physically motivated components successfully reproduces the observed emission over almost 5 dex in frequency. The bolometric AGN luminosity is found to be 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (90% of L{sub IR}), with a clumpy AGN-heated dust medium extending to {approx}130 pc from the supermassive black hole. Evidence is seen for a break or cutoff in the core synchrotron emission. The associated population of relativistic electrons could in principle be responsible for some of the observed X-ray emission though the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism. The SED requires a cool dust component, consistent with dust-reprocessed radiation from ongoing star formation. Star formation contributes at least 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun} to the bolometric output of Cygnus A, corresponding to a star formation rate of {approx}10 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  1. The Cluster of Galaxies Surrounding Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Hill, John M.

    1997-10-01

    We report optical imaging and spectroscopy of 41 galaxies in a 22' square region surrounding Cygnus A. The results show that there is an extensive rich cluster associated with Cyg A of Abell richness of at least 1 and possibly as high as 4. The velocity histogram has two peaks, one centered on Cyg A and a more significant peak redshifted by about 2060 km s-1 from the velocity of Cyg A. The dynamical centroid of the spatial distribution is also shifted somewhat to the northwest. However, statistical tests show only weak evidence that there are two distinct clusters. The entire system has a velocity dispersion of 1581 km s-1, which is slightly larger than other, well-studied examples of rich clusters.

  2. Red supergiants and the past of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Djupvik, A. A.; Schneider, N.; Pasquali, A.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Red supergiants are the evolved descendants of massive stars with initial masses between 7 and 40 M⊙. Their brightness makes them easily detectable in the near infrared, making them useful probes of star formation that occurred several tens of Myr ago. Aims: We investigate the past star formation history of Cygnus OB2, the nearest very massive OB association, using red supergiants as a probe. Our aim is to confirm the evidence, found by previous studies, that star formation in the Cygnus OB2 region started long before the latest burst that gave rise to the dense aggregate of early O-type stars that dominate the appearance of the association at present. Methods: Near-infrared star counts in the Cygnus region reveal moderate evidence for a peak in the areal density of bright, reddened stars approximately coincident with Cygnus OB2. A total of 11 sources are found within a circle of 1° radius centered on the association, of which 4 are non-supergiants based on existing observations. Near-infrared spectroscopy is presented of the remaining seven candidates, including four that have been already classified as M supergiants in the literature. Results: We confirm the presence of seven red supergiants in the region and argue that they are probably physically associated with Cygnus OB2. Their location is roughly coincident with that of the older population identified by previous studies, supporting the scenario in which the main star formation activity in the association has been shifting toward higher Galactic longitudes with time. Their luminosities are compared with the predictions of evolutionary tracks with and without rotation to estimate the mass of their progenitors and ages. In this way, we confirm that massive star formation was already taking place in the area of Cygnus OB2 over 20 Myr ago, and we estimate that the star formation rate in the latest 6 Myr represents a six-fold increase over the massive star formation rate at the time when the

  3. Absorption dips at low X-ray energies in Cygnus X-1. [observed with Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Absorbing material in Cygnus X-1 jitters near the line joining the two stars, out of the orbital plane is described. Three looks with the Copernicus satellite at Cygnus X-1 have produced four examples of absorption dips (decreases in the 2 to 7 keV flux from Cygnus X-1 with an increase of spectral hardness consistent with photoelectric absorption).

  4. Non-Thermal Emission from the massive stellar association Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenech, Danielle Marie; Prinja, Raman; Morford, Jack

    2015-08-01

    The Cygnus OB2 association is located in the Galactic Cygnus X region at a distance of 1.4 kpc, making it one of the closest young massive stellar clusters. Cyg OB2 is not only very rich in stellar density but also in its diversity. It is known to contain a rich population of massive stars including almost 2600 OB stars, a large number of binaries (including a collection of some of the most interesting radio emitting colliding-wind binaries), and a considerable number of pre-main sequence stars.We report here on the first results from The Cyg OB2 Radio Survey (COBRaS), which is a UCL-led e-MERLIN legacy project to provide a deep-field radio mapping of the Cygnus OB2 association. The project has been awarded a total allocation of 252 hours at C-band (5GHz) and 42 hours at L-band (1.6GHz) to image the core of the cluster.We discuss in particular the presence of non-thermal radio emission at 20 cm (L-band), and its potential as a highly efficient way to identify binaries via single-epoch observations, particularly for colliding-wind binaries. COBRaS data will provide a powerful tool for establishing binary incidence in Cyg~OB2, specifically in the difficult intermediate-period range (1--100~yr). Knowing the binary frequency over the whole period range is important for population synthesis.Additionally, Weak-lined T Tauri (WTT) stars in Cyg OB2 also emit non-thermal radiation from magnetically active regions. Hence these observations will be used to detect the considerable population of younger stars.Ultimately, we aim to assemble a substantial and uniquely sensitive radio dataset, which will be exploited to address several fundamentally important areas of stellar astrophysics, including mass-loss, binary frequency, stellar cluster dynamics, and triggered star-formation.

  5. Young and embedded clusters in Cygnus-X: evidence for building up the initial mass function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, F. F. S.; Moraux, E.; Joncour, I.

    2016-05-01

    We provide a new view on the Cygnus-X north complex by accessing for the first time the low mass content of young stellar populations in the region. Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-Field Infrared Camera was used to perform a deep near-infrared survey of this complex, sampling stellar masses down to ˜0.1 M⊙. Several analysis tools, including a extinction treatment developed in this work, were employed to identify and uniformly characterize a dozen unstudied young star clusters in the area. Investigation of their mass distributions in low-mass domain revealed a relatively uniform log-normal initial mass function (IMF) with a characteristic mass of 0.32 ± 0.08 M⊙ and mass dispersion of 0.40 ± 0.06. In the high-mass regime, their derived slopes showed that while the youngest clusters (age < 4 Myr) presented slightly shallower values with respect to the Salpeter's, our older clusters (4 Myr < age < 18 Myr) showed IMF compliant values and a slightly denser stellar population. Although possibly evidencing a deviation from an `universal' IMF, these results also supports a scenario where these gas-dominated young clusters gradually `build up' their IMF by accreting low-mass stars formed in their vicinity during their first ˜3 Myr, before the gas expulsion phase, emerging at the age of ˜4 Myr with a fully fledged IMF. Finally, the derived distances to these clusters confirmed the existence of at least three different star-forming regions throughout Cygnus-X north complex, at distances of 500-900 pc, 1.4-1.7 and 3.0 kpc, and revealed evidence of a possible interaction between some of these stellar populations and the Cygnus OB2 association.

  6. A discussion of the H-alpha filamentary nebulae and galactic structure in the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, T. A.; Simonson, S. C., III

    1971-01-01

    From observation of the galactic structure in Cygnus, the system of filamentary nebulae was found to lie at a distance of roughly 1.5 kpc, in the same region as about half the thermal radio sources in Cygnus X, the supernova remnant near gamma Cygni, and the association Cygnus OB2, in the direction of which the X-ray source Cygnus XR-3 is observed. The source of excitation was probably the pulse of radiation from a supernova explosion, as proposed in the case of Gum nebula. However continuing excitation by early stars in the region of Cygnus X cannot be excluded.

  7. Forbidden coronal iron emission in the Cygnus Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, R.G. )

    1990-12-01

    Forbidden iron line images of parts of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant are reported and discussed. Images in both the red and green lines on the rim of NGC 6995 cannot be well interpreted in terms of cloud evaporation, and instead support the reflected shock model of Hester and Cox (1986). On the northeast rim both lines are brightest at the radiative filaments of NGC 6992 and fade to invisibility in the remnant's interior, in agreement with the sheet model for the Cygnus Loop. Forbidden Fe X emission is also found just behind some of the nonradiative filaments lying northeast of the main optical nebulosity, at a location quantitatively consistent with the cosmic-ray shock model of Boulares and Cox (1988). However, the forbidden Fe X and forbidden Fe IV data taken together also qualitatively agree with a hydrodynamic shock and cavity explosion model for the event which created the Cygnus Loop. 20 refs.

  8. XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.

  9. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, M.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  10. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  11. Photoevaporating Proplyd-like Objects in Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Drew, Janet E.; Guarcello, Mario G.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hora, Joseph L.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.

    2012-02-01

    We report the discovery of 10 proplyd-like objects in the vicinity of the massive OB association Cygnus OB2. They were discovered in IPHAS Hα images and are clearly resolved in broadband Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys, near-IR, and Spitzer mid-IR images. All exhibit the familiar tadpole shape seen in photoevaporating objects such as the Orion proplyds, with a bright ionization front at the head facing the central cluster of massive stars and a tail stretching in the opposite direction. Many also show secondary ionization fronts, complex tail morphologies, or multiple heads. We consider the evidence that these are either proplyds or "evaporating gaseous globules" (EGGs) left over from a fragmenting molecular cloud, but find that neither scenario fully explains the observations. Typical sizes are 50,000-100,000 AU, larger than the Orion proplyds, but in agreement with the theoretical scaling of proplyd size with distance from the ionizing source. These objects are located at projected separations of ~6-14 pc from the OB association, compared to ~0.1 pc for the Orion proplyds, but are clearly being photoionized by the ~65 O-type stars in Cyg OB2. Central star candidates are identified in near- and mid-IR images, supporting the proplyd scenario, though their large sizes and notable asymmetries are more consistent with the EGG scenario. A third possibility is therefore considered that these are a unique class of photoevaporating partially embedded young stellar objects that have survived the destruction of their natal molecular cloud. This has implications for the properties of stars that form in the vicinity of massive stars.

  12. PHOTOEVAPORATING PROPLYD-LIKE OBJECTS IN CYGNUS OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Guarcello, Mario G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Drew, Janet E.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.

    2012-02-20

    We report the discovery of 10 proplyd-like objects in the vicinity of the massive OB association Cygnus OB2. They were discovered in IPHAS H{alpha} images and are clearly resolved in broadband Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys, near-IR, and Spitzer mid-IR images. All exhibit the familiar tadpole shape seen in photoevaporating objects such as the Orion proplyds, with a bright ionization front at the head facing the central cluster of massive stars and a tail stretching in the opposite direction. Many also show secondary ionization fronts, complex tail morphologies, or multiple heads. We consider the evidence that these are either proplyds or 'evaporating gaseous globules' (EGGs) left over from a fragmenting molecular cloud, but find that neither scenario fully explains the observations. Typical sizes are 50,000-100,000 AU, larger than the Orion proplyds, but in agreement with the theoretical scaling of proplyd size with distance from the ionizing source. These objects are located at projected separations of {approx}6-14 pc from the OB association, compared to {approx}0.1 pc for the Orion proplyds, but are clearly being photoionized by the {approx}65 O-type stars in Cyg OB2. Central star candidates are identified in near- and mid-IR images, supporting the proplyd scenario, though their large sizes and notable asymmetries are more consistent with the EGG scenario. A third possibility is therefore considered that these are a unique class of photoevaporating partially embedded young stellar objects that have survived the destruction of their natal molecular cloud. This has implications for the properties of stars that form in the vicinity of massive stars.

  13. FIVE MORE MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Gilbert, Ian; Bird, Sarah; Chunev, Georgi

    2009-06-15

    We present the orbital solutions for four OB spectroscopic binaries, MT145, GSC 03161 - 00815, 2MASS J20294666+4105083, and Schulte 73, and the partial orbital solution to the B spectroscopic binary, MT372, as part of an ongoing study to determine the distribution of orbital parameters for massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. MT145 is a new, single-lined, moderately eccentric (e = 0.291 {+-} 0.009) spectroscopic binary with period of 25.140 {+-} 0.008 days. GSC 03161 - 00815 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.10 {+-} 0.01), eclipsing, interacting and double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 4.674 {+-} 0.004 days. 2MASS J20294666+4105083 is a moderately eccentric (e = 0.273 {+-} 0.002) double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.884 {+-} 0.001 days. Schulte 73 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.169 {+-} 0.009), double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 17.28 {+-} 0.03 days and the first 'twin' in our survey with a mass ratio of q = 0.99 {+-} 0.02. MT372 is a single-lined, eclipsing system with a period of 2.228 days and low eccentricity (e {approx} 0). Of the now 18 known OB binaries in Cyg OB2, 14 have periods and mass ratios. Emerging evidence also shows that the distribution of log(P) is flat and consistent with 'Oepik's Law'.

  14. Global far-ultraviolet properties of the Cygnus Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Il-Joong; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Wonyong; Lim, Yeo-Myeong; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Edelstein, Jerry

    2014-03-20

    We present the C III λ977, O VI λλ1032, 1038 and N IV] λ1486 emission line maps of the Cygnus Loop, obtained with the newly processed data of the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR; also known as FIMS) mission. In addition, the Si IV+O IV] line complexes around 1400 Å are resolved into two separate emission lines whose intensity demonstrates a relatively high Si IV region that was predicted in the previous study. The morphological similarity between the O VI and X-ray images, as well as a comparison of the O VI intensity with the value expected from the X-ray results, indicates that large portions of the observed O VI emissions could be produced from X-ray emitting gas. Comparisons of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) images with the optical and H I 21 cm images reveal spatial variations of shock-velocity populations and high FUV extinction in the direction of a previously identified H I cloud. By calculating the FUV line ratios for several subregions of the Cygnus Loop, we investigate the spatial variation of the population of radiative shock velocities as well as the effects of resonance scattering, X-ray emitting gas, and nonradiative shocks. The FUV and X-ray luminosity comparisons between the Cygnus Loop and the Vela supernova remnant suggest that the fraction of shocks in the early evolutionary stages is much larger in the Cygnus Loop.

  15. LINE-OF-SIGHT SHELL STRUCTURE OF THE CYGNUS LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Satoru; Kimura, Masashi; Kosugi, Hiroko; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2009-11-10

    We conducted a comprehensive study on the shell structure of the Cygnus Loop using 41 observation data obtained by the Suzaku and the XMM-Newton satellites. To investigate the detailed plasma structure of the Cygnus Loop, we divided our fields of view into 1042 box regions. From the spectral analysis, the spectra obtained from the limb of the Loop are well fitted by the single-component non-equilibrium ionization plasma model. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from the inner regions are well fitted by the two-component model. As a result, we confirmed that the low-temperature and high-temperature components originated from the surrounding interstellar matter (ISM) and the ejecta of the Loop, respectively. From the best-fit results, we showed a flux distribution of the ISM component. The distribution clearly shows the limb-brightening structure, and we found out some low-flux regions. Among them, the south blowout region has the lowest flux. We also found other large low-flux regions at slightly west and northeast from the center. We estimated the former thin shell region to be approx1.{sup 0}3 in diameter and concluded that there exists a blowout along the line of sight in addition to the south blowout. We also calculated the emission measure distribution of the ISM component and showed that the Cygnus Loop is far from the result obtained by a simple Sedov evolution model. From the results, we support that the Cygnus Loop originated from a cavity explosion. The emission measure distribution also suggests that the cavity-wall density is higher in the northeast than that in the southwest. These results suggest that the thickness of the cavity wall surrounding the Cygnus Loop is not uniform.

  16. New very massive stars in Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Herrero, A.; Clark, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    Context: The compact association Cygnus OB2 is known to contain a large population of massive stars, but its total mass is currently a matter of debate. While recent surveys have uncovered large numbers of OB stars in the area around Cyg OB2, detailed study of the optically brightest among them suggests that most are not part of the association. Aims: We observed an additional sample of optically faint OB star candidates, with the aim of checking if more obscured candidates are correspondingly more likely to be members of Cyg OB2. Methods: Low resolution spectra of 9 objects allow the rejection of one foreground star and the selection of four O-type stars, which were later observed at higher resolution. In a subsequent run, we observed three more stars in the classification region and three other stars in the far red. Results: We identify five (perhaps six) new evolved very massive stars and three main sequence O-type stars, all of which are likely to be members of Cyg OB2. The new findings allow a much better definition of the upper HR diagram, suggesting an age ~2.5 Myr for the association and hinting that the O3-5 supergiants in the association are blue stragglers, either younger or following a different evolutionary path from other cluster members. Though the bulk of the early stars seems to belong to an (approximately) single-age population, there is ample evidence for the presence of somewhat older stars at the same distance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that, even though Cyg OB2 is unlikely to contain as many as 100 O-type stars, it is indeed substantially more massive than was thought prior to recent infrared surveys. Figure [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] and Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. The X-ray halo of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, M. F.; Norwell, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Evans, A.

    1985-01-01

    Four Einstein HRI images of Cygnus X-1 were examined for the presence of a halo due to scattering of X-rays by interstellar grains. The analysis technique exploits the intrinsic aperiodic variability of the source to map the point response function of the optics. A residual, nonvariable component to the surface brightness distribution (comprising approximately more than 12 percent of the source flux) is interpreted as a scattered halo. The halo flux does not reflect the short term time variability of the central source as it is smoothed by differential time delays of order days. The Cygnus X-1 halo is consistent with those of other sources derived in previous studies using different techniques. Comparison is made with a scattering model, and the sensitivity of the halo flux to maximal grain size is demonstrated.

  18. Veritas observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration) and; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; and others

    2013-12-20

    We report results from TeV gamma-ray observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3. The observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) over a time period from 2007 June 11 to 2011 November 28. VERITAS is most sensitive to gamma rays at energies between 85 GeV and 30 TeV. The effective exposure time amounts to a total of about 44 hr, with the observations covering six distinct radio/X-ray states of the object. No significant TeV gamma-ray emission was detected in any of the states, nor with all observations combined. The lack of a positive signal, especially in the states where GeV gamma rays were detected, places constraints on TeV gamma-ray production in Cygnus X-3. We discuss the implications of the results.

  19. NuSTAR Observations of V404 Cygnus in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Dom; NuSTAR Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The Galactic LMXB V404 Cygnus, one of the closest known black hole binary systems, went through its first major outburst in ~25 years in summer 2015. Over the course of this event, the NuSTAR observatory played an active role in the substantial multi-wavelength campaign initiated, performing a series of exposures covering a span of several weeks. These observations revealed extreme variability on both long and short timescales, as well as complex broadband X-ray spectra. More recently, after having returned to quiescence, V404 Cygnus also exhibited an unexpected re-brightening only ~6 months later. In this talk I will present an overview of the NuSTAR campaign, and discuss some early results from these observations.

  20. Cygnus OB2: Star Formation Ugly Duckling Causes a Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Wright, Nicholas; Guarcello, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Cygnus OB2 is one of the largest known OB associations in our Galaxy, with a total stellar mass of 30,000 Msun and boasting an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. At a distance of only 1.4kpc, it is also the closest truly massive star forming region and provides a valuable testbed for star and planet formation theory. We have performed a deep stellar census using observations from X-ray to infrared, which has enabled studies of sub-structuring, mass segregation and dynamics, while infrared data reveal a story of protoplanetary disk attrition in an extremely harsh radiation environment. I will discuss how Cygnus OB2 challenges the idea that stars must form in dense, compact clusters, and demonstrates that stars as massive as 100 Msun can form in relatively low-density environments. Convincing evidence of disk photoevaporation poses a potential problem for planet formation and growth in starburst environments.

  1. Cygnus X-2 in a radio quiet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A.; Bach, U.; Spencer, R.; Kadler, M.; Church, M.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Wilms, J.; Hanke, M.; Zola, S.; Schulz, N.

    2009-05-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 was observed using the e- EVN (European VLBI Network) on May 12/13th 2009 between 23:00-13:00 UT at 5 GHz. The radio telescopes participating with the e-EVN at 5 GHz were Effelsberg, Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Sheshan, Yebes, Jodrell Bank MKII, Cambridge and Knockin. A maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps were achieved from four telescopes (Effelsberg, Onsala, Torun and Jodrell Bank MKII).

  2. Evidence for observation of underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelt, J.; Courant, H.; Heller, K.; Heppelmann, S.; Joyce, T.; Peterson, E.A.; Marshak, M.L.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M.; Ayres, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    We have observed evidence for an average underground muon flux of approx. = 7 x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ which points back to the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3 and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. These observations cannot be explained by conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, K.; Marshak, M.L.; Peterson, E.A.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M. . School of Physics and Astronomy); Ayres, D.S.; Fields, T.H.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E. )

    1989-09-11

    We report on 3.2 years live time of underground muon observations taken between 1981 and 1989 using the Soudan 1 proportional tube detector, located at a depth of 1800 m water equivalent. The post-1984 observations are consistent with our earlier data on an excess signal apparently correlated with the Cygnus X-3 orbital period. The signal-to-background ratio in the entire data sample is 1 to 3 percent, depending on phase width. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J.; Wright, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70 μm and 500 μm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70 μm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70 μm and 160 μm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104 G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10 pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50 pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (~500 M⊙) and large (equivalent radius r ~ 0.6 pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r ~ 0.1 and 0.2 pc) and less massive (~10 and ~30 M⊙). Cloud condensations are small (~0.1 pc), have an average mass of 35 M⊙, are dense (~6 × 104 cm-3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million

  5. Extreme particle acceleration in the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Piano, G; Sabatini, S; Striani, E; Evangelista, Y; Trois, A; Pooley, G; Trushkin, S; Nizhelskij, N A; McCollough, M; Koljonen, K I I; Pucella, G; Giuliani, A; Chen, A W; Costa, E; Vittorini, V; Trifoglio, M; Gianotti, F; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Mattaini, E; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mauri, A; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Santolamazza, P; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L

    2009-12-01

    Super-massive black holes in active galaxies can accelerate particles to relativistic energies, producing jets with associated gamma-ray emission. Galactic 'microquasars', which are binary systems consisting of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole accreting gas from a companion star, also produce relativistic jets, generally together with radio flares. Apart from an isolated event detected in Cygnus X-1, there has hitherto been no systematic evidence for the acceleration of particles to gigaelectronvolt or higher energies in a microquasar, with the consequence that we are as yet unsure about the mechanism of jet energization. Here we report four gamma-ray flares with energies above 100 MeV from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 (an exceptional X-ray binary that sporadically produces radio jets). There is a clear pattern of temporal correlations between the gamma-ray flares and transitional spectral states of the radio-frequency and X-ray emission. Particle acceleration occurred a few days before radio-jet ejections for two of the four flares, meaning that the process of jet formation implies the production of very energetic particles. In Cygnus X-3, particle energies during the flares can be thousands of times higher than during quiescent states. PMID:19935645

  6. Catching a Galactic Football: Chandra Examines Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have found a giant football-shaped cavity within X-ray emitting hot gas surrounding the galaxy Cygnus A. The cavity in the hot gas has been created by two powerful jets emitted from the central black hole region in the nucleus of Cygnus A. Hot gas is steadily being piled up around the cavity as it continuously expands, creating a bright rim of X-ray emission. The jets themselves terminate in radio and X-ray emitting "hot spots" some 300,000 light years from the center of the galaxy. These results are being presented to the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Honolulu, HI, by Andrew S. Wilson, Andrew J. Young (University of Maryland) and Patrick L. Shopbell (California Institute of Technology). "This is a spectacular cavity, which is inflated by jets and completely surrounds the Cygnus A galaxy," said Dr. Wilson, who is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are witnessing a battle between the gravity of the Cygnus A galaxy, which is trying to pull the hot gas inwards, and the pressure of material created by the jets, which is trying to push the hot gas outwards." Cygnus A has long been famous as the brightest radio source in the sky. It is the nearest powerful radio galaxy. The Chandra X-ray image, which was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), shows the cavity surrounded by a vast sea of extremely hot gas. The elongated oval shape comes from the force of the outwardly moving jets as they push through the hot gas. Bright bands around the "equator of the football" are also visible, and this may be evidence of material swirling toward the central black hole. Cygnus A Illustration Illustration of Cygnus A Credit: CXC Without the jets, an X-ray image of Cygnus A, which is about 700 million light years from Earth, would appear as a more or less spherical region (about 2 million light years across) of hot gas slowly

  7. Soft X-ray search of centre of Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Henry, R. C.; Charles, P. A.; Culhane, J. L.; Sanford, P. W.; Bleach, R.; Drake, J.

    1975-01-01

    Equipment on the Copernicus satellite has been used to search for evidence of a compact object in the center of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Rocket measurements reported by Rappaport et al. (1973) indicate that a central object exists. However, the study conducted with the aid of the satellite was negative. This negative result could indicate that the X-ray source was simply not in its high-intensity mode at the time of observation, or could arise because the source is at some other location in the Loop.

  8. Shell-shocked: the interstellar medium near Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, P. H.; Heinz, S.; Richards, E.; Maccarone, T. J.; Russell, D. M.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R.; Markoff, S.; Nowak, M.

    2015-02-01

    We conduct a detailed case study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shock wave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is travelling at less than a few hundred km s-1 through a low-density ISM (<5 cm-3). We calculate a robust, 3σ upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shock wave and inflate the bubble, <2 × 1038 erg s-1. We then review possible origins of the shock wave. We find that a supernova origin to the shock wave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shock wave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shock wave is far from solved.

  9. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1: spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02, e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTBB=1.2+0.0-0.1keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC0 models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman [1]). A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTC=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7% in the 5-10keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such ``photon-starved'' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  10. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The flux of underground muons from the direction of the binary Cygnus X-3 was measured by the Soudan 2 proton decay detector. This time-projection calorimeter is located at a depth of 2200 m (water equivalent) in northern Minnesota at latitude 48 deg N, longitude 92 deg W. An analysis was then performed that compared both the total observed flux and the observed flux per transit with the number of events expected in the absence of a source. This expected number of events was determined by combining the detector acceptance as a function of time with detector acceptance as a function of the local spatial coordinates. These functions were evaluated by use of off-source events. The direction of Cygnus X-3 was defined as a 2 deg half-angle cone, centered on the nominal source coordinates. This definition is consistent with the expected appearance of a point source in the Soudan 2 detector after consideration of track reconstruction errors, multiple scattering in the rock, and possible systematic effects. Details of the analysis and the results are presented.

  11. The Variable Superorbital Modulation of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, Javier

    2008-08-01

    We study the superorbital modulation present in the Cygnus X-1 X-ray data, usually attributed to the precession of the accretion disk and relativistic jets. We find a new, strong, 326 ± 2 day period modulation starting in 2005, in Swift BAT and RXTE ASM light curves (LCs). We also investigate Vela 5B ASM and Ariel 5 ASM archival data and confirm the previously reported ~290 day periodic modulation, therefore confirming that the superorbital period is not constant. Finally, we study RXTE ASM LC before 2005 and find that the previously reported ~150 day period is most likely an artifact due to the use of a Fourier-power-based analysis under the assumption that the modulation has a constant period along the whole data sample. Instead, we find strong indications of several discrete changes of the precession period, happening in coincidence with soft and failed state transition episodes. We also find a hint of correlation between the period and the amplitude of the modulation. The detection of gamma rays above 100 GeV with MAGIC in 2006 September happened in coincidence with a maximum of the superorbital modulation. The next maximum will happen between 2008 July 2 and 14, when the observational conditions of Cygnus X-1 with ground-based Cerenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, are optimal.

  12. Cygnus Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM) Flight Inertial Load Static Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, Giovanni; Mancini, Simone; Palmieri, Paolo; Rutigliano, Luigi

    2012-07-01

    Cygnus PCM Flight Inertial Load Static Test campaign has been performed by Thales Alenia Space - Italy (TAS-I) to achieve the Static Qualification of its Primary Structure. A “Proto-flight Approach” has been followed (as per [1] and [2]), thus the first flight unit, the PCM0, has been tested up to qualification level (qualification/acceptance factor equivalent to 1.2 [1]). The PCM0 has been constrained to a dummy Service Module (the second member of Cygnus Spacecraft), representative in terms of interfaces provisions, and flight load conditions have been reproduced with proper forces that have been applied by means of hydraulic jacks at internal PCM secondary structure interfaces. Test load cases have been defined in order to simulate load paths and relevant stress fields associated to the worst flight load conditions by using the FE model analyses. Tests have been monitored by means of gauges and displacement transducers and results have been utilized to correlate the PCM FEM following [3] requirements.

  13. A Cornucopia of Massive Binary Star Systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association: Fifty and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, D. C.; Burke, J. F.; Chapman, J. E.; Keller, E.; Lester, K. V.; Rolen, E.; Topel, E.; Lundquist, M. J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Vargas Alvarez, C. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Dale, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive binary star systems produce nature's most energetic events, including some classes of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and double-degenerate objects that generate gravitational wave radiation. The Cygnus OB2 Association is the largest nearby collection of massive stars, consisting of several hundred O and early B stars at a distance of just 1.4 kpc. Our Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey team at the University of Wyoming has spectroscopically monitored 115 stars of type B2 or earlier between 1999 and 2013, accruing an average of 12 observations per star at a velocity precision of 2-6 km/s. We have identified fifty massive binary systems, nearly all of which have full orbital solutions. Periods range from 1.4 days - 12.5 years and velocity semi-amplitudes span 4-300 km/s. Monte-Carlo modeling indicates that as many as 90% of massive systems contain multiple stars and that 45% of these can be characterized as ``close'' binaries that will interact, exchanging matter during main-sequence or post-main-sequence evolution. Statistical analysis of the orbital parameters reveals a striking surplus of close, short-period systems with periods P=1.4--7 days, with fully 30% (17 out of 50 systems) of the known binaries falling in this tight range; their typical orbital separations are just a small fraction of an astronomical unit. The remainder of the binary systems are consistent with a period distribution described as flat in log(P) out to several thousand day periods. The mass ratio distribution appears flat over the interval q=M2/M1=0.1-1.0, meaning that massive stars preferentially have massive companions. These data constitute the largest and most complete homogeneous database on any single collection of massive stars in a common formation environment covering the full range of stars expected to explode as supernovae (B2V and earlier). As such, the Survey provides the raw data for modeling rates of cosmic supernova, gamma-ray bursts, and X-ray binaries

  14. A continuous watch of the northern sky above 40 TeV with the CYGNUS array

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.J.; Miller, R.; Sinnis, C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The aim of the project has been to continuously monitor the northern sky for transient high-energy gamma-ray emission from astrophysical sources. Potential objects of such emission include gamma-ray bursts and flares from active galaxies. At the start of this project, the CYGNUS extensive air shower array was used for the monitoring; CYGNUS has an energy threshold of {approximately}40 TeV. In August, 1996, the CYGNUS data-acquisition computer suffered a fatal hardware problem so data-taking with the array ended. The Milagrito detector, which is much more sensitive than CYGNUS, started taking data in February 1997 and has continued the sky monitoring. The authors are presently honing reconstruction algorithms for Milagrito. When this is complete, the data taken since February will be analyzed for transient emission.

  15. Nature of the high-energy particles from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, A.; Lord, J.J.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    If the published experimental results on both air showers and underground muons generated by particles from Cygnus X-3 are correct, then these particles cannot be any presently known elementary particles, neutral atoms, or micrograins of ordinary matter. The primary particles from Cygnus X-3 must be electrically neutral, relatively stable, strongly or electromagnetically interacting, and have rest mass less than 50 MeV/cS.

  16. Astronomy at ultra-high energies: Results from the CYGNUS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X-Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. ); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Kwok, P.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. ); Burman, R.L.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Zhang, W. ); C

    1990-01-01

    The CYGNUS experiment is composed of an air-shower array and muon detectors, located in Los Alamos, NM, and operating at energies above 50 TeV. Recent results include a search for emission from Cygnus X-3 during the radio outbursts of June and July 1989, preliminary results from a search for diffuse emission from the galactic plane, and preliminary results from a search for emission from possible northern hemisphere point sources, both known and unknown. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. What is special about Cygnus X-1?. [evidence for a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts are superposed upon shot-noise fluctuations arising from events of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which provide additional evidence that Cygnus X-1 is very likely a black hole.

  18. Subaru spectroscopy and spectral modeling of Cygnus A

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, Matthew J.; Perlman, Eric S.; Nikutta, Robert; Packham, Christopher; Elitzur, Moshe; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Levenson, N. A.; Radomski, James T.

    2014-06-10

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.''5) MIR spectra of the powerful radio galaxy, Cygnus A (Cyg A), obtained with the Subaru telescope. The overall shape of the spectra agree with previous high angular resolution MIR observations, as well as previous Spitzer spectra. Our spectra, both on and off nucleus, show a deep silicate absorption feature. The absorption feature can be modeled with a blackbody obscured by cold dust or a clumpy torus. The deep silicate feature is best fit by a simple model of a screened blackbody, suggesting that foreground absorption plays a significant, if not dominant, role in shaping the spectrum of Cyg A. This foreground absorption prevents a clear view of the central engine and surrounding torus, making it difficult to quantify the extent the torus attributes to the obscuration of the central engine, but does not eliminate the need for a torus in Cyg A.

  19. An infrared supershell surrounding the Cygnus OB1 association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saken, Jon M.; Shull, J. M.; Garmany, Catharine D.; Nichols-Bohlin, Joy; Fesen, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    New studies are reported of a large, 2 x 5 deg peanut-shaped cavity in the far-infrared emission seen using IRAS data for the Cygnus X region. A more complete and better defined infrared supershell than reported by Lozinskaya and Repin (1990) is found and connected to the Cyg OB1 association. It is shown that the cavity represents the early stages of a superbubble produced by the winds and possible SNe from 10 to 20 massive stars. The locations and properties of these stars are used to estimate the energy deposition rate and to understand the manner in which supershells form and propagate. In Cyg OB1, spatially distributed subclustering appears to have played an important role in determining the nonspherical morphology of the superbubble.

  20. Catching Up on State Transitions in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeck, Moritz; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Pirner, Stefan; Grinberg, Victoria; Markoff, Sera; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Pooley, Guy

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 February we observed Cygnus X-1 over a period of 10 days quasi-continuously with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the Ryle telescope. We present the results of the spectral and timing analysis on a timescale of 90 min and show that the behavior of Cyg X-1 is similar to that found during our years long monitoring campaign. As a highlight we present evidence for a full transition from the hard to the soft state that happened during less than three hours. The observation provided a more complete picture of a state transition than before, especially concerning the evolution of the time lags, due to unique transition coverage and analysis with high time resolution.

  1. Gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Dean, A. J.; Perotti, F.

    1989-08-01

    The results of gamma-ray observations of the Galactic black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 are presented. The recent HEAO 3 results reported by Ling et al. (1987) on this source are confirmed: (1) the detection in 1979 of a gamma-ray excess of comparable flux; and (2) a spectral variation above about 25 keV going from 1979 to 1980, which implies and anticorrelation between hard X-ray and gamma-ray luminosities with a pivot point in the 200-400 keV band. A comparison of all the data available at gamma-ray energies gives further support to the existence of this anticorrelation, although its statistical significance is low. The hard X-ray/gamma-ray 1979 spectrum, which is well fitted by a power law with photon index alpha = 1.7, can be interpreted as thermal Comptonization of soft photons or in terms of nonthermal models with copious photon-photon absorption.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was revealed in this study. Total 16 739 base pairs (bp) of this mitogenome encoded genes for 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a D-loop (control region). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and segmentalized by the tRNA-Val. D-loop is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. olor is G + C: 47.8%, A + T: 52.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Following the phylogenetic analysis, the C. olor was closed to Anser cygnoides. PMID:26153738

  3. X-ray spectrum of the entire Cygnus Loop.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. C.; Riegler, G. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrum of the entire Cygnus Loop has been obtained using gas-filled proportional counters and filters flown on a Nike-Aerobee rocket. The results indicate an average spectral temperature of (2.8 plus or minus 0.2) x 1,000,000 K and the presence of excess emission in the energy range from 0.530 to 0.693 keV. If the excess emission originates in a single line at 0.658 keV, the intensity at the earth corresponds to 1.8 plus or minus 0.7 photons per sq cm per sec, or about 10% of the total energy received from the Loop. The spectrum of the entire Loop is found to be attenuated by an average of (4.8 plus or minus 0.2) x 10 to the 20th hydrogen atoms per sq cm.

  4. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  5. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1 Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Gamma = 1.45+0.01 -0.02 , e-folding energy e(sub f) = 162+9 -8 keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody, with temperature kT(sub BB) = 1.2 +0.0 -0.1 keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC) models. A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth tau- = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kTc = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X red (exp 2) = 1.55). These models deviate from the data bv up to 7% in the 5-10 keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200 keV data, such "photon-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  6. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1 - I. Spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10-ks observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02 (a value considerably harder than is typically found), e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modelled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTbb=1.2+0.0-0.1keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fitted with a reflected power law with Γ=1.81+/-0.01 and covering fraction f=0.35+/-0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range are included, as there is no observed softening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms &38 Begelman, in which the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTc=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7 per cent in the 5-10keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such `photon-starved' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  7. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared photometry of YSOs in Cygnus-X DR15 (Rivera-Galvez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Galvez, S.; Roman-Zuniga, C. G.; Jimenez-Bailon, E.; Ybarra, J. E.; Alves, J. F.; Lada, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Near-infrared images of the Cygnus-X DR15 region were obtained with the OMEGA 2000 camera at the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory, atop Sierra de los Filabres in Almeria, Spain, during the nights of 2010, February 2nd and March 3rd. The data set consists of 900s co-added exposures in the J, H, and K bands (1.209, 1.648, and 2.208μm, respectively). The seeing values-measured directly from the average FWHM of stars in the final reduced mosaics-were 1.17, 1.13, and 0.98" in J, H, and K, respectively. The Spitzer Space Telescope has observed the DR15 cluster with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Cygnus-X Legacy Survey (Hora et al. 2009 ASP Conf. Ser., Reionization to Exoplanets: Spitzer's Growing Legacy ed P. Ogle (San Francisco, CA: ASP) 26; hereafter CXLS). We obtained archival enhanced product mosaics from the Spitzer Heritage Archive as well as a photometric catalog coincident with our region of interest directly from the CXLS Data Release 1 (DR1). The catalog contains calibrated magnitudes for sources detected with IRAC in its four cryogenic mission channels (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0μm), as well as in the 24μm channel of MIPS. The DR15 cluster was observed with the Imaging Array of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) on 2011 January 25 (ObsID12390, P.I. Wright). We made use of the Five College Radio Observatory (FCRAO) 13CO(1-0) molecular radio emission map of the south Cygnus-X region from the study of Schneider et al. (2011A&A...529A...1S). In Tables 2-4 we list YSO sources identified as Class I, Class II, and Class III in our region of study. (3 data files).

  9. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. 1; Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.45(+0.01 -0.02) (a value considerably harder 0.02 than typically found), e-folding energy E(sub f) = 162(+9 -8) keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kT(sub bb) = 1.2(+0.0 -0.1) keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fit with a reflected power law with Gamma = 1.81 + or - 0.01 and covering fraction f = 0.35 + or - 0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range is included, as there is no observed hardening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman (1997a) - where the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth pi = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kT(sub c) = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X(exp 2 sub red) = 1.55). These models deviate from red the data by up to 7% in the 5 - 10 keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering bow successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10 - 200 keV data, such "pboton-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  10. Application of cosmic-ray shock theories to the Cygnus Loop - An alternative model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulares, Ahmed; Cox, Donald P.

    1988-01-01

    Steady state cosmic-ray shock models are investigated here in the light of observations of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. The predicted downstream temperature is derived for each model. The Cygnus Loop data and the application of the models to them, including wave dissipation, are presented. Heating rate and ionization fraction structures are provided along with an estimate of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient. It is found that the model of Voelk, Drury, and McKenzie (1984), in which the plasma waves are generated by the streaming instability of the cosmic rays and are dissipated into the gas, can be made consistent with some observed characteristics of the Cygnus Loop shocks. The model is used to deduce upstream densities and shock velocities and, compared to the usual pure gas shock interpretation, it is found that lower densities and approximately three times higher velocities are required.

  11. New measurements of the 12. 6 millisecond pulsar in Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Brazier, K.T.S.; Carraminana, A.; Chadwick, P.M.; Dipper, N.A.; Lincoln, E.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Evidence for a 12.59 ms pulsar in Cygnus X-3 is presented on the basis of TeV gamma-ray observations. Evidence for pulsed emission at a phase in the 4.8 hr cycle and with a pulsar period and secular period derivative are compatible with earlier measurements (Chadwick et al., 1985). The conservative overall Rayleigh probability of uniformity of phase for this new result is 1.7 x 10 to the -6th. Data from observations of Cygnus X-3 from 1981 to 1985 are analyzed using a new X-ray ephemeris of the 4.8 hr X-ray cycle. This suggests that Cygnus X-3 is producing sporadic very high energy gamma rays at a fixed time in the 4.8 hr X-ray cycle. 28 refs.

  12. Modulated high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaty, S; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Corbet, R; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dubus, G; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Koerding, E; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marchand, L; Marelli, M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McColl, N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Migliari, S; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Ong, R A; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pooley, G; Porter, T A; Pottschmidt, K; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stevenson, M; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tomsick, J A; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilms, J; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-12-11

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets. PMID:19965378

  13. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi LAT Collaboration; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chaty, S.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbel, S.; Corbet, R.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Koerding, E.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchand, L.; Marelli, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McColl, N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Migliari, S.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Ong, R. A.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pooley, G.; Porter, T. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, J.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilms, J.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. W.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  14. Reexamination of the SAS 2 Cygnus X-3 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Lamb, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of Cygnus X-3 have shown marked variability of the radiation on short time scales. In particular, the bursts lasting on the order of 10 minutes, seen in both the infrared and very high energy (greater than 10 to the 11th eV) gamma-ray regions, and the time-variations on many scales at high energies, have stimulated a reanalysis of the March 6 to 13, 1973 SAS 2 high-energy gamma-ray data. Although a clear periodicity in the E greater 35 MeV gamma radiation is observed at the 4.79 hr period seen in X-rays, there is no evidence for major variations of the radiation from one day to the next, and no statistically significant evidence for bursts on the 10-minute time scale seen in the infrared or very high energy ranges. If the excess observed had been predominantly in the form of ten minute bursts even at a rate as high as two/day, a clearly significant set of bursts would have been seen.

  15. Cygnus X-1: A Case for a Magnetic Accretion Disk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Dove, J.; Wilms, J.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), which is capable of broad spectral coverage and fast timing, as well as other instruments which are increasingly being used in multi-wavelength campaigns (via both space-based and ground-based observations), we must demand more of our theoretical models. No current model mimics all facets of a system as complex as an x-ray binary. However, a modern theory should qualitatively reproduce - or at the very least not fundamentally disagree with - all of Cygnus X-l's most basic average properties: energy spectrum (viewed within a broader framework of black hole candidate spectral behavior), power spectrum (PSD), and time delays and coherence between variability in different energy bands. Below we discuss each of these basic properties in turn, and we assess the health of one of the currently popular theories: Comptonization of photons from a cold disk. We find that the data pose substantial challenges for this theory, as well as all other in currently discussed models.

  16. Discovery of dense absorbing clouds in Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Schulz, Norbert S.; Church, Michael; Wilms, Joern; Hanke, Manfred

    We report results of several day-long observation of Cygnus X-2 using Chandra and XMM-Newton. The source displayed extensive dipping events in the lightcurve often seen before in the source and causing an additional track in the hardness-intensity Z-track diagram. For the first time we are able to investigate these events using both high efficiency CCD continuum spectra and highly-resolved grating data. In the XMM PN instrument, the dips are 30% deep and resemble those in the low mass X-ray binary dip sources. However, remarkably, in the Chandra HEG and MEG no absorption or edge features can be seen corresponding to expected increases of column density in excess of the interstellar column. Non-dip and dip PN spectra are fitted well with a model containing point-like blackbody emission which we associate with the neutron star plus Comptonized emission of the ADC which must be extended. Dipping can be explained without absorption of the blackbody emission, but by covering 40% of the extended ADC emission by dense absorber. In the covered fraction almost no flux remains and so no significant additional optical depths appear in the neutral K edges in the grating spectra. The dipping appears not to be explicable by absorption in the outer disk, but requires large, dense blobs of absorber that do not overlap the neutron star in the line-of-sight. The nature of these blobs is unknown.

  17. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration. PMID:26044143

  18. Hard X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Marshall, F. E.; Levine, A. M.; Primini, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term measurements of the hard X-ray spectrum from 3 keV to 8 MeV of the black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1 in its low state are reported. Observations were made from October 26 to November 18, 1977 with the A2 (Cosmic X-ray) and A4 (Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma-Ray) experiments on board HEAO 1 in the spacecraft's scanning mode. The measured spectrum below 200 keV is found to agree well with previous spectra which have been fit by a model of the Compton scattering of optical or UV photons in a very hot plasma of electron temperature 32.4 keV and optical depth 3.9 or 1.6 for spherical or disk geometry, respectively. At energies above 300 keV, however, flux excess is observed which may be accounted for by a distribution of electron temperatures from 15 to about 100 keV.

  19. Evidence from the Soudan 1 experiment for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, D. S. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 1 experiment has yielded evidence for an average underground muon flux of approximately 7 x 10 to the minus 11th power/sq cm/s which points back to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. Underground muon events which seem to be associated with Cygnus X-3 also show evidence for longer time variability of the flux. Such underground muons cannot be explained by any conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays.

  20. Evidence from the Soudan 1 experiment for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.

    1985-09-01

    The Soudan 1 experiment has yielded evidence for an average underground muon flux of approx.7 x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ which points back to the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3, and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. Underground muon events which seem to be associated with Cygnus X-3 also show evidence for longer time variability of the flux. Such underground muons cannot be explained by conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Wavelet analysis of fast photometry on Cygnus X-1 with the AstraLux camera

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Marti, J.; Combi, Jorge A.; Arjonilla, Alvaro Munoz; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2008-10-08

    We present sub-second fast photometry for the high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We try to observe variability due to instabilities in the accretion process at optical wavelengths. The observations were carried out using the high speed AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope, Spain, in November 2006 and August 2007. We report that the Cygnus X-1 system light curve sampled every 30 milli-second did not display strong enough evidence of any periodic component related to the source.

  2. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S.; Aspin, Colin

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  3. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M{sub {circle_dot}} black hole.

  4. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. Report 2; TIming Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present timing analysis for a Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observation of Cygnus X-1 in its hard/low state. This was the first RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 taken after it transited back to this state from its soft/high state. RXTE's large effective area, superior timing capabilities, and ability to obtain long, uninterrupted observations have allowed us to obtain measurements of the power spectral density (PSD), coherence function, and Fourier time lags to a decade lower in frequency and half a decade higher in frequency than typically was achieved with previous instruments. Notable aspects of our observations include a weak 0.005 Hz feature in the PSD coincident with a coherence recovery; a 'hardening' of the high-frequency PSD with increasing energy; a broad frequency range measurement of the coherence function, revealing rollovers from unity coherence at both low and high frequency; and an accurate determination of the Fourier time lags over two and a half decades in frequency. As has been noted in previous similar observations, the time delay is approximately proportional to f(exp -0.7), and at a fixed Fourier frequency the time delay of the hard X-rays compared to the softest energy channel tends to increase logarithmically with energy. Curiously, the 0.01-0.2 Hz coherence between the highest and lowest energy bands is actually slightly greater than the coherence between the second highest and lowest energy bands. We carefully describe all of the analysis techniques used in this paper, and we make comparisons of the data to general theoretical expectations. In a companion paper, we make specific comparisons to a Compton corona model that we have successfully used to describe the energy spectral data from this observation.

  5. The massive star population of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drew, Janet E.; Mohr-Smith, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled a significantly updated and comprehensive census of massive stars in the nearby Cygnus OB2 association by gathering and homogenizing data from across the literature. The census contains 169 primary OB stars, including 52 O-type stars and 3 Wolf-Rayet stars. Spectral types and photometry are used to place the stars in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which is compared to both non-rotating and rotating stellar evolution models, from which stellar masses and ages are calculated. The star formation history and mass function of the association are assessed, and both are found to be heavily influenced by the evolution of the most massive stars to their end states. We find that the mass function of the most massive stars is consistent with a `universal' power-law slope of Γ = 1.3. The age distribution inferred from stellar evolutionary models with rotation and the mass function suggest the majority of star formation occurred more or less continuously between 1 and 7 Myr ago, in agreement with studies of low- and intermediate-mass stars in the association. We identify a nearby young pulsar and runaway O-type star that may have originated in Cyg OB2 and suggest that the association has already seen its first supernova. Finally we use the census and mass function to calculate the total mass of the association of 16 500^{+3800}_{-2800} M⊙, at the low end, but consistent with, previous estimates of the total mass of Cyg OB2. Despite this Cyg OB2 is still one of the most massive groups of young stars known in our Galaxy making it a prime target for studies of star formation on the largest scales.

  6. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. 2: The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300-day record from the Ariel 5 All Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3.

  7. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (Cygnus olor) from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 632 mute swans (Cygnus olor) collected from different areas of the USA. Sera were tested by T. gondii modified agglutination te...

  8. Application of cosmic-ray shock theories to the Cygnus Loop - an alternative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulares, Ahmed; Cox, Donald P.

    1988-10-01

    Steady state cosmic-ray shock models are investigated in light of observations of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. In this work the authors find that the model of Völk, Drury, and McKenzie, in which the plasma waves are generated by the streaming instability of the cosmic rays and are dissipated into the gas, can be made consistent with some observed characteristics of Cygnus Loop shocks. The waves heat the gas substantially in the cosmic-ray precursor, in addition to the usual heating in the (possibly weak) gas shock. The model is used to deduce upstream densities and shock velocities using known quantities for Cygnus Loop shocks. Compared to the usual pure gas shock interpretation, it is found that lower densities and approximately 3 times higher velocities are required. If the cosmic-ray models are valid, this could significantly alter our understanding of the Cygnus Loop's distance and age and of the energy released during the initial explosion.

  9. Fermi-LAT Observation of Increased Gamma-ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Dubus, Guillaume; Corbet, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 has drastically dropped since 2016 Jan 11 (MJD 57398, as observed by Swift/BAT http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/, Krimm et al. 2013, ApJS 209, 14) indicating a possible transition to the soft state.

  10. A Far-Ultraviolet Study of the Cygnus Loop Using the VOYAGER Ultraviolet Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancura, Olaf; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Holberg, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the Voyager 1 and 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometers to study the far-ultraviolet emissions from different types of shock waves in the Cygnus Loop. In the southeast and northern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR), we have measured the O(VI) lambda1035 surface brightness from the main blast wave. This value is several times below the average and more than one order of magnitude below the peak O(VI) brightness in the SNR as measured with Voyager. A simple blast wave model appears able to reproduce the observations in the southeast and the northern parts of the Cygnus Loop but can only account for 10%-15% of the total O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop. The brightest O(VI) and C(III) lambda977 emission is found coincident with optical filamentation and X-ray enhancements in the northeast. We interpret the observations in the northeast in terms of nonradiative and incomplete shocks whose surface area rises in the optical filamentary regions. We conclude that the bulk of the O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop arises from optically bright clouds within which intermediate-velocity (200 + 50 km/s) nonradiative and incomplete shocks are widespread.

  11. JOINT SUZAKU AND XMM-NEWTON SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHWEST CYGNUS LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Leahy, Denis; Hassan, Mohammed

    2013-02-10

    We carry out a joint spectral analysis of the Cygnus Loop using data from all six detectors combined from Suzaku and XMM-Newton. This had not been done before, but if a spectral model is physically realistic, it is required that it be consistent with data from different instruments. Thus, our results are an important verification of spectral models for the Cygnus Loop. One of the prominent features of the Cygnus Loop is the bright 'V' region near the southwest rim. We choose this region, in part, because it has been observed by both Suzaku and XMM-Newton. We divide the field of view into 12 box-shaped regions, such that each contains 9000-13,000 photons in the Suzaku-XIS1 camera. A non-equilibrium ionization model with variable abundances (VNEI) or a two-component VNEI model is found to fit the observations. Resulting electron temperatures and ionization timescales are inversely related, consistent with an origin in density variations by a factor of {approx}3. Element abundances and temperature are strongly correlated, which can be explained by mixing in the outer hydrogen-rich envelope of ejecta: Heavy-element-rich regions have higher velocity to reach this far out from the center of the Cygnus Loop, resulting in higher shock temperature for more element-rich regions.

  12. RXTE/ASM Observations Of SS 433 And Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Lisa; Mason, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a dynamic period search analysis of the X-ray binaries SS 433 and Cygnus X-2 using data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor (RXTE/ASM) spanning over 13 years. We report the detection of a period in SS 433 near 162 days. This may be the first detection of the disk precession period in X-rays. We detect an 81.8 day period in the object Cygnus X-2. The RXTE/ASM light curve is inconsistent with the 77.7 day X-ray period of Wijnands et al. (1996), which was based on a small subset of the RXTE/ASM data combined with data from VELA 5B, and Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitors. Since Cygnus X-2 displays periodic behavior that seems to come and go, producing different best-fit periods on time scales of a few years; we suggest that Cygnus X-2 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations of about 80 days. This research is supported by a grant from the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Cygnus OB2 DANCe: A high-precision proper motion study of the Cygnus OB2 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Bouy, Herve; Drew, Janet E.; Sarro, Luis Manuel; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Barrado, David

    2016-08-01

    We present a high-precision proper motion study of 873 X-ray and spectroscopically selected stars in the massive OB association Cygnus OB2 as part of the DANCe project. These were calculated from images spanning a 15 yr baseline and have typical precisions <1 mas yr-1. We calculate the velocity dispersion in the two axes to be σ _α (c) = 13.0^{+0.8}_{-0.7} and σ _δ (c) = 9.1^{+0.5}_{-0.5} km s-1, using a two-component, two-dimensional model that takes into account the uncertainties on the measurements. This gives a three-dimensional velocity dispersion of σ3D = 17.8 ± 0.6 km s-1 implying a virial mass significantly larger than the observed stellar mass, confirming that the association is gravitationally unbound. The association appears to be dynamically unevolved, as evidenced by considerable kinematic substructure, non-isotropic velocity dispersions and a lack of energy equipartition. The proper motions show no evidence for a global expansion pattern, with approximately the same amount of kinetic energy in expansion as there is in contraction, which argues against the association being an expanded star cluster disrupted by process such as residual gas expulsion or tidal heating. The kinematic substructures, which appear to be close to virial equilibrium and have typical masses of 40-400 M⊙, also do not appear to have been affected by the expulsion of the residual gas. We conclude that Cyg OB2 was most likely born highly substructured and globally unbound, with the individual subgroups born in (or close to) virial equilibrium, and that the OB association has not experienced significant dynamical evolution since then.

  14. Cygnus OB2 DANCe: A high-precision proper motion study of the Cygnus OB2 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Bouy, Herve; Drew, Janet E.; Sarro, Luis Manuel; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Barrado, David

    2016-08-01

    We present a high-precision proper motion study of 873 X-ray and spectroscopically selected stars in the massive OB association Cygnus OB2 as part of the DANCe project. These were calculated from images spanning a 15 year baseline and have typical precisions < 1 mas/yr. We calculate the velocity dispersion in the two axes to be $\\sigma_\\alpha(c) = 13.0^{+0.8}_{-0.7}$ and $\\sigma_\\delta(c) = 9.1^{+0.5}_{-0.5}$ km/s, using a 2-component, 2-dimensional model that takes into account the uncertainties on the measurements. This gives a 3-dimensional velocity dispersion of $\\sigma_{3D} = 17.8 \\pm 0.6$ km/s implying a virial mass significantly larger than the observed stellar mass, confirming that the association is gravitationally unbound. The association appears to be dynamically unevolved, as evidenced by considerable kinematic substructure, non-isotropic velocity dispersions and a lack of energy equipartition. The proper motions show no evidence for a global expansion pattern, with approximately the same amount of kinetic energy in expansion as there is in contraction, which argues against the association being an expanded star cluster disrupted by process such as residual gas expulsion or tidal heating. The kinematic substructures, which appear to be close to virial equilibrium and have typical masses of 40-400 M$_\\odot$, also do not appear to have been affected by the expulsion of the residual gas. We conclude that Cyg OB2 was most likely born highly substructured and globally unbound, with the individual subgroups born in (or close to) virial equilibrium, and that the OB association has not experienced significant dynamical evolution since then.

  15. Diet and nutrition of western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus, in shallow coastal waters: the role of habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generalist consumers often have diets that vary considerably over time and space, which reflects changes in resource availability. Predicting diets of consumers can therefore be difficult. The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is an omnivorous generalist consumer that uses ...

  16. Infrared photometry and polarimetry of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Howard, Eric M.

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and linear polarimetry of Cygnus X-3 at K (2.2 micrometers) obtained over a 5 yr period. Photometry and polarimetry at J, H, and K of nearby field stars is also presented. From an analysis of these data we find: (1) Using the x-ray ephemeris of Kitamoto et al. (ApJ, 384, 263 (1992), including the first and second derivatives of the period, the leading edge of the decline to minimum in the quiescent K light curve has not changed in phase since 1974. The duration of the minimum in the light curve has changed significantly between different epochs, becoming much broader in 1993 than it was previously. (2) In addition to an interstellar polarization component, it is likely Cyg X-3 has an intrinsic polarization component that is variable. The variations in the polarization do not show any diagnostic pattern with orbital phase. A crude analysis of the polarization suggests the intrinsic polarization of Cyg X-3 has a mean position angle of approximately 12 deg, nearly the same as the direction of the expanding radio lobes. This is consistent with circumstellar electrons scattering in an equatorial disk that is perpendicular to the lobe axis. (3) The mean position angle for the interstellar polarization in the direction of Cyg X-3 is 150 deg. This is nearly perpendicular to the axis of interstellar radio scattering seen in the extended (Very Long Baseline Inteferometry (VLBI) images. Since the position angle of interstellar polarization is the same as the projected magnetic field direction, this suggests the interstellar (not circumstellar) scattering must be taking place perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field lines. (4) Cyg X-3 was observed at K during a flare on 1992 September 30 with a temporal resolution of 6 s. The flaring had rise and fall times of approximately 50 s with peak intensities up to 80 mJy. The flux between individual flare events never dropped to quiescent levels for the duration of our observations (approximately 2000 s).

  17. The nature of the hard state of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Larsson, S.; Beckmann, V.; McCollough, M.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Vilhu, O.

    2008-02-01

    The X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is a highly variable X-ray source that displays a wide range of observed spectral states. One of the main states is significantly harder than the others, peaking at ~20 keV, with only a weak low-energy component. Due to the enigmatic nature of this object, hidden inside the strong stellar wind of its Wolf-Rayet companion, it has remained unclear whether this state represents an intrinsic hard state, with truncation of the inner disc, or whether it is just a result of increased local absorption. We study the X-ray light curves from RXTE/ASM and CGRO/BATSE in terms of distributions and correlations of flux and hardness and find several signs of a bimodal behaviour of the accretion flow that are not likely to be the result of increased absorption in a surrounding medium. Using INTEGRAL observations, we model the broad-band spectrum of Cyg X-3 in its apparent hard state. We find that it can be well described by a model of a hard state with a truncated disc, despite the low cut-off energy, provided the accreted power is supplied to the electrons in the inner flow in the form of acceleration rather than thermal heating, resulting in a hybrid electron distribution and a spectrum with a significant contribution from non-thermal Comptonization, usually observed only in soft states. The high luminosity of this non-thermal hard state implies that either the transition takes place at significantly higher L/LE than in the usual advection models, or the mass of the compact object is >~20Msolar, possibly making it the most-massive black hole observed in an X-ray binary in our Galaxy so far. We find that an absorption model as well as a model of almost pure Compton reflection also fit the data well, but both have difficulties explaining other results, in particular the radio/X-ray correlation.

  18. Photometric Observations of 6000 Stars in the Cygnus Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W.; Caldwell, D.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J.; Ninkov, Z.

    1999-01-01

    A small photometer to detect transits by extrasolar planets has been assembled and is being tested at Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California. The Vulcan photometer is constructed from a 30 cm focal length, F/2.5 AeroEktar reconnaissance lens and Photometrics PXL16800 CCD camera. A spectral filter is used to confine the pass band from 480 to 763 mn. It simultaneously monitors 6000 stars brighter than 12th magnitude within a single star field in the galactic plane. When the data are folded and phased to discover low amplitude transits, the relative precision of one-hour samples is about 1 part per thousand (10 x l0(exp -3)) for many of the brighter stars. This precision is sufficient to find jovian-size planets orbiting solar-like stars, which have signal amplitudes from 5 to 30 x l0(exp -3) depending on the inflation of the planet and the size of the star. Based on the frequency of giant inner-planets discovered by Doppler-velocity method, one or two planets should be detectable in a rich star field. The goal of the observations is to obtain the sizes of giant extrasolar planets in short-period orbits and to combine these with masses determined from Doppler velocity measurements to determine the densities of these planets. A further goal is to compare the measured planetary diameters with those predicted from theoretical models. From August 10 through September 30 of 1998, a forty nine square degree field in the Cygnus constellation centered at RA and DEC of 19 hr 47 min, +36 deg 55 min was observed. Useful data were obtained on twenty-nine nights. Nearly fifty stars showed some evidence of transits with periods between 0.3 and 8 days. Most had amplitudes too large to be associated with planetary transits. However, several stars showed low amplitude transits. The data for several transits of each of these two stars have been folded and been folded into 30 minute periods. Only Cygl433 shows any evidence of a flattened bottom that is expected when a small object

  19. The dust scattering halo of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, L. R.; Paerels, F.

    2015-10-01

    Dust grains scatter X-ray light through small angles, producing a diffuse halo image around bright X-ray point sources situated behind a large amount of interstellar material. We present analytic solutions to the integral for the dust scattering intensity, which allow for a Bayesian analysis of the scattering halo around Cygnus X-3. Fitting the optically thin 4-6 keV halo surface brightness profile yields the dust grain size and spatial distribution. We assume a power-law distribution of grain sizes (n ∝ a-p) and fit for p, the grain radius cut-off amax, and dust mass column. We find that a p ≈ 3.5 dust grain size distribution with amax ≈ 0.2 μm fits the halo profile relatively well, whether the dust is distributed uniformly along the line of sight or in clumps. We find that a model consisting of two dust screens, representative of foreground spiral arms, requires the foreground Perseus arm to contain 80 per cent of the total dust mass. The remaining 20 per cent of the dust, which may be associated with the outer spiral arm of the Milky Way, is located within 1 kpc of Cyg X-3. Regardless of which model was used, we found τ_sca ˜ 2 E_keV^{-2}. We examine the energy resolved haloes of Cyg X-3 from 1 to 6 keV and find that there is a sharp drop in scattering halo intensity when E < 2-3 keV, which cannot be explained with multiple scattering effects. We hypothesize that this may be caused by large dust grains or material with unique dielectric properties, causing the scattering cross-section to depart from the Rayleigh-Gans approximation that is used most often in X-ray scattering studies. The foreground Cyg OB2 association, which contains several evolved stars with large extinction values, is a likely culprit for grains of unique size or composition.

  20. Short report: Antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Bevins, Sarah N; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Mickley, Randall M; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-12-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. PMID:25266351

  1. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STARS IN CYGNUS OB7

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Thomas S.; Wolk, Scott J.; Aspin, Colin

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, {approx}160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short

  2. Studying the Warm Layer and the Hardening Factor in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Zhang, Shuangnan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Feng, Yuxin

    2002-01-01

    As the first dynamically determined black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1 has been studied extensively. However, its broadband spectrum observed with BeppoSax is still not well understood. Besides the soft excess described by the multi-color disk model (MCD), the power-law hard component and a broad excess feature above 10 keV (a disk reflection component), there is also an additional soft component around 1 keV, whose origin is not known currently. Here we propose that the additional soft component is due to the thermal Comptonization between the soft disk photons and a warm plasma cloud just above the disk, i.e., a warm layer. We use the Monte-Carlo technique to simulate this Compton scattering process and build a table model based on our simulation results. With this table model, we study the disk structure and estimate the hardening factor to the MCD component in Cygnus X-1.

  3. Observations of ultra-high-energy photons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, T.; Mitsui, K.; Okada, A. Tokyo, University )

    1991-06-01

    Extensive air showers coming from the Cygnus X-3 region are analyzed using the van der Klis and Bonnet-Bidaud ephemeris. A 4.7 sigma excess has been observed in the phase bin 0.25-0.3. The maximum excess is seen when a muon cut is applied to the showers, which indicates a slightly muon poor property. The flux is estimated to be (2.7 + or {minus} 0.5) {times} 10 to the -14th/sq cm s for the showers Ne greater than 200,000. DC excesses are observed at the time of the radio burst of Cygnus X-3 in June 1989. 21 refs.

  4. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  5. Lepto-hadronic model for the broadband emission of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Carolina; Vila, Gabriela S.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Cygnus X-1 is a well-observed microquasar. Broadband observations at all wavelengths have been collected over the years. The origin of the MeV tail observed with COMPTEL and INTEGRAL is still under debate and it has mostly been attributed to the corona, although its high degree of polarization suggests that it is synchrotron radiation from a jet. The origin of the transient emission above ~100 GeV is also unclear. Aims: We aim to clarify the origin of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of Cygnus X-1, focusing particularly on the gamma-ray emission, and to gain information on the physical conditions inside the jets. Methods: We developed a lepto-hadronic, inhomogeneous jet model and applied it to the non-thermal SED of Cygnus X-1. We calculated the contributions to the SED of both protons and electrons accelerated in an extended region of the jet. We also estimated the radiation of charged secondaries produced in hadronic interactions through several radiative processes. Absorption effects were considered. We produced synthetic maps of the jets at radio wavelengths. Results: We find two sets of model parameters that lead to good fits of the SED. One of the models fits all the observations, including the MeV tail. This model also predicts hadronic gamma-ray emission slightly below the current upper limits. The flux predicted at 8.4 GHz is in agreement with the observations available in the literature, although the synthetic source is more compact than the imaged radio jet. Conclusions: Our results show that the MeV emission in Cygnus X-1 may be jet synchrotron radiation. This depends mainly on the strength of the jet magnetic field and the location of the injection region of the relativistic particles. Our calculations show that there must be energetic electrons in the jets quite far from the black hole.

  6. Support for joint infrared and Copernicus X-Ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous X-ray and infrared measurements were carried out of the flares from Cygnus X-3 from the Copernicus spacecraft observatory. The detectors, InSb, were arranged so that 1.65 and 2.2 micrometer broadbend photometry was performed through a common diaphragm. The measurements were used to determine the energy distribution during a flare and thus learn about the infrared spectrum and its changes during the flare.

  7. Fussy feeders: phyllosoma larvae of the Western Rocklobster (Panulirus cygnus) demonstrate prey preference.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Megan I; Thompson, Peter A; Jeffs, Andrew G; Säwström, Christin; Sachlikidis, Nikolas; Beckley, Lynnath E; Waite, Anya M

    2012-01-01

    The Western Rocklobster (Panulirus cygnus) is the most valuable single species fishery in Australia and the largest single country spiny lobster fishery in the world. In recent years a well-known relationship between oceanographic conditions and lobster recruitment has become uncoupled, with significantly lower recruitment than expected, generating interest in the factors influencing survival and development of the planktonic larval stages. The nutritional requirements and wild prey of the planktotrophic larval stage (phyllosoma) of P. cygnus were previously unknown, hampering both management and aquaculture efforts for this species. Ship-board feeding trials of wild-caught mid-late stage P. cygnus phyllosoma in the eastern Indian Ocean, off the coast of Western Australia, were conducted in July 2010 and August-September 2011. In a series of experiments, phyllosoma were fed single and mixed species diets of relatively abundant potential prey items (chaetognaths, salps, and krill). Chaetognaths were consumed in 2-8 times higher numbers than the other prey, and the rate of consumption of chaetognaths increased with increasing concentration of prey. The highly variable lipid content of the phyllosoma, and the fatty acid profiles of the phyllosoma and chaetognaths, indicated they were from an oligotrophic oceanic food chain where food resources for macrozooplankton were likely to be constrained. Phyllosoma fed chaetognaths over 6 days showed significant changes in some fatty acids and tended to accumulate lipid, indicating an improvement in overall nutritional condition. The discovery of a preferred prey for P. cygnus will provide a basis for future oceanographic, management and aquaculture research for this economically and ecologically valuable species. PMID:22586479

  8. Discovery of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Candidate in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We report on a discovery of a diffuse nebula containing a point-like source in the southern blowout region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. The X-ray spectra from the nebula and the point-like source are well represented by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices of 2.2+/-0.1 and 1.6+/-0.2, respectively. The photon indices as well as the flux ratio of F(sub nebula)/F(sub point-like) approx. 4 lead us to propose that the system is a pulsar wind nebula, although pulsations have not yet been detected. If we attribute its origin to the Cygnus Loop supernova, then the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of the nebula is computed to be 2.1x10(exp 31)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergss/2, where d is the distance to the Loop. This implies a spin-down loss-energy E approx. 2.6x10(exp 35)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergs/s. The location of the neutron star candidate, approx.2deg away from the geometric center of the Loop, implies a high transverse velocity of approx.1850(theta/2deg)(d/540pc)(t/10kyr)/k/s assuming the currently accepted age of the Cygnus Loop.

  9. Carbon, Helium, and Proton Kinetic Temperatures in a Cygnus Loop Shock Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.; Edgar, Richard J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.

    2015-06-01

    Observations of SN 1006 have shown that ions and electrons in the plasma behind fast supernova remnant shock waves are far from equilibrium, with the electron temperature much lower than the proton temperature and ion temperatures approximately proportional to ion mass. In the ˜360 km s-1shock waves of the Cygnus Loop, on the other hand, electron and ion temperatures are roughly equal, and there is evidence that the oxygen kinetic temperature is not far from the proton temperature. In this paper, we report observations of the He ii λ1640 line and the C iv λ1550 doublet in a 360 km s-1shock in the Cygnus Loop. While the best-fit kinetic temperatures are somewhat higher than the proton temperature, the temperatures of He and C are consistent with the proton temperature and the upper limits are 0.5 and 0.3 times the mass-proportional temperatures, implying efficient thermal equilibration in this collisionless shock. The equilibration of helium and hydrogen affects the conversion between proton temperatures determined from Hα line profiles and shock speeds, and the efficient equilibration found here reduces the shock speed estimates and the distance estimate to the Cygnus Loop of Medina et al. to about 800 pc.

  10. Predicting GAIA's Parallax Distance to the Cygnus OB2 Association with Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Alexander, Michael J.; Lundquist, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    The Cygnus OB2 Association is one of the nearest and largest collections of massive stars in the Galaxy. Situated at the heart of the “Cygnus X” complex of star-forming regions and molecular clouds, its distance has proven elusive owing to the ambiguous nature of kinematic distances along this ℓ ≃ 80° sightline and the heavy, patchy extinction. In an effort to refine the three-dimensional geometry of key Cygnus X constituents, we have measured distances to four eclipsing double-lined OB-type spectroscopic binaries that are probable members of Cyg OB2. We find distances of 1.33 ± 0.17, 1.32 ± 0.07, 1.44 ± 0.18, and 1.32 ± 0.13 kpc toward MT91 372, MT91 696, CPR2002 A36, and Schulte 3, respectively. We adopt a weighted average distance of 1.33 ± 0.06 kpc. This agrees well with spectrophotometric estimates for the Association as a whole and with parallax measurements of protostellar masers in the surrounding interstellar clouds, thereby linking the ongoing star formation in these clouds with Cyg OB2. We also identify Schulte 3C (O9.5V), a 4″ visual companion to the 4.75 day binary Schulte 3(A+B), as a previously unrecognized Association member.

  11. W 58 G - A distant H II region in the H I Cygnus arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgelin, Y. M.; Boulesteix, J.; Georgelin, Y. P.; Le Coarer, E.; Marcelin, M.; Monnet, G.

    1988-01-01

    A 9arcmin×9arcmin sky area centered on the galactic nebula W58 G has been scanned at Hα wavelength with the CIGALE instrument at the prime focus of the 2.6 m Armenian telescope in Byurakan. Four distinct nebular emissions can be distinguished along the same line of sight. Two are related to the nearby Cygnus complex, one at VLSR = 9 km s-1 is associated with the Cygnus Rift at 900 pc and another one at VLSR = 60 km s-1 is probably due to stellar winds or supernova remnants. The third emission, at VLSR = -26 km s-1, is the optical counterpart of the Extended Region South East of W58, mapped by Israel (1976) in the radio continuum, in the Perseus arm (8.4 kpc). The fourth emission comes from W58 G, an H II region which appears to belong to the H I Cygnus arm, with VLSR = -66 km s-1, at a distance of 12.4 kpc.

  12. The physics and validation of the Cygnus radiographic source for Armando

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berninger, M.; Lutz, S.; Devolder, B.; Yin, L.; Kwan, T.

    2003-10-01

    Conventional simulation techniques for radiographic systems use approximations that poorly represent the dynamics of the electron beam that generates photons via the bremsstrahlung process. The radiographic chain model more accurately accounts for the electron dynamics by linking electron distributions generated in electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a self-consistent way to the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP. Based on the electron dynamics from PIC simulations, MCNP simulates the emission of bremsstrahlung photons due to the electron collisions with a dense target in the radiographic source and then calculates the photon transport through the imaging object onto the detectors, which are simulated with detector response functions. This integrated radiographic simulation capability has been applied in understanding the Cygnus source physics. By employing the methodology of the chain model, we characterized the effect of the rod-pinch diode operating parameters on the Cygnus radiographic machine parameters, such as energy- and angle-dependent photon spectra, spot size, and dose. The calculations were validated in juxtaposition with radiographic experimental data on step wedges, rolled edges, and static objects. We present the detailed characterization of the performance of the Cygnus source for Armando.

  13. Dying Pulse Trains in Cygnus XR-1: Initial Results of X-Ray Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.

    2003-01-01

    Dying pulse trains (DPT's) are a signature of a black hole as described by general relativity. Detecting DPT's would establish the existence of black holes by ruling out more exotic objects in systems in which a neutron star or white dwarf component has already been excluded by maximum mass arguments. The positive identification of a black hole would also be an additional test of general relativity. Two possible DPT's were detected in W photometry of Cygnus XR-1, the leading candidate for a stellar mass sized BH, in 3 hours of observational data. A search of X-ray photometry of Cygnus XR-1 from the Ross1 X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has begun. No DPT's have been detected in the first 4 hours of data searched. Because of the low event rate detected in the W data, these initial results are consistent with such disparate scenarios as the rate of DPT occurrence being dependent on the luminosity state of the system; or being more difficult to detect in the X-ray region relative to the W region; or occurring at the same rate in the W and X-ray regions; or even not occurring at all from Cygnus XR-1. The search for DPT's in RXTE photometry is continuing.

  14. Soft X-ray Excesses and X-ray Line Variability in Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlotta, Angelo; McCollough, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Cygnus X-3 is an X-ray binary (XRB) system containing a stellar-mass compact object, most likely a black hole, and a Wolf-Rayet companion star, which produces collimated, relativistic jets, placing it in the sub-class of XRBs known as microquasars. During a Swift/XRT monitoring program of Cygnus X-3, a soft X-ray excess (below 1 keV) was observed at certain states and phases of activity. This soft excess appears to be similar to the variable soft emission observed in Seyfert galaxies. The presence of these features in Cygnus X-3 would argue for a greater support of the black-hole nature of the compact object and serve to better highlight the similarities of microquasars and AGN. We present the results of our investigations of these soft excesses, as well as the variations of the X-ray Fe line region (6.4-7.0 keV) as a function of the state activity and orbital phase.

  15. An unidentified TeV source in the vicinity of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Börst, H.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Coarasa, T.; Contreras, J.; Cortina, J.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Girma, M.; Götting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kettler, J.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Magnussen, N.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Milite, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Ona, E.; Panter, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Reyes, R.; Rhode, W.; Ripken, J.; Röhring, A.; Rowell, G. P.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Schröder, F.; Siems, M.; Sobzynska, D.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Völk, H. J.; Wiedner, C. A.; Wittek, W.; Uchiyama, Y.; Takahashi, T.; HEGRA Collaboration

    2002-10-01

    Deep observation ( ~ 113 hrs) of the Cygnus region at TeV energies using the HEGRA stereoscopic system of air Čerenkov telescopes has serendipitously revealed a signal positionally inside the core of the OB association Cygnus OB2, at the edge of the 95% error circle of the EGRET source 3EG J2033+4118, and ~ 0.5o north of Cyg X-3. The source centre of gravity is RA alphaJ2000: 20h 32m 07s+/- 9.2sstat +/-2.2ssys, Dec deltaJ2000: +41o 30' 30''+/- 2.0'stat +/- 0.4'sys. The source is steady, has a post-trial significance of +4.6sigma , indication for extension with radius 5.6' at the ~ 3sigma level, and has a differential power-law flux with hard photon index of -1.9 +/-0.3stat +/-0.3sys. The integral flux above 1 TeV amounts ~ 3% that of the Crab. No counterpart for the TeV source at other wavelengths is presently identified, and its extension would disfavour an exclusive pulsar or AGN origin. If associated with Cygnus OB2, this dense concentration of young, massive stars provides an environment conducive to multi-TeV particle acceleration and likely subsequent interaction with a nearby gas cloud. Alternatively, one could envisage gamma -ray production via a jet-driven termination shock.

  16. Investigation of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievna Sinitsyna, V.; Arsov, T.P.; Alaverdian, A.Y.; Borisov, S.S.; Musin, F.I.; Mirzafatikhov, R.M.; Nikolsky, S.I.; Kasparov, G.M.; Sinitsyna, V.Y.; Platonov, G.F.

    2003-07-01

    Cherenkov mirror telescope SHALON-1 created at Leb edev Physical Institute and stated at 1991-1992 y. at Tien-Shan mountains 3338 m high above the sea level with 11,2 m2 mirror area and image matrix consisting of 144 photomultipliers with total viewing angle of 8o during 1992-2003 y. was used for observations of galactic sources: Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-3 Ticho Brage, Geminga and metagalactic sources: Markarian 421, Markarian 501, NGC 1275, 3C454.3, 1739+522. Timing analysis show that the contribution of protons of cosmic rays in observable gamma-quanta with energy more than 0.8TeV from the point sources of gammaquanta very high energies do not exceed 10% 15%. The fluxes at energy above 0.8TeV of observation Cygnus X-3 (4.20 ± 0.70) • 10-13 cm-2 s-1 is and Crab Nebula (1.10 ± 0.13) • 10-12 cm-2 s-1 . The observable energy distribution of gamma quanta in an interval of energy 1012 - 5 • 1013 from the local sources in our Galaxy do not contradict with the spectrum of Cygnus X-3 dF /dEγ ˜ Eγ 2.20±0.14 ,- of Crab Nebula -dF /dEγ ˜ Eγ 2.45±0.04 . The observed spectra of the gamma- quanta including the 10%-15% contribution of the proton showers is for Cygnus dF /dE ˜ E -2.51±0.22 , for Crab Nebula dF /dE ˜ E -2.61±0.04 . The images of Cygnus X-3 and Crab Nebula are also presented. One of the basic science parts is nuclear physics, physics of elementary particles and connected with them astrophysics and cosmology, studied the matter structure on micro and macro scales. The gamma-astronomy is a unique experimental possibility of high-energy cosmic rays sources (1012 - 1014 eV) location now. Only neutrino-astronomy will complete search and investigation of galactic and metagalactic objects where the protons and nuclei acceleration processes, accompanying with generation of non scattering by Universal magnetic fields gammas and neutrinos. The cosmological processes, connecting the physic of matter structure with its superdense quasistable state in active

  17. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CYGNUS X-1 ABOVE 100 MeV IN THE HARD AND SOFT STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Del Santo, M.; Campana, R.; Evangelista, Y.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Giusti, M.; Striani, E.; Pooley, G.; Chen, A.; Giuliani, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of multi-year gamma-ray observations by the AGILE satellite of the black hole binary system Cygnus X-1. In a previous investigation we focused on gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1 in the hard state during the period mid-2007/2009. Here we present the results of the gamma-ray monitoring of Cygnus X-1 during the period 2010/mid-2012 which includes a remarkably prolonged 'soft state' phase (2010 June-2011 May). Previous 1-10 MeV observations of Cyg X-1 in this state hinted at a possible existence of a non-thermal particle component with substantial modifications of the Comptonized emission from the inner accretion disk. Our AGILE data, averaged over the mid-2010/mid-2011 soft state of Cygnus X-1, provide a significant upper limit for gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of F{sub soft} < 20 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} , excluding the existence of prominent non-thermal emission above 100 MeV during the soft state of Cygnus X-1. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings in the context of high-energy emission models of black hole accretion. We also discuss possible gamma-ray flares detected by AGILE. In addition to a previously reported episode observed by AGILE in 2009 October during the hard state, we report a weak but important candidate for enhanced emission which occurred at the end of 2010 June (2010 June 30 10:00-2010 July 2 10:00 UT) exactly coinciding with a hard-to-soft state transition and before an anomalous radio flare. An appendix summarizes all previous high-energy observations and possible detections of Cygnus X-1 above 1 MeV.

  18. Search for a periodic signal from Cygnus X-3 usingmuons observed underground in the Frejus detector (4800 mwe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareyre, P.; Barloutaud, R.; Becker, K. H.; Behr, L.; Berger, C.; Bland, R. W.; Chardin, G.; Daum, H. J.; Degrange, B.; Demski, S.

    1986-01-01

    Periodic signals from Cygnus X-3 in the ultra high energy range were recently reported by air shower arrays and attributed to gamma rays. Although gamma rays are expected to produce muon-poor showers, the preceding observations have stimulated similar studies based on underground muons. Two groups have claimed a significant underground signal coming from Cygnus X-3. The results are, however, extremely difficult to explain in the present framework of particle physics, and clearly need confirmation. The preliminary results obtained from the Frejus underground detector during its first 16 months of operation (March 1984 to June 1985) are presented.

  19. VLBI Measurements of Plasma Turbulence Associated with the Cygnus OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Cordes, James M.

    1998-10-01

    We have made dual-frequency (1.67 and 5.00 GHz) VLBI observations of five compact, presumably extragalactic radio sources in the Galactic plane in the constellation of Cygnus. The lines of sight to these sources pass through a part of the interstellar medium that is modified by the Cygnus OB1 association. The VLBI observations were processed to yield measurements of the scattering measure due to interstellar plasma turbulence. The dual-frequency VLBI observations allowed estimates of the possible intrinsic structure contamination of the scattering measurements. Such an error is estimated to be less than 5% of the scattering measure for our two best-observed cases, and 15% to as high as 30% for a more weakly scattered source. Modeling the spatial power spectrum of the turbulence by Pδn(q) = C2Nq-α, where q is the spatial wavenumber of the turbulent fluctuations, our observations provide a measurement of 0LC2Ndz, where L is the thickness of the scattering medium and z is a coordinate along the line of sight. When combined with our earlier observations of the radio source 2013+370, we have a total of six lines of sight through the Cygnus OB1 association. Our observations show that the scattering through the Cygnus OB1 association is heavy and that the scattering measures vary from 0.14 to 2.21 m-20/3 kpc on lines of sight separated by as little as 1°-2°. When combined with measurements of the emission measure in the same directions, our scattering-measure results constrain properties of the turbulence in the Cygnus OB1 association. Specifically, if ε is the normalized amplitude of the density fluctuations, and l0 is the outer scale to the Kolmogorov spectrum, then our combined scattering measure-emission measure data set constrains the quantity ε2/(1+ε2)l2/30. The mean value is ~4.3 × 10-13 cm-2/3, with a range of about 0.5 in the logarithm. We do not have sufficient information to determine ε and l0 separately, but plausible ranges are ε < 1 and l0 < 3 pc

  20. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic γ-γ interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  1. CIRCUMSTELLAR STRUCTURE AROUND EVOLVED STARS IN THE CYGNUS-X STAR FORMATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, Stephan D.

    2010-06-15

    We present observations of newly discovered 24 {mu}m circumstellar structures detected with MIPS around three evolved stars in the Cygnus-X star-forming region. One of the objects, BD+43 3710, has a bipolar nebula, possibly due to an outflow or a torus of material. A second, HBHA 4202-22, a Wolf-Rayet candidate, shows a circular shell of 24 {mu}m emission suggestive of either a limb-brightened shell or disk seen face-on. No diffuse emission was detected around either of these two objects in the Spitzer 3.6-8 {mu}m IRAC bands. The third object is the luminous blue variable candidate G79.29+0.46. We resolved the previously known inner ring in all four IRAC bands. The 24 {mu}m emission from the inner ring extends {approx}1.'2 beyond the shorter wavelength emission, well beyond what can be attributed to the difference in resolutions between MIPS and IRAC. Additionally, we have discovered an outer ring of 24 {mu}m emission, possibly due to an earlier episode of mass loss. For the two shell stars, we present the results of radiative transfer models, constraining the stellar and dust shell parameters. The shells are composed of amorphous carbon grains, plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of G79.29+0.46. Both G79.29+0.46 and HBHA 4202-22 lie behind the main Cygnus-X cloud. Although G79.29+0.46 simply may be on the far side of the cloud, HBHA 4202-22 is unrelated to the Cygnus-X star formation region.

  2. The nature of the Cygnus X-2 like Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiec, Andrzej; Balucinska-Church, Monika; Church, Michael

    We propose a physical model of the Cygnus X-2 like Z-track sources: GX 340+0, GX 5-1 and Cygnus X-2 based on the results of applying a particular emission model for low mass X-ray binaries to high quality Rossi-XTE data on the sources. In this emission model the Comptonizing Accretion Disk Corona is very extended, and the evidence for this is now very secure. In our physical model, the Normal Branch is dominated by an increasing mass accretion rate between the soft and hard apex leading to a much increased neutron star temperature resulting in high radiation pressure of the neutron star. The radiation pressure continues to increase on the Horizontal Branch becoming several times super-Eddington. We propose that this disrupts the inner accretion disk and that part of the accretion flow is diverted vertically forming jets which are detected by their radio emission on this part of the Z-track. We thus propose that high radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the launching of jets. On the Flaring Branch there is a large increase in the neutron star blackbody luminosity at constant mass accretion rate showing that there is an additional energy source on the neutron star. We find good agreement between the mass accretion rate per unit emitting area of the neutron star at the onset of flaring and the theoretical critical value at which burning becomes unstable and propose that flaring in the Cygnus X-2 like sources consists of unstable nuclear burning. Correlation of kilohertz QPO frequencies in all three sources with spectral fitting results leads to the proposal that the upper kHz QPO always takes place at the inner accretion disk edge, the radius of which increases due to disruption of the disk by the high radiation pressure.

  3. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio Galaxy Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Wik, Daniel R.; Madejski, Grzegorz; Ballantyne, David R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Lanz, Lauranne; Miller, Jon M.; Saez, Cristian; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J.; Zhang, William

    2015-08-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN and intracluster medium components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to \\gt 70 keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law ({{Γ }}∼ 1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of {N}{{H}}∼ 1.6× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (\\gt 10 keV) spectrum resulting from reflection by Compton-thick matter out of our line of sight to the X-ray source. Compton reflection, possibly from the outer accretion disk or obscuring torus, is required even permitting a high-energy cut off in the continuum source; the limit on the cut-off energy is {E}{cut}\\gt 111 keV(90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power law plus reflection model leaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast (15,000-26,000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 ), high column-density ({N}W\\gt 3× {10}23 {{cm}}-2), highly ionized (ξ ∼ 2500 {erg} {cm} {{{s}}}-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also suggested by these data. We show that the ionized wind likely carries a significant mass and momentum flux, and may carry sufficient kinetic energy to exercise feedback on the host galaxy. If confirmed, the simultaneous presence of a strong wind and powerful jets in Cygnus A demonstrates that feedback from radio-jets and sub-relativistic winds are not mutually exclusive phases of AGN activity but can occur simultaneously.

  4. New Evidence for a Black Hole in the Compact Binary Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. Its known to consist of a massive. Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. Yet one of the most basic of pa.ranietern the mass of the compact object - is not known. Nor is it even clear whether its is a neutron star or a black hole. In this Paper we present our analysis of the broad-band high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship which has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than 4.2 solar mass thus clearly indicative of a black hole and as such resolving a longstanding issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a. range of recently published distance estimates constrains the compact object mass to lie between 4.2 solar mass and 14.4 solar mass. Our favored estimate, based on a 9.0 kpc distance estimate is approx. l0 solar mass, with the. error margin of 3.2 solar masses. This result may thus pose challenges to shared-envelope evolutionary models of compact binaries. as well as establishing Cygnus X-3 as the first confirmed accretion-powered galactic gamma: ray source.

  5. Possible Charge-Exchange X-Ray Emission in the Cygnus Loop Detected with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hewitt. John W.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2011-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant indicate that metal abundances throughout most of the remnant s rim are depleted to approx.0.2 times the solar value. However, recent X-ray studies have revealed in some narrow regions along the outermost rim anomalously "enhanced" abundances (up to approx. 1 solar). The reason for these anomalous abundances is not understood. Here, we examine X-ray spectra in annular sectors covering nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that spectra in the "enhanced" abundance regions commonly show a strong emission feature at approx.0.7 keV. This feature is likely a complex of He-like O K(gamma + delta + epsilon), although other possibilities cannot be fully excluded. The intensity of this emission relative to He-like O K(alpha) appears to be too high to be explained as thermal emission. This fact, as well as the spatial concentration of the anomalous abundances in the outermost rim, leads us to propose an origin from charge-exchange processes between neutrals and H-like O. We show that the presence of charge-exchange emission could lead to the inference of apparently "enhanced" metal abundances using pure thermal emission models. Accounting for charge-exchange emission, the actual abundances could be uniformly low throughout the rim. The overall abundance depletion remains an open question. Subject headings: ISM: abundances ISM: individual objects (Cygnus Loop) ISM: supernova remnants X-rays: ISM atomic processes

  6. NEW EVIDENCE FOR A BLACK HOLE IN THE COMPACT BINARY CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, Chris R.; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-07-20

    The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. It is known to consist of a massive, Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. However, one of the most basic of parameters-the mass of the compact object-is not known, nor is it even clear whether it is a neutron star or a black hole (BH). In this paper, we present our analysis of the broadband high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship that has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than 4.2 M{sub sun}, thus clearly indicative of a BH and as such, resolves a long-standing issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a range of recently published distance estimates constrain the compact object mass to lie between 4.2 M{sub sun} and 14.4 M{sub sun}. Our favored estimate, based on a 9.0 kpc distance estimate, is {approx}10 M{sub sun}, with an error margin of 3.2 solar masses. This result may thus pose challenges to shared-envelope evolutionary models of compact binaries, as well as establishing Cygnus X-3 as the first confirmed accretion-powered galactic gamma-ray source.

  7. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. II - The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300 day record from the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3. The 78.4 day period of Kemp, Herman, and Barbour for Cyg X-1, the 9.843 day period of Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings for Cyg X-2, and the 16.75 day period of Holt et al. for Cyg X-3 are not confirmed.

  8. X-ray astronomy. [Crab Nebula, Cygnus Loop and the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.

    1975-01-01

    Various experiments in X-ray astronomy are described. The occurrence of lunar occultations of the Crab Nebula were utilized to determine the spatial distribution of X-ray emitting regions in the nebula. Study of the Cygnus Loop included a search for a central X-ray point source for the area and measurement of the energy spectrum of the flux from the supernova remnant. The X-ray morphology of the Perseus cluster of galaxies was studied. X-ray spectra of different points in the cluster were also obtained. In addition, the construction of a high resolution gas fluorescence proportional counter for application to X-ray astronomy is discussed.

  9. Angular resolution studies of the CYGNUS array using the shadows of the sun and moon

    SciTech Connect

    Shoup, A.L.; The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Using the cosmic ray shadows of the sun and moon, we have estimated the angular resolution of the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. With the event sample now available we estimate the angular resolution of the array to be 0.70{sub {minus}0.06}{sup {plus}0.07} degrees. The resolution depends on the total number of detected shower particles. A new parameterization of the measured shower-front timing structure and the use of counters with small pulse areas lead to a {approximately}25% improvement in the resolution. The systematic pointing error of the array is less than 0.4{degree}.

  10. Angular resolution studies of the CYGNUS array using the shadows of the sun and moon

    SciTech Connect

    Shoup, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Using the cosmic ray shadows of the sun and moon, we have estimated the angular resolution of the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. With the event sample now available we estimate the angular resolution of the array to be 0.70[sub [minus]0.06][sup [plus]0.07] degrees. The resolution depends on the total number of detected shower particles. A new parameterization of the measured shower-front timing structure and the use of counters with small pulse areas lead to a [approximately]25% improvement in the resolution. The systematic pointing error of the array is less than 0.4[degree].

  11. SMM/HXRBS observations of Cygnus X-1 from 1986 December to 1988 April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Orwig, L. E.; Dennis, B. R.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1991-07-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer made 30 measurements of Cygnus X-1 from December, 1986 to April, 1988, yielding a data set of broad synoptic coverage but limited duration for each data point. The hard X-ray intensity was found to be between the gamma(2) and gamma(3) levels, with a range of fluctuations about the average intensity level. The shape of the photon spectrum was found to be closest to that reported by Ling et al. (1983, 1987) during the time of the gamma(3) level emission, although the spectral shapes reported for the gamma(2) and gamma(1) levels were not precluded.

  12. On the distance to Cygnus X-1. [extrapolation from nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.; Stone, R. P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar extinction of 50 stars in the immediate vicinity of Cyg X-1 is compared with color excess of HDE 226868. The fact that HDE 226868 has extinction drastically exceeding that of all stars in the field at less than 1 kpc is believed to be in conflict with the model of Trimble et al. (1973) in which the primary is a luminous undermassive star and with other similar models. Uniform extrapolation of the reddening yields a distance estimate of (2.5 plus or minus 0.4) kpc for Cygnus X-1, in agreement with the spectroscopic modulus for an O9 star.

  13. The beginning of a giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, S. A.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    As we suggested in ATel #9416, galactic microquasar Cygnus X-3 is currently undergoing a flaring activity. If on 30 August 2016 (MJD 57630.798) its fluxes were 120-128 mJy at 4.6, 8.2, 11.2 GHz in the RATAN-600 radio telescope observations, then on 31 August (MJD 57631.795) the fluxes became 60, 300, 570, 740, 800 mJy at 2.3, 4.6, 8.2, 11.2 and 21.7 GHz with typical errors about 3-7%.

  14. An Investigation into PAH Destruction in Nearby Supernova Remnants, North Polar Spur and Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Sarah M.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in conducting this research was to look at the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/large dust grain emission intensity ratio in nearby supernova remnants to find evidence for selective PAH destruction by hot gas and high velocity shock waves within these regions, as predicted by the models of Arendt et al. (2010) and Micelotta et al. (2010a,b). Two supernova remnants were studied- the North Polar Spur (NPS) and the Cygnus Loop. The data for PAHs were obtained from the WISE W3 12 micron all-sky map processed by Meisner & Finkbeiner (2014), and the data for the larger grains come from the IRAS 100 micron all-sky map processed by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). After obtaining a control PAH/large grain intensity ratio of ~2.8 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) from two high latitude clouds, MBM 30 and MBM 32, we found that the intensity ratios across the NPS and Cygnus Loop were not far off- ~2.7 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) and ~3.1 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr), respectively- showing no evidence of selective large-scale PAH destruction in supernova remnants. The individual intensities for both PAHs and large grains do decrease inside the Cygnus Loop, however, suggesting a decrease in abundances of both grain types, which could mean total dust grain destruction with the normal ratios coming from foreground and background dust located in the line of sight of the remnant. In addition, temperature and E(B-V) measurements taken from calibrated IRAS images show that while the dust column density increases in the Eastern Veil of the Cygnus Loop, the dust temperature reaches a local maximum, indicating the heating of large grains by interaction with the hot gas in the remnant. The PAH/large grain ratio in the Eastern Veil does decrease and could be indicative of currently ongoing active grain destruction there, with the PAHs being destroyed on a more rapid timescale than the large grains.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF REU Program grant to the Department of Physics & Astronomy at

  15. Identification of the TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-08-01

    The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension σ{sub ext}= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10{sup –11}(E/1 TeV){sup –2.6±0.3} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1}, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

  16. A dark jet dominates the power output of the stellar black hole Cygnus X-1.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Elena; Fender, Rob; Kaiser, Christian; Russell, David; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Heinz, Sebastian

    2005-08-11

    Black holes undergoing accretion are thought to emit the bulk of their power in the X-ray band by releasing the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter. At the same time, they are capable of producing highly collimated jets of energy and particles flowing out of the system with relativistic velocities. Here we show that the 10-solar-mass (10M(o)) black hole in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (refs 3-5) is surrounded by a large-scale (approximately 5 pc in diameter) ring-like structure that appears to be inflated by the inner radio jet. We estimate that in order to sustain the observed emission of the ring, the jet of Cygnus X-1 has to carry a kinetic power that can be as high as the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the binary system. This result may imply that low-luminosity stellar-mass black holes as a whole dissipate the bulk of the liberated accretion power in the form of 'dark', radiatively inefficient relativistic outflows, rather than locally in the X-ray-emitting inflow. PMID:16094361

  17. THE EXTREME SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE IN CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gou Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Orosz, Jerome A.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-12-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole's accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a{sub *} > 0.95 (3{sigma}). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a{sub *} > 0.92 (3{sigma}). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk's low luminosity.

  18. Dissecting the Cygnus region with TeV gamma rays and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Beacom, John F.; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2007-04-15

    Recent Milagro observations of the Cygnus region have revealed both diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission and a bright and extended TeV source, MGRO J2019+37, which seems to lack an obvious counterpart at other wavelengths. Additional study of this curious object also promises to provide important clues concerning one of the Milky Way's most active environments. We point out some of the principal facts involved by following three modes of attack. First, to gain insight into this mysterious source, we consider its relation to known objects in both the Cygnus region and the rest of the Galaxy. Second, we find that a simple hadronic model can easily accommodate Milagro's flux measurement (which is at a single energy), as well as other existing observations spanning nearly 7 orders of magnitude in gamma-ray energy. Third, since a hadronic gamma-ray spectrum necessitates an accompanying TeV neutrino flux, we show that IceCube observations may provide the first direct evidence of a Galactic cosmic-ray accelerator.

  19. On the orbital and physical parameters of the HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we explore the consequences of the recent determination of the mass m=(8.7±0.8) M ⊙ of Cygnus X-1, obtained from the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO)-photon index correlation scaling, on the orbital and physical properties of the binary system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1. By using such a result and the latest spectroscopic optical data of the HDE 226868 supergiant star we get M=(24±5) M ⊙ for its mass. It turns out that deviations from the third Kepler law significant at more than 1-sigma level would occur if the inclination i of the system’s orbital plane to the plane of the sky falls outside the range ≈41 56 deg: such deviations cannot be due to the first post-Newtonian (1PN) correction to the orbital period because of its smallness; interpreted in the framework of the Newtonian theory of gravitation as due to the stellar quadrupole mass moment Q, they are unphysical because Q would take unreasonably large values. By conservatively assuming that the third Kepler law is an adequate model for the orbital period we obtain i=(48±7) deg which yields for the relative semimajor axis a=(42±9) R ⊙ (≈0.2 AU).

  20. Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Allen, B.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Casanova, S.; Chen, C.; Coyne, D.G.; Delay, R.S.; Dingus, B.L.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gonzalez, M.M.; Goodman, J.A.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolterman, B.E.; Kelley, L.A.; Lansdell, C.P.; Linnemann, J.T.; McEnery, J.E.

    2006-11-28

    The diffuse gamma radiation arising from the interaction of cosmic ray particles with matter and radiation in the Galaxy is one of the few probes available to study the origin of the cosmic rays. Milagro is a water Cherenkov detector that continuously views the entire overhead sky. The large field-of-view combined with the long observation time makes Milagro the most sensitive instrument available for the study of large, low surface brightness sources such as the diffuse gamma radiation arising from interactions of cosmic radiation with interstellar matter. In this paper we present spatial and flux measurements of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Cygnus Region. The TeV image shows at least one new source MGRO J2019+37 as well as correlations with the matter density in the region as would be expected from cosmic-ray proton interactions. However, the TeV gamma-ray flux as measured at {approx}12 TeV from the Cygnus region (after excluding MGRO J2019+37) exceeds that predicted from a conventional model of cosmic ray production and propagation. This observation indicates the existence of either hard-spectrum cosmic-ray sources and/or other sources of TeV gamma rays in the region.

  1. Polarized mid-infrared synchrotron emission in the core of Cygnus A

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Tadhunter, C.; Mason, R.; Perlman, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Levenson, N. A.; Álvarez, C. A.; Ramírez, E. A.; Telesco, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present high-angular (∼0.''4) resolution mid-infrared (MIR) polarimetric observations in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters of Cygnus A using CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. A highly polarized nucleus is observed with a degree of polarization of 11% ± 3% and 12% ± 3% and a position angle of polarization of 27° ± 8° and 35° ± 8° in a 0.''38 (∼380 pc) aperture for each filter. The observed rising of the polarized flux density with increasing wavelength is consistent with synchrotron radiation from the parsec-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A. Based on our polarization model, the synchrotron emission from the parsec-scale jet is estimated to be 14% and 17% of the total flux density in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters, respectively. A blackbody component with a characteristic temperature of 220 K accounts for >75% of the observed MIR total flux density. The blackbody emission arises from a combination of (1) dust emission in the torus; and (2) diffuse dust emission around the nuclear region, but the contributions of the two components cannot be well-constrained in these observations.

  2. The nuclear jet and counterjet region of the radio galaxy Cygnus A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, N; Sorathia, B; Bietenholz, M F; Carilli, C L; Diamond, P

    1995-01-01

    Very-long-baseline interferometry images of the nuclear region of the radio galaxy Cygnus A reveal a pronounced "core" and a knotty jet and counterjet. The knots are moving away from the core at apparent speeds which are subluminal for h = 1 [h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1;1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16)m] and about c for h = 0.5. The jet is aligned with the outer, kiloparsec-scale jet to within 2 degrees. The counterjet has a total flux density at 5 GHz of about one-fifth of that of the jet. In the context of the twin relativistic jet model for active galactic nuclei, the jet in Cygnus A is oriented at an angle to our line of sight of 35-80 degrees and 55-85 degrees, and the intrinsic velocity of the jet fluid is 0.4-0.6c and 0.6-1c for h = 1 and h = 0.5, respectively. PMID:11607600

  3. LOFAR imaging of Cygnus A - Direct detection of a turnover in the hotspot radio spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. P.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Vegetti, S.; Wise, M. W.; Morganti, R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Rafferty, D.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horst, A. J. van der; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J.. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-08-01

    The low-frequency radio spectra of the hotspots within powerful radio galaxies can provide valuable information about the physical processes operating at the site of the jet termination. These processes are responsible for the dissipation of jet kinetic energy, particle acceleration, and magnetic-field generation. Here we report new observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 109 and 183 MHz, at an angular resolution of ˜3.5 arcsec. The radio emission of the lobes is found to have a complex spectral index distribution, with a spectral steepening found towards the centre of the source. For the first time, a turnover in the radio spectrum of the two main hotspots of Cygnus A has been directly observed. By combining our LOFAR imaging with data from the Very Large Array at higher frequencies, we show that the very rapid turnover in the hotspot spectra cannot be explained by a low-energy cut-off in the electron energy distribution, as has been previously suggested. Thermal (free-free) absorption or synchrotron self absorption models are able to describe the low-frequency spectral shape of the hotspots, however, as with previous studies, we find that the implied model parameters are unlikely, and interpreting the spectra of the hotspots remains problematic.

  4. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole s accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a* > 0.95 (3(sigma)). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a. > 0.92 (3 ). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk s low luminosity.

  5. MAGIC CONSTRAINTS ON {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: tysaito@mpp.mpg.d

    2010-09-20

    Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar consisting of an accreting compact object orbiting around a Wolf-Rayet star. It has been detected at radio frequencies and up to high-energy {gamma} rays (above 100 MeV). However, many models also predict a very high energy (VHE) emission (above hundreds of GeV) when the source displays relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. Therefore, detecting such emission would improve the understanding of the jet physics. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC observed Cygnus X-3 for about 70 hr between 2006 March and 2009 August in different X-ray/radio spectral states and also during a period of enhanced {gamma}-ray emission. MAGIC found no evidence for a VHE signal from the direction of the microquasar. An upper limit to the integral flux for energies higher than 250 GeV has been set to 2.2 x 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (95% confidence level). This is the best limit so far to the VHE emission from this source. The non-detection of a VHE signal during the period of activity in the high-energy band sheds light on the location of the possible VHE radiation favoring the emission from the innermost region of the jets, where absorption is significant. The current and future generations of Cherenkov telescopes may detect a signal under precise spectral conditions.

  6. On the nature of the episodic gamma-ray flare observed in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Orellana, M.

    The high-mass microquasar Cygnus X-1, the best established candidate for a stellar-mass black hole, has been detected in a flaring state at very high energies, E > 200 GeV (Albert et al. 2007). The observation was per- formed by the Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope MAGIC. It is the first experimental evidence of very high energy emission produced by a galactic stellar-mass black hole. The observed high energy excess occurred in coin- cidence with an X-ray flare. The flare took place at orbital phase = 0.91, being = 1 the moment when the black hole is behind the companion star. In this configuration the absorption of gamma-ray photons produced by photon-photon annihilation with the stellar field is expected to be the highest. We present detailed calculations of the gamma-ray opacity due to pair creation along the whole orbit, and for different locations of the emitter (height above the compact object). We discuss the location of the gamma- ray producing region in Cygnus X-1 and the energetics required to produce the flare.

  7. Understanding Black Hole X-ray Binaries: The Case of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Black Hole X-ray Binaries are known to display distinct emission states that differ in their X-ray spectra, their X-ray timing properties (on times scales less than 1 s) and their radio emission. In recent years monitoring observations, specially with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), have provided us with detailed empirical modeling of the phenomenology of the different states as well as a unification scheme of the long term evolution of black holes, transient and persistent, in terms of these states. Observations of the persistent High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) Cygnus X-l have been at the forefront of learning about black hole states since its optical identification through a state transition in 1973. In this talk I will present in depth studies of several different aspects of the accretion process in this system. The main data base for these studies is an ongoing RXTE and Ryle radio telescope bi-weekly monitoring campaign that started in 1997. I will discuss high-resolution timing results, especially power spectra, which first gave rise to the Lorentzian description now widely used for black hole and neutron star binaries, and time lags, which we found to be especially well suited to identify state transitions. The evolution of spectral, timing, and radio parameters over years will be shown, including the rms-flux relation and the observation of a clearly correlated radio/x-ray flare. We also observed Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL, which allowed us to extend timing and spectral studies to higher energies, with XMM, which provided strong constraints on the parameters of the 6.4 keV iron fluorescence line, and with Chandra, which provided the most in depth study to date of the stellar wind in this system. Models based on the physical conditions in the accretion region are still mainly concentrated on the one or other of the observational areas but they are expanding: as an example I will review results from a jet model for the quantitative description of the

  8. Polarized gamma-ray emission from the galactic black hole Cygnus X-1.

    PubMed

    Laurent, P; Rodriguez, J; Wilms, J; Cadolle Bel, M; Pottschmidt, K; Grinberg, V

    2011-04-22

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole x-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-1 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (INTEGRAL/IBIS) telescope. Spectral modeling of the data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250- to 400-keV (kilo-electron volt) data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400-keV to 2-MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band. PMID:21436402

  9. Multi-frequency observation of Galactic micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 during flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, D.; Pal, S.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Rao, A. P.

    We studied the multi-frequency radio observations of the Galactic micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 244, 325, 614 and 1280 MHz and Very Large Array at 8.43, 22.5 and 43.3 GHz during various flaring activities between 2006 to 2009. We have calculated the two point spectral index from the simultaneous observations at 244 and 614 MHz. These spectral index varies from positive (optically thick) and negative (optically thin) values which is consistent with the synchrotron self absorption model. We calculated some physical parameters such as the size of emitting region, turn over frequency and corresponding peak flux using the synchrotron self absorption model. The size of the emitting region are different at different time of the flare.

  10. BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRA FROM THE CYGNUS X-3 JET IN THE SOFT SPECTRAL STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lu, Ju-Fu E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the main observational characteristics of the Galactic X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, we propose a radiation model in which high-energy electrons accelerate in the dissipation zone of a jet and produce nonthermal broadband emissions. Broadband spectral energy distributions are computed to compare the AGILE and Fermi LAT data with the multi-band data during soft X-ray spectral states. By fitting observations at different locations of the jet, we find that the emission region is rather compact and should be located at a distance of about one orbital radius. Our results can explain the current multi-frequency observations and also predict the TeV band emission. The model could be tested by a polarization measurement at IR band, and/or by a correlation study between the GeV and TeV bands once very-high-energy observations are available.

  11. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.

    1980-01-01

    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young and embedded clusters in Cygnus-X (Maia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, F. F. S.; Moraux, E.; Joncour, I.

    2016-02-01

    CFHT/WIRCam was used to acquire deep (960s, 1200s, 480s) JHK exposures of five fields covering ~1 degree squared in the Cygnus-X complex, in six nights between 04/09/2012 and 29/10/2012. The frames were detrended and coadded into a master mosaic where PSF photometry was carried out using SExtractor and PSFex software using a 2-sigma detection threshold. The resulting catalog was calibrated against the 2MASS catalog, but no transformation was done to our data. Instead, bright sources (brighter than the saturation magnitude) were recovered from 2MASS and calibrated to the WIRCam instrumental system to complement our catalog. The final table contains about 310000 stars spanning 12 magnitudes and reaching K=18.5 at 95% completeness. The fundamental parameters of 10 young stellar systems in the region were derived through this final catalogue. (2 data files).

  13. Deeper Chandra Follow-up of Cygnus TeV Source Perpetuates Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Yousaf M.; Drake, Jeremy; Benaglia, Paula; Combi, Jorge A.; Dame, Thomas; Miniati, Francesco; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2006-05-01

    A 50 ks Chandra observation of the unidentified TeV source in Cygnus reported by the HEGRA collaboration reveals no obvious diffuse X-ray counterpart. However, 240 pointlike X-ray sources are detected within or nearby the extended TeV J2032+4130 source region, of which at least 36 are massive stars and two may be radio emitters. That the HEGRA source is a composite, having as a counterpart the multiple pointlike X-ray sources we observe, cannot be ruled out. Indeed, the distribution of pointlike X-ray sources appears nonuniform and concentrated broadly within the extent of the TeV source region. We offer a hypothesis for the origin of the very high energy gamma-ray emission in Cyg OB2 based on the local acceleration of TeV-range cosmic rays and the differential distribution of OB versus less massive stars in this association.

  14. Fatal verminous pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Alić, A; Prasović, S; Hodzić, A; Besirović, H; Residbegović, Emina; Omeragić, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptocara spp. infections are reported to cause gastritis, proventriculitis, esophagitis, and pharyngitis in various waterfowls, especially diving ducks. In the present paper, we describe severe fatal diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in three female mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to death, the swans were showing signs of lethargy, anorexia, and reluctance to move. At necropsy, in all swans severe diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis with deep, dark red hemorrhagic ulcerations were observed. Numerous thin, white, up to 1-cm-long nematodes, identified as S. incognita, were observed embedded in the pharyngeal and esophageal mucosa under the diphtheritic membranes. Histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic inflammation with numerous cross-sections of the parasites. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of severe, fatal streptocariasis in mute swans. PMID:23678745

  15. Kinematics of the Central Kiloparsec in Cygnus A from AO Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylor, Kevin; Rude, G.; Medling, A.; Canalizo, G.; Max, C. E.; Antonucci, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck Integral Field Unit observations and long-slit spectroscopy of the central regions of Cygnus A using laser guide star adaptive optics. Our near-IR images show a bi-conic structure clearly seen in Pa-alpha emission and a more flattened structure perpendicular to the axis of the radio jets that is only visible in H_2 emission. Both of these structures are strongly suggestive of an obscuring torus around a heavily extinguished quasar nucleus. We use the integral field spectroscopy to develop velocity maps and model the kinematics of the entire region. We thus set constraints on the torus geometry and obtain an estimate for the mass of the supermassive black hole.

  16. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Belfiore, A; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martin, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pohl, M; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; Bontemps, S

    2011-11-25

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. PMID:22116880

  17. Broadband Emission Spectra from the Cygnus X-3 Jet in the Soft Spectral State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the main observational characteristics of the Galactic X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, we propose a radiation model in which high-energy electrons accelerate in the dissipation zone of a jet and produce nonthermal broadband emissions. Broadband spectral energy distributions are computed to compare the AGILE and Fermi LAT data with the multi-band data during soft X-ray spectral states. By fitting observations at different locations of the jet, we find that the emission region is rather compact and should be located at a distance of about one orbital radius. Our results can explain the current multi-frequency observations and also predict the TeV band emission. The model could be tested by a polarization measurement at IR band, and/or by a correlation study between the GeV and TeV bands once very-high-energy observations are available.

  18. Can Charge Exchange Explain Anomalous Soft X-Ray Emission in the Cygnus Loop?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, R. S.; Henley, D. B.; Stancil, P. C.; Shelton, R. L.; Nolte, J. L.; Wu, Y.; Schultz, D. R.

    2014-06-01

    Recent X-ray studies have shown that supernova shock models are unable to satisfactorily explain X-ray emission in the rim of the Cygnus Loop. In an attempt to account for this "anomalously" enhanced X-ray flux, we fit the region with a model including theoretical charge exchange (CX) data along with shock and background X-ray models. The model includes the CX collisions of O8 +, O7 +, N7 +, N6 +, C6 +, and C5 + with H with an energy of 1 keV u-1 (438 km s-1). The observations reveal a strong emission feature near 0.7 keV that cannot fully be accounted for by a shock model, nor the current CX data. Inclusion of CX, specifically O7 + + H, does provide for a statistically significant improvement over a pure shock model.

  19. Anatomy of a cosmic-ray neutrino source and the Cygnus X-3 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of an intense beam of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from a compact object in the Cygnus X-3 binary system hitting the companion star, and of the subsequent production of secondary neutrinos, are examined. A maximum allowable beam luminosity of about 10 to the 42nd erg/s is found for a system containing a 1-10 solar mass main sequence target star. The proton beam must heat a relatively small area of the target star to satisfy observational constraints on the resulting stellar wind. With such a model, the neutrino to gamma-ray flux ratio of about 1000 can result from a combination of gamma-ray absorption and a large neutrino to gamma-ray duty cycle ratio. It is found that the high density of the atmosphere resulting from compression by the beam leads to pion cascading and a neutrino spectrum peaking at 1-10 GeV energies.

  20. Multifrequency radio observations of Cygnus A - Spectral aging in powerful radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Perley, R. A.; Dreher, J. W.; Leahy, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the radio spectrum across the lobes of Cygnus A is presented in order to critically test the synchroton spectral aging theory. The results are in good agreement with the jet model for powerful radio galaxies, involving particle acceleration at the hot spots and outflow into the radio lobes, with subsequent energy loss due to synchrotron radiation. The hot spot spectra are well represented by a spectral aging model involving continuous injection of relativistic particles. Both hot spots have spectral break frequencies around 10 GHz. An injection index of 0.5 is found for both hot spots, consistent with diffusive shock acceleration at a strong nonrelativistic shock in a Newtonian fluid. The LF hot spot emission spectrum falls below the injected power law. This effect is isolated to the hot spots, and is best explained by a low-energy cutoff in the particle distribution.

  1. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  2. Joint BeppoSAX/RossiXTE Observation of Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraino, S.; Santangelo, A.; Kaaret, P.

    2001-09-01

    We report on a joint BeppoSAX/RossiXTe observation of the Z-type low mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2. The source was in the so-called high overall intensity state and in less than 24 hours went through all three branches of the Z-track. The continuum X-ray spectrum could be described by the absorbed sum of a soft thermal component and a Comptonized component. The timing power spectrum showed several components including QPO in the ranges 28-50 Hz while the source was on the horizontal branch (HBO). We found that the HBO frequency was well correlated with the parameters of soft thermal component in the X-ray spectrum.

  3. Using Monte-Carlo Simulations to Study the Disk Structure in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Feng, Y. X.

    2002-01-01

    As the first dynamically determined black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1 has been studied extensively. However, its broad-band spectra in hard state with BeppoSAX is still not well understood. Besides the soft excess described by the multi-color disk model (MCD), the power- law component and a broad excess feature above 10 keV (disk reflection component), there is also an additional soft component around 1 keV, whose origin is not known currently.We propose that the additional soft component is due to the thermal Comptonization process between the s oft disk photon and the warm plasma cloud just above the disk.i.e., a warm layer. We use Monte-Carlo technique t o simulate this Compton scattering process and build several table models based on our simulation results.

  4. Discovery of carbon radio recombination lines in absorption towards Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Salgado, F.; Morabito, L. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Asgekar, A.; White, G. J.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Brentjens, M.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; de Vos, M.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; van Enst, J.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jackson, N. J.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Mol, J. D.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detection of carbon radio recombination line absorption along the line of sight to Cygnus A. The observations were carried out with the Low Frequency Array in the 33-57 MHz range. These low-frequency radio observations provide us with a new line of sight to study the diffuse, neutral gas in our Galaxy. To our knowledge this is the first time that foreground Milky Way recombination line absorption has been observed against a bright extragalactic background source. By stacking 48 carbon α lines in the observed frequency range we detect carbon absorption with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 5. The average carbon absorption has a peak optical depth of 2 × 10-4, a line width of 10 km s-1 and a velocity of +4 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest. The associated gas is found to have an electron temperature Te ˜ 110 K and density ne ˜ 0.06 cm-3. These properties imply that the observed carbon α absorption likely arises in the cold neutral medium of the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Hydrogen and helium lines were not detected to a 3σ peak optical depth limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for a 4 km s-1 channel width. Radio recombination lines associated with Cygnus A itself were also searched for, but are not detected. We set a 3σ upper limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for the peak optical depth of these lines for a 4 km s-1 channel width.

  5. Electron-ion equilibrium and shock precursors in the northeast limb of the Cygnus Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Amber A.; Raymond, John C.; Edgar, Richard J.; Caldwell, Nelson; Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A. E-mail: jraymond@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: amedina7@nmsu.edu

    2014-08-10

    We present an observational study using high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of collisionless shocks in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Measured Hα line profiles constrain pre-shock heating processes, shock speeds, and electron-ion equilibration (T{sub e} /T{sub i} ). The shocks produce faint Hα emission line profiles, which are characterized by narrow and broad components. The narrow component is representative of the pre-shock conditions, while the broad component is produced after charge transfer between neutrals entering the shock and protons in the post-shock gas, thus reflecting the properties of the post-shock gas. We observe a diffuse Hα region extending about 2.'5 ahead of the shock with line width ∼29 km s{sup –1}, while the Hα profile of the shock itself consists of broader than expected narrow (36 km s{sup –1}) and broad (250 km s{sup –1}) components. The observed diffuse emission arises in a photoionization precursor heated to about 18,000 K by He I and He II emission from the shock, with additional narrow component broadening originating from a thin cosmic-ray precursor. Broad to narrow component intensity ratios of ∼1.0 imply full electron-ion temperature equilibration T{sub e} ≅ T{sub i} in the post-shock region. Broad component line widths indicate shock velocities of about 400 km s{sup –1}. Combining the shock velocities with proper motions suggests that the distance to the Cygnus Loop is ∼890 pc, significantly greater than the generally accepted upper limit of 637 pc.

  6. EPISODIC TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE MICROQUASAR CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Feroci, M.; Argan, A.; D'Ammando, F.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2010-03-20

    Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is the archetypal black hole binary system in our Galaxy. We report the main results of an extensive search for transient gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-1 carried out in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV by the AGILE satellite, during the period 2007 July-2009 October. The total exposure time is about 300 days, during which the source was in the 'hard' X-ray spectral state. We divided the observing intervals in 2-4 week periods, and searched for transient and persistent emission. We report an episode of significant transient gamma-ray emission detected on 2009 October 16 in a position compatible with Cyg X-1 optical position. This episode, which occurred during a hard spectral state of Cyg X-1, shows that a 1-2 day time variable emission above 100 MeV can be produced during hard spectral states, having important theoretical implications for current Comptonization models for Cyg X-1 and other microquasars. Except for this one short timescale episode, no significant gamma-ray emission was detected by AGILE. By integrating all available data, we obtain a 2{sigma} upper limit for the total integrated flux of F {sub {gamma}}{sub ,U.L.} = 3 x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV. We then clearly establish the existence of a spectral cutoff in the energy range 1-100 MeV that applies to the typical hard state outside the flaring period and that confirms the historically known spectral cutoff above 1 MeV.

  7. OPTICAL PHOTOMETRIC GTC/OSIRIS OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG MASSIVE ASSOCIATION CYGNUS OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Guarcello, M. G.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Aldcroft, T.; Kashyap, V. L.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Drew, J. E.

    2012-10-15

    In order to fully understand the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds, the star formation process, and the evolution of circumstellar disks, these phenomena must be studied in different Galactic environments with a range of stellar contents and positions in the Galaxy. The young massive association Cygnus OB2, in the Cygnus-X region, is a unique target to study how star formation and the evolution of circumstellar disks proceed in the presence of a large number of massive stars. We present a catalog obtained with recent optical observations in the r, i, z filters with OSIRIS, mounted on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS telescope, which is the deepest optical catalog of Cyg OB2 to date. The catalog consists of 64,157 sources down to M = 0.15 M{sub Sun} at the adopted distance and age of Cyg OB2. A total of 38,300 sources have good photometry in all three bands. We combined the optical catalog with existing X-ray data of this region, in order to define the cluster locus in the optical diagrams. The cluster locus in the r - i versus i - z diagram is compatible with an extinction of the optically selected cluster members in the 2.64{sup m} < A{sub V} < 5.57{sup m} range. We derive an extinction map of the region, finding a median value of A{sub V} = 4.33{sup m} in the center of the association, decreasing toward the northwest. In the color-magnitude diagrams, the shape of the distribution of main-sequence stars is compatible with the presence of an obscuring cloud in the foreground {approx}850 {+-} 25 pc from the Sun.

  8. Chaos and random processes in the x ray variability of Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lochner, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal variability of the x ray emission of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 was examined in an attempt to better characterize the source of the aperiodic variability. The emission is generally believed to come from a turbulent accretion disk surrounding the black hole. Two analysis techniques were applied to low energy x ray light curves: a search for a low-dimensional chaotic attractor; and a new technique to further develop the standard shot noise model. The search for a low-dimensional attractor tests the hypothesis that deterministic chaotic dynamics underlie the accretion disk physics. Using a standard time delay embedding, the phase space trajectory was constructed from the light curve, and the correlation integral was used to determine the dimension of the resulting manifold. The difficulties encountered by this method were investigated with a finite number of data points and a noise level not usually encountered in other applications. The data were not found to indicate that a low-dimensional attractor underlies the variability. This implies that the turbulence in the disk is well developed, and that simple models cannot reliably reconstruct the temporal variability. Shot noise models have long been used as phenomenological, stochastic models for the variability of Cygnus X-1, relying on random pulses of emission, each having a fixed shape and duration. A distribution of shot lengths from 0.01 s to 6.0 s was introduced to reproduce the power density spectrum of the data. The shot profile and the fraction of the emission are found by fitting the phase portrait of the data with trial shot models. Both sets of data are found to be consistent with shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay, and with the shot amplitude as a power law function of the shot length. These results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the disk.

  9. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. III. THE CASE OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-03-10

    In recent years, accurate observational constraints have become available for an increasing number of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs). Together with proper-motion measurements, we could reconstruct the full evolutionary history of XRBs back to the time of compact object formation. In this paper, we present the first study of the persistent X-ray source Cygnus X-1 that takes into account all available observational constraints. Our analysis accounts for three evolutionary phases: orbital evolution and motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of a black hole (BH), and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. We find that the mass of the BH immediate progenitor is 15.0-20.0 M{sub Sun }, and at the time of core collapse, the BH has potentially received a small kick velocity of {<=}77 km s{sup -1} at 95% confidence. If the BH progenitor mass is less than {approx}17 M{sub Sun }, a non-zero natal kick velocity is required to explain the currently observed properties of Cygnus X-1. Since the BH has only accreted mass from its companion's stellar wind, the negligible amount of accreted mass does not explain the observationally inferred BH spin of a{sub *} > 0.95, and the origin of this extreme BH spin must be connected to the BH formation itself. Right after the BH formation, we find that the BH companion is a 19.8-22.6 M{sub Sun} main-sequence star, orbiting the BH at a period of 4.7-5.2 days. Furthermore, recent observations show that the BH companion is currently super-synchronized. This super-synchronism indicates that the strength of tides exerted on the BH companion should be weaker by a factor of at least two compared to the usually adopted strength.

  10. P-23 Highlights 6/10/12: Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility Refurbishment completed at U1A tunnel in Nevada NNSS meeting Level 2 milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Deyoung, Anemarie; Smith, John R.

    2012-05-03

    A moratorium was placed on U.S. underground nuclear testing in 1992. In response, the Stockpile Stewardship Program was created to maintain readiness of the existing nuclear inventory through several efforts such as computer modeling, material analysis, and subcritical nuclear experiments (SCEs). As in the underground test era, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, provides a safe and secure environment for SCEs by the nature of its isolated and secure facilities. A major tool for SCE diagnosis installed in the 05 drift laboratory is a high energy x-ray source used for time resolved imaging. This tool consists of two identical sources (Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2) and is called the Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility (Figs. 2-6). Each Cygnus machine has 5 major elements: Marx Generator, Pulse Forming Line (PFL), Coaxial Transmission Line (CTL), 3-cell Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA), and Rod Pinch Diode. Each machine is independently triggered and may be fired in separate tests (staggered mode), or in a single test where there is submicrosecond separation between the pulses (dual mode). Cygnus must operate as a single shot machine since on each pulse the diode electrodes are destroyed. The diode is vented to atmosphere, cleaned, and new electrodes are inserted for each shot. There is normally two shots per day on each machine. Since its installation in 2003, Cygnus has participated in: 4 Subcritical Experiments (Armando, Bacchus, Barolo A, and Barolo B), a 12 shot plutonium physics series (Thermos), and 2 plutonium step wedge calibration series (2005, 2011), resulting in well over 1000 shots. Currently the Facility is in preparation for 2 SCEs scheduled for this calendar year - Castor and Pollux. Cygnus has performed well during 8 years of operations at NNSS. Many improvements in operations and performance have been implemented during this time. Throughout its service at U1a, major maintenance and replacement of many hardware items

  11. H{sub 2}D{sup +} IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS X

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, T.; Lis, D. C.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Thompson, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    H{sub 2}D{sup +} is a primary ion that dominates the gas-phase chemistry of cold dense gas. Therefore, it is hailed as a unique tool in probing the earliest, prestellar phase of star formation. Observationally, its abundance and distribution is, however, just beginning to be understood in low-mass prestellar and cluster-forming cores. In high-mass star-forming regions, H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been detected only in two cores, and its spatial distribution remains unknown. Here, we present the first map of the ortho-H{sub 2}D{sup +} J{sub k{sup +},k{sup -}} = 1{sub 1,0} {yields} 1{sub 1,1} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 4-3 transition in the DR21 filament of Cygnus X with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and N{sub 2}D{sup +} 3-2 and dust continuum with the Submillimeter Array. We have discovered five very extended ({<=}34, 000 AU diameter) weak structures in H{sub 2}D{sup +} in the vicinity of, but distinctly offset from, embedded protostars. More surprisingly, the H{sub 2}D{sup +} peak is not associated with either a dust continuum or N{sub 2}D{sup +} peak. We have therefore uncovered extended massive cold dense gas that was undetected with previous molecular line and dust continuum surveys of the region. This work also shows that our picture of the structure of cores is too simplistic for cluster-forming cores and needs to be refined: neither dust continuum with existing capabilities nor emission in tracers like N{sub 2}D{sup +} can provide a complete census of the total prestellar gas in such regions. Sensitive H{sub 2}D{sup +} mapping of the entire DR21 filament is likely to discover more of such cold quiescent gas reservoirs in an otherwise active high-mass star-forming region.

  12. What is special about Cygnus X-1 - Black holes in theory and observation: X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E.; Holt, S.; Rothschild, R.; Serlemitsos, P.

    1975-01-01

    Of the eight X-ray sources now known which may be associated with binary stellar systems, Cygnus X-1 is the most likely candidate for being a black hole. The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts (Rothschild et al., 1974) are superposed on shot-noise fluctuations (Terrell, 1972) arising from 'events' of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which indicate new measurements that need to be made in future experiments.

  13. Multiband observations of Cygnus A: A study of pressure balance in the core of a powerful radio galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, Chris; Conner, Sam; Dreher, John; Perley, Rick

    1990-01-01

    Cygnus A is a powerful double radio source associated with a giant elliptical galaxy at the center of a poor cluster of galaxies. The radio source also sits within the core radius of a dense, cooling flow, x ray emitting cluster gas. Optical spectroscopy and narrow band imaging have revealed copious amounts of narrow line emission from the inner 20 kpc of the associated galaxy. Researchers assume H sub o = 75 km sec (-1) Mpc(-1). Discussed here are the pressures in the three components of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) (i.e., the radio, x ray, and line emitting fluids) within a radius of about 15 kpc of the active nucleus of the Cygnus A galaxy.

  14. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  15. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF CYGNUS X-1: THE FIRST MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION OF COMPACT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern; Grinberg, Victoria E-mail: jclee@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: hines@stsci.edu E-mail: joern.wilms@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de

    2011-07-20

    We report on a Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break-where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place-at about 2.9 x 10{sup 13} Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 {mu}m mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Rayleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f{sub {infinity}} {approx} 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anti-correlation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and Cygnus X-1's environment and/or the companion star's stellar wind.

  16. XMM-Newton observations across the Cygnus Loop from northeastern rim to southwestern rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    We have observed the Cygnus Loop from the northeast (NE) to the southwest (SW) with XMM-Newton. We extracted spectra from 3‧-spaced annular regions across the Loop and fitted them either with a one-kTe-component non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) model or with two-kTe-component NEI model. We found that the two-kTe-component model yields significantly better fits in almost all the spectra than the one-kTe-component model. Judging from the abundances, the high-kTe-component in the two-temperature model must be fossil ejecta while the low-kTe-component comes from the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM). The distributions of Ne, Mg, Si, and S for fossil ejecta appear to retain the onion-skin structure at the time of a supernova explosion, suggesting that significant overturning of the ejecta has not occurred yet. Comparing the relative abundances of fossil ejecta estimated for the entire Cygnus Loop with those from theoretical calculations for Type-II SN, the mass of the progenitor star is likely to be ˜13 M⊙. The trends of the radial profiles of kTe and emission integral for the swept-up ISM are adequately described by the Sedov model, suggesting that the swept-up ISM is concentrated in a shell-like structure. Comparing our data with the Sedov model, we found the ambient medium density to be ˜0.7 cm-3. Then, we estimated the total mass of the swept-up ISM and the age of the remnant to be ˜130 M⊙ and 13,000 years, respectively. Note that if the explosion occurred within a stellar wind cavity, then the density in the cavity, the total swept-up mass in the cavity, and the age of the remnant are estimated to be ˜0.14 cm-3, ˜25 M⊙, and ˜10,000 years, respectively.

  17. Multi-Satellite Observations of Cygnus X-1 to Study the Focused Wind and Absorption Dips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Boeck, Moritz; Nowak, Michael A.; Schultz, Norbert S.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Lee, Julia C.

    2008-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binary systems are powered by the stellar wind of their donor stars. The X-ray state of Cygnus X-1 is correlated with the properties of the wind which defines the environment of mass accretion. Chandra-HETGS observations close to orbital phase 0 allow for an analysis of the photoionzed stellar wind at high resolution, but because of the strong variability due to soft X-ray absorption dips, simultaneous multi-satellite observations are required to track and understand the continuum, too. Besides an earlier joint Chandra and RXTE observation, we present first results from a recent campaign which represents the best broad-band spectrum of Cyg X-1 ever achieved: On 2008 April 18/19 we observed this source with XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, RXTE, INTEGRAL, Swift, and AGILE in X- and gamma-rays, as well as with VLA in the radio. After superior conjunction of the black hole, we detect soft X-ray absorption dips likely due to clumps in the focused wind covering greater than or equal to 95% of the X-ray source, with column densities likely to be of several 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2), which also affect photon energies above 20 keV via Compton scattering.

  18. DUST DESTRUCTION IN A NON-RADIATIVE SHOCK IN THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Sankrit, Ravi; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.

    2010-04-01

    We present 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m images of a non-radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The post-shock region is resolved in these images. The ratio of the 70 {mu}m to the 24 {mu}m flux rises from about 14 at a distance 0.'1 behind the shock front to about 22 in a zone 0.'75 further downstream, as grains are destroyed in the hot plasma. Models of dust emission and destruction using post-shock electron temperatures between 0.15 keV and 0.30 keV and post-shock densities, n{sub H}{approx} 2.0 cm{sup -3}, predict flux ratios that match the observations. Non-thermal sputtering (i.e., sputtering due to bulk motion of the grains relative to the gas) contributes significantly to the dust destruction under these shock conditions. From the model calculations, we infer that about 35% by mass of the grains are destroyed over a 0.14 pc region behind the shock front.

  19. High energy X-ray spectra of cygnus XR-1 observed from OSO-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 were measured with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite during a period of one and one-half to three weeks in each of the years from 1975 to 1977. Observations were made when the source was both in a high state and in a low state. Typical spectra of the source between 15 and 250 keV are presented. The observed pivoting effect is consistent with two temperature accretion disk models of the X-ray emitting region. No significant break in the spectrum occurred at energies up to 150 keV. The high state as defined in the 3 to 6 keV bandwidth was found to be the higher luminosity state of the X-ray source. One transition from a low to a high state occurred during observations. The time of occurrence of this and other transitions is consistent with the hypothesis that all intensity transitions occur near periastron of the binary system, and that such transitions are caused by changes in the mass transfer rate between the primary and the accretion disk around the secondary.

  20. Telecentric Zoom Lens Designed for the Cygnus X-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R. M.; Baker, S. A.; Brown, K. K.; Curtis, A. H.; Esquibel, D. L.; Frayer, D. K.; Frogget, B. C.; Frogget, K. G.; Kaufman, M. I.; Smith, A. S.; Tibbitts, A.; Howe, R. A.; Huerta, J. A.; McGillivray, K. D.; Droemer, D. W.; Crain, M. D.; Haines, T. J.; King, S. P.

    2013-07-01

    Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray source. Three large zoom lenses have been assembled to collect images from large scintillators. A large elliptical pellicle (394 × 280 mm) deflects the scintillator light out of the x-ray path into an eleven-element zoom lens coupled to a CCD camera. The zoom lens and CCD must be as close as possible to the scintillator to maximize light collection. A telecentric lens design minimizes image blur from a volume source. To maximize the resolution of objects of different sizes, the scintillator and zoom lens are translated along the x-ray axis, and the zoom lens magnification changes. Zoom magnification is also changed when different-sized recording cameras are used (50 or 62 mm square format). The LYSO scintillator measures 200 × 200 mm and is 5 mm thick. The scintillator produces blue light peaking at 435 nm, so special lens materials are required. By swapping out one doublet and allowing all other lenses to be repositioned, the zoom lens can also use a CsI(Tl) scintillator that produces green light centered at 540 nm. All lenses have an anti-reflective coating for both wavelength bands. Two sets of doublets, the stop, the scintillator, and the CCD camera move during zoom operations. One doublet has x-y compensation. Each zoom lens uses 60 lb of glass inside the 425 lb mechanical structure and can be used in either a vertical or horizontal orientation.

  1. Rapid variability of 10-140 keV X-rays from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Doty, J. P.; Levine, A. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Primini, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    On five occasions in 1977 and 1978, Cygnus X-1 was observed using the low-energy detectors of the UCSD/MIT Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma Ray experiment on the HEAO 1 satellite. Rapid (times between 0.08 and 1000 sec) variability was found in the 10-140 keV band. The power spectrum was white for frequencies between 0.001 and 0.05 Hz and was proportional to the inverse of the frequency for frequencies between 0.05 and 3 Hz, indicating correlations on all time scales less than approximately 20 s. The shape of the energy spectrum was correlated with intensity; it was harder at higher intensity. If the emission is produced by Comptonization of a soft photon flux in a hot cloud, the heating of the cloud cannot be constant; it must vary on time scales up to approximately 20 s. A variable accretion rate could cause the observed effects.

  2. Simulation of the cygnus rod-pinch diode using the radiographic chain model

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas Jt; Wang, Tai - Sen F; Berninger, Michael; Snell, Charles M; Lin, Yin

    2008-01-01

    The Cygnus radiographic machine is a relatively compact low-energy (<3 MV) x-ray source with some extremely desirable features for radiographic applications. These features include small spot size critical for high-spatial resolution and high dose in a low energy range. The x-ray source is based on bremsstrahlung production in a small diameter ({approx}0.75 mm) tungsten rod by a high-current ({approx}60 kA) electron beam converging at the tip of the rod. For quantitative analysis of radiographic data, it is essential to determine the bremsstrahlung spectrum accurately. We have used the radiographic chain model that self-consistently models the diode with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code (Merlin) which links to an electron-photon Monte Carlo code to obtain the spectrum under three different situations. These are: steady state spectrum using a voltage puise of 2.5 MV, time-integrated spectrum using a time-dependent experimental voltage pulse, and inclusion of reflexing electrons at the anode in our particle-in-cell simulation. Detailed electron dynamics have been obtained in our study. Our investigations conclude that the time integrated bremsstrahlung spectrum is significantly softer than that of the steady state. In our latest simulations, we have included the effects of reflexing electrons around the anode rod and found the spectrum to be in better agreement with experimental data.

  3. Leveraging High Resolution Spectra to Understand the Disk and Relativistic Iron Line of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.; Schulz, N.; Corrales, L.

    2016-06-01

    In April 2008 we conducted an observation of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 that was performed simultaneously with every X-ray and gamma-ray satellite flying at that time, including Chandra-HETG. The HETG spectra are crucial for modeling the ionized absorbtion from the "focused-wind" of the secondary, which is present and must be accounted for in all of our spectra. These features, however, are unresolved in the non-gratings instruments (e.g., RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-EPIC, INTEGRAL). Similarly, we must account for differences in spatial resolution. The X-ray scattering dust halo, which is usually ignored in most analyses, is spatially resolved in the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra, but is unresolved in the other instruments. Thus one must account for dust scattering loss in the high spatial resolution spectra, and the scattering back into our line of site for the low resolution spectra. In this work, we attempt to arrive at a joint model for these spectra, and further comment on the cross calibration of each of the X-ray instruments participating in this campaign.

  4. Ultraviolet, Optical and X-Ray Imaging of Selected Cygnus Loop Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, C. W.; Cornett, R. H.; Blair, W. P.; Stecher, T. P.; Levenson, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    During the Astro-1 and Astro-2 Space Shuttle missions in 1990 and 1995, far ultraviolet (FUV) images of five 40 ft diameter fields around the rim of the Cygnus Loop Super Nova Remnants (SNR) were observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These fields sample a broad range of SNR conditions including both radiative and non-radiative shocks in various geometries and scales. The UIT B5 band images discussed here sample predominantly ion-C4 lambda 1550 and the 2-photon continuum. Smaller contributions are made by emission lines of ion He-2 lambda 1640 and ion 03 lambda 1666. A unique aspect of the B5 band is its ability to sample the hydrogen 2-photon continuum from regions where the gas is recombining. We present these new FUV images and compare them with optical H-alpha and [ion O13], and ROSAT HRI X-ray images. In non-radiative shocks, existing 2-photon flux measurements from spectra and the H-alpha images suggest we are seeing approximately equal contributions from 2-photon and ion C4 emission. In radiative filaments, however, shock models and our images suggest ion C4 should dominate while spectra of specific locations seem to indicate that 2-photon emission dominates. We surmise that spectral observations on specific bright filaments have decreased locally-observed levels of ion C41 emission due to resonance scattering in that line.

  5. Possible Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Loop detected with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Hewitt, John

    We present results of a spatially-resolved X-ray spectral analysis of nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that some of the spectra show a bump at ˜0.7 keV as a "shoulder" of the lines at ˜0.66 keV which is a combination of O H Lyα and O Heβ. The regions showing the "shoulder" is confined within narrow (< a few arcmin) regions behind the shock at position angles of 0-40, 110-160, and 270-330 degrees measured from north over east. Around the rim, the position angles where the X-ray excess is present correspond to relatively weak radio emission as well as optical emission from non-radiative Hα filaments. While other possibilities (e.g., Fe L emission) cannot be fully excluded, these correlations lead us to consider that the "shoulder" may be O Heγ + δ + etc lines produced by charge exchange between H-like O ions and neutral H. Whatever its origin, the "shoulder" significantly affects the spectral analysis; the best-fit parameters strongly depend on whether or not we include the "shoulder" in the spectral fitting. We will discuss this issue in terms of our previous results of our spectral analysis for the rim regions.

  6. Observation of muons from Cygnus X-3 in the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazzoli, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Ground based observations by means of Cerenkov light detectors and air shower arrays have established that Cyngus X-3 is a powerful source of high energy particles. The detection of a 10 to the 15th power eV signal was first reported by the Kiel experiment. Air showers with large age parameter were accepted in order to select those generated by primary gamma rays. At variance with the expectation, the muon density associated with these events was found to be surprisingly high. This puzzling result stimulated a temporal analysis of the muons recorded in Nucleon Stability Experiment (NUSEX) coming from the region around the source. A positive signal was found suggesting the presentation of this result. The analysis of the data recorded during the 2.4 years of effective working time is presented with a fine tuning of the period and the energy spectrum of the muons from the Cygnus X-3 direction derived assuming consistency between NUSEX and SOUDAN results.

  7. On the nature of high reddening of Cygnus OB2 #12 hypergiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O. V.; Chentsov, E. L.; Goranskij, V. P.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Malogolovets, E. V.; Rastegaev, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    To explain the nature of the high reddening (AV ≃ 10 mag) towards one of the most luminous stars in the Galaxy - Cyg OB2 #12 (B5 Ia-0), also known as MT304, we carried out spectrophotometric observations of 24 stars located in its vicinity. We included five new B-stars among the members of Cygnus OB2, and for five more photometrically selected stars we spectroscopically confirmed their membership. We constructed the map of interstellar extinction within 2.5 arcmin radius and found that interstellar extinction increases towards MT304. According to our results the most reddened OB-stars in the association after MT304 are J203240.35+411420.1 and J203239.90+411436.2, located about 15 arcsec away from it. Interstellar extinction towards these stars is about 9 mag. The increase of reddening towards MT304 suggests that the reddening excess may be caused by the circumstellar shell ejected by the star during its evolution. This shell absorbs 1 mag, but its chemical composition and temperature are unclear. We also report the detection of a second component of MT304, and discovery of an even fainter third component, based on data of speckle interferometric observations taken with the Russian 6-m telescope.

  8. Shot model parameters for Cygnus X-1 through phase portrait fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Lochner, J.C.; Swank, J.H.; Szymkowiak, A.E. )

    1991-07-01

    Shot models for systems having about 1/f power density spectrum are developed by utilizing a distribution of shot durations. Parameters of the distribution are determined by fitting the power spectrum either with analytic forms for the spectrum of a shot model with a given shot profile, or with the spectrum derived from numerical realizations of trial shot models. The shot fraction is specified by fitting the phase portrait, which is a plot of intensity at a given time versus intensity at a delayed time and in principle is sensitive to different shot profiles. These techniques have been extensively applied to the X-ray variability of Cygnus X-1, using HEAO 1 A-2 and an Exosat ME observation. The power spectra suggest models having characteristic shot durations lasting from milliseconds to a few seconds, while the phase portrait fits give shot fractions of about 50 percent. Best fits to the portraits are obtained if the amplitude of the shot is a power-law function of the duration of the shot. These fits prefer shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay. Results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the accretion disk. 30 refs.

  9. CAN CHARGE EXCHANGE EXPLAIN ANOMALOUS SOFT X-RAY EMISSION IN THE CYGNUS LOOP?

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbee, R. S.; Henley, D. B.; Stancil, P. C.; Shelton, R. L.; Nolte, J. L.; Wu, Y.; Schultz, D. R.

    2014-06-01

    Recent X-ray studies have shown that supernova shock models are unable to satisfactorily explain X-ray emission in the rim of the Cygnus Loop. In an attempt to account for this ''anomalously'' enhanced X-ray flux, we fit the region with a model including theoretical charge exchange (CX) data along with shock and background X-ray models. The model includes the CX collisions of O{sup 8} {sup +}, O{sup 7} {sup +}, N{sup 7} {sup +}, N{sup 6} {sup +}, C{sup 6} {sup +}, and C{sup 5} {sup +} with H with an energy of 1 keV u{sup –1} (438 km s{sup –1}). The observations reveal a strong emission feature near 0.7 keV that cannot fully be accounted for by a shock model, nor the current CX data. Inclusion of CX, specifically O{sup 7} {sup +} + H, does provide for a statistically significant improvement over a pure shock model.

  10. The velocity dependence of X-ray emission due to Charge Exchange in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata; Lyons, David; Mullen, Patrick Dean; Shelton, Robin L.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere [1], planetary exospheres [2], and supernova remnants [3,4]. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly-excited, high charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays.To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross-sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant will be shown as an example with ion velocity dependence.[1] Henley, D. B. & Shelton, R. L. 2010, ApJSS, 187, 388[2] Dennerl, K. et al. 2002, A&A 386, 319[3] Katsuda, S. et al. 2011, ApJ 730 24[4] Cumbee, R. S. et al. 2014, ApJ 787 L31This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  11. Innate Immunity in Lobsters: Partial Purification and Characterization of a Panulirus cygnus Anti-A Lectin.

    PubMed

    Flower, Robert L P

    2012-01-01

    A lectin detected in haemolymph from the Australian spiny lobster Panulirus cygnus agglutinated human ABO Group A cells to a higher titre than Group O or B. The lectin also agglutinated rat and sheep erythrocytes, with reactivity with rat erythrocytes strongly enhanced by treatment with the proteolytic enzyme papain, an observation consistent with reactivity via a glycolipid. The lectin, purified by affinity chromatography on fixed rat-erythrocyte stroma, was inhibited equally by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Comparison of data from gel filtration of haemolymph (behaving as a 1,800,000 Da macromolecule), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified lectin (a single 67,000 Da band), suggested that in haemolymph the lecin was a multimer. The purified anti-A lectin autoprecipitated unless the storage solution contained chaotropic inhibitors (125 mmol/L sucrose: 500 mmol/L urea). The properties of this anti-A lectin and other similar lectins are consistent with a role in innate immunity in these invertebrates. PMID:22462000

  12. Multi-frequency observation of high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 during flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sabyasachi; Patra, Dusmanta; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Rao, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    We studied the multi-frequency properties of the Galactic high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 during various flaring activities using The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) etc. The flare of 2006 May-June was one of the largest flare in the history of the source which is thoroughly discussed. We also observed few large flares of this source between 2007 and 2009. We commented on correlation and lag between X-ray and radio emissions during flares. We construct the radio spectrum of the source in the rising and fading phase of flares using GMRT, JVLA and published results using RATAN. We clearly see that the turn-over frequency is shifting towards lower frequencies as the flares evolve gradually. The two point spectral index between 614 MHz and 235 MHz varies from positive (optically thick) and negative (optically thin) values which is consistent with the synchrotron self absorption model. We calculated some physical parameters of the source such as the size of emitting region using the synchrotron self absorption model. The size of the emitting region expands with the flare. We estimate the velocity of the expansion of the blob in the non-relativistic range from the expansion of the size of emitting region.

  13. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Phil; McEntaffer, Randall; Cash, Webster

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of a suborbital rocket flight whose scientific target was the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant. The payload consists of wire grid collimators, off-plane grating arrays, and gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. The system is designed for spectral measurements in the 17-107 Å bandpass with a resolution up to ~60 (λ/Δλ). The Extended X-ray Off-plane Spectrometer (EXOS) was launched on a Terrier-Black Brant rocket on 2009 November 13 from White Sands Missile Range and obtained 340 s of useable scientific data. The X-ray emission is dominated by O VII and O VIII, including the He-like O VII triplet at ~22 Å. Another emission feature at ~45 Å is composed primarily of Si XI and Si XII. The best-fit model to this spectrum is an equilibrium plasma model at a temperature of log(T) = 6.4 (0.23 keV).

  14. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, Cygnus olor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Day, D.; Klein, P.

    1999-01-01

    Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4 /kg body weight. The estimated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4.68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by 'smoking gizzards', and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the presence of coarse sandlike particles of grit which were of similar size as the P4 pellets. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate amiontransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.

  15. Electron Energy Distributions at Relativistic Shock Sites: Observational Constraints from the Cygnus A Hotspots

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    We report new detections of the hotspots in Cygnus A at 4.5 and 8.0 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Together with detailed published radio observations and synchrotron self-Compton modeling of previous X-ray detections, we reconstruct the underlying electron energy spectra of the two brightest hotspots (A and D). The low-energy portion of the electron distributions have flat power-law slopes (s {approx} 1.5) up to the break energy which corresponds almost exactly to the mass ratio between protons and electrons; we argue that these features are most likely intrinsic rather than due to absorption effects. Beyond the break, the electron spectra continue to higher energies with very steep slopes s>3. Thus, there is no evidence for the 'canonical' s=2 slope expected in 1st order Fermi-type shocks within the whole observable electron energy range. We discuss the significance of these observations and the insight offered into high-energy particle acceleration processes in mildly relativistic shocks.

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Grenier, I.A.; Porter, T.A.; Roth, M.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

    2011-11-08

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  17. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Isabelle A.; Tibaldo, Luigi; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Conspicuous stellar clusters, with high densities of massive stars, powerful stellar winds, and intense UV flux, have formed over the past few million years in the large molecular clouds of the Cygnus X region, 1.4 kpc away from the Sun. By capturing the gamma-ray signal of young cosmic rays spreading in the interstellar medium surrounding the clusters, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has confirmed the long-standing hypothesis that massive-star forming regions host cosmic-ray factories. The 50-pc wide cocoon of energetic particles appears to fill the interstellar cavities carved by the stellar activity. The cocoon provides a first test case to study the impact of wind-powered turbulence on the early phases of cosmic-ray diffusion (between the sources and the Galaxy at large) and to study the acceleration potential of this type of superbubble environment for in-situ cosmic-ray production or to energize Galactic cosmic rays passing by.

  18. Interferometric observation of Cygnus-A discrete radiosource scintillations at Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globa, Mariya; Vasilev, Roman; Kushnaryov, Dmitriy; Medvedev, Andrey

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new method for analysis of data from Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar. The method allows us to accomplish interferometric observation of discrete cosmic radio source characteristics. In this study, we analyzed ionospheric scintillations of the radio source Cygnus-A. Observations were made in 2013 during regular radar sessions within 5-15 days for different seasons, and the effective time of observation was 15-30 minutes per day. For interferometric analysis, the properties of correlation (coherence) coefficient of two independent recording channels were used. The statistical analysis of data from independent channels allows us to construct two-dimensional histograms of radio source brightness distribution with period of 18 s and to determine parameters (the maximum position and the histogram width) representing position and angular size of radio source for each histogram. It is shown that the change of statistical characteristics does not correlate with fluctuations in power (scintillations) of the signal caused by radio wave propagation through ionospheric irregularities.

  19. Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Andrews, G.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    2004-01-01

    A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near it mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma. USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies ics in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes..

  20. Multiwavelength study of Cygnus A - III. Evidence for relic lobe plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenbrugge, Katrien C.; Heywood, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the particle energy distribution in the cocoon surrounding Cygnus A, using radio images between 151 MHz and 15 GHz and a 200 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer-Imaging (ACIS-I) image. We show that the excess low-frequency emission in the lobe further from the Earth cannot be explained by absorption or excess adiabatic expansion of the lobe or a combination of both. We show that this excess emission is consistent with emission from a relic counterlobe and a relic counterjet that are being re-energized by compression from the current lobe. We detect hints of a relic hotspot at the end of the relic X-ray jet in the more distant lobe. We do not detect relic emission in the lobe nearer to the Earth as expected from light traveltime effects assuming intrinsic symmetry. We determine that the duration of the previous jet activity phase was slightly less than that of the current jet-active phase. Further, we explain some features observed at 5 and 15 GHz as due to the presence of a relic jet.

  1. Spectroscopy of the Stellar Wind in the Cygnus X-1 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskovicova, Ivica; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray luminosity of black holes is produced through the accretion of material from their companion stars. Depending on the mass of the donor star, accretion of the material falling onto the black hole through the inner Lagrange point of the system or accretion by the strong stellar wind can occur. Cygnus X-1 is a high mass X-ray binary system, where the black hole is powered by accretion of the stellar wind of its supergiant companion star HDE226868. As the companion is close to filling its Roche lobe, the wind is not symmetric, but strongly focused towards the black hole. Chandra-HETGS observations allow for an investigation of this focused stellar wind, which is essential to understand the physics of the accretion flow. We compare observations at the distinct orbital phases of 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75. These correspond to different lines of sights towards the source, allowing us to probe the structure and the dynamics of the wind.

  2. SOFT X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, Phil; McEntaffer, Randall; Cash, Webster

    2013-03-20

    We present the results of a suborbital rocket flight whose scientific target was the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant. The payload consists of wire grid collimators, off-plane grating arrays, and gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. The system is designed for spectral measurements in the 17-107 A bandpass with a resolution up to {approx}60 ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}). The Extended X-ray Off-plane Spectrometer (EXOS) was launched on a Terrier-Black Brant rocket on 2009 November 13 from White Sands Missile Range and obtained 340 s of useable scientific data. The X-ray emission is dominated by O VII and O VIII, including the He-like O VII triplet at {approx}22 A. Another emission feature at {approx}45 A is composed primarily of Si XI and Si XII. The best-fit model to this spectrum is an equilibrium plasma model at a temperature of log(T) = 6.4 (0.23 keV).

  3. Accretion and outflow in the proplyd-like objects near Cygnus OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J.; Wright, N. J.; García-Alvarez, D.; Kraemer, K. E.

    2014-09-20

    Cygnus OB2 is the most massive association within 2 kpc from the Sun, hosting hundreds of massive stars, thousands of young low mass members, and some sights of active star formation in the surrounding cloud. Recently, 10 photoevaporating proplyd-like objects with tadpole-shaped morphology were discovered in the outskirts of the OB association, approximately 6-14 pc away from its center. The classification of these objects is ambiguous, being either evaporating residuals of the parental cloud that are hosting a protostar inside or disk-bearing stars with an evaporating disk, such as the evaporating proplyds observed in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion. In this paper, we present a study based on low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations made with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy, mounted on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, of two of these protostars. The spectrum of one of the objects shows evidence of accretion but not of outflows. In the latter object, the spectra show several emission lines indicating the presence of an actively accreting disk with outflow. We present estimates of the mass loss rate and the accretion rate from the disk, showing that the former exceeds the latter as observed in other known objects with evaporating disks. We also show evidence of a strong variability in the integrated flux observed in these objects as well as in the accretion and outflow diagnostics.

  4. Modelling Deep Water Habitats to Develop a Spatially Explicit, Fine Scale Understanding of the Distribution of the Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus

    PubMed Central

    Hovey, Renae K.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Pember, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Methods and Findings Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Conclusions Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats. PMID

  5. G141.2+5.0, A NEW PULSAR WIND NEBULA DISCOVERED IN THE CYGNUS ARM OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Kothes, R.; Foster, T. J.; Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.

    2014-04-01

    We report the discovery of the new pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G141.2+5.0 in data observed with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory's Synthesis Telescope at 1420 MHz. The new PWN has a diameter of about 3.'5, which translates to a spatial extent of about 4 pc at a distance of 4.0 kpc. It displays a radio spectral index of α ≈ –0.7, similar to the PWN G76.9+1.1. G141.2+5.0 is highly polarized up to 40% with an average of 15% in the 1420 MHz data. It is located in the center of a small spherical H I bubble, which is expanding at a velocity of 6 km s{sup –1} at a systemic velocity of v {sub LSR} = –53 km s{sup –1}. The bubble could be the result of the progenitor star's mass loss or the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) created by the same supernova explosion in a highly advanced stage. The systemic LSR velocity of the bubble shares the velocity of H I associated with the Cygnus spiral arm, which is seen across the second and third quadrants and an active star-forming arm immediately beyond the Perseus arm. A kinematical distance of 4 ± 0.5 kpc is found for G141.2+5.0, similar to the optical distance of the Cygnus arm (3.8 ± 1.1 kpc). G141.2+5.0 represents the first radio PWN discovered in 17 years and the first SNR discovered in the Cygnus spiral arm, which is in stark contrast with the Perseus arm's overwhelming population of shell-type remnants.

  6. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ∼10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ∼6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  7. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ˜10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ˜6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  8. First dynamic computations of synchrotron emission from the cygnus a radio cavity: Evidence for electron pair plasma in cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, William G.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic rays, thermal gas and magnetic fields in FRII radio cavities are assumed to come entirely from winds flowing from just behind the jet shocks. Combining analytic and computational methods, it is shown that the computed radio-electron energy distribution and synchrotron emissivity spectra everywhere in the Cygnus A radio cavity agree with radio observations of the Cygnus A lobes. The magnetic field energy density is small everywhere and evolves passively in the post-shock wind. Most synchrotron emission arises in recent post-shock material as it flows back along the radio cavity wall. Because it experienced less adiabatic expansion, the magnetic field in this young backflow is larger than elsewhere in the radio lobe, explaining the observed radio synchrotron limb-brightening. The boundary backflow decelerates due to small cavity pressure gradients, causing large-scale fields perpendicular to the backflow (and synchrotron emission) to grow exponentially unlike observations. However, if the field is random on subgrid (sub-kpc) scales, the computed field reproduces both the magnitude and slowly decreasing radio synchrotron emissivity observed along the backflow. The radio synchrotron spectrum and image computed with a small-scale random field agree with Very Large Array observations. The total relativistic energy density in the post-jet shock region required in computations to inflate the radio cavity matches the energy density of relativistic electrons observed in the post-shock region of Cygnus A. This indicates that the component in the jet and cavity that dominates the dynamical evolution is a relativistic pair plasma.

  9. Constraints on the inclination and masses of the HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 system from the observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R.; Hartmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of two high-dispersions IUE spectra of HDE 226868 (the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1) are combined with studies of low-dispersion IUE spectra to provide a more accurate determination of the variation of C IV stellar wind absorption as a function of orbital phase. By incorporating these observational results into an analysis of the structure of the X-ray ionization cavity in the stellar wind, it is found that the orbital inclination must lie between 36 and 67 deg, leading to a mass for the compact object between 5.7 and 11.2 solar masses.

  10. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  11. A Giant Radio Flare from Cygnus X-3 with Associated Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high energy gamma-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi/LAT and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy gamma-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (approx 20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E greater than or equal 100 MeV) reveal renewed gamma-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the gamma-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A 3-week period of gamma-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No gamma rays are observed during the one-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio quenched) state trigger gamma-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the gamma-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  12. Hadronic gamma-ray and neutrino emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Sahakyan, N.; Piano, G.; Tavani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is a remarkable Galactic microquasar (X-ray binary) emitting from radio to γ-ray energies. In this paper, we consider the hadronic model of emission of γ-rays above 100 MeV and their implications. We focus on the joint γ-ray and neutrino production resulting from proton-proton interactions within the binary system. We find that the required proton injection kinetic power, necessary to explain the γ-ray flux observed by AGILE and Fermi-LAT, is L{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}, a value in agreement with the average bolometric luminosity of the hypersoft state (when Cyg X-3 was repeatedly observed to produce transient γ-ray activity). If we assume an increase of the wind density at the superior conjunction, the asymmetric production of γ-rays along the orbit can reproduce the observed modulation. According to observational constraints and our modeling, a maximal flux of high-energy neutrinos would be produced for an initial proton distribution with a power-law index α = 2.4. The predicted neutrino flux is almost two orders of magnitude less than the two-month IceCube sensitivity at ∼1 TeV. If the protons are accelerated up to PeV energies, the predicted neutrino flux for a prolonged 'soft X-ray state' would be a factor of about three lower than the one-year IceCube sensitivity at ∼10 TeV. This study shows that, for a prolonged soft state (as observed in 2006) possibly related to γ-ray activity and a hard distribution of injected protons, Cyg X-3 might be close to being detectable by cubic-kilometer neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.

  13. Design and Assembly of a Telecentric Zoom Lens for the Cygnus X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Brown, K K; Curtis, A H; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Frogget, B C; Furlanetto, M R; Garten, J R; Haines, T J; Howe, R A; Huerta, J A; Kaufman, M I; King, N.S. P; Lutz, S S; McGillivray, K D; Smith, A S

    2012-10-01

    Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray source. The rod-pinch x-ray diode produces a point source measuring 1 mm diameter. The target object is placed 1.5 m from the x-ray source, with a large LYSO scintillator at 2.4 m. Different-sized objects are imploded within a containment vessel. A large pellicle deflects the scintillator light out of the x-ray path into an 11-element zoom lens coupled to a CCD camera. The zoom lens and CCD must be as close as possible to the scintillator to maximize light collection. A telecentric lens design minimizes image blur from a volume source. To maximize the resolution of test objects of different sizes, the scintillator and zoom lens can be translated along the x-ray axis. Zoom lens magnifications are changed when different-sized scintillators and recording cameras are used (50 or 62 mm square format). The LYSO scintillator measures 200 × 200 mm and is 5 mm thick. The scintillator produces blue light peaking at 435 nm, so special lens materials are required. By swapping out one lens element and allowing all lenses to move, the zoom lens can also use a CsI(Tl) scintillator that produces green light centered at 550 nm. All lenses are coated with anti-reflective coating for both wavelength bands. Two sets of doublets, the stop, and the CCD camera move during zoom operations. One doublet has XY compensation. The first three lenses use fused silica for radiation damage control. The 60 lb of glass inside the 340 lb mechanical structure is oriented vertically.

  14. Alignment and Testing of a Telecentric Zoom Lens Used for the Cygnus X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R. M.; Baker, S. A.; Brown, K. K.; Castaneda, J. J.; Curtis, A. H.; Danielson, J.; Droemer, D. W.; Esquibel, D. L.; Haines, T. J.; Hollabaugh, J. S.; Howe, R. A.; Huerta, J. A.; King, N. S. P.; Lutz, S. S.; Kaufman, M. I.; McGillivray, K. D.; Smith, A. D.; Stokes, B. M.; Tibbitts, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray source. Three large zoom lenses have been assembled to collect images from large scintillators. A large elliptical pellicle (394 × 280 mm) deflects the scintillator light out of the x-ray path into an eleven-element zoom lens coupled to a CCD camera. The zoom lens and CCD must be as close as possible to the scintillator to maximize light collection. A telecentric lens design minimizes image blur from a volume source. To maximize the resolution of objects of different sizes, the scintillator and zoom lens are translated along the x-ray axis, and the zoom lens magnification changes. Zoom magnification is also changed when different-sized recording cameras are used (50 or 62 mm square format). The LYSO scintillator measures 200 × 200 mm and is 5 mm thick. The scintillator produces blue light peaking at 435 nm, so special lens materials are required. By swapping out one doublet and allowing all other lenses to be repositioned, the zoom lens can also use a CsI(Tl) scintillator that produces green light centered at 540 nm (for future operations). All lenses have an anti-reflective coating for both wavelength bands. Two sets of doublets, the stop, the scintillator, and the CCD camera move during zoom operations. One doublet has x-y compensation. Alignment of the optical elements was accomplished using counter propagating laser beams and monitoring the retro-reflections and steering collections of laser spots. Each zoom lens uses 60 lb of glass inside the 425 lb mechanical structure, and can be used in either vertical or horizontal orientation.

  15. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Sankrit, Ravi; Bautista, Manuel; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  16. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  17. Near Infrared Diffuse Interstellar Bands Toward the Cygnus OB2 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Yasui, Chikako; Mizumoto, Misaki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Fukue, Kei; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Mito, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Kitano, Ayaka; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-04-01

    We obtained the near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution (R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 20,000) spectra of the seven brightest early-type stars in the Cygnus OB2 association for investigating the environmental dependence of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The WINERED spectrograph mounted on the Araki 1.3 m telescope in Japan was used to collect data. All 20 of the known DIBs within the wavelength coverage of WINERED (0.91 < λ < 1.36 μm) were clearly detected along all lines of sight because of their high flux density in the NIR wavelength range and the large extinction. The equivalent widths (EWs) of DIBs were not correlated with the column densities of C2 molecules, which trace the patchy dense component, suggesting that the NIR DIB carriers are distributed mainly in the diffuse component. On the basis of the correlations among the NIR DIBs both for stars in Cyg OB2 and stars observed previously, λλ10780, 10792, 11797, 12623, and 13175 are found to constitute a “family,” in which the DIBs are correlated well over the wide EW range. In contrast, the EW of λ10504 is found to remain almost constant over the stars in Cyg OB2. The extinction estimated from the average EW of λ10504 (AV ∼ 3.6 mag) roughly corresponds to the lower limit of the extinction distribution of OB stars in Cyg OB2. This suggests that λ10504 is absorbed only by the foreground clouds, implying that the carrier of λ10504 is completely destroyed in Cyg OB2, probably by the strong UV radiation field. The different behaviors of the DIBs may be caused by different properties of the DIB carriers.

  18. Annual use of man-made wetlands by the mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Gayet, Guillaume; Matthieu, Guillemain; François, Mesleard; Hervé, Fritz; Laurence, Curtet; Joël, Broyer

    2013-05-15

    This is essential to understand habitat selection by wildlife to manage habitats and populations. Studying the annual use of aquatic habitats provides information on how to manage wetlands for waterfowl, and to predict possible detrimental effects associated with extended usage by these birds. This is particularly important for species like the mute swan (Cygnus olor Gmelin), given its recent dramatic demographic expansion, causing concern in both Europe and America. We studied the extent of usage (swan.days.ha(-1)) of habitat patches by mute swans in a heterogeneous and fluctuating fishpond landscape. We assessed seasonal differences of swan usage of fishponds, annual variation for a given fishpond, and determined which habitat factors drive swan usage over the year. The seasonal use pattern was regular: a similar proportion of fishponds was used heavily, moderately or lightly in all seasons. Flocking throughout the year and breeding during summer were associated with heavy use of fishponds, i.e. large number of swan.days.ha(-1). Flocking on some fishponds during several successive seasons demonstrated that some waterbody provide valuable habitats over time for swans. However, swans did not use individual fishponds to the same extent each season, mostly depending on the fluctuating ecological requirements of swans and variation in habitat properties. Agricultural practices on fishponds drastically affected swan usage during autumn and winter: formerly dried fishponds were used preferentially once reflooded. The specific agricultural crops used during the drought period had no influence though. The large-sized fishponds and fishponds within a dense network of waterbody were the most heavily used by swans throughout the year. Our results may thus be helpful to predict and prevent possible habitat damage by swans. They also provide information on habitats that are valuable for waterfowl species in general, by using mute swans as a proxy for waterfowl requirements

  19. A Chandra X-ray Study of Cygnus A. 2; The Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Andrew J.; Wilson, Andrew; Terashima, Yuichi; Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the nearby, powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, with the present paper focusing on the properties of the active nucleus. In the Chandra observation, the hard (less than a few keV) X-ray emission is spatially unresolved with a size is approximately 1" (1.5 kpc, H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) and coincides with the radio and near-infrared nuclei. In contrast, the soft (less than 2 keV) emission exhibits a bipolar nebulosity that aligns with the optical bipolar continuum and emission-line structures and approximately with the radio jet. In particular, the soft X-ray emission corresponds very well with the [O III] (lambda)5007 and H(alpha) + [N II] lambda(lambda)6548, 6583 nebulosity imaged with Hubble Space Telescope. At the location of the nucleus, there is only weak soft X-ray emission, an effect that may be intrinsic or result from a dust lane that crosses the nucleus perpendicular to the source axis. The spectra of the various X-ray components have been obtained by simultaneous fits to the six detectors. The compact nucleus is detected to 100 keV and is well described by a heavily absorbed power-law spectrum with Gamma(sub h) = 1.52(sup + 0.12, sub -0.12) (similar to other 0.12 narrow-line radio galaxies) and equivalent hydrogen column N(sub H)(nuc) = 2.0(sup +0.1, sub -0.1) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This 0.2 column is compatible with the dust obscuration to the near-infrared source for a normal gas-to-dust ratio. The soft (less than 2 keV) emission from the nucleus may be described by a power-law spectrum with the same index (i.e., Gamma(sub l) = Gamma(sub h), although direct fits suggest a slightly larger value for Gamma(sub l). Narrow emission lines from highly ionized neon and silicon, as well as a "neutral" Fe K(alpha) line, are detected in the nucleus and its vicinity (r approximately less than 2 kpc). The equivalent width (EW) of the Fe K(alpha) line

  20. A Comparison of Ultraviolet, Optical, and X-Ray Imagery of Selected Fields in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Cornett, Robert H.; Levenson, N. A.; Blair, William P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1999-01-01

    During the Astro-1 and Astro-2 Space Shuttle missions in 1090 and 199.5, far ultraviolet (FUV) images of five 40' diameter fields around the rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant were observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These fields sampled a broad range of conditions including both radiative and nonradiative shocks in various geometries and physical scales. In these shocks, the UIT B5 band samples predominantly C IV Lambda-1550 and the hydrogen two-photon recombination continuum. Smaller contributions are made by emission lines of He II Lambda-1640 and O III] Lambda-1665. We present these new FUV images and compare them with optical H-alpha and [O III], and ROSAT HRI X-ray images. Comparing the UIT images with those from the other bands provides new insights into the spatial variations and locations of these different types of emission. By comparing against shock model calculations and published FUV spectroscopy at select locations, we surmise that resonance scattering in the strong FUV permitted lines is widespread in the Cygnus Loop. especially in the bright optical filaments typically selected for observation in most previous studies.

  1. Confirmation via the continuum-fitting method that the spin of the black hole in Cygnus X-1 is extreme

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Reid, Mark J.; Narayan, Ramesh; García, Javier; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Hanke, Manfred

    2014-07-20

    In Gou et al., we reported that the black hole primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 is a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a{sub *} > 0.95 (3σ). We confirm this result while setting a new and more stringent limit: a{sub *} > 0.983 at the 3σ (99.7%) confidence level. The earlier work, which was based on an analysis of all three useful spectra that were then available, was possibly biased by the presence in these spectra of a relatively strong Compton power-law component: the fraction of the thermal seed photons scattered into the power law was f{sub s} = 23%-31%, while the upper limit for reliable application of the continuum-fitting method is f{sub s} ≲ 25%. We have subsequently obtained six additional spectra of Cygnus X-1 suitable for the measurement of spin. Five of these spectra are of high quality with f{sub s} in the range 10%-19%, a regime where the continuum-fitting method has been shown to deliver reliable results. Individually, the six spectra give lower limits on the spin parameter that range from a{sub *} > 0.95 to a{sub *} > 0.98, allowing us to conservatively conclude that the spin of the black hole is a{sub *} > 0.983 (3σ).

  2. A self-consistent model for the long-term gamma-ray spectral variability of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Misra, Ranjeev

    1993-01-01

    The long-term transitions of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 (between the states gamma-1, gamma-2, and gamma-3) include the occasional appearance of a strong nearly-MeV bump (gamma-1), whose strength appears to be anticorrelated with the continuum flux (below 400 keV) due to the Compton upscattering of cold disk photons by the inner, hot corona. We develop a self-consistent disk picture in which the bump is seen as due to the self-Comptonization of bremsstrahlung photons emitted predominantly near the plane of the corona itself. A decrease by a factor of about two in the viscosity parameter alpha is responsible for quenching this bump and driving the system to the gamma-2 state, whereas a transition from gamma-2 to gamma-3 appears to be induced by an increase of about 25 percent in the accretion rate M. In view of the fact that most of the transitions observed in this source seem to be of the gamma-2-gamma-3 variety, we conclude that much of the long-term gamma-ray spectral variability in Cygnus X-1 is due to these small fluctuations in M. The unusual appearance of the gamma-1 state apparently reflects a change in the dissipative processes within the disk.

  3. A deep survey of the Galactic plane at very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Yeuk Chun

    The Cygnus region of the Galactic plane contains many known supernova remnants, pulsars, X-Ray sources and GeV emitters which makes it a prime candidate for a Very High Energy (VHE) survey study in the Northern Hemisphere. VERITAS, an array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes located in southern Arizona, USA, is the most sensitive very high energy gamma-ray telescope in operation today. Between April 2007 and Fall 2009, VERITAS carried out an extensive survey of the Cygnus region between 67 and 82 degrees in Galactic longitude and between -1 and 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. The survey, comprising more than 140 hours of observations, reached an average VHE flux sensitivity of better than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux at energies above 200 GeV, making it the most sensitive VHE gamma-ray survey ever done in the northern Hemisphere. The survey data set revealed two highly probable gamma-ray sources in the region. A detailed description of the observational strategy and analysis methodology of the survey are given and a discussion of the scientific implications resulting from the survey is provided.

  4. Common Gamma-Ray Spectral Properties of GROJ0422+32 and CYGNUS X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, Wm. A.

    2003-03-01

    We report soft gamma-ray (30 keV to 1.7 MeV) spectral properties in the black hole GROJ0422+32, observed during its first known outburst in 1992, and similar to properties of Cygnus X-1 during its low-to-high state transitions in 1994 and 1996 (see Ling & Wheaton, 2003). In both cases, the high-intensity (``gamma2'') spectrum consists of two components: a Comptonized shape below 300 keV, plus a steep power-law tail above 300 keV. By contrast, the low-intensity spectrum (``gamma0'') has a power-law shape with an index of ˜2. The two spectra cross at ˜600 keV for GROJ0422+32, or about 1 MeV for Cyg X-1. We suggest a scenario for interpreting these common spectral features by including a separate non-thermal source region, possibly a jet, in the ADAF model of Esin et al (1998). During the high-intensity gamma2 state, the system consists of a hot inner corona, a cooler outer thin disk, and a region that produced the variable power-law gamma-ray emission. In this condition, the transition radius of the disk is ˜100 Schwarzschild radii. Electrons in the hot corona up-scatter the low-energy photons, produced both within the corona as well as from the outer disk, to form the Comptonized component that dominates the spectrum in the 35-300 keV range. The same electrons also down-scatter high energy (>10 MeV) photons produced nonthermally in the ``jet'' region, forming the softer power-law component observed in the 0.3-1 MeV range. During the low-intensity gamma0 state, a large soft flux cools the inner corona, and moves the transition radius inward, close to the event horizon. Under this condition, the Comptonized component in the 35-300 keV range is suppressed, and the source spectrum is dominated by the unperturbed power-law emission produced in the non-thermal source region, with a characteristic index of ˜2. The work described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under the contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  6. Delineation of Tundra Swan Cygnus c. columbianus populations in North America: geographic boundaries and interchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Sladen, William J. L.; Wilson, Heather M.; Savage, Susan E.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Henry, Bill; Schwitters, Mike; Snowden, James

    2014-01-01

    North American Tundra Swans Cygnus c. columbianus are composed of two wellrecognised populations: an Eastern Population (EP) that breeds across northern Canada and north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, which migrates to the eastern seaboard of the United States, and a Western Population (WP) that breeds in coastal regions of Alaska south of the Brooks Range and migrates to western North America. We present results of a recent major ringing effort from across the breeding range in Alaska to provide a better definition of the geographic extent of the migratory divide in Alaska. We also reassess the staging and winter distributions of these populations based on locations of birds tracked using satellite transmitters, and recent recoveries and sightings of neck-collared birds. Summer sympatry of EP and WP Tundra Swans is very limited, and largely confined to a small area in northwest Alaska. Autumn migration pathways of EP and WP Tundra swans abut in southwest Saskatchewan, a region where migrating WP birds turn west, and EP birds deviate abruptly eastward. Overall, from 1989 to 2013 inclusive, 2.6% of recoveries or resightings reported to the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory were of birds that moved from the domain of the population in which they were initially captured to within the range of the other population; a proportion roughly comparable to the results of Limpert et al. (1991) for years before 1990. Of the 70 cross-boundary movements reported since 1989, 39% were of birds marked on breeding areas and 61% were of birds marked on wintering areas. Dispersing swans (i.e. those that made crossboundary movements) did not differ with respect to age or sex from those that did not move between populations. The Brooks Range in northern Alaska effectively separates the two populations within Alaska, but climate-induced changes in tundra breeding habitats and losses of wetlands on staging areas may alter the distribution for both of these populations.

  7. Understanding star formation in molecular clouds. III. Probability distribution functions of molecular lines in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Klessen, R. S.; Simon, R.; Fechtenbaum, S.; Herpin, F.; Tremblin, P.; Csengeri, T.; Myers, P. C.; Hill, T.; Cunningham, M.; Federrath, C.

    2016-03-01

    The probability distribution function of column density (N-PDF) serves as a powerful tool to characterise the various physical processes that influence the structure of molecular clouds. Studies that use extinction maps or H2 column-density maps (N) that are derived from dust show that star-forming clouds can best be characterised by lognormal PDFs for the lower N range and a power-law tail for higher N, which is commonly attributed to turbulence and self-gravity and/or pressure, respectively. While PDFs from dust cover a large dynamic range (typically N ~ 1020-24 cm-2 or Av~ 0.1-1000), PDFs obtained from molecular lines - converted into H2 column density - potentially trace more selectively different regimes of (column) densities and temperatures. They also enable us to distinguish different clouds along the line of sight through using the velocity information. We report here on PDFs that were obtained from observations of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, CS, and N2H+ in the Cygnus X North region, and make a comparison to a PDF that was derived from dust observations with the Herschel satellite. The PDF of 12CO is lognormal for Av ~ 1-30, but is cut for higher Av because of optical depth effects. The PDFs of C18O and 13CO are mostly lognormal up to Av ~ 1-15, followed by excess up to Av ~ 40. Above that value, all CO PDFs drop, which is most likely due to depletion. The high density tracers CS and N2H+ exhibit only a power law distribution between Av ~ 15 and 400, respectively. The PDF from dust is lognormal for Av ~ 3-15 and has a power-law tail up to Av ~ 500. Absolute values for the molecular line column densities are, however, rather uncertain because of abundance and excitation temperature variations. If we take the dust PDF at face value, we "calibrate" the molecular line PDF of CS to that of the dust and determine an abundance [CS]/[H2] of 10-9. The slopes of the power-law tails of the CS, N2H+, and dust PDFs are -1.6, -1.4, and -2.3, respectively, and are thus consistent

  8. AN UPDATED LOOK AT BINARY CHARACTERISTICS OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.

    2012-05-20

    This work provides a statistical analysis of the massive star binary characteristics in the Cygnus OB2 association using radial velocity information of 114 B3-O5 primary stars and orbital properties for the 24 known binaries. We compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo simulations to infer the intrinsic binary fraction and distributions of mass ratios, periods, and eccentricities. We model the distribution of mass ratio, log-period, and eccentricity as power laws and find best-fitting indices of {alpha} = 0.1 {+-} 0.5, {beta} = 0.2 {+-} 0.4, and {gamma} = -0.6 {+-} 0.3, respectively. These distributions indicate a preference for massive companions, short periods, and low eccentricities. Our analysis indicates that the binary fraction of the cluster is 44% {+-} 8% if all binary systems are (artificially) assumed to have P < 1000 days; if the power-law period distribution is extrapolated to 10{sup 4} years, then a plausible upper limit for bound systems, the binary fraction is {approx}90% {+-} 10%. Of these binary (or higher order) systems, {approx}45% will have companions close enough to interact during pre- or post-main-sequence evolution (semi-major axis {approx}<4.7 AU). The period distribution for P < 26 days is not well reproduced by any single power law owing to an excess of systems with periods around 3-5 days (0.08-0.31 AU) and a relative shortage of systems with periods around 7-14 days (0.14-0.62 AU). We explore the idea that these longer-period systems evolved to produce the observed excess of short-period systems. The best-fitting binary parameters imply that secondaries generate, on average, {approx}16% of the V-band light in young massive populations. This means that photometrically based distance measurements for young massive clusters and associations will be systematically low by {approx}8% (0.16 mag in the distance modulus) if the luminous contributions of unresolved secondaries are not taken into account.

  9. CHANDRA IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EASTERN XA REGION OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    McEntaffer, R. L.; Brantseg, T.

    2011-04-01

    The XA region of the Cygnus Loop is a bright knot of X-ray emission on the eastern edge of the supernova remnant. The emission results from the interaction of the supernova blast wave with density enhancements at the edge of a precursor formed cavity. However, this interaction is complex given the irregular morphology of the cavity wall. To study the nature and origin of the X-ray emission, we use high spatial resolution images from Chandra. We extract spectra from these images to analyze the physical conditions of the plasma. Our goal is to probe the density of various regions to form a picture of the cavity wall and characterize the interaction between this supernova and the local interstellar medium. We find that a series of regions along the edge of the X-ray emission appears to trace out the location of the cavity wall. The best-fit plasma models result in two temperature component equilibrium models for each region. The low-temperature components have densities that are an order of magnitude higher than the high-temperature components. The high-density plasma may exist in the cavity wall where it equilibrates rapidly and cools efficiently. The low-density plasma is interior to the enhancement and heated further by a reverse shock from the wall. Calculations of shock velocities and timescales since shock heating are consistent with this interpretation. Furthermore, we find a bright knot of emission indicative of a discrete interaction of the blast wave with a high-density cloud in the cavity wall with a size scale {approx}0.1 pc. Aside from this, other extractions made interior to the X-ray edge are confused by line-of-sight projection of various components. Some of these regions show evidence of detecting the cavity wall but their location makes the interpretation difficult. In general, the softer plasmas are well fit at temperatures (kT){approx} 0.11 keV, with harder plasmas at temperatures of (kT){approx} 0.27 keV. All regions displayed consistent metal

  10. The Balmer-dominated northeast limb of the Cygnus loop supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, J. Jeff; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the Balmar-dominated northeast limb of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Data presented include H alpha (O III), and X-ray images, UV and visible spectrophotometry, and high-resolution spectroscophy. The two relatively bright Balmer-dominated filaments visible on the POSS prints are seen to be part of a very smooth and regular complex of filaments. These filaments mark the current location of the blast wave and are seen to bound the sharply limb-brightened X-ray emission, including the previously reported X-ray, 'halo.' The (O III)/h beta ratio throughout the region is approximately 0.1, except for regions in which the shock is undergoing a transition from nonradiative to incomplete radiative to incomplete radiative conditions. At these locations (O III) emission from the cooling region is quite strong, while collisionally excited Balmer-line emission can be weak because of photoionization of the preshock medium by UV from the nascent cooling region. As a result (O III)/H beta is greater than 100 in some locations. The nonradiative/radiative transition is best studied along the length of the northwestern of the two brightest filaments, where the shock velocity and swept-up column go from approximately 180 km/s and 10(exp 17)/sq cm at one end to approximately 140 km/s and 8 x 10(exp 17)/cm at the other. There are also a number of locations of such incomplete radiative emission where the shock has recently encountered denser regions with characteristic sizes of approximately 10(exp 18) cm. There is a considerable amount of evidence that the shock has decelerated from approximately 400 km/s to less than 200 km/s in the last 1000 yr. We interpret this as the result of the blast wave hitting the wall of a cavity which surround the supernova precursor and succeed in matching a wide range of data with a reflected shock model in which the density ofthe cavity wall is approximately 1.2/cu cm and the density in the interior of the