Science.gov

Sample records for 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel

  1. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  2. The greening of synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kintisch, E.

    2008-04-15

    Synfuels emit less carbon dioxide than oil and even reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. For making synfuels green is by using large amounts of plant biomass along with coal and storing in the ground the CO{sub 2} emitted during the production of synfuels. The process of making synfuel is by turning coal into gas, which creates carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The resulting syngas is converted into diesel fuel, jet fuel, or chemical feedstock.

  3. Synfuels: Hydrocarbons of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Synfuels discusses chemical advances made in the synfuels industry and the opportunities available for artificially producing new fuels today. Matar discusses the alternatives and compares the various synfuels according to their performance and impact on the economy. Contents: Synthetic fuels; Raw materials needed for synfuels production; Gasification processes; Coal liquefaction and related processes; Upgrading synthetic products and byproducts; Basic requirements for synfuels production; Calculations for synfuel production; Representative bond energies; Physical constants of some organic and inorganic compounds; Conversion factors.

  4. EFFECTS OF SYNFUEL USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews environmental concerns relating to the distribution, handling, and end use of synfuel products likely to enter the marketplace by the year 2000, and assigns priority rankings to the products based on environmental concerns to aid EPA to focus its regulatory and...

  5. Synfuels from biomass grow slowly

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.; Wedlock, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current developments in the manufacture of synfuels are discussed with emphasis on the sources of biomass suitable for synfuels production, processes for converting biomass to synfuels, and the economics of the technology. The sources include wood, nonwood crops, root crops, aquatic biomass, and oils from plants such as soybean, safflower, and peanut. The biomass conversion processes discussed include pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, and aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

  6. Synfuels: hydrocarbons of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Important chemical advances made in the synfuels industry and the opportunities available for artifically producing new fuels today are discussed. The various synfuels are compared according to their performance and impact on the economy. Among the processes detailed are coal gasification and liquefaction and alcohol fuels from biomass. (JMT)

  7. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Cuzens; Necitas Sumait

    2012-09-13

    BlueFire Ethanol, Inc., a U.S. based corporation with offices in Irvine, California developed a cellulosic biorefinery to convert approximately 700 dry metric tons per day in to 18.9 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol. The Project is proposed to be located in the city of Fulton, County of Itawamba, Mississippi.

  8. Synfuels: Hydrocarbons of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, S.

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews Synfuels: Hydrocarbons of the Future by Sami Matar (discusses the important chemical advances made in the synfuels industry and the opportunities available for artificially producing new fuels) and Lighting Energy Management for Colleges and Universities from the National Lighting Bureau and the Energy Task Force (gives information on conducting a lighting energy audit, calculating lighting expenses and savings, and a glossary of terms).

  9. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  10. Synfuel production in nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Henning, C.D.

    Apparatus and method for producing synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components by using a neutron source as the energy source, such as a fusion reactor. Neutron absorbers are disposed inside a reaction pipe and are heated by capturing neutrons from the neutron source. Synthetic fuel feedstock is then placed into contact with the heated neutron absorbers. The feedstock is heated and dissociates into its constituent synfuel components, or alternatively is at least preheated sufficiently to use in a subsequent electrolysis process to produce synthetic fuels and synthetic fuel components.

  11. Synfuels: nukes of the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, A.

    1980-05-01

    Toxic pollutants released to the air and water, as well as the impacts of massive strip mining, will characterize the era of synfuel development as a time of environmental costs which could be life-threatening. Tough water regulations in the western states may result in a few states bearing all the related social and economic impacts. Government incentives for utilities to develop synfuels have already resulted in major development projects in Illinois, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama. Synfuel research by the Electric Power Research Institute has been costly, rivaling nuclear power as a main focus of interest and burying the scattered opposition. How the utilities will overcome the lack of a reliable synfuels market should be of interest to critics as well as the environmental implication. (DCK)

  12. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  13. Employment benefits of urban synfuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; McCarthy, K.; Nagle, J.; South, D.

    1982-06-01

    The construction and operation of a synthetic fuel plant could significantly reduce local unemployment. Two synfuel technologies and two urban areas are studied in this report. HYGAS coal gasification and SRC-II coal liquefaction were used since they are near commercial development and have detailed work force estimates. Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, were chosen for their similar economic structures and their proximity to coal supplies. The employment benefits of a synfuel facility in an urban area are influenced by several assumptions. The level of occupational mobility between specific jobs affects the proportion of local to in-migrant workers. Also, estimates of total employment depend on the multiplier chosen to estimate secondary employment. In general, however, a gasification plant reduces unemployment more than a liquefaction plant, and either type of plant brings about a greater drop in the local unemployment rate in Buffalo than in Cleveland. As unemployment drops, public expenditures and unemployment compensation are proportionately reduced.

  14. A COMPENDIUM OF SYNFUEL END USE TESTING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives information on major, recently completed, current, and planned synfuel end-use testing projects. It is intended to promote the flow of information between synfuel testing programs, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and enabling design and implementation ...

  15. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  16. Biologically important compounds in synfuels processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B R; Ho, C; Griest, W H; Guerin, M R

    1980-01-01

    Crude products, by-products and wastes from synfuel processes contain a broad spectrum of chemical compounds - many of which are active in biological systems. Discerning which compound classes are most important is necessary in order to establish effective control over release or exposure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), multialkylated PAH, primary aromatic amines and N-heterocyclic PAH are significant contributors to the overall mutagenic activities of a large number of materials examined. Ames test data show that the basic, primary aromatic amine fraction is the most active. PAHs, multialkylated PAHs and N-heterocyclic PAHs are all components of the neutral fraction. In nearly all cases, the neutral fractions contribute the largest portion of the mutagenic activity, while the basic primary aromatic amine fractions have the highest specific activity. Neutral fractions are usually the largest (wt %) whereas the total basic fractions are small by comparison; thus, the overall greater contribution of the neutral fraction to the mutagenic activity of most samples. Biologically active constituents are isolated in preparative scale amounts from complex mixtures utilizing combinations of liquid-liquid extraction and various liquid chromatographic column-eluant combinations. Fractions are characterized using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  17. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  18. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  19. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  20. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, F.

    1982-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based turbine applications is presented. The four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels (solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction), and the most important concepts for coal gasification (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and underground gasification) are described. Upgrading processes for coal derived liquid fuels are also described. Data presented for liquid fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent refined coal, COED, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Typical composition, and property data is also presented for low and medium-BTU gases derived from the various coal gasification processes.

  1. Synfuel program analysis. Volume I. Procedures-capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Muddiman, J. B.; Whelan, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    This is the first of the two volumes describing the analytic procedures and resulting capabilities developed by Resource Applications (RA) for examining the economic viability, public costs, and national benefits of alternative synfuel projects and integrated programs. This volume is intended for Department of Energy (DOE) and Synthetic Fuel Corporation (SFC) program management personnel and includes a general description of the costing, venture, and portfolio models with enough detail for the reader to be able to specifiy cases and interpret outputs. It also contains an explicit description (with examples) of the types of results which can be obtained when applied to: the analysis of individual projects; the analysis of input uncertainty, i.e., risk; and the analysis of portfolios of such projects, including varying technology mixes and buildup schedules. In all cases, the objective is to obtain, on the one hand, comparative measures of private investment requirements and expected returns (under differing public policies) as they affect the private decision to proceed, and, on the other, public costs and national benefits as they affect public decisions to participate (in what form, in what areas, and to what extent).

  2. Proceedings of the opportunities in the synfuels industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    World interest in coal-based synthetic fuels technology is like a roller coaster ride. Interest soars when energy prices are high or world oil supplies are threatened. When energy is inexpensive and oil is plentiful, interest plummets. However, some people remain undaunted by the ups and downs of the synfuels industry. They cling tenaciously to the idea that coal-based synthetic fuels are the world`s energy future. They are the select group attending the SynOps `92 symposium in Bismarck, North Dakota. SynOps `92 participants represent an extraordinary combination of visionaries and practical thinkers. They believe the ``coal refinery`` concept will eventually provide the most efficient and productive use of our coal resources. They know that coal is a valuable resource which can be used to produce a huge variety of valuable nonfuel products. They also recognize that until technology can make alternative fuels economically feasible, the world will continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels--especially coal, the world`s most abundant energy resource. Individual papers have been entered.

  3. TOXIC ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SYNFUELS AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the potential for toxic organic emissions from synfuels wastewater treatment systems. The synthetic fuels facilities examined were coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, shale oil, by-product coke, and associated pe...

  4. Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

    1984-01-01

    Task 1. Methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. The contributions of this project to the electrochemical analysis of sulfides and polysulfides are reviewed and summarized. Electrochemical reduction at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) is the method of choice for the determination of polysulfidic sulfur. Total sulfidic sulfur can conveniently be quantitated in mixtures of sulfides and polysulfides, by measuring diffusion currents engendered by the anodic depolarization of the DME in the presence of the moieties HS/sup -/ and S/sub x//sup 2 -/. Task 2. Methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. In a solvent consisting of 40% ethanol-60% water, electrocapillary curves substantiated the adsorption of ethanol at the dropping mercury electrode. The potentials where adsorption occurred paralleled a shift of 1 volt in the polarographic half potential of the reaction: S/sub 4/O/sub 6//sup 2 -/ + 2e = 2S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Task 3. Total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Two H-Coal liquefaction sour water samples were analyzed representing different stages in the PETC clean-up procedures. One specimen was a sample stripped of H/sub 2/S and ammonia; the other, resulting from a different batch, was stripped and subsequently extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone. The stripped effluent contained less than 0.001 M concentrations of sulfide, polysulfide, thiosulfate, and sulfate. On the other hand, sulfate accounted for 90% of the total sulfur present in the stripped and extracted sample; the remainder consisted of sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur as well as thiosulfate. 13 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  6. Gasification of biomass as a source of synfuels for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, J. R.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    The economic viability of forest biomass gasification in furnishing feedstocks for synfuels production in Brazil is argued, on grounds of high net energy yield (due to minimal use of mechanization in the cultivation of timber such as Eucalyptus) and the high efficiency of acid hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis methods already being used. A thermochemical process still under development promises still-higher efficiency and greater economy than coal gasification and coal-fired electrical generation. Assuming a feedback cost of $1.00 per million Btu, a minimum gasoline precursor cost would be $0.35 a gallon.

  7. Utility researchers plan future - with our money: EPRI's drive for centralized power, synfuels, and more nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, A.

    1981-06-01

    Research efforts by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) focus on synfuels, coal, and nuclear energy at the expense of renewable energy sources and regulations to protect safety and the environment. EPRI is accused of pursuing industry profits, downgrading regulations, and centralized power. Evidence for these accusations is drawn from the EPRI budget, memos, and EPRI studies on nuclear projects, renewables, fuel cells, and battery technology. Funds have been diverted to alternative research programs in two states, but EPRI commands about $2.60 per year from each utility customer for its $260 million (1980) budget, which funds the industry's major research effort. (DCK)

  8. MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDIX A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

  9. MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES B AND C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

  10. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  11. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  12. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  14. Synfuels environmental research program for high-Btu coal gasification: health effects summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, C.A. Jr.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Stetter, J.R.; Haugen, D.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Stamoudis, V.C.; Peak, M.J.; Matsushita, T.; Boparai, A.S.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Process materials from two coal gasification pilot plants were evaluated for their toxicologic potential by investigators in the Synfuels Environmental Research Program at Argonne National Laboratory. The process samples were collected at the HYGAS fluidized-bed gasifier operated by the Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago, IL) and at a slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC; Grand Forks, ND). A tiered approach was used or the toxicologic evaluation. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the materials were first assessed with a battery of short-term cellular screening assays. Selected toxic materials were then studied in a number of acute and chronic whole-animal toxicity assays, including tests of carcinogenicity. In the screening assays, a number of materials from both gasifiers were found to be genotoxic and cytotoxic. All HYGAS materials except quench waters yielded nonvolatile organic (NVO) fractions containing mutagenic components as determined in the Ames Salmonella assay. Fewer materials were tested in whole-animal assays. HYGAS recycle oil was slightly toxic in an acute oral toxicity assay (LD/sub 50/ was 1.3 g/kg). HYGAS recycle oil and char slurry oil caused dermal response in rabbits. NVO fractions of a HYGAS LTR gas condensate, pretreater quench water, char slurry oil, cyclone slurry, and recycle oil were eye irritants. HYGAS recycle oil and UNDERC tar were dermal carcinogens in mice.

  15. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  16. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Siting Synfuels Plants in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood; David Bell; William Schaffers; Thomas Foulke; Richard D Boardman

    2011-09-01

    A comprehensive study has been completed to determine the feasibility of constructing and operating gasification and reforming plants which convert Wyoming fossil resources (coal and natural gas) into the higher value products of power, transportation fuels, and chemical feedstocks, such as ammonia and methanol. Detailed plant designs, simulation models, economic models and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas models were developed, validated by national-level engineering firms, which were used to address the following issues that heretofore have prevented these types of projects from going forward in Wyoming, as much as elsewhere in the United States: 1. Quantification of plant capital and operating expenditures 2. Optimization of plant heat integration 3. Quantification of coal, natural gas, electricity, and water requirements 4. Access to raw materials and markets 5. Requirements for new infrastructure, such as electrical power lines and product pipelines 6. The possible cost-benefit tradeoffs of using natural gas reforming versus coal gasification 7. The extent of labor resources required for plant construction and for permanent operations 8. Options for managing associated CO2 emissions, including capture and uses in enhanced oil recovery and sequestration 9. Options for reducing water requirements such as recovery of the high moisture content in Wyoming coal and use of air coolers rather than cooling towers 10. Permitting requirements 11. Construction, and economic impacts on the local communities This paper will summarize the analysis completed for two major synfuels production pathways, methanol to gasoline and Fischer-Trosph diesel production, using either coal or natural gas as a feedstock.

  18. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. |; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D.

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. The authors use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3% and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  19. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  20. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. PMID:16837571

  1. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  2. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  3. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  4. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  5. Ethanol and neuronal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mandel, P; Ledig, M; M'Paria, J R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on membrane enzymes (Na+, K+ and Mg2+ ATPases, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase) alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were studied in nerve cells (established cell lines, primary cultures of chick and rat brain) cultured in the presence of 100 mM ethanol, and in total rat brain, following various ethanol treatments of the rats (20% ethanol as the sole liquid source, intraperitoneal injection). The results show a difference between neuronal and glial cells. Most of the observed changes in enzymatic activities returned rapidly to control values when ethanol was withdrawn from the culture medium or from the diet. Alcohol dehydrogenase was more stimulated by ethanol than aldehyde dehydrogenase; therefore acetaldehyde may be accumulated. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity may allow an accumulation of cytotoxic O2- radicals in nervous tissue and may explain the polymorphism of lesions brought about by alcohol intoxication. PMID:6264495

  6. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  7. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  9. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  10. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  11. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  12. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  13. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  14. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  15. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3β-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742 (8):0.258 (8) and 0.632 (12):0.368 (12). PMID:21588987

  16. Ethanol from sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Day, D,F.

    1980-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has long been of interest to sugar farmers and sugar processors. The thought has been that one could plant the sweet sorghum on fallow land and harvest it and process it in September, before the start of the regular sugar cane griding season. Several disadvantages have prevented its use in sugar production, but these seem much less of a problem if ethanol is to be produced. The DOE has targeted sweet sorghum as a prime crop for ethanol production, and the planting of 14 million new acres in sweet sorghum is the underlying assumption in a DOE plant to produce 11 billion gallons of alcohol fuel by the year 2000.

  17. Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of ethanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are beginning to become established through laboratory, modeling and field research. Usage of ethanol, which increased due to federal mandates, drives interest and potential impacts on BTEX. Through co...

  18. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  19. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  20. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  1. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mackek, S. )

    1991-03-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed.

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  3. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  4. Coproduction of ethanol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gong, C S; Du, J X; Cao, N J; Tsao, G T

    2000-01-01

    Ethanol and glycerol are both metabolic products of yeasts. There are occasions when coproduction of both is considered desirable in industrial operations. In this article, we describe the potential of integrating the two processes. A LORRE Y8 yeast culture isolated from molasses is capable of efficient glycerol production from glucose, and a yeast Culture 1400 is an excellent producer of ethanol. By controlling the process conditions, the ratio of ethanol and glycerol production can be varied. PMID:10849818

  5. Ethanol from municipal cellulosic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. J., Jr.; Timbario, T. J.; Mulloney, J. A., Jr.

    This paper addresses the use of municipal cellulosic wastes as a feedstock for producing ethanol fuels, and describes the application of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for their production. The concept incorporates recent process technology developments within the framework of an existing industry familiar with large-scale ethanol fermentation (the brewing industry). Preliminary indications are that the cost of producing ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis in an existing plant with minimal facility modifications (low capital investment) can be significantly less than that of ethanol from grain fermentation.

  6. Ethanol Coproducts for Livestock Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid growth of the ethanol industry in the United States has generated large quantities of ethanol coproducts, primarily distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), available as a feedstuff for livestock. These coproducts are often added to livestock diets as a source of protein and energy. The...

  7. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World ethanol production and use of ethanol as motor fuel is increasing. In the United States, 6.3 billion gallons (24 billion liters) of new annual production capacity was planned or under construction in 2007, in addition to annual production capacity of 6.1 billion gallons (23 billion liters) fr...

  8. Improved ethanol precipitation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; González, Ana; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2010-04-01

    In this Short Communication, a shorter version of the standard DNA ethanol precipitation and purification protocol is described. It uses a mixture of 70% ethanol, 75 mM ammonium acetate and different concentrations of different carriers to perform DNA precipitation and washing in only one step. PMID:20336673

  9. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  10. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  11. The South Dakota Ethanol Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  12. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  13. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  14. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  15. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41 degrees C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  16. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. Chronic ethanol treatment potientials ethanol-induced increases in interstitial nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Stouffer, David G.; Parsons, Loren H.

    2013-01-01

    We employed in vivo microdialysis to characterize the effect of an ethanol challenge injection on endocannabinoid levels in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-naïve and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol (0.75 and 2 g/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased dialysate 2-arachidonoylglycerol (to a maximum 157 ± 20% of baseline) and decreased anandamide (to a minimum 52 ± 9% of baseline) in ethanol-naïve rats. The endocannabinoid clearance inhibitor N-(4-hydrophenyl) arachidonoylamide (AM404; 3 mg/kg) potentiated ethanol effects on 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels but did not alter ethanol-induced decreases in anandamide. AM404 alone did not alter dialysate levels of either endocannabinoid. Then, we characterized the effect of ethanol challenge on nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid levels in rats previously maintained on an ethanol-containing liquid diet. Ethanol challenge produced a greater and more prolonged increase in 2-arach-idonoylglycerol (to a maximum 394 ± 135% of baseline) in ethanol-experienced than in ethanol-naïve rats. The profile in ethanol-experienced rats was similar to that produced by AM404 pre-treatment in ethanol-naïve rats. AM404 in ethanol-experienced rats led to a further enhancement in the 2-arachidonoylglycerol response to ethanol challenge (to a maximum 704 ± 174% of baseline). Our findings demonstrate that ethanol-induced increases in nucleus accumbens 2-arachidonoylglycerol are potentiated in animals with a history of ethanol consumption. PMID:19650871

  18. Effect of ethanol on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M; Jéquier, E; Schutz, Y

    1994-04-01

    The thermogenic response induced by ethanol ingestion in humans has not been extensively studied. This study was designed to determine the thermic effect of ethanol added to a normal diet in healthy nonalcoholic subjects, using indirect calorimetry measurements over a 24-h period in a respiration chamber. The thermic effect of ethanol was also measured when ethanol was ingested in the fasting state, using a ventilated hood system during a 5-h period. Six subjects ingested 95.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) g ethanol in 1 day partitioned over three meals; there was a 5.5 +/- 1.2% increase in 24-h energy expenditure compared with a control day in which all conditions were identical except that no ethanol was consumed. The calculated ethanol-induced thermogenesis (EIT) was 22.5 +/- 4.7% of the ethanol energy ingested. Ingestion of 31.9 +/- 0.6 g ethanol in the fasting state led to a 7.4 +/- 0.6% increase in energy expenditure over baseline values, and the calculated EIT was 17.1 +/- 2.2%. It is concluded that in healthy nonalcoholic adults ethanol elicits a thermogenic response equal to approximately 20% of the ethanol energy. Thus the concept of the apparently inefficient utilization of ethanol energy is supported by these results which show that only approximately 80% of the ethanol energy is used as metabolizable energy for biochemical processes in healthy nonalcoholic moderate ethanol consumers. PMID:8184963

  19. New microbe can make ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Researchers have created a bacterium that converts all of the sugars from inedible vegetable waste and other woody material into ethanol by inserting the genes of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis into Escherichia coli. The resulting bacterium converts 90% -95% of the main forms of sugar in biomass into 4% - 6% concentrations of ethanol. The goal is to reach a 7% to 8% concentration. Current ethanol production from corn in a yeast-fermentation process yields a 10% - 12% ethanol concentration, but the conversion rate is less efficient than with the new bacterium. Zymomonas, found in cactus plants and used by the Aztecs to make alcohol, was selected for its known conversion efficiency. Providing the engineering challenges can be overcome, there could be several pilot plants running in 3-5 years. Even though it is not currently profitable to make ethanol from vegetable waste, if the fact that this new process reduces the total material by 90% were taken into account, perhaps a landfill reduction credit based on current tipping fees would make the actual costs both more realistic and more attractive.

  20. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  1. Fuel ethanol from black locust

    SciTech Connect

    Kamdem, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    Black locust (Robinia psudoacacia) chips from single clone at different ages (1 to 20 years) were analyzed in terms of lignin, extractives, and carbohydrate content. Samples with high carbohydrate content were chosen for liquid ethanol conversion, by using a simultaneous saccharification fermentation process. To achieve efficient fermentation, samples were extracted with benzene and ethanol, and then treated with a 1% sulfuric acid solution for 10 minutes at 130{degrees}C. Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 188 were used to reduce cellulose into glucose and yeasts such as B. clausenii and/or S. cerevisiae to ferment available sugars. Preliminary results indicate a negative influence of extractives present in black locust. Those extractives are mainly flavonoids (Robinetin an dihydrorobinetin) which are relatively toxic to some wood destroying organisms. Older trees give low ethanol yield and high ash content.

  2. Fuel ethanol production in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, I.C.

    1993-12-31

    The Brazilian ethanol from sugar cane program is the largest commercial liquid fuel from biomass system in operation today, with a production of 12 million m{sup 3} ethanol/year. During its 15 years of existence many issues were considered, under varying economic and strategic conditions. An overview is presented of the program development, present situation and main trends. Main subjects are technology development and implementation, costs, environmental benefits and constraints, and social/institutional issues. Is shown that the debate over the program has led to a sound knowledge on key issues (energy and CO{sub 2} balance, technology level and cost reduction, agricultural mechanization and job creation, land utilization, urban-air pollution effects, ethanol distribution, blending and use in dedicated engines.) With this basic knowledge some trends for the near future are considered (gains in productivity/conversion efficiency and cost implications; change to unburnt cane harvesting and technology development for cane trash conversion).

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jun Cheol; Pak, Daewon

    2011-01-01

    Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids. PMID:21596551

  5. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  6. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  7. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  8. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  9. Advanced Biorefineries for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review, "Advanced biorefineries for production of fuel ethanol," is a chapter in the Wiley book entitled Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries and is intended to cover all major ethanol production processes to date. The chapter discusses current fuel ethanol production processe...

  10. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  11. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM CORN AND SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and use of ethanol for fuel is increasing world-wide in response to economic, security, and environmental concerns. Ethanol is used to reduce reliance on imported oil and to reduce the risk of disruption of domestic oil production. Other reasons cited for use of ethanol include its role...

  12. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink. PMID:23341340

  13. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  15. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  16. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. PMID:26774181

  17. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  18. Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, Steven L; Glendinning, John I

    2009-03-31

    Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats were exposed to ethanol in utero via the dam's diet, whereas control rats were either pair-fed an iso-caloric diet or given food ad libitum. We found that fetal ethanol exposure increased the taste-mediated acceptability of both ethanol and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), but not sucrose (sweet). Importantly, a significant proportion of the increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed directly to the attenuated aversion to ethanol's quinine-like taste quality. Fetal ethanol exposure also enhanced ethanol intake and the behavioral response to ethanol odor. Notably, the elevated intake of ethanol was also causally linked to the enhanced odor response. Our results demonstrate that fetal exposure specifically increases ethanol avidity by, in part, making it taste and smell better. More generally, they establish an epigenetic chemosensory mechanism by which maternal patterns of drug use can be transferred to offspring. Given that many licit (e.g., tobacco products) and illicit (e.g., marijuana) drugs have noteworthy chemosensory components, our findings have broad implications for the relationship between maternal patterns of drug use, child development, and postnatal vulnerability. PMID:19273846

  19. Transport and degradation of ethanol in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Khan, Imtiyaz A.; Chen, Xun-Hong; Spalding, Roy F.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is rapidly replacing methyl tert-butyl ether (M tBE), the primary fuel oxygenate in the US, and ethanol releases from spills and leaky underground storage tanks (LUSTs) are anticipated. Ethanol has received little attention as a potential groundwater contaminant. This study investigates the fate and transport of ethanol under transient conditions in a sand and gravel aquifer. A pulse containing approximately 220 mg L - 1 ethanol and 16 mg L - 1 bromide was injected into the shallow sand and gravel aquifer and monitored to estimate its persistence and transport. The plume was monitored for 2.5 months using downgradient multilevel samplers (MLSs). Values for ethanol retardation were measured from ethanol and bromide breakthrough data and compared to estimates using published Koc values for low carbon aquifer sediments ( foc = 10 μg C g - 1 sediment). Ethanol transport was not retarded ( R = 0.99). A 3-dimensional model reasonably simulated bromide and ethanol breakthrough curves. An average first-order decay constant was estimated to be 0.32 d - 1 ( t1 / 2 = 2.2 d). At the second fence, 75% of the injected bromide and less than 3% of ethanol remained in the plume. Monitored terminal electron acceptor concentrations demonstrated that the majority of the ethanol was transformed by anaerobic processes other than denitrification and sulfate reduction.

  20. Transport and degradation of ethanol in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Khan, Imtiyaz A; Chen, Xun-Hong; Spalding, Roy F

    2006-01-10

    Ethanol is rapidly replacing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), the primary fuel oxygenate in the US, and ethanol releases from spills and leaky underground storage tanks (LUSTs) are anticipated. Ethanol has received little attention as a potential groundwater contaminant. This study investigates the fate and transport of ethanol under transient conditions in a sand and gravel aquifer. A pulse containing approximately 220 mg L-1 ethanol and 16 mg L-1 bromide was injected into the shallow sand and gravel aquifer and monitored to estimate its persistence and transport. The plume was monitored for 2.5 months using downgradient multilevel samplers (MLSs). Values for ethanol retardation were measured from ethanol and bromide breakthrough data and compared to estimates using published Koc values for low carbon aquifer sediments (foc=10 microg C g-1 sediment). Ethanol transport was not retarded (R=0.99). A 3-dimensional model reasonably simulated bromide and ethanol breakthrough curves. An average first-order decay constant was estimated to be 0.32 d-1 (t1/2=2.2 d). At the second fence, 75% of the injected bromide and less than 3% of ethanol remained in the plume. Monitored terminal electron acceptor concentrations demonstrated that the majority of the ethanol was transformed by anaerobic processes other than denitrification and sulfate reduction. PMID:16330124

  1. Ethanol versus naphtha under Brazil's economy

    SciTech Connect

    Luchi, N.R.

    1982-05-01

    Ethanol is able to replace naphtha in two of its major usages, as raw material for ethylene production and as fuel for Otto engines. This possibility raises the question of value - or opportunity cost - of ethanol. Ethanol's economic value as a fuel is that value which equals the cost of the fuel consumed by a given vehicle travelling a given distance. In each case, unblended gasoline, a gasoline and ethanol blend or hydrated alcohol alone are the alternative fuels used. Ethanol's economic value as feedstock for producing ethylene is defined as that which makes the revenue from the ethylene derived from alcohol equal to the total revenue of products resulting from thermal cracking of 1 m/sup 3/ of naphtha. In this paper it is shown that ethanol's highest value corresponds to its use as hydrated alcohol feedstock for ethylene production. However, present tax laws and subsidies favor ethanol fuel use. 4 refs.

  2. Development of tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol: daily versus repeated cycles treatment with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pohorecky, L A; Roberts, P

    1991-10-01

    We examined the effect of various treatment schedules with ethanol on the development of tolerance and the severity of withdrawal in rats. Tolerance to ethanol was examined after a challenge dose of ethanol using rectal temperature, dowel performance, and tail flick response; open field activity and the startle response were determined during withdrawal. Animals treated daily with ethanol developed greater tolerance, and also lost it faster, compared with animals subjected to repeated cycles of 3 days of ethanol treatment followed by 3 drug-free days. Also, the severity of withdrawal was greater in animals treated daily with ethanol. In the second study, we examined the development of tolerance and withdrawal severity of animals subjected to three different schedules of daily ethanol administration. Overall, the animals receiving continuous infusion of ethanol showed the most severe withdrawal and had, except for dowel performance, the fastest loss of tolerance to ethanol. PMID:1755516

  3. Alkylation of toluene with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Walendziewski, J.; Trawczynski, J.

    1996-10-01

    A series of Y and ZSM-5 zeolite based catalysts was prepared. Zeolites were cation exchanged and formed with 50% of aluminum hydroxide as a binder, and the obtained catalysts were finally thermally treated. Activity tests in alkylation of toluene with ethanol were carried out in the temperature range of 325--400 C, in nitrogen or hydrogen stream, and a pressure up to 3 MPa. The feed consisted of toluene and ethanol mixed in a mole ratio 1/1 or 2/1. The obtained results showed that among the studied catalysts the highest activity in the alkylation reaction was attained by ZSM-5 zeolite based catalyst with a moderate acidity and medium silica to alumina ratio, i.e., {approximately}50. Activity and selectivity of the most active catalyst as well as conversion of the feed components were similar to those reported in other papers. The content of p-ethyltoluene in alkylation products attained ca. 60%.

  4. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.

    The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

  6. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  7. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  8. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  9. Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Brauer, Lisa H; Behm, Frederique M; Cramblett, Matthew; Calkins, Kevin; Lawhon, Dawn

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence has shown a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and ethanol use, and previous studies suggest some commonality in the neural pathways mediating effects of nicotine and ethanol. In this study, the subjective and behavioral interactions among nicotine, ethanol, and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were investigated. The main objectives were to determine how the rewarding effects of nicotine might be modified by ethanol, and to compare the effects of ethanol with those of a nicotinic antagonist (mecamylamine). A total of 48 smokers who regularly consumed alcoholic beverages participated in four laboratory sessions presenting a 2 (nicotine vs. denicotinized cigarette smoke)x2 (10 mg oral mecamylamine hydrochloride vs. placebo)x2 (ethanol.5 g/kg vs. placebo) design, with ethanol as a between-subjects factor. Dependent measures included blood alcohol concentration (BAC), as assessed by breath alcohol detector; subjective drug effects; and rate of ad lib smoking during a 2-hr period. Results showed that peak BAC averaged.03 g/dl in the ethanol condition. Ethanol potentiated some of the subjective rewarding effects of nicotine, including smoking satisfaction, stimulant as well as calming effects, and relief of craving for cigarettes. During the ad lib smoking period, mecamylamine decreased satisfaction associated with the nicotine-containing cigarettes; mecamylamine also induced smoking but only in the placebo ethanol condition. These results highlight the potent interaction between ethanol and nicotinic systems, and suggest that ethanol can potentiate the rewarding effects of nicotine as well as offset some of the effects of a nicotinic antagonist. PMID:14982697

  10. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  11. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  12. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  13. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  14. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  15. Intracellular accumulation of ethanol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Loueiro, V.; Ferreira, H.G.

    1983-09-01

    Ethanol produced in the course of a batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or added from the outside, affects adversely the specific rate of growth of the yeast population, its viability, its specific rate of fermentation, and the specific rates of the uptake of sugar and amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are many and include irreversible denaturation and hyperbolic noncompetitive inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, the exponential noncompetitive inhibition of glucose, maltose, and ammonium transport, the depression of the optimum and the maximum temperature for growth, the increase of the minimum temperature for growth, and the enhancement of thermal death and petite mutation. Nagodawithana and Steinkraus reported that added ethanol was less toxic for S. cerevisiae than ethanol produced by the yeast. The death rates were lower in the presence of added ethanol than those measured at similar external ethanol concentrations endogenously produced. They proposed that, due to an unbalance between the rates of production and the net outflux of ethanol, there would be an intracellular accumulation of ethanol which in turn would explain the apparently greater inhibitory potency of endogenously produced ethanol present in the medium. This hypothesis was supported by the findings of several authors who reported that the intracellular concentration of ethanol, in the course of batch fermentation, is much higher than its concentration in the extracellular medium. The present work is an attempt to clarify this matter. (Refs. 32).

  16. Feasibility of solar assisted ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, M. L.; Shekar, A. N.; Smith, T. F.

    1981-12-01

    Interest in alternative liquid fuels is growing due to the increasing scarcity and cost of conventional fuels. One such alternative is ethanol fuel. A positive energy balance associated with production of ethanol fuel, however, has been a point of concern. Utilizing 'free' solar process energy can displace non-renewable fuels and produce a more favorable energy balance. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the feasibility of a solar assisted ethanol fuel production system utilizing a simulation model. System sensitivity to collector area, configuration, and type along with ethanol fuel production rate, distillation pressure and temperature, and thermal energy storage size are examined.

  17. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied. PMID:24834817

  18. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  19. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  20. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  1. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  2. Ethanol: a brief economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Del Rio Farms, Inc. has a large farm in the Imperial Valley area of California, a known geothermal resource area. The 10 MW geothermal flash steam power plant, operated by Union Oil Company, is located on their property. Presently the owners have under consideration a 10 million gallon per year ethanol plant. The initial feed to the plant would be corn, with sugar beets as a possible alternate feed. The ultimate plan is to use waste products and biomass feed stocks. Geothermal water would provide the necessary process heat for the plant. An economic evaluation was performed to assist in the planning. Each of the following conclusions are based on an ethanol plant that produces 10 million gallons of ethanol per year. Over a 20 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock would generate a rate of return of +12% on a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. Over a 15 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock is probably not economically feasible since it would have a rate of return less than 12% or a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. A corn feed stock plant operates at a loss for the first seven years if 95% of the $33,000,000 cost is debt financed. The plant is economically feasible only if offsetting energy income from other profitable operation permits taking advantage of investment tax credits and depletion allowances that are available. If this is true, the project is highly feasible, paying back twice the 5% equity capital in the first year.

  3. High ethanol dose during early adolescence induces locomotor activation and increases subsequent ethanol intake during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescent rats were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal Day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal Day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol's locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake. PMID:20373327

  4. The ethanol program in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldemberg, José

    2006-10-01

    The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This problem requires adequate solutions, one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. This paper presents the history of this program, from its launch in the 1970s to the today's condition of full competitiveness in a free market. It also shows how it can be replicated to other countries, in order to replace 10 per cent of the world's gasoline consumption.

  5. Cocaine attenuates vasoconstriction to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, A.A.; Morley, D.; Vosacek, R.; Zhang, X.Y.; Shah, R. )

    1991-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effects of cocaine and ethanol on vasomotor tone. Using a standard isolated vascular ring preparation, 24 rings from 7 New Zealand White Rabbits were studied. All rings were denuded as verified by methacholine challenge. The dose response to NE for each ring was used as a standard for vasoconstrictors Dose response curves to ETH and C were done in random order. Concentrations of both ETH and C employed were physiologically attainable in man and below thresholds for coma or death. The dose response curve to ETH was repeated after addition of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M C to the arterial bath. After adding 1,500 ug/ml of ETH, the dose response curve to C was repeated. Ethanol, alone caused significant vasoconstriction of arterial rings. After the addition of C to the bath, the dose response to ETH was significantly shifted to the right, peak contraction achieved was 36.6 {plus minus} 3.2% of maximal NE contraction. Cocaine alone did not result in any change in resting tension of the rings. When ETH was added to the bath, C caused vasoconstriction, the peak value equivalent to 12.5 {plus minus} 2.2% of maximal contraction to NE.

  6. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  7. Idaho ethanol distillery processing corn and potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The completion and successful testing of a 500,000 gallons per year anhydrous ethanol distillery located on the Janss Farms south of the town of Wendell, Idaho is reported. The plant will utilize crops grown on Janss Farms as well as locally purchased materials, the stillage will be fed directly to cattle, while the ethanol will be sold for the blending of gasohol.

  8. Sweden will build an ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-16

    It is reported that a 10 million dollar demonstration plant for producing ethanol by continuous fermentation will be built in Sweden. The plant will have a capacity of 20,000 liters/day of ethanol and 30.5 metric tons/day of protein-rich cattle fodder using potatoes and grain as feedstock.

  9. Ethanol Making Significant Impact on South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  10. Integrated Biosensor Systems for Ethanol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cós, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valero, Francisco; Valdman, Belkis

    Different integrated systems with a bi-enzymatic biosensor, working with two different methods for ethanol detection—flow injection analysis (FIA) or sequential injection analysis (SIA)—were developed and applied for ethanol extracted from gasohol mixtures, as well as for samples of alcoholic beverages and fermentation medium. A detection range of 0.05-1.5 g ethanol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909, has been reached when using FIA system, working with only one microreactor packed with immobilized alcohol oxidase and injecting free horseradish peroxidase. When using both enzymes, immobilized separately in two microreactors, the detection ranges obtained varied from 0.001 to 0.066 g ethanol/l, without on-line dilution to 0.010-0.047 g ethanol/l when a 1:7,000 dilution ratio was employed, reaching correlation coefficients of 0.9897 and 0.9992, respectively. For the integrated biosensor SIA system with the stop-flow technique, the linear range was 0.005-0.04 g/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9922.

  11. Ethanol as an economic competitor to gasoline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol is one of the technology success stories of the 21st century. In less then one third of a century it has gone from being a material produced rather inefficiently in small quantities to a major commercial product. This success can be attributed not only to the fact that ethanol is a rene...

  12. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  13. [Progress on engineered strains for ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan-qiang; Xu, Ping

    2006-08-01

    With the 21 century's coming, the era of cheap oil is coming to the end. There has been an increasing worldwide interest in fuel ethanol. In the last two decades, lots of work has been done to develop strains for ethanol producing. Research progress on metabolic engineering of strains for fuel ethanol production is summarized, including genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize starch, pentose and cellulose, Zymomonas mobilis to ferment arabinose and xylose, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca to introduce heterogenous ethanol production pathway. The aim of engineering these strains is to obtain an ideal microorganism which can converse the available carbon sources to ethanol rapidly and efficiently with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the cheap materials such as lignocellulose hydrolysate. The importance of fuel ethanol will be a stimulus to develop engineered hardy strains to utilize cheap materials for high ethanol concentration production. Since both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis are generally regarded as safe (GRAS), genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae which can utilize raw starch directly and recombinant Zymomonas mobilis which can ferment glucose, arabinose and xylose in the lignocellulose hydrolysate have potential application to industry in the near future. PMID:17037078

  14. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  15. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  16. Controlled Antibiotic use during Fuel Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fuel ethanol from corn feedstock is a rapidly growing industry in the US. The ability to make a profit in ethanol production from corn is marginal, and depends heavily on the sale of byproducts of the fermentation process. The fermentation reaction is optimized for yeast growth a...

  17. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage and silage-containing feed on dairy farms have recently been identified as a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, we present measurements of ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage samples made using a wind tunnel system. Flux of ethanol f...

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Fuel Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial fuel ethanol is not produced under sterile, pure-culture conditions, and consequently bacterial contamination is a recurring problem. The offending microbes are generally species of lactic acid bacteria that drain the sugar available for conversion to ethanol and scavenge essential micro...

  19. Composition and Behavior of Fuel Ethanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol usage in the United States has increased due in part to the elimination of methyl tert-butyl ether from the fuel supply and to the mandates of Congress. Two samples, one each from a wet mill and a dry mill ethanol plant, were obtained before denaturing. Each of these ...

  20. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  1. Ethanol processing coproducts - economics, impacts, sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing; as is the quantity of coproducts generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and signif...

  2. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  3. CONVERSION OF CORN FIBROUS MATERIAL INTO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 1.7 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced in the U.S. (2001), over 90% of which was produced from corn. Corn is prepared for ethanol fermentation by either wet milling or dry grinding in approximately equal volumes. In both processes, the fibrous components of the kernel are folded in...

  4. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION POTENTIAL FOR ETHANOL PROCESSING RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently so is the quantity of byproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These coproduct streams are currently solely utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors w...

  5. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  6. Ethanol and the environment: Clarifying the controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.J.; Wyman, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    Domestic transportation fuels are almost exclusively (about 97%) derived petroleum and account for about 64% of the total petroleum used in the United States. Few substitutes are currently available for petroleum-based transportation fuels, making the United States extremely vulnerable, both strategically and economically, to supply disruptions. In recent years, interest in ethanol as a fuel extender, octane enhancer, and oxygenate has increased dramatically because of concerns associated with conventional transportation fuels. Ethanol is produced commercially from sugar in Brazil and starch crops in United States. However, lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry wastes, municipal solid waste, and dedicated energy crops can also be converted into ethanol. This resource provides a low-cost, abundant feedstock that would support large-scale ethanol production in this country. Ethanol can be used as a 10% blend, reacted with isobutylene to form ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or used directly as a neat fuel. The fuel properties and processing requirements of each of these options must be properly accounted for in order to compare the merits of ethanol use with conventional fuels. The advantages and disadvantages of using ethanol as a blend, as ETBE, or as a neat fuel will be discussed and an overview of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for producing ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass will be present.

  7. Maternal ethanol consumption by pregnant guinea pigs causes neurobehavioral deficits and increases ethanol preference in offspring.

    PubMed

    Shea, Kayla M; Hewitt, Amy J; Olmstead, Mary C; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to ethanol, through maternal consumption of an aqueous ethanol solution, induces neurobehavioral deficits and increases ethanol preference in offspring. Pregnant Dunkin-Hartley-strain guinea pigs were given 24-h access to an aqueous ethanol solution (5%, v/v) sweetened with sucralose (1 g/l), or water sweetened with sucralose (1 g/l), throughout gestation. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured in the offspring on postnatal day (PD) 10. The offspring underwent either ethanol preference testing using a two-bottle-choice paradigm beginning on PD 40 or Morris water maze testing using a hidden moving platform design beginning on PD 60. Maternal consumption of a 5% (v/v) ethanol solution (average daily dose of 2.3±0.1 g of ethanol/kg maternal body weight; range: 1.8-2.8 g/kg) decreased offspring birth weight, increased spontaneous locomotor activity, and increased preference for an aqueous ethanol solution. In the Morris water maze test, sucralose-exposed offspring decreased escape latency on the second day of testing, whereas the ethanol-exposed offspring showed no improvement. These data demonstrate that moderate maternal consumption of ethanol produces hyperactivity, enhances ethanol preference, and impairs learning and memory in guinea pig offspring. PMID:22157142

  8. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  9. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  10. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Haft, Rembrandt J F; Keating, David H; Schwaegler, Tyler; Schwalbach, Michael S; Vinokur, Jeffrey; Tremaine, Mary; Peters, Jason M; Kotlajich, Matthew V; Pohlmann, Edward L; Ong, Irene M; Grass, Jeffrey A; Kiley, Patricia J; Landick, Robert

    2014-06-24

    The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, and then characterized mechanisms of toxicity and resistance using genome-scale DNAseq, RNAseq, and ribosome profiling coupled with specific assays of ribosome and RNA polymerase function. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ recapitulated most of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. Ethanol induced miscoding errors during protein synthesis, from which the evolved rpsQ allele protected cells by increasing ribosome accuracy. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis through direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase conformations are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ help protect these central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol. PMID:24927582

  11. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Rembrandt J. F.; Keating, David H.; Schwaegler, Tyler; Schwalbach, Michael S.; Vinokur, Jeffrey; Tremaine, Mary; Peters, Jason M.; Kotlajich, Matthew V.; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Ong, Irene M.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, and then characterized mechanisms of toxicity and resistance using genome-scale DNAseq, RNAseq, and ribosome profiling coupled with specific assays of ribosome and RNA polymerase function. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ recapitulated most of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. Ethanol induced miscoding errors during protein synthesis, from which the evolved rpsQ allele protected cells by increasing ribosome accuracy. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis through direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase conformations are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ help protect these central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol. PMID:24927582

  12. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  13. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Voluntary Ethanol Intake in Male and Female Ethanol-Preferring Rats: Effects of Long-Term Ethanol Access

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwasser, Alan M.; McCulley, Walter D.; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  14. New improvements for lignocellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Margeot, Antoine; Hahn-Hagerdal, Bärbel; Edlund, Maria; Slade, Raphael; Monot, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. Ethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, and the prospect of its biological production from abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks is attractive. The recalcitrance of these raw materials still renders proposed processes complex and costly, but there are grounds for optimism. The application of new, engineered enzyme systems for cellulose hydrolysis, the construction of inhibitor-tolerant pentose-fermenting industrial yeast strains, combined with optimized process integration promise significant improvements. The opportunity to test these advances in pilot plants paves the way for large-scale units. This review summarizes recent progress in this field, including the validation at pilot scale, and the economic and environmental impacts of this production pathway. PMID:19502048

  15. The Effects of Chronic Ethanol Administration on Amygdala Neuronal Firing and Ethanol Withdrawal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Physical dependence on ethanol results in an ethanol withdrawal (ETX) syndrome including susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rodents after abrupt cessation of ethanol. Chronic ethanol administration and ETX induce functional changes of neurons in several brain regions, including the amygdala. Amygdala neurons are requisite elements of the neuronal network subserving AGS propagation during ETX induced by a subacute “binge” ethanol administration protocol. However, the effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ETX seizure behaviors are unknown. In the present study ethanol (5 g/kg) was administered intragastrically in Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 28 days [chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) protocol]. One week later the rats began receiving ethanol intragastrically 3 times daily for 4 days (binge protocol). Microwire electrodes were implanted prior to CIE or on the day after CIE ended day 29 to record extracellular action potentials in lateral amygdala (LAMG) neurons. The first dose of ethanol administered in the binge protocol following CIE treatment did not alter LAMG neuronal firing, which contrasts with firing suppression seen previously in the binge protocol alone. These data indicate that CIE induces neuroadaptive changes in the ETX network which reduce LAMG response to ethanol. LAMG neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli prior to AGS were significantly decreased during ETX as compared to those before ethanol treatment. LAMG neurons fired tonically throughout the tonic convulsions during AGS. CIE plus binge treatment resulted in a significantly greater mean seizure duration and a significantly elevated incidence of death than was seen previously with the binge protocol alone, indicating an elevated seizure severity following chronic ethanol administration. PMID:18614185

  16. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium's neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:20661453

  17. Ethanol for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Schurmann, Paul; Peñalver, Jorge; Valderrábano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol infusion was an early mode of ablative treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. Its initial descriptions involved coronary intra-arterial delivery, targeting arrhythmogenic substrates in drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia or the atrioventricular node. Largely superseded by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and other contact-based technologies as a routine ablation strategy, intracoronary arterial ethanol infusion remains as an alternative option in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia when conventional ablation fails. Arrhythmic foci that are deep-seated in the myocardium may not be amenable to catheter ablation from either the endocardium or the epicardium by RFA, but they can be targeted by an ethanol infusion. Recent findings Recently, we have explored ethanol injection through cardiac venous systems, in order to avoid the risks of complications and limitations of coronary arterial instrumentation. Vein of Marshall ethanol infusion is being studied as an adjunctive procedure in ablation of atrial fibrillation, and coronary venous ethanol infusion for ventricular tachycardia. Conclusion Ethanol ablation remains useful as a bail-out technique for refractory cases to RFA, or as an adjunctive therapy that may improve the efficacy of catheter ablation procedures. PMID:26049378

  18. Ethanol cytotoxic effect on trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Clave, S; Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure may cause both, altered fetal neurodevelopment and impaired placental function. These disturbances can lead to growth retardation, which is one of the most prevalent features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is not known whether there is a specific pattern of cytotoxicity caused by ethanol that can be extrapolated to other cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects caused by sustained exposure of trophoblast cells to ethanol. The cytotoxic effect of sustained exposure to standard doses of ethanol on an in vitro human trophoblast cell line, JEG3, was examined. Viable cell count by exclusion method, total protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and activation of apoptotic markers (P-H2AX, caspase-3 and PARP-1) were determined. Sustained exposure to ethanol decreased viable cell count and total protein concentration. LDH activity did not increased in exposed cells but apoptotic markers were detected. In addition, there was a dose-dependent relationship between ethanol concentration and apoptotic pathways activation. Sustained ethanol exposure causes cellular cytotoxicity by apoptotic pathways induction as a result of DNA damage. This apoptotic induction may partially explain the altered function of placental cells and the damage previously detected in other tissues. PMID:24374569

  19. Neurosteroid Influences on Sensitivity to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Rossi, David J.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to behavioral implications. To date, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor mechanisms are a major focus of the modulation of ethanol effects by neuroactive steroids. While NMDA receptor mechanisms are gaining prominence in the literature, these complex data would be best discussed separately. Accordingly, GABAA receptor mechanisms are emphasized in this review with brief mention of some NMDA receptor mechanisms to point out contrasting neuroactive steroid pharmacology. Overall, the data suggest that neurosteroids are virtually ubiquitous modulators of inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurosteroids appear to affect sensitivity to ethanol in specific brain regions and, consequently, specific behavioral tests, possibly related to the efficacy and potency of ethanol to potentiate the release of GABA and increase neurosteroid concentrations. Although direct interaction of ethanol and neuroactive steroids at common receptor binding sites has been suggested in some studies, this proposition is still controversial. It is currently difficult to assign a specific mechanism by which neuroactive steroids could modulate the effects of ethanol in particular behavioral tasks. PMID:22654852

  20. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Jin . E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-12-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

  1. Cellulose to ethanol production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The original proposed project was followed until February of 1982 when it became apparent that until further work is completed on development of enzymes, the conversion of cellulose (namely paper mill waste) to ethanol for commercial sale is not feasible. Our approach to the project at this time was to still meet our goal of a economical 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant. In the early part of 1981 we inquired about fodder beets for conversion to ethanol and through Pacific Seed Production Company and purchased seed for planting in 1981. We planted a quarter acre which was harvested in late fall of 1981. The fodder beets were kept in cold storage until we were ready for testing. Tests were run in February and March. Results indicated that it would be economically feasible to produce ethanol in a 100,000 gallon/year plant using fodder beets. This final report is in two sections. The first section covers the tests on conversion of cellulose to ethanol and the second section covers tests on conversion of fodder beets to ethanol. A 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant will require 7850 tons of Monarose fodder beets and 157 acres at 50 ton per acre.

  2. GSK3β in Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and may result in a wide range of adverse outcomes for the child. The developing central nervous system (CNS) is particularly susceptible to ethanol toxicity. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments. FASD currently represents the leading cause of mental retardation in North America ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. Ethanol exposure during development causes multiple abnormalities in the brain such as permanent loss of neurons, ectopic neurons, and alterations in synaptogenesis and myelinogenesis. These alcohol-induced structural alterations in the developing brain underlie many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, remain unclear. Ethanol elicits cellular stresses, including oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multifunctional serine/ threonine kinase, responds to various cellular stresses. GSK3β is particularly abundant in the developing CNS, and regulates diverse developmental events in the immature brain, such as neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival. Available evidence indicates that the activity of GSK3β in the CNS is affected by ethanol. GSK3β inhibition provides protection against ethanol neurotoxicity, whereas high GSK3β activity/expression sensitizes neuronal cells to ethanol-induced damages. It appears that GSK3β is a converging signaling point that mediates some of ethanol’s neurotoxic effects. PMID:19507062

  3. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity. PMID:26473940

  5. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  6. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol - Issues of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2011-07-01

    A reliable method for the quantitative analysis of ethanol in microvolumes (50-100 μL) of blood became available in 1922, making it possible to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ethanol in healthy volunteers. The basic principles of ethanol pharmacokinetics were established in the 1930s, including the notion of zero-order elimination kinetics from blood and distribution of the absorbed dose into the total body water. The hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is primarily responsible for the oxidative metabolism of ethanol. This enzyme was purified and characterized in the early 1950s and shown to have a low Michaelis constant (km), being about ~0.1 g/L. Liver ADH is therefore saturated with substrate after the first couple of drinks and for all practical purposes the concentration-time (C-T) profiles of ethanol are a good approximation to zero-order kinetics. However, because of dose-dependent saturation kinetics, the entire postabsorptive declining part of the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) curve looks more like a hockey stick rather than a straight line. A faster rate of ethanol elimination from blood in habituated individuals (alcoholics) is explained by participation of a high km microsomal enzyme (CYP2E1), which is inducible after a period of chronic heavy drinking. Owing to the combined influences of genetic and environmental factors, one expects a roughly threefold difference in elimination rates of ethanol from blood (0.1-0.3 g/L/h) between individuals. The volume of distribution (Vd) of ethanol, which depends on a person's age, gender, and proportion of fat to lean body mass, shows a twofold variation between individuals (0.4-0.8 L/kg). This forensic science review traces the development of forensic pharmacokinetics of ethanol from a historical perspective, followed by a discussion of important issues related to the disposition and fate of ethanol in the body, including (a) quantitative evaluation of

  8. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  9. Ethanol as a fuel additive in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Wenman, C.M.; Tannock, J.

    1984-11-01

    To obtain maximum yield of ethanol from sugar and to dispose of the stillage in the most effective economic way possible are the main problems facing Zimbabwe's fuel ethanol industry. In order to monitor the production of ethanol from sugar cane, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography is used as it is a simple method and the results are reproducible, accurate and produced with little delay. In order to dispose of the stillage, it has been used as a fertilizer and as animal feed but incineration and microbiological digestion of the stillage may provide better long-term solutions.

  10. Use of clinoptilolite in ethanol dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Tihmillioglu, F.; Ulku, S.

    1996-12-01

    Clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite, which exists in various regions of Turkey, has been experimentally studied. For the ethanol-water-local clinoptilolite system, uptake and breakthrough curves were determined under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. In adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies, the effects of particle size, temperature and, amount of zeolite on the uptake rate have been investigated. The breakthrough curves for four different flow rates of ethanol and three different bed heights were determined in dynamic column studies. The results of the experiments show that intraparticle diffusion is the main resistance. The local clinoptilolite is a promising adsorbent for water adsorption from aqueous ethanol.

  11. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.

  12. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  13. Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Patzek, Tad; Cecil, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The prime focus of ethanol production from corn is to replace the imported oil used in American vehicles, without expending more fossil energy in ethanol production than is produced as ethanol energy. In a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from corn, every step in the production and conversion process must be included. In this study, 14 energy inputs in average U.S. corn production are included. Then, in the fermentation/distillation operation, 9 more identified fossil fuel inputs are included. Some energy and economic credits are given for the by-products, including dried distillers grains (DDG). Based on all the fossil energy inputs, a total of 1.43 kcal fossil energy is expended to produced 1 kcal ethanol. When the energy value of the DDG, based on the feed value of the DDG as compared to that of soybean meal, is considered, the energy cost of ethanol production is reduced slightly, to 1.28 kcal fossil energy input per 1 kcal ethanol produced. Several proethanol investigators have overlooked various energy inputs in U.S. corn production, including farm machinery, processing machinery, and the use of hybrid corn. In other studies, unrealistic, low energy costs were attributed to such inputs as nitrogen fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides. Controversy continues concerning the energy and economic credits that should be assigned to the by-products. The U.S. Department of Energy reports that 17.0 billion L ethanol was produced in 2005. This represents only less than 1% of total oil use in the U.S. These yields are based on using about 18% of total U.S. corn production and 18% of cornland. Because the production of ethanol requires large inputs of both oil and natural gas in production, the U.S. is importing both oil and natural gas to produce ethanol. Furthermore, the U.S. Government is spending about dollar 3 billion annually to subsidize ethanol production, a subsidy of dollar 0.79/L ethanol produced. With

  14. KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

  15. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON THE NATURAL ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that the presence of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by micr...

  16. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  17. Radiolysis of ethanol and ethanol-water solutions: A tool for studying bioradical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jore, D.; Champion, B.; Kaouadji, N.; Jay-Gerin, J.-P.; Ferradini, C.

    Radiolysis of pure ethanol and ethanol-water solutions is examined in view of its relevance to the study of biological radical mechanisms. On the basis of earlier studies, a consistent reaction scheme is adopted. New data on radical yields are obtained from the radiolysis of dilute solutions of vitamins E and C in these solvents. It is shown that the radiolysis of ethanolic solutions provide an efficient tool to study radical reactions of water-insoluble biomolecules.

  18. Effects of ethanol ingestion on sperm monosaccharides and fertility.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, V; Aruldhas, M M; Srinivasan, N; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    1999-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is often associated with reproductive disorders. Sperm monosaccharides play an indispensable role in sperm-egg interactions and fertilization. Ethanol (3 g/kg body weight as 25%, v/v) was given by gastric intubation twice daily for 30 days while in another group, rats which had been treated with ethanol were withdrawn from treatment for a further period of 30 days, in order to assess the reversibility of the ethanol-induced effects. Epididymal ethanol content, sperm monosaccharides and the fertility of ethanol treated and ethanol withdrawn rats were assessed. Ethanol ingestion caused a significant decrease in sperm monosaccharides suggesting defective glycosylation of sperm surface proteins. Sperm monosaccharides and fertility were returned to normal following the withdrawal of ethanol. Ethanol-induced changes in sperm monosaccharides may be one of the reasons for the reduced fertility of ethanol treated rats. PMID:10092946

  19. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism. PMID:21300561

  20. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production.

    PubMed

    Aldiguier, A S; Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Goma, G; Uribelarrea, J L; Guillouet, S E; Molina-Jouve, C

    2004-07-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33 degrees C around 120 g l(-1) ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30 degrees C and for ethanol production at 33 degrees C. Glycerol formation, enhanced with increasing temperatures, was coupled with growth for all fermentations; whereas, a decoupling phenomenon occurred at 36 and 39 degrees C pointing out a possible role of glycerol in yeast thermal protection. PMID:15098119

  1. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  2. Ethanol drinking in socially housed squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Titchen, K; Miczek, K A

    1998-07-01

    This study proposes a method to assess voluntary alcohol drinking in socially living squirrel monkeys. Group-housed squirrel monkeys were induced to drink a sucrose solution and subsequently an ethanol/sucrose solution in an experimental chamber attached to the home colony room, allowing the daily intake to be monitored for each individual without disrupting the social context. Sucrose concentration (0.03-0.6 M, corresponding to 1-20%) and ethanol concentration (0-4%) were gradually increased in tap water and in a 0.6 M (ca. 20%) sucrose solution during daily 30-min and 10-min sessions, respectively. Blood ethanol levels ranged from 10-50 mg/dl and remained below intoxication level. These experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to arrange conditions under which individual socially housed squirrel monkeys voluntarily drink a sweetened ethanol solution. PMID:10065925

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  4. Interaction of ethanol with opiate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhananov, R.Y.; Bujov, Y.V.; Maiskii, A.I.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the action of ethanol on membrane-bound opiate receptors. Ethanol at 37/sup 0/C was shown to produce dose-dependent inhibition of binding of /sup 3/H-naloxone with opiate receptors. ID/sub 50/ under these conditions was 462 mM. Temperature-dependent inhibition of ligand-receptor binding suggests that ethanol does not compete for the stereospecific binding site of /sup 3/H-naloxone. Analysis of the inhibitory action of ethanol on /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in animals at different stages of experimental alcoholism revealed no differences between the control and experimental animals after 3.5 and 10 months of voluntary alcoholization.

  5. Xylose fermentation to ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Schvester, P.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of batch studies on the bioconversion of D-xylose by the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus are reported. A significant level of aeration was found to be necessary to stimulate biomass growth and to enhance the rate of ethanol production. Ethanol production appears to be restricted by substrate inhibition at initial D-xylose concentrations in excess of about 40 g/l. At this value, a maximum ethanol yield from substrate of only 27.4 mass % was achieved, which was only 53.7% of the theoretical maximum. Significant amounts (up to 14% mass yield) of by-product xylitol also were produced. The advantages and disadvantages of this direct bioconversion process for industrial application are discussed and compared to other ethanol production processes. 15 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

  7. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  8. Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

  9. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  10. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  11. In Vitro Myelosuppression and Immunosuppression by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Tisman, Glenn; Herbert, Victor

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of ethanol similar to those in the blood of intoxicated patients suppressed phytohemagglutinin- or streptolysin O-induced lymphocyte transformation, and inhibited bone marrow granulocyte colony growth in soft agar. Inhibition of lymphocyte transformation and granulocyte colony growth occurred despite the presence of large concentrations of folate and other vitamins. These in vitro findings may relate to in vivo effects of ethanol on myeloid and lymphoid tissue. Images PMID:4703227

  12. Disulfirm-ethanol reaction: a complex mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Faiman, M.D.

    1986-03-01

    Hypothermia has previously been shown to be a component of the disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER). In rats, hypothermia correlated with the hypotension and tachycardia observed when ethanol was administered 8 hours after disfulfiram treatment. These studies have now been extended, and in addition, the role of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and diethyldithiocarbamate-methyl ester (DDTC-MF) in the DER have been examined. In rats challenged with ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) 4 and 24 hours after disulfiram (75 mg/kg, i.p.) no hypothermia was observed, but was found when ethanol was given 8, 12 and 16 hours after disulfiram. Hypotension and tachycardia were found at all time periods studied. Low Km ALDH also was inhibited at the 4, 8, 16 and 24 hour time periods. Although pretreatment with DDTC and DDTC-ME failed to produce hypothermia, hypotension and tachycardia were observed in rats challenged with ethanol. As with disulfiram administration, hypothermia did not correlate with ALDH inhibition in the DDTC and DDTC-ME studies. These studies support the known myriad of effects produced during the DER, and provide additional evidence that difference mechanisms contribute to the complexity of the disulfiram-ethanol reaction.

  13. Increased myocardial catalase in rats fed ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. D.; Kino, M.; Hicks, L.; Thorp, K. A.; Abelman, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic intake of dietary ethanol upon catalase, an enzyme capable of metabolizing ethanol, as well as upon myocardial morphology and hemodynamics, were studied in the rat. Ethanol, comprising 36% of dietary calories, administered to rats for 5 weeks, was associated with increased myocardial catalase of 45.9 +/- 3.7 IU/mg protein, compared to 21.0 +/- 1.8 IU/mg protein in pair-fed controls. The enzyme activity remained significantly elevated after 18 weeks of ethanol. Hepatic catalase did not differ in these groups. Parallel cytochemical studies confirmed the increase in myocardial catalase by demonstrating an increase in peroxisomes. Gross and light-microscopic examinations revealed no abnormalities at either 5 or 18 weeks. Remarkably few ultrastructural abnormalities were seen in this material fixed by vascular perfusion. Hemodynamic studies after 5 weeks of ethanol revealed decreased left ventricle systolic pressure and decreased mean arterial pressure but no change in ventricular filling pressure. The possibility of catalase playing a metabolic and potentially protective role in rat myocardium chronically exposed to ethanol is discussed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4-6 Figures 1 and 2 Figures 7 and 8 p[389]-a PMID:474705

  14. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    PubMed

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed. PMID:25212000

  15. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits. PMID:20473631

  16. The kinetics of transdermal ethanol exchange.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2006-02-01

    The kinetics of ethanol transport from the blood to the skin surface are incompletely understood. We present a mathematical model to predict the transient exchange of ethanol across the skin while it is being absorbed from the gut and eliminated from the body. The model simulates the behavior of a commercial device that is used to estimate the blood alcohol concentration (BAC). During the elimination phase, the stratum corneum of the skin has a higher ethanol concentration than the blood. We studied the effect of varying the maximum BAC and the absorption rate from the gut on the relationship between BAC and equivalent concentration in the gas phase above the skin. The results showed that the ethanol concentration in the gas compartment always took longer to reach its maximum, had a lower maximum, and had a slower apparent elimination rate than the BAC. These effects increased as the maximum BAC increased. Our model's predictions are consistent with experimental data from the literature. We performed a sensitivity analysis (using Latin hypercube sampling) to identify and rank the importance of parameters. The analysis showed that outputs were sensitive to solubility and diffusivity within the stratum corneum, to stratum corneum thickness, and to the volume of gas in the sampling chamber above the skin. We conclude that ethanol transport through the skin is primarily governed by the washin and washout of ethanol through the stratum corneum. The dynamics can be highly variable from subject to subject because of variability in the physical properties of the stratum corneum. PMID:16239611

  17. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions.

    PubMed

    Choi, W S; Murthy, G G; Edwards, D A; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    2001-09-25

    To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn(2+)-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells. PMID:11562495

  18. Ambient temperature effects on taste aversion conditioned by ethanol: contribution of ethanol-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L; Niehus, J S; Bachtold, J F

    1992-12-01

    Six experiments examined the effects of low (5-10 degrees C), normal (21 degrees C), or high (32 degrees) ambient temperature on conditioned taste aversion and body temperature changes produced by ethanol, lithium chloride, or morphine sulfate. Fluid-deprived rats received five to seven taste conditioning trials at 48-hr intervals. On each trial, access to saccharin at normal ambient temperature was followed by injection of drug or saline and placement for 6 hr into a temperature-controlled enclosure. Exposure to low ambient temperature facilitated, whereas exposure to high ambient temperature retarded acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The ability of an alteration in ambient temperature to influence conditioned taste aversion varied as a function of ethanol dose and was related to ambient temperature's effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia. More specifically, strength of conditioned taste aversion was negatively correlated with core body temperature after ethanol injection. Alterations in ambient temperature alone did not affect ingestion of a paired flavor solution in the absence of drug. Moreover, alterations in ambient temperature did not appear to influence conditioned taste aversion by changing ethanol pharmacokinetics. Finally, high and low ambient temperature did not affect development of taste aversion conditioned by lithium chloride or morphine sulfate. The overall pattern of data presented by these experiments supports the hypothesis that ambient-temperature influences strength of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion by altering the hypothermic response to ethanol. More generally, these data support the suggestion that body temperature change induced by ethanol is related to ethanol's aversive motivational effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. PMID:1471766

  19. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25–45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45–65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later in

  20. Summary of synfuel characterization and combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion component research studies aimed at evolving environmentally acceptable approaches for burning coal derived fuels for ground power applications were performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under a program titled the ""Critical Research and Support Technology Program'' (CRT). The work was funded by the Department of Energy and was performed in four tasks. This report summarizes these tasks which have all been previously reported. In addition some previously unreported data from Task 4 is also presented. The first, Task 1 consisted of a literature survey aimed at determining the properties of synthetic fuels. This was followed by a computer modeling effort, Task 2, to predict the exhaust emissions resulting from burning coal liquids by various combustion techniques such as lean and rich-lean combustion. The computer predictions were then compared to the results of a flame tube rig, Task 3, in which the fuel properties were varied to simulate coal liquids. Two actual SRC 2 coal liquids were tested in this flame tube task.

  1. Health effects of synfuels technology: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sanathanan, L.P.; Reilly, C.A.; Marshall, S.A.; Wilzbach, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    This document contains annotated synopses of available information pertinent to health impacts of synthetic fuel technologies under development, and identifies needs for further information. The report focuses on carcinogenesis, which appears to be a special problem with coal conversion technologies. This review is intended to serve as a reference for the NEPA Affairs Division of DOE in its evaluation of the overall synthetic fuel program and specific projects in the program. Updated versions of this document are expected to be prepared annually or semiannually as new information becomes available.

  2. Economics of synfuel and gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

  3. Liquid scintillation counting of /sup 14/C for differentiation of synthetic ethanol from ethanol of fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.E.; Noakes, J.E.; Alfonso, F.C.; Figert, D.M.

    1981-09-01

    Samples containing ethanol are fractionated on a column so that the resultant ethanol content is > 93%. Determination of /sup 14/C by liquid scintillation counting on the ethanol fraction differentiates ethanol produced by fermentation from synthetic ethanol produced from fossil fuel sources. Twenty-seven samples were fractionated and analyzed for the /sup 14/C isotope. Six samples were synthetic ethanol derived from ethylene gas (direct and indirect process), and yielded a mean value for /sup 14/C isotope of 0.167 dpm/g carbon with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.066 dpm/g carbon (disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon). The remaining samples were ethanol derived from the fermentation of natural materials, such as corn, pear, sugar cane, grape, cherry, and blackberry, and yielded a mean value for /sup 14/C isotope of 16.11 dpm/g carbon with an SD of 1.27. The /sup 14/C values for specific mixtures of a synthetic and a natural ethanol compare favorably with the analytical values obtained by this procedure.

  4. Ethanol Plant Siting and the Corn Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatal, Yeheshua Shay

    Corn-based ethanol production has affected U.S. agriculture in general and the corn market in particular for the last several years. This study provides practical insights on the linkage formed between the two industries. The study aims to answer questions related to ethanol industry growth such as: where will the next ethanol plants be located, what will be their capacities, and what will be the plant siting effect on corn supply and price in the plants' regions? Some of these questions have never been addressed in the literature while some have only been casually researched. The first chapter of the dissertation provides background on the ethanol industry. The second chapter investigates how changes in ethanol plant capacity affect corn supply geographically around the plant. The study is based on a county-level analysis of the 48 contiguous states for the years 2002-2008. The empirical analysis uses a non-linear least squares (NLS) model for estimating the key parameters and accounts for spatial autocorrelation. The results indicate that locating an ethanol plant in a county stimulates additional acres of planted corn within a 286-mile radius around the plant. An additional one million gallons of annual ethanol capacity is estimated to increase planted corn by 5.21 acres in the county in which the plant is located. This effect diminishes linearly to zero as the distance between the plant and other counties approaches 286 miles. In order to establish confidence intervals for the NLS estimators I utilize both residual and block bootstrap techniques. To account for spatial autocorrelation across counties, I employ a spatial error model.

  5. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  6. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  7. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  8. Postmortem ethanol in the setting of ethanol-containing automotive fuel.

    PubMed

    Garber, Mitchell A; Canfield, Dennis V; Lewis, Russell J; Simmons, Samuel D; Radisch, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    The pilot of a light aircraft that crashed after a loss of power was found to have ethanol in the vitreous and the blood, but almost none in the urine. The globes of the eyes were intact, and the body was refrigerated after recovery until the autopsy was performed the following morning. The pilot was described as a "nondrinker," and additional specialized toxicology testing results were inconsistent with ethanol ingestion. The pilot's body was extensively exposed to fuel during the prolonged extraction. Investigation determined that the aircraft had been fueled with gasoline that contained 10% ethanol. Although exposure to automotive fuel has not been previously described as a source of ethanol in postmortem specimens, it may represent a source for the ethanol detected during postmortem toxicology testing in this case, and this finding may be relevant to other cases with similar exposure. PMID:22835972

  9. Environmental implications of municipal solid waste-derived ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kalogo, Youssouf; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L; Joshi, Satish V

    2007-01-01

    We model a municipal solid waste (MSW)-to-ethanol facility that employs dilute acid hydrolysis and gravity pressure vessel technology and estimate life cycle energy use and air emissions. We compare our results, assuming the ethanol is utilized as E85 (blended with 15% gasoline) in a light-duty vehicle, with extant life cycle assessments of gasoline, corn-ethanol, and energy crop-cellulosic-ethanol fueled vehicles. We also compare MSW-ethanol production, as a waste management alternative, with landfilling with gas recovery options. We find that the life cycle total energy use per vehicle mile traveled for MSW-ethanol is less than that of corn-ethanol and cellulosic-ethanol; and energy use from petroleum sources for MSW-ethanol is lower than for the other fuels. MSW-ethanol use in vehicles reduces net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 65% compared to gasoline, and by 58% when compared to corn-ethanol. Relative GHG performance with respect to cellulosic ethanol depends on whether MSW classification is included or not. Converting MSW to ethanol will result in net fossil energy savings of 397-1830 MJ/MT MSW compared to net fossil energy consumption of 177-577 MJ/MT MSW for landfilling. However, landfilling with LFG recovery either for flaring or for electricity production results in greater reductions in GHG emissions compared to MSW-to-ethanol conversion. PMID:17265924

  10. Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

    2010-04-01

    Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 μm and 733 μm with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 μm and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

  11. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  12. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  13. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  14. Preface : the 2000 ethanol vehicle challenge.

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, N. M.; Larsen, R. P.

    2000-12-11

    The technical papers presented in this special publication represent the efforts of students from 16 colleges and universities across North America. Over 600 students have participated in the Ethanol Vehicle Challenge since its inception in 1998. The 2000 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge was the final year of this successful 3-year advanced vehicle competition series. The papers presented are enhanced and expanded versions of those prepared in advance of the competition by the participating student engineers. They describe the design elements, construction details, and performance of the dedicated ethanol vehicles brought to the Challenge by the participating universities. The goal of this competition was to demonstrate the potential of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% hydrocarbon primer) to significantly lower emissions and improve the performance, fuel efficiency and cold starting of vehicles fueled by ethanol. The competition series began with a Request for Proposals in January 1997. A letter announcing and soliciting interest in the competition (Notice of Interest) was sent to all accredited engineering programs and two-year technical schools in the US and Canada. The Notice described the competition and the requirements for the conversion of a 1997 Chevrolet Malibu to dedicated E85 operation. On the basis of the submitted proposals, 14 schools were selected to participate in the first competition in 1998. Those schools were invited to participate again in 1999. Two additional schools collaborated with the existing teams for the 2000 competition; these two teams participated in the competition, but they were not eligible for the competition awards.

  15. Bacterial conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.

    1996-10-01

    Technologies for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose are currently available. The challenge today is to assemble these technologies into a commercial demonstration plant. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli strain KO11 have been specifically engineered to produce ethanol at greater than 90% of theoretical yield (40 g ethanol/L in 48 h) from all sugar constituents in hemicellulose (pentoses and hexoses). Methods have been developed to produce fermentable hemicellulose syrups containing high concentrations of sugars. The effectiveness of strain KO11 has been demonstrated with hemicellulose syrups at the 150-liter scale and with laboratory sugars at the 10,000-liter scale. Additional organisms such as Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 have been engineered for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose (SSF). Cellulase enzymes is one of the major costs associated with all SSF processes. The new organisms eliminate the need for added cellobiase and in some cases produce part of the endoglucanase. Strain P2 has been tested with bagasse, purified cellulose and mixed waste office paper. A simple method of enzyme recycling was tested using strain P2 with office paper as a substrate. Ethanol yields were prejected to be over 539 liters per metric ton. With onsite production, the estimated cost of cellulose for this process is 8.5 cents (U.S.) per liter.

  16. Separation of water-ethanol mixtures by sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.A.; Hwa, V.W.S.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed which examined sorption as a means for recovering anhydrous ethanol from water-ethanol mixtures. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at ambient temperature for two sorbents: a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer manufactured by Rohm and Haas (Amberlite XAD-4) and Linde molecular sieve (No. 4966-77). Both sorbents appeared to reach a saturation level of ethanol on the sorbent for the range of ethanol concentration considered (0 to 12 wt % ethanol). The Linde sieve was more effective than the Rohm and Haas copolymer for the removal of ethanol from dilute solutions.

  17. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  18. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Morais-Silva, G.; Fernandes-Santos, J.; Moreira-Silva, D.; Marin, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  19. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  20. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26839707

  1. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alan C; Zhang, Qin; Lyne, Peter W L

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends. PMID:15474927

  2. Permeability of cork for water and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Luisa; Brazinha, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Crespo, Joao G; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2013-10-01

    Transport properties of natural (noncompressed) cork were evaluated for water and ethanol in both vapor and liquid phases. The permeability for these permeants has been measured, as well as the sorption and diffusion coefficients. This paper focuses on the differences between the transport of gases' relevant vapors and their liquids (water and ethanol) through cork. A transport mechanism of vapors and liquids is proposed. Experimental evidence shows that both vapors and liquids permeate not only through the small channels across the cells (plasmodesmata), as in the permeation of gases, but also through the walls of cork cells by sorption and diffusion as in dense membranes. The present study also shows that cork permeability for gases was irreversibly and drastically decreased after cork samples were exposed to ethanol or water in liquid phase. PMID:24001097

  3. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26839707

  4. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Mechanisms of naturally evolved ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fry, James D

    2014-11-15

    The decaying fruit in which Drosophila melanogaster feed and breed can contain ethanol in concentrations as high as 6-7%. In this cosmopolitan species, populations from temperate regions are consistently more resistant to ethanol poisoning than populations from the tropics, but little is known about the physiological basis of this difference. I show that when exposed to low levels of ethanol vapor, flies from a tropical African population accumulated 2-3 times more internal ethanol than flies from a European population, giving evidence that faster ethanol catabolism by European flies contributes to the resistance difference. Using lines differing only in the origin of their third chromosome, however, I show that faster ethanol elimination cannot fully explain the resistance difference, because relative to African third chromosomes, European third chromosomes confer substantially higher ethanol resistance, while having little effect on internal ethanol concentrations. European third chromosomes also confer higher resistance to acetic acid, a metabolic product of ethanol, than African third chromosomes, suggesting that the higher ethanol resistance conferred by the former might be due to increased resistance to deleterious effects of ethanol-derived acetic acid. In support of this hypothesis, when ethanol catabolism was blocked with an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant, there was no difference in ethanol resistance between flies with European and African third chromosomes. PMID:25392459

  6. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  7. Solvation of benzophenone anion radical in ethanol and ethanol/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-28

    The electron spin-echo modulations and the absoprtion spectra of benzophenone anion radicals generated by ..gamma..-irradiation in the glassy matrices of ethanol and ethanol2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixtures have been measured for elucidating the mechanism of spectral shift observed during the solvation of the anion radicals in alcohols. The anion radical generated at 4.2 K in the ethanol matrix maintains the same solvation structure as that of neutral benzophenone. At 77 K ethanol molecules solvate the anion radical by orienting the O-H dipoles toward the anion radical. The anion radical is hydrogen-bonded by two ethanol molecules through the p/sub z/ orbital on the benzophenone oxygen which composes the ..pi.. orbitals of anion radical. Three kinds of anion radicals are observed in the mixed matrix at 77 K. Two of them are essentially the same as those observed in the ethanol matrix at 4.2 and 77 K. The third has the absorption maximum at 700 nm and is attributed to the anion radical hydrogen-bonded by one ethanol molecule through the p/sub z/ orbital. It is concluded that the spectral shift observed in alcohols is caused by the stabilization of a SOMO ..pi..* orbital induced by the hydrogen bonding with the (RO)H--O--H(OR) angle perpendicular to the molecular plane of the anion radical

  8. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin < or =2 ppm), but treatment was ineffective at treating infection by a resistant strain of L. fermentum (MIC = 16 ppm). The model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. PMID:19148876

  9. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  10. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  11. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  12. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  13. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  14. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  15. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Angela

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  16. Role of hypothermia in ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L; Hawks, D M; Niehus, D R

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of ambient temperature during ethanol exposure on development of conditioned taste aversion to saccharin. In both studies, male albino rats receiving saccharin-ethanol (1.5 g/kg, IP) pairings followed by 6-h exposure to a 32 degrees C environment developed a weaker saccharin aversion than did rats experiencing ethanol at room temperature. Exposure to the warm environment reduced ethanol-induced hypothermia, but enhanced ethanol's motor-impairing effect. The influence of ambient temperature on ethanol-induced taste aversion may be due to changes in body temperature, neural sensitivity, or elimination rate. Although alternative accounts cannot be entirely dismissed, this outcome suggests that ethanol-induced hypothermia plays a role in determining strength of conditioned taste aversion and thus may be involved in the regulation of oral ethanol intake in rats. PMID:3137617

  17. The Potential Environmental Impact of Waste from Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing production of ethanol has been established as an important contributor to future energy independence. A trend in decreasing profitability and resource conflicts has given grain based ethanol production a limited and difficult future. Growing emphasis is being place...

  18. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  19. Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

  20. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity....

  1. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73(+/+)) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73(-/-)) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73(+/+) mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73(+/+) mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg(2+) conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73(-/-) mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  2. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  3. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  4. Modeling tools to Account for Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread usage of ethanol in gasoline leads to impacts at leak sites which differ from those of non-ethanol gasolines. The presentation reviews current research results on the distribution of gasoline and ethanol, biodegradation, phase separation and cosolvancy. Model results f...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  8. Modeling Bacterial Contamination of Fuel Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevi...

  9. Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

  10. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  11. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  12. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  13. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  14. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  15. Winter barley ethanol - a new advanced biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set an ambitious goal for the United States to annually produce and use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. Of this quantity, only 15 billion gallons may come from conventional sources, such as corn ethanol, and the remainder must b...

  16. Energy crops for ethanol: a processing perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global production of bioethanol for fuel is over 13 billions gal per year. Continued expansion of ethanol production will necessitate developing lignocellulose as an alternative to today’s use of starch and sugar producing crops. Dedicated energy crops are one such option. In the U.S., it has bee...

  17. Ethanol precipitation for purification of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tscheliessnig, Anne; Satzer, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Schulz, Henk; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-20

    Currently, the golden standard for the purification of recombinant humanized antibodies (rhAbs) from CHO cell culture is protein A chromatography. However, due to increasing rhAbs titers alternative methods have come into focus. A new strategy for purification of recombinant human antibodies from CHO cell culture supernatant based on cold ethanol precipitation (CEP) and CaCl2 precipitation has been developed. This method is based on the cold ethanol precipitation, the process used for purification of antibodies and other components from blood plasma. We proof the applicability of the developed process for four different antibodies resulting in similar yield and purity as a protein A chromatography based process. This process can be further improved using an anion-exchange chromatography in flowthrough mode e.g. a monolith as last step so that residual host cell protein is reduced to a minimum. Beside the ethanol based process, our data also suggest that ethanol could be replaced with methanol or isopropanol. The process is suited for continuous operation. PMID:25087738

  18. Degradation of ascorbic acid in ethanolic solutions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Fu, Chi-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2012-10-24

    Ascorbic acid occurs naturally in many wine-making fruits. The industry also uses ascorbic acid as an antioxidant and color stabilizer in the making of alcoholic beverages including white wine, wine cooler, alcopop, and fruit liqueur. However, the degradation of ascorbic acid itself may cause browning and the deterioration of color quality. This study was aimed to monitor the degradation of ascorbic acid, the formation of degradation products, and the browning in storage of ascorbic acid containing 0-40% (v/v) ethanolic solutions buffered at pH 3.2 as models of alcoholic beverages. The results show that ascorbic acid degradation in the ethanolic solutions during storage follows first-order reaction, that the degradation and browning rates increase with the increase of ethanol concentration, that the activation energy for the degradation of ascorbic acid is in the range 10.35-23.10 (kcal/mol), that 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone is an indicator and a major product of ascorbic acid degradation, and that aerobic degradation pathway dominants over anaerobic pathway in ascorbic acid degradation in ethanolic solutions. PMID:22994409

  19. Genetic selection alters thermoregulatory response to ethanol.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C S; Crawshaw, L I; Crabbe, J C

    1993-03-01

    The present study examined the effect of ethanol on the regulated temperature of two lines of mice selected in replicate for a smaller (HOT1 and HOT2) or greater (COLD1 and COLD2) decline in rectal temperature after IP ethanol. Mice were implanted with indwelling telemetry devices for remote monitoring of internal temperature and trained in a temperature gradient (8-40 degrees C). Both internal and selected temperature were tracked and recorded with a computer after injections of NaCl or various doses of ethanol. All animals responded similarly to control injections, with a transient rise in body temperature. After an effective dose of ethanol, mice showed clear evidence of a regulated decline in body temperature, as evidenced by selection of low temperatures in the gradient at the same time internal temperatures were falling. COLD mice were more sensitive than HOT mice; this was apparent in both replicates of the selected lines, indicating that a difference in the CNS regulator of body temperature has been selected for in these animals. PMID:8451254

  20. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  1. Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W.

    1998-04-20

    Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

  2. Rapid evaluation of fuel ethanol contaminant biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial production of fuel ethanol is not performed under sterile, pure-culture conditions. It has been well established that many bacteria contaminate this process and are responsible for a significant decrease in productivity. In response to this, producers often rely on antibiotics to control...

  3. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  4. Ethanol fuels reference guide: a decision-makers guide to ethanol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  5. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  6. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  7. Size Distribution and Velocity of Ethanol Drops in a Rocket Combustor Burning Ethanol and Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1961-01-01

    Single jets of ethanol were studied photomicrographically inside a rocket chamber as they broke up into sprays of drops which underwent simultaneous acceleration and vaporization with chemical reaction occurring in the surrounding combustion gas stream. In each rocket test-firing, liquid oxygen was used as the oxidant. Both drop velocity and drop size distribution data were obtained from photomicrographs of the ethanol drops taken with an ultra-high speed tracking camera developed at NASA, Lewis Research Center.

  8. Acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kurkivuori, Johanna; Salaspuro, Ville; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kari, Kirsti; Rautemaa, Riina; Grönroos, Lisa; Meurman, Jukka H; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2007-02-01

    Alcohol is a well documented risk factor for upper digestive tract cancers. It has been shown that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol is carcinogenic. The role of microbes in the production of acetaldehyde to the oral cavity has previously been described in several studies. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the capability of viridans group streptococci of normal oral flora to produce acetaldehyde in vitro during ethanol incubation. Furthermore, the aim was to measure the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity of the bacteria. Eight clinical strains and eight American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of viridans group streptococci were selected for the study. Bacterial suspensions were incubated in two different ethanol concentrations, 11 mM and 1100 mM and the acetaldehyde was measured by gas chromatography. ADH-activity was measured by using a sensitive spectroscopy. The results show significant differences between the bacterial strains regarding acetaldehyde production capability and the detected ADH-activity. In particular, clinical strain of Streptococcus salivarius, both clinical and culture collection strains of Streptococcus intermedius and culture collection strain of Streptococcus mitis produced high amounts of acetaldehyde in 11 mM and 1100 mM ethanol incubation. All these four bacterial strains also showed significant ADH-enzyme activity. Twelve other strains were found to be low acetaldehyde producers. Consequently, our study shows that viridans group streptococci may play a role in metabolizing ethanol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth. The observation supports the concept of a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. PMID:16859955

  9. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Sonia; Gillespie, John M; Hodge, James J L

    2012-01-01

    In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50) = 19.8 mM) being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50) = 42.1 mM). This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation. PMID:23209695

  10. Ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria: biochemical basis for ethanol and hydrogen tolerance in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Lovitt, R.W.; Shen, G.J.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    The metabolic and enzymatic bases for growth tolerance to ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa)) fermentation products in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum were compared in a sensitive wild-type strain and an insensitive alcohol-adapted strain. In the wild-type strain, ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm) inhibited glucose but not pyruvate fermentation parameters (growth and end product formation). Inhibition of glucose fermentation by ethanol (4%) in the wild-type strain was reversed by addition of acetone (1%), which lowered H/sub 2/ and ethanol production while increasing isopropanol and acetate production. Pulsing cells grown in continuous culture on glucose with 5% ethanol or 1 atm of H/sub 2/ significantly raised the NADH/NAD ratio in the wild-type strain but not in the alcohol-adapted strain. Analysis of key oxidoreductases demonstrated that the alcohol-adapted strain lacked detectable levels of reduced ferredoxin-linked NAD reductase and NAD-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activities which are present in the wild-type strain. Differences in the glucose fermentation product ratios of the two strains were related to differences in lactate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase levels and sensitivity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to NADH inhibition. A biochemical model is proposed which describes a common enzymatic mechanism for growth tolerance of thermoanaerobes to moderate concentrations of both ethanol and hydrogen.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase. PMID:26386958

  12. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Nana, Rebeca K; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there

  13. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times. PMID

  14. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  15. ACUTE ETHANOL SUPPRESSES GLUTAMATERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION THROUGH ENDOCANNABINOIDS IN HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S.; Ninan, Ipe; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during fetal development is a leading cause of long-term cognitive impairments. Studies suggest that ethanol exposure have deleterious effects on the hippocampus, a brain region that is important for learning and memory. Ethanol exerts its effects, in part, via alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is critical for the maturation of neuronal circuits during development. The current literature strongly supports the growing evidence that ethanol inhibits glutamate release in the neonatal CA1 hippocampal region. However, the exact molecular mechanism responsible for this effect is not well understood. In this study, we show that ethanol enhances endocannabinoid (EC) levels in cultured hippocampal neurons, possibly through calcium pathways. Acute ethanol depresses miniature postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequencies without affecting their amplitude. This suggests that ethanol inhibits glutamate release. The CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) present on presynaptic neurons are not altered by acute ethanol. The CB1R antagonist SR 141716A reverses ethanol-induced depression of mEPSC frequency. Drugs that are known to enhance the in vivo function of ECs occlude ethanol effects on mEPSC frequency. Chelation of postsynaptic calcium by EGTA antagonizes ethanol-induced depression of mEPSC frequency. The activation of CB1R with the selective agonist WIN55,212-2 also suppresses the mEPSC frequency. This WIN55,212-2 effect is similar to the ethanol effects and is reversed by SR141716A. In addition, tetani-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) are depressed by acute ethanol. SR141716A significantly reverses ethanol effects on evoked EPSC amplitude in a dual recording preparation. These observations, taken together, suggest the participation of ECs as retrograde messengers in the ethanol-induced depression of synaptic activities. PMID:18796007

  16. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there

  17. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  18. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    PubMed

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-08-01

    The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast's exceptional ethanol tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance. PMID:26758993

  19. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  20. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  1. Ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, Aditi A; Patel, Geeta; Goenka, Anuj; Nahar, Nilay; Modi, Neeraj; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Reddy, Krishna; Franki, Nicholas; Patel, Jaimita; Singhal, Pravin C

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that acute ethanol intoxication is often associated with lymphopenia. Previously, ethanol was reported to invoke thymocyte apoptosis. We studied the effect of ethanol on T cell apoptosis. In addition, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of ethanol-induced T cell apoptosis. Human T cells harvested from healthy subjects after an alcohol drinking binge showed enhanced T cell apoptosis (before, 0·4 ± 0·2% versus after, 19·6 ± 2·5% apoptotic lymphocytes/field; P < 0·001). In in vitro studies, ethanol in a concentration of 50 mm and higher enhanced the apoptosis of Jurkat cells. DNA isolated from ethanol-treated Jurkat cells displayed integer multiples of 180 base pairs. Ethanol decreased Jurkat cell expression of Bcl-2, whereas ethanol increased Jurkat cell expression of Bax. Jurkat cells treated with ethanol also showed translocation of cytochrome C into cytosol. Moreover, a caspase-9 inhibitor partially inhibited ethanol-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis. In in vivo studies, after binge drinking, T cell expression of Bcl-2 also decreased. In addition, binge drinking induced the cleavage of caspase-3, suggesting activation of caspase-3 in T cells. These results suggest that ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. PMID:12603597

  2. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:26344121

  3. Gestational naltrexone ameliorates fetal ethanol exposures enhancing effect on the postnatal behavioral and neural response to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Youngentob, Steven L; Kent, Paul F; Youngentob, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The association between gestational exposure to ethanol and adolescent ethanol abuse is well established. Recent animal studies support the role of fetal ethanol experience-induced chemosensory plasticity as contributing to this observation. Previously, we established that fetal ethanol exposure, delivered through a dam’s diet throughout gestation, tuned the neural response of the peripheral olfactory system of early postnatal rats to the odor of ethanol. This occurred in conjunction with a loss of responsiveness to other odorants. The instinctive behavioral response to the odor of ethanol was also enhanced. Importantly, there was a significant contributory link between the altered response to the odor of ethanol and increased ethanol avidity when assessed in the same animals. Here, we tested whether the neural and behavioral olfactory plasticity, and their relationship to enhanced ethanol intake, is a result of the mere exposure to ethanol or whether it requires the animal to associate ethanol’s reinforcing properties with its odor attributes. In this later respect, the opioid system is important in the mediation (or modulation) of the reinforcing aspects of ethanol. To block endogenous opiates during prenatal life, pregnant rats received daily intraperitoneal administration of the opiate antagonist naltrexone from gestational day 6–21 jointly with ethanol delivered via diet. Relative to control progeny, we found that gestational exposure to naltrexone ameliorated the enhanced postnatal behavioral response to the odor of ethanol and postnatal drug avidity. Our findings support the proposition that in utero ethanol-induced olfactory plasticity (and its relationship to postnatal intake) requires, at least in part, the associative pairing between ethanol’s odor quality and its reinforcing aspects. We also found suggestive evidence that fetal naltrexone ameliorated the untoward effects of gestational ethanol exposure on the neural response to non

  4. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control). PMID:24659046

  5. Ethanol sensitivity in rats: effect of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    DeTurck, K H; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined whether sensitivity to ethanol could be altered by prenatal stress exposure. Pregnant female rats were handled during the third week of gestation and the offspring were tested for ethanol sensitivity as adults. Compared to control offspring, the following characteristic responses to acute ethanol were significantly attenuated in prenatally stress-exposed rats: the decreases in body temperature, motor coordination and startle amplitude, and the increases in circulating corticosterone and free fatty acids. Ethanol-induced impairment of swim performance, in contrast, was potentiated in these animals. Since no differences were found in blood or breath ethanol levels, the rate of ethanol metabolism was probably not affected by prenatal stress. Rather, the altered responses appear to result from long-term changes in central nervous system sensitivity to ethanol. PMID:3659158

  6. The phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Pergo, Erica Marusa; Kagami, Fernanda Lima; Arraes, Luis Saraiva; Sert, Maria Aparecida; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. Ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of E. heterophylla. Measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.1) activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing tissues. In isolated mitochondria, ethanol inhibited the respiration coupled to ADP phosphorylation, an action that probably contributed to modifications observed in the respiratory activity of embryos. A comparison of the effects of methanol, ethanol, propanol and acetaldehyde on germination and growth of E. heterophylla indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase activity is required for the observed effects, with the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde playing a role in the ethanol-induced injuries. PMID:19640725

  7. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process. PMID:16767974

  8. Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S.; Li, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

  9. On the sensitivity of intact cells to perturbation by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzemann, R.; Whitaker-Azmitia, P. ); Dains, K.; Lin, J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparison was made of ethanol's effects on the order of plasma membranes in intact cells and some isolated membrane preparations. Order was assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using the non-permeant probe, TMA-DPH. The data show that two cultured cells, rat neonatal astroglial and N2A neuroblastoma, were sensitive to significant ethanol-induced disordering within the anesthetically relevant range. Human erythrocytes, cultured fibroblasts and homogenized astroglial cells required higher ethanol concentrations to produce a similar effect. Intact erythrocytes were approximately twice as sensitive as erythrocyte ghost membranes to ethanol induced perturbation. The neonatal glial and N2A cells were approximately five times more sensitive than synaptic membranes to ethanol effects. DMPC and DMPC + cholesterol liposomes and myelin membranes were insensitive to ethanol's effects. The incorporation of 10 mole % ganglioside GM{sub 1} sensitized the liposomes to ethanol-induced perturbation.

  10. Prenatal ethanol increases ethanol intake throughout adolescence, alters ethanol-mediated aversive learning, and affects μ but not δ or κ opioid receptor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) have indicated a facilitatory effect of PEE on adolescent ethanol intake, but few studies have assessed the effects of moderate PEE throughout adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this facilitatory effect remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats with or without PEE (2.0 g/kg, gestational days 17-20) from postnatal days 37 to 62. The results revealed greater ethanol consumption in PEE rats than in controls, which persisted throughout adolescence. By the end of testing, ethanol ingestion in PEE rats was nearly 6.0 g/kg. PEE was associated with insensitivity to ethanol-induced aversion. PEE and control rats were further analysed for levels of μ, δ and κ opioid receptor mRNA in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. Similar levels of mRNA were observed across most areas and opioid receptors, but μ receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area was significantly increased by PEE. Unlike previous studies that assessed the effects of PEE on ethanol intake close to birth, or in only a few sessions during adolescence, the present study observed a facilitatory effect of PEE that lasted throughout adolescence. PEE was associated with insensitivity to the aversive effect of ethanol, and increased levels of μ opioid receptor transcripts. PEE is a prominent vulnerability factor that probably favors the engagement of adolescents in risky trajectories of ethanol use. PMID:25865037

  11. Ethanol reassimilation and ethanol tolerance in Pitchia stipitis CBS 6054 as studied by [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Skoog, K.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. ); Degn, H.; Jacobsen, H.S.; Jacobsen, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Ethanol reassimilation in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 was studied by using continuous cultures, and the oxidation of [1-[sup 13]C] ethanol was monitored by in vivo and in vitro [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Acetate was formed when ethanol was reassimilated. The ATP/ADP ratio and the carbon dioxide production decreased, whereas the malate dehydrogenase activity increased, in ethanol-reassimilating cells. The results are discussed in terms of the low ethanol tolerance in P. stipitis compared with that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  13. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R.; Sanders, T.H.

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  14. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K.

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  15. Copper oxide thin films for ethanol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamri Zeggar, M.; Bourfaa, F.; Adjimi, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    The present is a study of a new active layer for ethanol (C2H5OH) vapour sensing devices based on copper oxide (CuO). CuO films were prepared by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. Films microstructure was examined by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Vapour-sensing testing was conducted using static vapour-sensing system, at different operating temperatures in the range of 100°C to 175°C for the vapour concentration of 300 ppm. The results show a high response of 45% at relatively low operating temperatures of 150°C towards ethanol vapour.

  16. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  17. Economic impacts of ethanol fuels from crops

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Richardson, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents selected results of simulations of agricultural production of ethanol feedstocks from grains and sugar crops. Production levels of up to 5 billion gallons per year were simulated using various combinations of corn, high energy sorghum, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Major results include (1) at up to 2 billion gallons per year of ethanol, impacts on the agricultural sector are mild; (2) beyond 2 billion gallons per year, diversification away from corn appears to be necessary to avoid major feed price inflation; (3) farm income unambiguously rises in response to higher crop prices; and (4) exports of food grains are affected differently by alternative feedstocks, and high-energy sorghum shows a good potential for competing with food grains.

  18. Battle rages over imports of fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1985-04-22

    The International Trade Commission agreed that there is a reasonable indication that large imports of duty-free fuel ethanol from Brazil threaten material injury to the US fuel ethanol industry. In addition to anti-dumping and countervailing duty suits against Brazil, both the Caribbean Basin Initiative and tariff loopholes figure prominently in the current struggle to cut off large-volume imports. The result has been to bring trade policy and diplomacy into the picture. Supporters of the imports contend that domestic producers will not be able to meet anticipated demand if the market takes off as expected, but the domestic industry has been growing along with the market. The author reviews the arguments and legal claims made on both sides of the debate, which include government farm policies. 6 figures.

  19. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  20. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  1. Biofuel Food Disasters and Cellulosic Ethanol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, David

    2009-01-01

    As shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, become evident, the United States has moved to convert corn grain into ethanol with the goal to make the nation oil independent. Using more than 20% of all U.S. corn on 15 million acres in 2007 was providing the nation with less than 1% of U.S. oil consumption. Because the corn ethanol…

  2. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  3. Soyoil-ethanol microemulsions as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Campion, R.M.; Pryde, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid fuels, formed by microemulsifying aqueous ethanol in soybean oil, were evaluated by burning them in a diesel engine. No. 2 diesel fuel was also burned to provide baseline data. The hybrid fuels performed nearly as well as No. 2 diesel despite having lower cetane numbers and less energy content. At present, the hybrid fuels are more expensive than No. 2 diesel fuel and their effect on engine durability is unknown.

  4. Effect on intake valve deposits of ethanol and additives common to the available ethanol supply

    SciTech Connect

    Shibolm, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    With the widespread introduction of the third generation additives to modern gasolines, the author's company chose to further define the effects of gasoline/ethanol blends (gasohol) on intake system deposits (ISD). The third generation additives referred to here are those that provide protection against ISD. This paper presents detailed results of the investigation in this area. During evaluation of various ISD additives, it was found that additive levels capable of controlling ISD with normal gasolines were unable to do so with fuels containing neat ethanol. Most fuel grade ethanol available in the marketplace is pretreated with additives intended to control accumulation of port fuel injector (PFI) deposits. These currently accepted PFI additives proved to be even more of a problem to intake valves than neat ethanol in gasoline. Some, however, contributed more to valve deposits than others. Data for this investigation was generated via the Modified IVD Test in BMW vehicles at an independent laboratory. Results identify that proper gasoline and ethanol additive combinations and treatment levels can provide satisfactory ISD protection in gasoline engines.

  5. The discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol and acute ethanol withdrawal states in rats.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, D V; Harland, R D; Criado, J R; Michaelis, R C; Holloway, F A

    1989-10-01

    Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a standard two-choice Drug 1-Drug 2 discrimination task utilizing 3.0 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide (CDP, an anxiolytic drug) and 20 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, an anxiogenic drug) as discriminative stimuli under a VR 5-15 schedule of food reinforcement. Saline tests conducted at specific time points after acute high doses of ethanol (3.0 and 4.0 g/kg) indicated a delayed rebound effect, evidenced by a shift to PTZ-appropriate responding. Insofar as such a shift in lever selection indexes a delayed anxiety-like state, this acute 'withdrawal' reaction can be said to induce an affective state similar to that seen with chronic ethanol withdrawal states. Ethanol generalization tests: (1) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent biphasic generalization to CDP, (2) failed to block the PTZ stimulus and (3) failed to block the time- and dose-dependent elicitation of an ethanol-rebound effect. These data suggest that ethanol's anxiolytic effects are tenuous. PMID:2791886

  6. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

    1980-01-31

    The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

  7. Fomepizole for severe disulfiram-ethanol reactions.

    PubMed

    Sande, Margaret; Thompson, David; Monte, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of ethanol in the presence of disulfiram may cause a histamine-like reaction due to accumulation of acetaldehyde. These disulfiram-ethanol reactions (DERs) are manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, gastritis, and angioedema. Fomepizole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, may halt progression of this reaction by blocking ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. We present 2 cases of disulfiram and alcohol overdose leading to severe reactions unresponsive to fluid resuscitation and treated with a single dose of fomepizole. Case 1: A 20-year-old woman presented after ingestion of vodka and disulfiram. After 11 hours of resuscitation, she had skin flushing, lip swelling, tachycardia, and hypotension. Antihistamines, steroids, and an additional 2 L of normal saline were given without improvement. Fomepizole 15 mg/kg was given with improvement within 1.5 hours, and she was ultimately discharged with no clinical sequelae. Case 2: A 47-year-old woman presented after overdose of vodka and disulfiram. She was tachycardic and hypotensive upon presentation. After administration of 3 L of normal saline, she remained hypotensive and tachycardic. One dose of fomepizole 15 mg/kg was given. Within 1 hour following fomepizole infusion, her blood pressure and heart rate normalized, and she had no further sequelae from her ingestion. Fomepizole may be a safe and effective treatment of severe DERs. We suggest that 1 dose of fomepizole for severe DERs with hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation or for angioedema unresponsive to antihistamines be administered. PMID:21208769

  8. Ethanol synthesis by genetic engineering in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, M.D.; Coleman, J.R.

    1999-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and accumulate glycogen as the major form of stored carbon. In this research, the authors introduced new genes into a cyanobacterium in order to create a novel pathway for fixed carbon utilization which results in the synthesis of ethanol. The coding sequences of pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh) from the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were cloned into the shuttle vector pCB4 and then used to transform the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Under control of the promoter from the rbcLS operon encoding the cyanobacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the pdc and adh genes were expressed at high levels, as demonstrated by Western blotting and enzyme activity analyses. The transformed cyanobacterium synthesized ethanol, which diffused from the cells into the culture medium. As cyanobacteria have simple growth requirements and use light, CO{sub 2}, and inorganic elements efficiently, production of ethanol by cyanobacteria is a potential system for bioconversion of solar energy and CO{sub 2} into a valuable resource.

  9. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  10. Metabolic Adaption of Ethanol-Tolerant Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinshu; Cui, Jiatao; Feng, Yingang; Fa, Yun; Zhang, Jingtao; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v) exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production. PMID:23936233

  11. Metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinshu; Cui, Jiatao; Feng, Yingang; Fa, Yun; Zhang, Jingtao; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v) exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production. PMID:23936233

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not accumulate ethanol against a concentration gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, J M; Lagunas, R

    1984-01-01

    It has been reported that yeast cells accumulate ethanol against a concentration gradient. We initiated a study of the mechanism involved in this phenomenon. However, we found that this accumulation does not occur and that ethanol permeates the yeast cell plasma membrane by simple diffusion. The following evidence supports this conclusion. (i) Uptake and outflow of ethanol in yeast cells followed first-order kinetics and were insensitive to the presence of structural analogs of ethanol, to drastic pH changes, and to the action of reagents of amino and thiol groups. These results strongly suggest that ethanol permeates the yeast cell plasma membrane without involvement of any carrier. (ii) The outflow rate of ethanol seems greater than the ability of this organism to produce ethanol, indicating that intracellular accumulation of ethanol is not possible. (iii) The intracellular concentration of ethanol found was similar to the concentration in culture media in all tested conditions. With the available information, it is difficult to ascertain the reasons for the discrepancy between our results and those previously reported by other authors. However, the inadequacy of the cell-sampling procedure and of the chromatographic conditions used by those authors suggests that the discrepancy may be due to artifacts in the measurements of ethanol. PMID:6389514

  13. Ontogenetic differences in ethanol's motivational properties during infancy.

    PubMed

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Rahmani, Pouyan; Spear, Norman E

    2012-05-01

    Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during infancy may be transient, as during the second postnatal week rat pups tend to exhibit conditioned aversions to flavors paired with ethanol. The present study examined changes in the motivation properties of ethanol through ontogeny and the neurobiology underlying these changes. Rat pups were exposed to a taste conditioning procedure on PD4 or PD12. Rat pups were intraorally infused with 2.5% of their body weight of saccharin solution (0.1%) and immediately after injected intraperitoneolly (i.p.) with one of six doses of ethanol (0.0-2.0 g/kg). A day later pups were given saccharine infusions and percent body weight gain was used as an index of ethanol's reinforcing effects. PD4 pups expressed appetitive reinforcement to ethanol, as indicated by greater saccharin intake, as compared to control counterparts and to the older PD12 pups. Subsequent experiments revealed that PD4 pups were less sensitive to the aversive properties of the drug than PD12 pups. The older pups found high doses of ethanol aversive while PD4 rat pups did not condition aversions to this dose of ethanol after a single trial. A similar pattern of results was observed between the low doses of ethanol and the highest doses of a kappa opioid agonist. The PD12 animals did not condition to the kappa opioid agonist, while the younger rats expressed an appetitive response. These results illustrate an ontogenetic change in the motivational properties of ethanol, with sensitivity to its appetitive properties declining and responsiveness to the aversive properties increasing with age during early infancy. PMID:22440692

  14. Economic evaluation of a multicompartment bioreactor for ethanol production using in situ extraction of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, M.L.; Steinmeyer, D.E.; Togna, A.P.

    1991-12-31

    We have previously described a multicompartment reactor that can be used with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production from a starch hydrolysate. By separating a solvent layer (tri-normal-butylphosphate, or TBP) from a cell layer, ethanol was extracted in situ and phase toxicity was prevented. Pressure cycling of the gas phase can be used to reduce significantly mass-transfer limitations that often limit entrapped-cell systems. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that with TBP the multicompartment reactor is generally more economically favorable at low volumes, and the traditional system is more favorable at high volumes. Improved solvents can increase economic viability at high volumes (10{sup 8} L/yr of 95% ethanol).

  15. Ethanol alters angiotensin II stimulated mitogen activated protein kinase in hepatocytes: agonist selectivity and ethanol metabolic independence.

    PubMed

    Weng, Y; Shukla, S D

    2000-06-23

    Angiotensin II activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p42 and p44) in rat hepatocytes exposed to ethanol and the relevance of ethanol metabolism on this activation was investigated. Hepatocytes, isolated from rat liver, were treated with or without ethanol for 24 h. Angiotensin II, vasopressin, insulin, serum and epinephrine significantly increased hepatocyte MAPK activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) had little effect on MAPK activation. Interestingly, among the above agonists, which activated hepatocyte MAPK, ethanol exposure potentiated only angiotensin II and epinephrine-stimulated MAPK. Thus, potentiation of MAPK by ethanol exhibited agonist selectivity. In contrast to several other cells, there was prevalence of p42 over p44 MAPK band in hepatocytes. Angiotensin II treatment caused a rapid activation (peak 5 min) of MAPK followed by a decrease to basal levels in 30 min. Exposure with 100 mM ethanol potentiated the angiotensin II stimulated MAPK activity. This potentiation was partially blocked by pertussis toxin suggesting it to be a G-protein-dependent event. Treatment of the hepatocytes with pyrazole (an inhibitor of ethanol metabolism) or acetaldehyde (an ethanol metabolite) had no effect on potentiation. Thus, ethanol potentiation of hepatocyte MAPK is agonist-selective and independent of ethanol metabolism. PMID:10862821

  16. The effect of repeated withdrawal episodes on acquisition and loss of tolerance to ethanol in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Maier, D M; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-01-01

    Male rats were administered ethanol via an intragastric catheter (8.0-12.0 g/kg/day) either continuously for 8 weeks or on a binge schedule with four 2 week cycles of drug administration separated from each successive cycle by a 2 week period of no drug treatment. Older rats were administered ethanol for 2 weeks, to provide an age control for the binge-treated animals as age can alter an animal's sensitivity to ethanol. Acquisition and loss of tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment were measured on a dowel task while acquisition and loss of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia were assessed by measuring rectal temperature. Acceleration of tolerance development to both ethanol-induced motor impairment and hypothermia was observed in animals subjected to repeated withdrawal episodes (binge-Study 1) but not in the controls for total dose and duration of drug treatment who experienced withdrawal only once (continuous-Study 2). Persistence of tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment occurred in both binge and continuously treated animals while persistence of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia was seen only in the binge treated animals. Age (3 to 7 months) did not affect tolerance development or decay. After three cycles of drug treatment (three withdrawal episodes), binge treated animals showed an impairment in motor ability when blood ethanol levels were near zero. This impairment disappeared when the animals were administered ethanol, indicating a normalizing effect of ethanol on motor behavior in animals subjected to repeated episodes of withdrawal. A similar, but not significant, effect was seen in continuously treated animals. Thus, in an animal exposed to prolonged ethanol treatment, persistent changes in responding to the drug were found. The persistence of these changes was enhanced by the experience of withdrawal from ethanol. PMID:3628538

  17. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  18. Neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal ethanol administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, S.; Briggs, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in rats on the behavior and on the levels of multiple neurotransmitters in the brain have been investigated. Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: ethanol-exposed, pair-fed control and nutritional control. Ethanol was administered through Leiber-DeCarli liquid diet containing 6% ethanol (v/v) throughout the gestation period in ethanol-exposed rats. Male offspring were tested for alternations in neurobehavioral and neurochemical parameters. Animals exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited lower birth weights, delayed motor development, delayed learning and no catch-up growth, as well as significant alterations in levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and GABA in discrete brain areas.

  19. Histopathological and imaging modifications in chronic ethanolic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Folescu, Roxana; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Sişu, Alina Maria; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Ilie, Adrian Cosmin; Moise, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Chronic abuse of alcohol triggers different types of brain damage. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome gets together Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. Another type of encephalopathy associated with chronic ethanol consumption is represented by the Marchiafava-Bignami malady or syndrome, an extremely rare neurological disorder, which is characterized by a demielinization of corpus callosum, extending as far as a necrosis. Because the frequency of ethanolic encephalopathy is increased and plays a major role in the sudden death of ethanolic patients, we have studied the chronic ethanolic encephalopathy both in deceased and in living patients, presenting different pathologies related to the chronic ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effects of chronic ethanolic encephalopathy on the central nervous system based both on the histopathological exam of the tissular samples and the imaging investigation, such as MRI and CT. PMID:25329105

  20. Hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    An alcoholic beverage is a type of water-ethanol solution with flavor and taste. The properties of the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages have not been clarified sufficiently. We investigated factors that could affect the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) chemical shifts of the OH of water-ethanol and Raman OH stretching spectra. Not only acids (H+ and HA: undissociated acids) but also bases (OH- and A-: conjugate-base anions from weak acids) strengthened the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol. It was also demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding is strengthened by chemical components in alcoholic beverages (whiskey, Japanese sake, shochu). It can be suggested that hydrogen-bonding donors as well as acceptors in alcohol beverages, which exist as the initial components or are gained later on, should cause the tight association between water and ethanol molecules. PMID:17116572

  1. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively. PMID:865218

  2. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  3. Molecular vibrational dynamics in ethanol studied by femtosecond CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhibin; Dong, Zhiwei; Chen, Deying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Xia, Yuanqin

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is utilized to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics in ethanol at room temperature. The beat wavenumbers between Raman modes of Csbnd H stretch modes (from 2800 cm-1 to 3000 cm-1) in ethanol are excited and detected by varying wavelengths of the laser pulses and detection window. The coherence relaxation times of the Csbnd H stretch mode in ethanol are measured.

  4. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  5. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  6. Developmental age strengthens barriers to ethanol accumulation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lovely, C. Ben; Nobles, Regina D.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) describes a wide range of phenotypic defects affecting facial and neurological development associated with ethanol teratogenicity. It affects approximately 1 in 100 children born in the United States each year. Genetic predisposition along with timing and dosage of ethanol exposure are critical in understanding the prevalence and variability of FASD. The zebrafish attributes of external fertilization, genetic tractability, and high fecundity make it a powerful tool for FASD studies. However, a lack of consensus of ethanol treatment paradigms has limited the interpretation of these various studies. Here we address this concern by examining ethanol tissue concentrations across timing and genetic background. We utilize headspace gas chromatography to determine ethanol concentration in the AB, fli1:EGFP, and Tu backgrounds. In addition, we treated these embryos with ethanol over two different developmental time windows, 6–24 hours post fertilization (hpf) and 24–48 hpf. Our analysis demonstrates that embryos rapidly equilibrate to a sub-media level of ethanol. Embryos then maintain this level of ethanol for the duration of exposure. The ethanol tissue concentration level is independent of genetic background, but is timing-dependent. Embryos exposed from 6–24 hpf were 2.7–4.2-fold lower than media levels, while embryos were 5.7–6.2-fold lower at 48 hpf. This suggests that embryos strengthen one or more barriers to ethanol as they develop. In addition, both the embryo and, to a lesser extent, the chorion, surrounding the embryo are barriers to ethanol. Overall, this work will help tighten ethanol treatment regimens and strengthen zebrafish as a model of FASD. PMID:25012627

  7. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Singh, H. B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Millet, D. B.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-06-01

    Energy security and climate change concerns have led to the promotion of biomass-derived ethanol, an oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC), as a substitute for fossil fuels. Although ethanol is ubiquitous in the troposphere, our knowledge of its current atmospheric budget and distribution is limited. Here, for the first time we use a global chemical transport model in conjunction with atmospheric observations to place constraints on the ethanol budget, noting that additional measurements of ethanol (and its precursors) are still needed to enhance confidence in our estimated budget. Global sources of ethanol in the model include 5.0 Tg yr-1 from industrial sources and biofuels, 9.2 Tg yr-1 from terrestrial plants, ~0.5 Tg yr-1 from biomass burning, and 0.05 Tg yr-1 from atmospheric reactions of the ethyl peroxy radical (C2H5O2) with itself and with the methyl peroxy radical (CH3O2). The resulting atmospheric lifetime of ethanol in the model is 2.8 days. Gas-phase oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary global sink of ethanol in the model (65%), followed by dry deposition (25%), and wet deposition (10%). Over continental areas, ethanol concentrations predominantly reflect direct anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. Uncertainty in the biogenic ethanol emissions, estimated at a factor of three, may contribute to the 50% model underestimate of observations in the North American boundary layer. Current levels of ethanol measured in remote regions are an order of magnitude larger than those in the model, suggesting a major gap in understanding. Stronger constraints on the budget and distribution of ethanol and OVOCs are a critical step towards assessing the impacts of increasing the use of ethanol as a fuel.

  8. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Singh, H. B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Millet, D. B.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy security and climate change concerns have led to the promotion of biomass-derived ethanol, an oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC), as a substitute for fossil fuels. Although ethanol is ubiquitous in the troposphere, our knowledge of its current atmospheric budget and distribution is limited. Here, for the first time we use a global chemical transport model in conjunction with atmospheric observations to place constraints on the ethanol budget, noting that additional measurements of ethanol (and its precursors) are still needed to enhance confidence in our estimated budget. Global sources of ethanol in the model include 5.0 Tg yr-1 from industrial sources and biofuels, 9.2 Tg yr-1 from terrestrial plants, ~0.5 Tg yr-1 from biomass burning, and 0.05 Tg yr-1 from atmospheric reactions of the ethyl peroxide radical (C2H5O2) with itself and with the methyl peroxide radical (CH3O2). The resulting atmospheric lifetime of ethanol in the model is 2.8 days. Gas-phase oxidation by hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary global sink of ethanol in the model (65%), followed by dry deposition to land (25%), and wet deposition (10%). Over continental areas, ethanol concentrations predominantly reflect direct anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. Uncertainty in the biogenic ethanol emissions estimated at a factor of three may contribute to the 50% model underestimate of observations in the North American boundary layer. Furthermore, current levels of ethanol measured in remote atmospheres are an order of magnitude larger than those explained by surface sources or by in-situ atmospheric production from observed precursor hydrocarbons in the model, suggesting a major gap in understanding. Stronger constraints on the budget and distribution of ethanol and other VOCs are a critical step towards assessing the impacts of increasing use of ethanol as a fuel.

  9. Anomalous volume change of gramicidin A in ethanol solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derechin, M.; Hayashi, D. M.; Jordan, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of studies aimed at clarifying the failure of gramicidin A (GA) to sediment in early experiments are analyzed. In the present work, no sedimentation was observed in pure pentanol or ethanol, while normal sedimentation was observed in ethanol-water mixtures. It is concluded that GA exists in two conformations that differ in volume. Since the apparent specific volume in absolute ethanol sinks to its lowest values on increasing concentration, the GA molecule probably unfolds completely in conditions favorable for dimerization.

  10. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  11. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  12. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  13. Revisiting Intragastric Ethanol Intubation as a Dependence Induction Method for Studies of Ethanol Reward and Motivation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Braconi, Simone; Sidhpura, Nimish; Aujla, Harinder; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to re-examine intragastric ethanol intubation as a dependence induction method that effectively induces physical dependence upon ethanol over a short time period, is devoid of intrinsic stress artifacts, inexpensive, and easy to implement. Methods Male Wistar rats were subjected to ethanol dependence induction via intragastric ethanol intubation. Ethanol solution (final concentration 20%, made up in a dietary liquid vehicle consisting of powdered milk, sucrose, and water) was intubated four times per day, at 4 h intervals, for 6 consecutive days (for a total of 10 g/kg/day). The utility of this procedure was evaluated for inducing physical dependence, determined by daily and final withdrawal ratings. Anxiety-like behavior associated with ethanol dependence history was examined using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, conducted five days after ethanol withdrawal. To evaluate whether potential stress-like effects of intragastric intubation per se produce lasting effects on behavior, experimentally naive rats were compared to vehicle-intubated rats for anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Results Blood alcohol levels reached stable levels of 200–250 mg%, measured 1 h after the second and third ethanol intubation on days 2, 4, and 6. Ethanol-treated rats developed significant somatic withdrawal signs, recorded daily between 10–12 h after the last ethanol administration. At 5 days post-withdrawal, ethanol-treated rats showed significant anxiety-like behavior, measured by decreased open arm time and open arm entries on the EPM, compared with vehicle controls. Additionally, ethanol post-dependent rats showed decreased open arm time compared to experimentally naive rats. EPM performance did not differ between vehicle-intubated and naive rats. No withdrawal seizures were observed and mortality rate was near zero. Conclusions These findings suggest that intragastric ethanol administration produces a behavioral profile consistent with

  14. Signaling Cascades Regulating NMDA Receptor Sensitivity to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    RON, DORIT

    2005-01-01

    One of the major targets for ethanol (alcohol) in the brain is the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate-gated ion channel. Intriguingly, the effects of ethanol on the NMDA receptor are not homogeneous throughout the brain. This review focuses on recent studies revealing molecular mechanisms that mediate the actions of ethanol on the NMDA receptor in different brain regions via changes in NMDA receptor phosphorylation and compartmentalization. Specifically, the role of the scaffolding protein RACK1 and the regulatory protein DARPP-32 in mediating the distinct effects of ethanol is presented. PMID:15271260

  15. An Ethanol Vapor Chamber System for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  16. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  17. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    PubMed

    Voordeckers, Karin; Kominek, Jacek; Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  18. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rabai, M.; Detterich, J.A.; Wenby, R.B.; Toth, K.; Meiselman, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol’s effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3 – 30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25% – 2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25% – 6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p<0.05) and higher concentrations only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium; no changes occurred for cells previously incubated with ethanol then tested in ethanol-free medium. The impaired deformability of cells pre-exposed to oxidative stress was improved only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium. RBC aggregation decreased with concentration at 0.25% and higher for cells in both autologous plasma and dextran 70. Our results indicate that ethanol reversibly improves erythrocyte deformability and irreversibly decreases erythrocyte aggregation; the relevance of these results to the health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation. PMID:23089886

  19. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    SciTech Connect

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-08-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

  20. MOLECULAR TARGETS AND MECHANISMS FOR ETHANOL ACTION IN GLYCINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Daya I.; Trudell, James R.; Crawford, Daniel K.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are recognized as the primary mediators of neuronal inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem and higher brain regions known to be sensitive to ethanol. Building evidence supports the notion that ethanol acting on GlyRs causes at least a subset of its behavioral effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. For over two decades, GlyRs have been studied at the molecular level as targets for ethanol action. Despite the advances in understanding the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro, the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels in general, and in GlyRs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present review focuses on advances in our knowledge produced by using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies over the last two decades to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs. The molecular targets on the GlyR are covered on a global perspective, which includes the intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The latter has received increasing attention in recent years. Recent molecular models of the sites of ethanol action in GlyRs and their implications to our understanding of possible mechanism of ethanol action and novel targets for drug development in GlyRs are discussed. PMID:20399807

  1. Loss of ethanol from vitreous humor in drowning death.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter P; Jones, Graham R; Lewis, Russell; Johnson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Two separate cases of drowning with extended periods underwater (2 and 4 weeks) are reported. The postmortem ethanol concentrations were 260 and 280 in central blood, 50 and 80 in vitreous, and 330 and 320 in urine (mg/100 mL) for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Determination of the urine 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid ratios produced results of 713 and 41 pmol/nmol, respectively. The serotonin metabolite ratios support the explanation of diffusion of ethanol from the vitreous fluid into the surrounding water, rather than postmortem production of ethanol in blood, as the primary reason for the blood-vitreous ethanol differences. PMID:17988467

  2. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  3. Ethanol increases plasma vasopressin shortly after intraperitoneal injection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Colbern, D.L.; ten Haaf, J.; Tabakoff, B.; van Wimersma Greidanus, T.B.

    1985-09-16

    In rats, ethanol has generally been thought to inhibit vasopressin (VP) release into the peripheral circulation; however, the primary evidence for this conclusion has been indirect. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure VP in the plasma of rats decapitated 5 or 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Confirming the popular notion that ethanol inhibits VP release, VP levels were decreased 60 min after treatment. But radioimmunoassay techniques also revealed that VP release is markedly stimulated shortly after an injection of ethanol. 14 references, 1 figure.

  4. An ethanol vapor chamber system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F

    2012-06-30

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  5. Ethanol production from carbon dioxide using cyanobacterial biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mustaqim, Dani; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa

    1996-12-31

    An ethanol production system, which consists of chemical and biochemical reaction processes for (1) biomass production using cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis through photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation, (2) glucose extraction from that biomass, and (3) ethanol fermentation from the extracted glucose using yeast Saccharomyces sake, was conceptually developed. S. sake was grown on the medium containing the cyanobacterial biomass extract and that containing reagent glucose. It was found that the specific rates of cell growth, glucose consumption, ethanol production and the yeast ethanol tolerance were enhanced by the addition of cyanobacterial biomass extract. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  7. Importance of stability study of continuous systems for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Paz Astudillo, Isabel Cristina; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel

    2011-01-10

    Fuel ethanol industry presents different problems during bioreactors operation. One of them is the unexpected variation in the output ethanol concentration from the bioreactor or a drastic fall in the productivity. In this paper, a compilation of concepts and relevant results of several experimental and theoretical studies about dynamic behavior of fermentation systems for bioethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis is done with the purpose of understanding the stability phenomena that could affect the productivity of industries producing fuel ethanol. It is shown that the design of high scale biochemical processes for fuel ethanol production must be done based on stability studies. PMID:21034786

  8. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  9. Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

    1985-03-01

    Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

  10. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered for Anaerobic Conversion of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Sugars to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced high-throughput screening has resulted in the discovery of several yeast strains that are capable of anaerobically utilizing pentose, as well as hexose sugars. The growth and ethanol production of these developed strains will be described. The paradigm for using genetically engineered Sac...

  11. Ethanol alters estrogen receptor signaling and activates senescence pathways in osteoblasts while estradiol attenuates ethanol effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced bone loss are largely unknown. Using bone from chronic ethanol (EtOH) infused cycling female rats and osteoblastic cells in vitro, we hav...

  12. PHYSIOLOGIC AND GENOMIC ANALYSES OF NUTRITION-ETHANOL INTERACTIONS DURING GESTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FETAL ETHANOL TOXICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition-ethanol (EtOH) interactions during gestation remain unclear, primarily due to the lack of appropriate rodent models. In the present report we utilize total enteral nutrition (TEN) to specifically understand the roles of nutrition and caloric intake in EtOH-induced fetal toxicity. Time-impr...

  13. Ethanol enhances collective dynamics of lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, Martin D.; Schmalzl, Karin; Conti Nibali, Valeria; Tarek, Mounir; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C.

    2011-05-15

    From inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and all atom molecular dynamics simulations we present evidence for a low-energy dynamical mode in the fluid phase of a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer immersed in a 5% water/ethanol solution. In addition to the well-known phonon that shows a liquidlike dispersion with energies up to 4.5 meV, we observe an additional mode at smaller energies of 0.8 meV, which shows little or no dispersion. Both modes show transverse properties and might be related to molecular motion perpendicular to the bilayer.

  14. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slightly in favor of ethanol over acetate. Future experiments will measure the effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on product ratio and process kinetics.

  15. Effect of chronic ethanol administration on disposition of ethanol and its metabolites in rat.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Yukawa, Nobuhiro; Liu, Jinyao; Shimamoto, Akiko; Kakizaki, Eiji; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    We studied the effects of chronic alcohol intake on the disposition of alcohol and its metabolites in the rat. We used male Wistar rats for all of the experiments in this study. Using a pair-feeding process, rats were fed a liquid diet containing alcohol or without alcohol for 6 weeks. Ethanol solutions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg body weight [BW]) were administered as a bolus, intravenously. We then measured blood ethanol and acetate concentrations. Simultaneous multiline fitting was performed using mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC)-time curves fitted to the one-compartment open model with parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics. At low doses (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kgBW), no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to ethanol elimination rate, area under the curve of ethanol (AUC(EtOH)), and mean residence time of ethanol (MRT(EtOH)). At higher doses (2.0 g/kgBW), ethanol elimination rate in the alcohol group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.5%). These findings were also substantiated by corresponding changes in AUC(EtOH) and MRT(EtOH). At low doses, no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to plateau concentration of acetate (AcT) (concentration of steady state=C(ss)AcT), area under the curve of AcT (AUC(AcT)), and mean residence time of AcT (MRT(AcT)). However, at higher doses, although there were no differences in C(ss)AcT, both AUC(AcT) and MRT(AcT) were significantly lower in the alcohol group when compared to the control group (P<.5%). Chronic alcohol consumption increases ethanol oxidation and AcT metabolism in rats, as observed at high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). These effects were observed at BACs of 3.5-4.5 mg/ml, and were not observed at lower doses. Thus, with general alcohol consumption, interindividual differences and intra-individual changes in alcohol metabolism may not take into account increased

  16. Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D; Cousins, Laura A; Monroe, Derek C; Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-01-17

    Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol than do low-saccharin consuming counterparts (LoS). Three new experiments examined the effect of refeeding after an episode of food restriction on ethanol intake and on preference for ethanol-paired flavors in HiS and LoS rats. A 48-h episode of food restriction with wheel running reduced intake of and preference for 4% ethanol (Exp. 1a) and preference for an ethanol-paired flavor (Exp. 1b) during refeeding. Food restriction alone was sufficient to reduce the flavor preference (Exp. 2). Adding fat to the refeeding diet or extending the food restriction period exacerbated the effect (Exp. 3), yielding a frank aversion to ethanol-paired flavors in LoS rats. These studies indicate that rebound from negative energy balance shifts responses to ethanol-associated cues from preference toward aversion. Analyses of bodyweight changes and caloric intake during refeeding support this conclusion and further suggest that lower metabolic efficiency may be a marker for enhanced preference mutability. PMID:23231850

  17. Chronic ethanol consumption alters effects of ethanol in vitro on brain membrane structure of high alcohol sensitivity and low alcohol sensitivity rats.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, N A; Chochina, S V; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Wood, W G

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined if differences in initial membrane sensitivity to ethanol were associated with development of membrane tolerance to ethanol. High Alcohol Sensitivity (HAS) and Low Alcohol Sensitivity (LAS) rats were administered a 15% ethanol solution in water as the sole source of fluid for 30 days. The amount of ethanol consumed per day did not significantly differ between the HAS and LAS rats. Development of membrane tolerance to in vitro effects of ethanol has been previously reported for bulk membrane fluidity and protein-lipid interaction. Our data expands the understanding of "membrane tolerance" phenomenon to protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation. We also introduce genotype-dependent and genotype-independent properties of the membrane tolerance to ethanol. ethanol treatment produced genotype-dependent and genotype-independent membrane tolerance to ethanol. The in vitro effects of ethanol on synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) protein distribution and lipid bilayer interdigitation were abolished or decreased in the SPM of chronic ethanol-treated HAS rats, as compared with the SPM of HAS control rats (genotype-dependent tolerance). Protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation were not affected by ethanol in vitro in either chronic ethanol-treated or control LAS rats. Genotype-independent tolerance to ethanol in vitro was observed for SPM annular and bulk bilayer fluidity in chronic ethanol-treated HAS and LAS rats. It is concluded that initial sensitivity to ethanol contributes to the development of membrane tolerance to ethanol in HAS and LAS rats. PMID:7485835

  18. Ethanol production from modern biorefinery: Robotic platform for production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to convert pretreated lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol anaerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biorefineries to produce ethanol are becoming abundant but the future of ethanol requires that cellulosic ethanol paradigms are researched. A discussion of the existing ethanol production and biorefinery capacity will be made. The USDA, ARS, NCAUR, BBC group has developed a robotic platform to scr...

  19. Bioconversion of glycerol to ethanol by a mutant Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop, by adaptive evolution, mutant strains of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 that are capable of withstanding high glycerol concentration as well as resisting ethanol-inhibition. The mutant will be used for high ethanol fermentation from glycerol feedstock. Ethanol production from pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol using the stock was evaluated. A six-tube-subculture-generations method was used for developing the mutant. This involved subculturing the organism six consecutive times in tubes containing the same glycerol and ethanol concentrations at the same culture conditions. Then, the glycerol and/or ethanol concentration was increased and the six subculture generations were repeated. A strain capable of growing in 200 g/L glycerol and 30 g/L ethanol was obtained. The ability of this mutant, vis-à-vis the original strain, in utilizing glycerol in a high glycerol containing medium, with the concomitant ethanol yield, was assessed. Tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) was used as the fermentation medium. Fermentation products were analyzed using HPLC. In a 20 g/L glycerol TSB, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048 converted 18.5 g/L P-glycerol and 17.8 g/L R-glycerol into 12 and 12.8 g/L ethanol, respectively. In a 50 g/L P-glycerol TSB, it utilized only 15.6 g/L glycerol; but the new strain used up 39 g/L, yielding 20 g/L ethanol after 120 h, an equivalence of 1.02 mol ethanol/mol-glycerol. This is the highest ethanol yield reported from glycerol bioconversion. The result of this P-glycerol fermentation can be duplicated using the R-glycerol from biodiesel production. PMID:22455837

  20. Effects of Ethanol on the Cerebellum: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse causes cerebellar dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia is a common feature in alcoholics. Alcohol exposure during development also impacts the cerebellum. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) show many symptoms associated specifically with cerebellar deficits. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This special issue discusses the most recent advances in the study of mechanisms underlying alcoholinduced cerebellar deficits. The alteration in GABAA receptor-dependent neurotransmission is a potential mechanism for ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction. Recent advances indicate ethanol-induced increases in GABA release are not only in Purkinje cells (PCs), but also in molecular layer interneurons and granule cells. Ethanol is shown to disrupt the molecular events at the mossy fiber - granule cell - Golgi cell (MGG) synaptic site and granule cell parallel fibers - PCs (GPP) synaptic site, which may be responsible for ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia. Aging and ethanol may affect the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of PC dendrites and cause dendritic regression. Ethanol withdrawal causes mitochondrial damage and aberrant gene modifications in the cerebellum. The interaction between these events may result in neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Ethanol activates doublestranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and PKR activation is involved ethanolinduced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Ethanol alters the development of cerebellar circuitry following the loss of PCs, which could result in modifications of the structure and function of other brain regions that receive cerebellar inputs. Lastly, choline, an essential nutrient is evaluated for its potential protection against ethanol-induced cerebellar damages. Choline is shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction when given before ethanol exposure. PMID:25933648

  1. Tolerance and withdrawal in goldfish exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Larry I; Wallace, Helen L; O'Connor, Candace S; Yoda, Tamae; Crabbe, John C

    2006-03-30

    Acute ethanol exposure decreases regulated body temperature. Tolerance and dependence develop with continued exposure. Removal of ethanol following chronic exposure produces withdrawal. There is little information on the time course for the development of tolerance and disagreement about the presence of a rebound effect on body temperature during withdrawal. For tolerance, we monitored the selected temperature [T(sel)] of goldfish [Carassius auratus] for 8 h while they were exposed to one of three doses of ethanol. During the period from 90 to 150 min post-exposure, T(sel) was: control: 24.1+/-0.07 degrees C; 0.4% ethanol: 21.9+/-0.09 degrees C; 0.8% ethanol: 21.3+/-0.05 degrees C; 1.1% ethanol: 18.4+/-0.10 degrees C. The difference between control and experimental T(sel) decreased by the following amounts for the final 1.5 h in the gradient: 0.4% ethanol: 2.60+/-0.12 degrees C; 0.8% ethanol: 1.58+/-0.09 degrees C; 1.1% ethanol: 4.08+/-0.12 degrees C. At all 3 doses, tolerance proceeded in a stepwise manner rather than continuously. Temperature regulation during withdrawal was evaluated by maintaining the goldfish in 0.8% ethanol for three days and subsequently monitoring T(sel) in an ethanol-free temperature gradient for 36 h. During withdrawal there was no evidence for an effect on T(sel); experimental and control values were nearly identical. PMID:16448677

  2. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed. PMID:25267448

  3. BHT blocks NfkB activation and Ethanol-Induced Brain Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binge ethanol administration causes corticolimbic brain damage that models alcoholic neurodegeneration. The mechanism of binge ethanol induced degeneration is unknown, but is not glutamate neurotoxicity. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and inflammation are mechanisms of binge ethanol ...

  4. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  5. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio (acetate to ethanol) from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September, 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

  6. Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

  7. Ethanol production from Eucalyptus plantation thinnings.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Spain, M

    2012-04-01

    Conditions for optimal pretreatment of eucalypt (Eucalyptus dunnii) and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) forestry thinning residues for bioethanol production were empirically determined using a 3(3) factorial design. Up to 161mg/g xylose (93% theoretical) was achieved at moderate combined severity factors (CSF) of 1.0-1.6. At CSF>2.0, xylose levels declined, owing to degradation. Moreover at high CSF, depolymerisation of cellulose was evident and corresponded to glucose (155mg/g, ∼33% cellulose) recovery in prehydrolysate. Likewise, efficient saccharification with Cellic® CTec 2 cellulase correlated well with increasing process severity. The best condition yielded 74% of the theoretical conversion and was attained at the height of severity (CSF of 2.48). Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude E. dunnii hydrolysate within 30h, yielding 18g/L ethanol, representing a glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 0.475g/g (92%). Based on our findings, eucalyptus forest thinnings represent a potential feedstock option for the emerging Australian biofuel industry. PMID:22342086

  8. Ethanol Induced Shortening of DNA in Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmen, Greg; Reisner, Walter; Tegenfeldt, Jonas; Linke, Heiner

    2010-03-01

    The confinement of DNA in nanochannels has greatly facilitated the study of DNA polymer physics and holds promise as a powerful tool for genomic sequencing. Ethanol precipitation of DNA is a common tool in molecular biology, typically in >70% [EtOH]. Even at lower ethanol concentrations, however, DNA transforms from B-form to A-form, a shorter yet slightly less twisted conformation. Accordingly, we isolated individual YOYO-1 labeled λ-DNA molecules in 100nmx100nm channels in 0, 20, 40 and 60% [EtOH]. We observed a dramatic shortening in the mean measured lengths with increasing [EtOH] and a broadening of the distribution of measured lengths at the intermediate concentrations. These observed lengths are less than those expected from fully A-form λ-DNA, suggesting that poor solvency effects are involved. Also, substantial spatial variations in intensity in a small number of molecules at the higher [EtOH] suggest the presence of higher order DNA conformations, in accord with the observation that the effective persistence length of DNA has been greatly reduced.

  9. Animal models of craving for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Koob, G F

    2000-08-01

    Craving has various meanings but can be defined generally in terms of a desire for the previously experienced effects of ethanol. Animal models provide a means by which to study the underlying mechanisms associated with craving and are most useful when they fulfill the requirements for predictive validity and reliability. Craving is a key part of the process of addiction that can lead to relapse and is conceptualized as having at least three components: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication and withdrawal/negative affect. Animal models of craving are hypothesized at this time to involve three domains of motivation to take drugs: excessive drinking, negative affective states and conditioned reinforcement. Excessive drinking includes the alcohol deprivation effect, drinking during withdrawal and drinking after a history of dependence. Models of the negative affective state include increases in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned reinforcement models include cue-induced resistance to extinction or cue-induced reinstatement. Experimental psychology is a rich resource of sensitive behavioral techniques by which to measure hypothetical constructs associated with the motivation to drink ethanol. Rigorous tests of predictive validity and reliability will be necessary to make them useful for understanding the neurobiology of craving and for the development of new medications for treating craving. PMID:11002904

  10. Potentiometric titration of metal ions in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Graham T T; Mohamed, Mark F; Neverov, Alexei A; Brown, R S

    2006-09-18

    The potentiometric titrations of Zn2+, Cu2+ and 12 Ln3+ metal ions were obtained in ethanol to determine the titration constants (defined as the at which the [-OEt]/[Mx+]t ratios are 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5) and in two cases (La3+ and Zn2+) a complete speciation diagram. Several simple monobasic acids and aminium ions were also titrated to test the validity of experimental titration measurements and to establish new constants in this medium that will be useful for the preparation of buffers and standard solutions. The dependence of the titration constants on the concentration and type of metal ion and specific counterion effects is discussed. In selected cases, the titration profiles were analyzed using a commercially available fitting program to obtain information about the species present in solution, including La3+ for which a dimer model is proposed. The fitting provides the microscopic values for deprotonation of one to four metal-bound ethanol molecules. Kinetics for the La3+-catalyzed ethanolysis of paraoxon as a function of are presented and analyzed in terms of La3+ speciation as determined by the analysis of potentiometric titration curves. The stability constants for the formation of Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes with 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane as determined by potentiometric titration are presented. PMID:16961382

  11. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  12. Statistical rate theory examination of ethanol evaporation.

    PubMed

    Persad, A H; Ward, C A

    2010-05-13

    A series of low-temperature (246 < T(I)(L) < 267 K) steady-state ethanol evaporation experiments have been conducted to determine the saturation vapor pressure of metastable ethanol. The measured interfacial conditions have been used with statistical rate theory (SRT) to develop an expression for the saturation vapor pressure as a function of temperature, f(srt)(eth). This expression is shown to be thermodynamically consistent because it gives predictions of both the evaporative latent heat and the liquid constant-pressure specific heat that are in agreement with independent measurements of these properties. In each experiment, the interfacial vapor temperature was measured to be greater than the interfacial liquid temperature, [triple bond]DeltaT(I)(LV). When f(srt)(eth) is used in SRT to predict DeltaT(I)(LV), the results are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Other expressions for the saturation vapor pressure that are in the literature are examined and found to be thermodynamically inconsistent and do not lead to valid predictions of DeltaT(I)(LV). PMID:20405870

  13. Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. PMID:20018244

  14. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of Switchgrass for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to supplement corn-based ethanol production. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic material is a major obstacle to the efficient conversion. To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass for the fermentable sugar...

  15. Temperature-dependent solubility of wax compounds in ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of ethanol to dissolve wax compounds was investigated as an alternative to traditional lipid solvents. The solubility of fatty esters with carbon chain lengths between 46 and 54 was measured in ethanol at elevated temperatures. The greatest increase in solubility was observed between 40°...

  16. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  17. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  18. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  19. Lactobacillus buchneri: A novel biocatalyst for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional Saccharomyces for starch to ethanol fermentation are no longer applicable for lignocellulose-based ethanol production since a mixture of sugars instead of glucose alone is present in biomass hydrolysates. In addition, various inhibitory compounds are released or formed during the pretr...

  20. Ethanol, errors, and the speed-accuracy trade-off.

    PubMed

    Tiplady, B; Drummond, G B; Cameron, E; Gray, E; Hendry, J; Sinclair, W; Wright, P

    2001-01-01

    Ethanol has been shown to have a relatively greater effect on error rates in speeded tasks than temazepam, and this may be due to a differential effect on the speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO). This study used different instruction sets to influence the SATO. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (24 males, aged 18-41 years) were allocated at random to one of three instruction conditions--emphasising accuracy, neutral, and emphasising speed. After familiarisation, they took part in two sessions spaced at least 4 days apart in which they received either ethanol (0.8 g/kg, max 60 g males, 50 g females) or placebo in randomised order. Tests were administered starting at 30 and 75 min postdrug. Instructions significantly affected performance. In two maze tasks, one on paper, the other on a pen computer, the pattern of instruction effects was as expected. A significant increase in errors with ethanol was seen for both maze tasks, and there was a tendency to speed up with ethanol (significant only for the pen computer task). Responses to fixed stimulus sequences on the Four-Choice Reaction Test also showed a tendency to speed up and an increase in errors with ethanol, while all other tests showed both slowing and increases in errors with ethanol compared to placebo. Error scores are consistently increased by ethanol in all test situations, while the effects of ethanol on speed are variable across tests. PMID:11509226

  1. Effects of exercise and ethanol on liver mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Ardies, C.M.; Morris, G.S.; Erickson, C.K.; Farrar, R.P.

    1987-03-16

    Rates of ADP stimulated respiration for various substrates were determined in mitochondria isolated from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following 8 weeks of treatment with daily swimming, ethanol consumption, or both. All rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) type liquid diet with the ethanol treated rats receiving 35% of the calories as ethanol. Chronic exposure to ethanol depressed both state 3 respiration with glutamate as a substrate and cytochrome oxidase activity. Respiratory control ratios and P:O ratios, however, were unaffected by the ethanol exposure. Exercise alone had no effect on hepatic mitochondrial function. There were also no significant alterations in oxidative function of hepatic mitochondria from rats which were endurance-trained by swimming while receiving the ethanol diet. This lack of alteration in mitochondrial function was in spite of the fact that these rats consumed an identical amount of ethanol as those which incurred mitochondrial dysfunction. These results indicate that regular exercise has the potential to attenuate the ethanol induced decline in hepatic mitochondria. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL ETHANOL INHALATION ON SENSORY FUNCTION IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol-blended gasoline entered the market in response to demand for domestic renewable energy sources, which may result in exposure to ethanol vapors in combination with other volatile gasoline constituents. To begin an assessment ofthe risks of exposure to this mixture, we eva...

  3. Continuous Production of Ethanol from Wheat Straw Hydrolyzate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The average ethanol yield from the availabl...

  4. Dual aphid resistance in hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  5. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  6. Chem I Supplement: Effects of Ethanol on Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, RoseAnn L.

    1979-01-01

    Malnutrition due to alcoholism is discussed. It includes energy from the metabolism of ethanol as it contributes to obesity, the replacement of nutritious foods by sources of ethanol, inhibition of vitamins being activated, the increase in excretion of valuable minerals, and toxicity to cells of organ systems. (Author/SA)

  7. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Involvement of Sphingolipids in Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mariko; Saito, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol-induced neuronal death during a sensitive period of brain development is considered one of the significant causes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In rodent models, ethanol triggers robust apoptotic neurodegeneration during a period of active synaptogenesis that occurs around the first two postnatal weeks, equivalent to the third trimester in human fetuses. The ethanol-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent, involving Bax and caspase-3 activation. Such apoptotic pathways are often mediated by sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cellular membranes. While the central role of lipids in ethanol liver toxicity is well recognized, the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol neurotoxicity is less explored despite mounting evidence of their importance in neuronal apoptosis. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in animal models of FASD is mediated or regulated by cellular sphingolipids, including via the pro-apoptotic action of ceramide and through the neuroprotective action of GM1 ganglioside. Such sphingolipid involvement in ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing brain may provide unique targets for therapeutic applications against FASD. Here we summarize findings describing the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol-induced apoptosis and discuss the possibility that the combined action of various sphingolipids in mitochondria may control neuronal cell fate. PMID:24961420

  10. Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is significantly hindered by the structural and chemical complexity of biomass, which makes these materials a challenge to be used as feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production. Cellulose and hemicellulose, when hydrolyzed into their component su...

  11. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries

    PubMed Central

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol–petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  12. Effects of Inhaled Ethanol on Developmental Outcomes in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of biofuels is increasing in the US automotive fleet. The primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the health risk associated with more than 10% ethanol in gasoline is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to i...

  13. ENGINEERING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research focusing on the production of alternative fuels has intensified due to increasing global demand for a limited oil supply. Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. amounted to 5 billion gallons for 2006 and is projected to increase. Most of the ethanol produced is currently from fermentation of...

  14. Bacterial contamination of commercial starch-based ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control and treatment of bacterial contamination may be a critical control point for decreasing costs and improving efficiency of both starch and cellulosic ethanol production. Commercial fuel ethanol is not produced under sterile, pure-culture conditions, and consequently bacterial contamination i...

  15. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  16. Fate of virginiamycin through the fuel ethanol production process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to prevent and treat bacterial contamination of commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains coproducts. A study to evaluate the fate of virginiamycin during the ethanol production process wa...

  17. Bacteriophage application restores ethanol fermentation characteristics disrupted by Lactobacillus fermentum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Contamination of corn mash by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) reduces ethanol yields and the overall efficiency of the ethanol fermentation process, and the industry relies heavily on antibiotics for contamination control. There is a need to develop alternative methods for the control of cont...

  18. Antimicrobial peptides against contaminating bacteria in fuel ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly found as contaminants of fuel ethanol production, resulting in reduced ethanol yields (1). Recent reports suggest that LAB can develop resistance to antibiotics such as virginiamycin and penicillin that are commonly used to control bacterial contamination (2)...

  19. Antimicrobial peptides against contaminating bacteria in fuel ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly found as contaminants of fuel ethanol production, resulting in reduced ethanol yields: (1). Recent reports suggest that LAB can develop resistance to antibiotics such as virginiamycin and penicillin that are commonly used to control bacterial contamination; (2...

  20. Influence of ethanol on human T-lymphocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaelin, R.M.; Semerjian, A.; Center, D.M.; Bernardo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because ethanol consumption is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, an examination was made of the effects of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde on human T-lymphocyte migration, an important functional component of cellular inflammatory responses. With a modified Boyden chamber system, ethanol at 0.25% and 0.50% (vol/vol) inhibited spontaneous motility of human T-lymphocytes, in a noncytotoxic manner, to 65% +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM) and 62% +/- 7% of control values of migration, respectively. When T-lymphocyte migration was stimulated by colchicine (10/sup -5/ mol/L), incubation with ethanol (0.25% and 0.50%, vol/vol) decreased migration to 80% +/- 4% and 66% +/- 8% of control values, respectively. Similar degrees of inhibition of migration were obtained with acetaldehyde at concentrations five to 10 times less than ethanol. Ethanol was similarly capable of inhibiting T cell migration induced by dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, but it had no effect on stimulated migration induced by a human chemokinetic lymphokine. The study demonstrates that ethanol, at concentrations achievable in vivo, is capable of depressing T-lymphocyte migration. This effect might contribute to the immunosuppression associated with ethanol consumption. 36 references, 4 figures.

  1. Preference for ethanol in zebrafish following a single exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Priya; Berberoglu, Michael; Guo, Su

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely abused drugs in the world. Its addictive property is believed to primarily stem from its ability to influence the brain reinforcement pathway evolved for mediating natural rewards. Although dopamine is a known component of the reinforcement pathway, clear molecular and cellular compositions of this pathway and its sensitivity to ethanol remain not well understood. Zebrafish has been increasingly used to model and understand human disease states, due to its genetic tractability and ease of maintenance. In this study, we determine whether adult zebrafish develop ethanol preference after a single exposure using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Moreover, we establish a procedure that can be carried out in an automated and relatively high-throughput fashion. We find that zebrafish of the AB strain display significantly increased preference for the compartment where they received ethanol during a single 20 -minute exposure. The largest increase in preference is in response to a 1.5% ethanol administered in the tank water. The results demonstrate robust ethanol preference in zebrafish. Such a relatively high-throughput assay with automated tracking and response to a single ethanol exposure provides a potential means for a large-scale screening aimed at understanding the brain reinforcement pathway and its sensitivity to ethanol in this genetically tractable vertebrate. PMID:20974186

  2. Site Characterization of Ethanol-Blended Fuel Releases

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  3. Low dose ethanol consumption improves insulin sensitivity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While chronic consumption of high doses of ethanol is well known to have adverse health consequences, intake of low doses have been reported to improve several markers of health outcomes. Published results from our laboratory using total enteral nutrition (TEN) in rats, in which ethanol-containing d...

  4. Ethanol accumulation in drought-stressed conifer seedlings.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of drought-stress on ethanol production and accumulation in tissues of three conifer species (Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine). Significant ethanol accumulation was observed for all three species at severe levels of drought stress (pre-dawn ...

  5. Tolerance of yeast to ethanol decreased after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, B.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z.; He, J.; Jiang, X.; Fan, Y.; Zhuang, F.

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industry microorganism and the tolerance to ethanol is one of the main characteristics to decide its yield potential USA researchers reported that E coli cells growing in simulated microgravity environment were much more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and production-inhibitory effects of ethanol than cells growing in shaken flasks In this research we will investigate the tolerance of yeast to ethanol in real microgravity environment Method S cerevisiae cells were cultured for 18 d in YPD medium containing various concentrations of ethanol 0 6 8 and 10 V V during the China s 22 th recoverable satellite mission Optical density living cells counts metabolism and morphology in each culture were measured S cerevisiae cells were exposed to 20 V V ethanol to investigate the tolerance to ethanol Result The biomass of cells culture at 0 times g is 40 lower than that of the ground control in medium of YPD With the increase of concentration of ethanol in medium the rate of living cells decreased steeply especially in 0 times g culture The living cell of 0 times g is 65 5 lower than the control cells The viability of 0 times g cells and ground control cells exposed to 20 ethanol for 6h is 1 7 and 10 5 respectively No remarkable differences were found in the cell morphology and glucose consumption Conclusion These results suggest that under

  6. Ethanol production characteristics for a respiratory deficient mutant yeast strain

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A. III; Grilione, P.

    1982-01-01

    Barley was fermented with a defined strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a chemical induced respiratory deficient mutant RD, specific gravity, pH, CO/sub 2/ production and ethanol production rates and yield were compared. RD fermentation were slower but yielded slightly more ethanol after a considerable time. Partial reversion to a respiratory capable strain occurred.

  7. Troubleshooting fermentation in corn wet milling ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To convert starch to ethanol, continuous fermentation processes are employed by corn wet milling plants all over world. Contaminations by bacterial microorganisms like Lactobacillus and wild yeasts like Brettanomyces are common and result in lower ethanol yields (Abbott and Ingledew 2005, Skinner an...

  8. Contamination issues in continuous fermentation for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous fermentation processes are employed by corn wet milling plants all over world to convert starch to ethanol. Contaminations by bacterial microorganisms like Lactobacillus and wild yeasts like Brettanomyces are common and result in lower ethanol yields. Contaminants compete with inoculate...

  9. Production of Methane During Anaerobic Degradation of Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies show that the natural biodegradation of benzene may be inhibited by the presence of ethanol. Preferential biodegradation of ethanol can consume electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, or oxygen that are needed for BTEX biodegradation. An additi...

  10. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  11. ETHANOL: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND RESEARCH (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on mathematical modeling, ethanol present in gasoline when gasoline is spilled to ground water is expected to cause the plume of benzene and other BTEX compounds to be longer than they would be other wise. Microbial metabolism of ethanol consumes sulfate, nitrate, and oxyg...

  12. ETHANOL: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND RESEARCH (ROCKY GAP, MD*)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on mathematical modeling, ethanol present in gasoline when gasoline is spilled to ground water is expected to cause the plume of benzene and other BTEX compounds to be longer than they would be otherwise. Microbial metabolism of ethanol consumes sulfate, nitrate, and oxyge...

  13. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  14. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles

  15. On the stability of ethanol nanoclusters in a nitrogen cryomatrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshev, A.; Aldiyarov, A.; Katpaeva, K.; Korshikov, E.; Kurnosov, V.; Sokolov, D.

    2013-11-01

    Investigating the processes of recondensation of ethanol molecules from a nitrogen cryomatrix onto a substrate we have previously found that the state of ethanol molecules in the matrix is not stable. A slight increase of temperature of the solid nitrogen long before its sublimation changes the vibrational spectrum of the bicomponent film ethanol-nitrogen. The results of study of this phenomenon are presented here. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range 12-40 K at the initial vacuum in the chamber of at least 10-8 Torr. The concentration of ethanol in nitrogen was from 0.5% to 3%. The methodology of obtaining the information on the state of ethanol molecules in a nitrogen matrix is based on an analysis of amplitudes of the absorption bands corresponding to vibrations of an ethanol molecule in an unbound state. In particular, the amplitude of the absorption of the strain δ(OH)-vibrations at a frequency ν = 1259 cm-1 which is a sign of the presence in this object of monomers or dimers of ethanol in the anti-conformal state was measured. On the basis of reflection spectra it is concluded that the nitrogen matrix contains poly-aggregates of ethanol formed during the condensation of a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol. A part of the ethanol molecules forming poly-aggregates is not connected by hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules, creating in the near-surface zone of clusters an assembly of quasi-free ethanol molecules with the absorption bands corresponding to these states. An increase of temperature of the matrix leads to a decrease of the amplitude of absorption at the frequency ν = 1259 cm-1, which can be explained by the anti-gauche conversion with a corresponding decrease in the concentration of anti-component. This is confirmed by a simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of absorption of ethanol at the frequency ν = 1028 cm-1, which corresponds to vibrations of anti-conformers of ethanol. Thus, the observed decrease in the amplitude of

  16. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decrease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures. PMID:3278685

  17. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  18. Free radical metabolism of ethanol by deermouse microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, K.T.; Thurman, R.G.; Mason, R.P. NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC )

    1991-03-15

    One-electron oxidation of ethanol to the {alpha}-hydroxyethyl radical by rat liver microsomes was previously found to be cytochrome P-450-dependent in the presence of Desferal. With deermouse microsomes, the formation of {alpha}-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol was demonstrated with the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique of spin trapping. Free radical formation was enhanced by pretreatment of the animals with ethanol. Boiling of the microsomes, omission of NADPH, or addition of superoxide dismutase abolished free radical formation, but addition of catalase or azide had no affect. Free radicals from the hydroxyl radical scavenger formate were detected when ethanol in the incubation medium was replaced by formate. When equal concentrations of ethanol and formate were added to microsomes, the intensity of each radical adduct signal was decreased by half. Thus, it is concluded that free radical formation in deermouse microsomes is mediated by a P-450-derived, superoxide-dependent oxidizing species.

  19. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose. PMID:26618154

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of agricultural residues to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Hogan, C.M.; Saddler, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process was used to convert steam-treated wheat and barley straw to ethanol. Maximum conversion efficiencies were obtained when the substrates were steamed for 90 s. These substrates could yield over 0.4 g ethanol/g cellulose following a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process procedure using culture filtrates derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58. When culture filtrates from Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. reesei QM9414 were used, the ethanol yields obtained were 0.32 and 0.12 g ethanol/g cellulose utilized, respectively. The lower ethanol yields obtained with these strains were attributed to the lower amounts of ..beta..-glucosidase detected in the T. reesei culture filtrates.

  2. Involvement of kappa type opioids on ethanol drinking

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, C.; Borrell, J.; Guaza, C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the kappa agonist dynorphin/sub 1/..sqrt../sub 17/ andor the kappa antagonist MR-2266-BS on ethanol preference was investigated using a paradigm by which rats develop alcohol preference. Administration of dynorphin shortly before or after the conditioning session (forced ethanol exposure) failed to affect later ethanol preference. However, dynorphin treatment prior to the first choice session reduced ethanol preference during the three consecutive testing days. This effect was reversed by the simultaneous administration of the kappa antagonist MR-2266-BS. The results of the present study provide further support for evidence of the involvement of dynorphinergic systems on drinking behavior and suggest that kappa-type opioid mechanisms may be involved in the consumption and development of preference to ethanol in rats. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  3. Ethanol exposure represses osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-Long; Song, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-07-01

    It is known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can increase the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the effect of ethanol exposure on bone morphogenesis in fetus is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment of gastrulating chick embryos could inhibit long bone (humerus, radius and ulna) development. Histological examination revealed that ethanol exposure reduced the width of the proliferation and hypertrophic zones. In addition, cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activities were repressed. We also investigated the effect on chondrogenesis and chondrogenesis was inhibited. Ethanol exposure also induced excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The inhibiting effect on flat bone (sclerotic ossicle) and the generation of cranial neural crest cells (progenitors of craniofacial bones) was also presented. In conclusion, ethanol exposure during the embryonic period retards bone development through excess ROS production and altered bone-associated gene expression. PMID:27112526

  4. Effect of ethanol on hydrogen peroxide-induced AMPK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Wou, Sung-Eun; Zeng, Yan; Ross, Ruth A.; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N.; Crabb, David W.

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) responds to oxidative stress. Previous work has shown that ethanol treatment of cultured hepatoma cells and of mice inhibited the activity of AMPK and reduced the amount of AMPK protein. Ethanol generates oxidative stress in the liver. Since AMPK is activated by reactive oxygen species, it seems paradoxical that ethanol would inhibit AMPK in the hepatoma cells. In an attempt to understand the mechanism whereby ethanol inhibits AMPK, we studied the effect of ethanol on AMPK activation by exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The effects of ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) [either okadaic acid or PP2A small interference RNA (siRNA)] on AMPK phosphorylation and activity were examined in rat hepatoma cells (H4IIEC3) and HeLa cells. In H4IIEC3 cells, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) transiently increased the level of phospho-AMPK to 1.5-fold over control (P < 0.05). Similar findings were observed in HeLa cells, which do not express the upstream AMPK kinase, LKB1. H2O2 markedly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 in H4IIEC3 cells. Ethanol significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of PKC-ζ, LKB1, and AMPK caused by exposure to H2O2. This inhibitory effect of ethanol required its metabolism. More importantly, the inhibitory effects of ethanol on H2O2-induced AMPK phosphorylation were attenuated by the presence of the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, or PP2A siRNA. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on AMPK phosphorylation is exerted through the inhibition of PKC-ζ and LKB1 phosphorylation and the activation of PP2A. PMID:18832448

  5. Amphetamine modifies ethanol intake of psychosocially stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Pohorecky, Larissa A; Sweeny, April

    2012-05-01

    Studies of socially housed rodents have provided significant information regarding the consequences of exposure to stressors. Psychosocial stressors are known to alter the ingestion of ethanol and the activity of the dopaminergic neuronal system. Since both stressors and ethanol are known to affect the function of dopaminergic neurons, we employed amphetamine to assess the role of this neural system on the ingestion of ethanol by psychosocially stressed male rats. Male rats housed two per cage were designated as dominant or subdominant rats based on evaluations of agonistic behavior and body weight changes. The dyad-housed rats and a group of single-housed rats were sequentially assessed for ethanol intake after injections of saline or amphetamine (0.3, 0.9 or 2.7 mg/kg i.p.) both prior to dyad housing and subsequently again during dyad-housing. Prior to dyad housing ethanol intake of future subdominant rats was higher than that of future dominant rats. Dyad-housing significantly increased ethanol intake of dominant rats. Pre-dyad the highest dose of amphetamine potently depressed ethanol ingestion. Sensitivity to amphetamine's depressant effect on ethanol intake was higher at the dyad test in all subjects, most prominently in single-housed rats. In contrast to the single-housed rats, the dyad-housed rats displayed saccharin anhedonia. It can be concluded that dopaminergic system modulates, at least partially, the psychosocial stress-induced changes in ethanol intake. Furthermore, the level of ethanol ingestion at the pre-dyad test was predictive of future hierarchical status. PMID:22285324

  6. Methane production and isotopic fingerprinting in ethanol fuel contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Fletcher, Barbara; Aravena, Ramon; Barker, James F

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of organic compounds in groundwater can be a significant source of methane in contaminated sites. Methane might accumulate in indoor spaces posing a hazard. The increasing use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is a concern with respect to methane production since it is easily biodegraded and has a high oxygen demand, favoring the development of anaerobic conditions. This study evaluated the use of stable carbon isotopes to distinguish the methane origin between gasoline and ethanol biodegradation, and assessed the occurrence of methane in ethanol fuel contaminated sites. Two microcosm tests were performed under anaerobic conditions: one test using ethanol and the other using toluene as the sole carbon source. The isotopic tool was then applied to seven field sites known to be impacted by ethanol fuels. In the microcosm tests, it was verified that methane from ethanol (δ¹³C = -11.1‰) is more enriched in ¹³C, with δ¹³C values ranging from -20‰ to -30‰, while the methane from toluene (δ¹³C = -28.5‰) had a carbon isotopic signature of -55‰. The field samples had δ¹³C values varying over a wide range (-10‰ to -80‰), and the δ¹³C values allowed the methane source to be clearly identified in five of the seven ethanol/gasoline sites. In the other two sites, methane appears to have been produced from both sources. Both gasoline and ethanol were sources of methane in potentially hazardous concentrations and methane could be produced from organic acids originating from ethanol along the groundwater flow system even after all the ethanol has been completed biodegraded. PMID:20070380

  7. Ethanol Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Zunji; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Fan, Zhiqin; Chen, Gang; Xu, Mei; Bower, Kimberley A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Li, Mingtao; Fang, Shengyun; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during brain development causes profound damages to the central nervous system (CNS). The underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress, which is characterized by translational attenuation, synthesis of ER chaperone proteins, and activation of transcription factors. Sustained ER stress ultimately leads to cell death. ER stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative processes. Methods Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol induces ER stress in the developing brain. Seven-day-old C57BL/6 mice were acutely exposed to ethanol by subcutaneous injection and the expression of ER stress-inducible proteins (ERSIPs) and signaling pathways associated with ER stress were examined. Results Ethanol exposure significantly increased the expression of ERSIPs and activated signaling pathways associated with ER stress; these include ATF6, CHOP/GADD153, GRP78, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor as well as the phosphorylation of IRE1α, eIF2α, PERK, and PKR. The ethanol-induced increase in ERSIPs occurred within 4 hours of ethanol injection, and levels of some ERSIPs remained elevated after 24 hours of ethanol exposure. Ethanol-induced increase in phosphorylated eIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP was distributed in neurons of specific areas of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Conclusions Our finding indicates that ethanol induces ER stress in immature neurons, providing novel insight into ethanol’s detrimental effect on the developing CNS. PMID:21599712

  8. Adolescent ethanol exposure: does it produce long lasting electrophysiological effects?

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Criado, José R.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses evidence for long lasting neurophysiological changes that may occur following exposure to ethanol during adolescent development in animal models. Adolescence is the time that most individuals first experience ethanol exposure and binge drinking is not uncommon during adolescence. If alcohol exposure is neurotoxic to the developing brain during adolescence, not unlike it is during fetal development, then understanding how ethanol affects the developing adolescent brain becomes a major public health issue. Adolescence is a critical time period when cognitive, emotional and social maturation occurs and it is likely that ethanol exposure may affect these complex processes. In order to study the effects of ethanol on adolescent brain animal models where the dose and time of exposure can be carefully controlled that closely mimic the human condition are needed. The studies reviewed provide evidence that demonstrates that relatively brief exposure to high levels of ethanol, via ethanol vapours, during a period corresponding to parts of adolescence in the rat is sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in functional brain activity. Disturbances in waking EEG and a reduction in the P3 component of the ERP have been demonstrated in adult rats that were exposed to ethanol vapour during adolescence. Adolescent ethanol exposure was also found to produce long lasting reductions in the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS, a finding consistent with a premature aging of sleep. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, in a range of strains, and to link those findings to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure. PMID:20113872

  9. Evaluation of the ethanol antagonist' Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses induced by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.R.; Gauvin, D.V.; Holloway, F.A.; Wilson, M.F.; Brackett, D.J. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK )

    1992-02-26

    The putative ethanol antagonist Ro15-4513 has been reported to attenuate many behavioral responses induced by ethanol, including motor coordination, narcosis, ethanol self administration and intake, and anticonvulsant actions. This study was designed to study the effect of Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited by intragastric ethanol in conscious rats. Four groups of rats were catheterized under enflurane anesthesia and allowed to regain consciousness. Each group was given either 3.2, 10.0, or 32.0 mg/kg Ro15-4513 or equivalent Tween (i.p.) following ethanol. Ro15-4513 had no effect at any concentration on the decreases in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, respiration rate, and cardiac stroke volume and the increases in systemic vascular resistance, heart rate, and glucose evoked by the ethanol challenge. Blood alcohol concentrations measured throughout the study were not affected by any concentration of Ro15-4513. These data suggest that even though Ro15-4513 has significant effects on behavioral responses induced by ethanol it has no effect on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited during ethanol intoxication.

  10. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  11. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  12. Quantification of ethanol in ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends using fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol blended petrol and biodiesel blended diesel are being introduced in many countries to meet the increasing demand of hydrocarbon fuels. However, technological limitations of current vehicle engine do not allow ethanol and biodiesel percentages in the blended fuel to be increased beyond a certain level. As a result quantification of ethanol in blended petrol and biodiesel in blended diesel becomes an important issue. In this work, calibration models for the quantification of ethanol in the ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in the biodiesel-diesel blends of a particular batch were made using the combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) with N-way Partial least square (N-PLS) and unfolded-PLS. The PCR, PLS, N-PLS and unfolded-PLS calibration models were evaluated through measures like root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)). The prediction abilities of the models were tested using a testing set of ethanol-petrol and biodiesel-diesel blends of known ethanol and biodiesel concentrations, error in the predictions made by the models were found to be less than 2%. The obtained calibration models are highly robust and capable of estimating low as well as high concentrations of ethanol and biodiesel. PMID:21909636

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects temperature responses of adult rats to pentobarbital and diazepam alone and in combination with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A N; Branch, B J; Randolph, D; Hill, M A; Kokka, N

    1987-06-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on body temperature responses to pentobarbital and diazepam and to either drug in combination with ethanol were studied in adult rats who were the offspring of dams fed a 5.0% w/v ethanol-containing liquid diet during the last 2 weeks of gestation. Adult offspring of pair-fed and chow-fed dams served as nutritional and normal controls, respectively. Pentobarbital (6.25-25.0 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) produced significantly greater dose-related hypothermic responses in females than males. Following either pentobarbital or diazepam administration female prenatally ethanol-exposed (E) rats responded with a greater fall in body temperature than the controls. Significantly greater hypothermia occurred in both male and female E rats than in controls when ethanol (1.5 g/kg) was administered together with pentobarbital or diazepam. However, the drug combinations did not produce additive effects on body temperature in any prenatal treatment group. Pentobarbital produced acute cross-tolerance to ethanol while diazepam potentiated ethanol's effect. These studies confirm and extend our previous findings of enhanced hypothermic responses to ethanol in adult rats exposed to ethanol in utero and indicate that maternal alcohol consumption produces long-term effects on the central thermoregulatory systems of offspring. PMID:3307489

  14. Effect of Ethanol and Ethanol Biodegradation Products on Prospects for Natural Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene at Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  15. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on Sestrin3 in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xinqin; Petyaykina, Kateryna; Tao, Rongya; Xiong, Xiwen; Dong, X. Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Sestrins (Sesns) are a family of stress-sensitive genes that have been suggested to regulate lipid metabolism. Chronic ethanol feeding is known to cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate the role of Sesn3 in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. We demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the expression of Sesn3 in VL-17A cells. Overexpression of Sesn3 ameliorated triglyceride accumulation; downregulation using short hairpin RNA significantly deteriorated triglyceride accumulation in these cells. The expression of Sesn3 was also reduced in mice fed with ethanol for 4 wk. Overexpression of Sesn3 prevented hepatic steatosis, whereas knockdown of Sesn3 worsened hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed mice. Overexpression of Sesn3 significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding for lipid synthesis through AMPK pathway. Overexpression of Sesn3 augmented the effect of ethanol on phospho-p70 S6 kinase. The levels of hepatic light chain 3, a marker for autophagy, expression were significantly decreased in ethanol-fed mice after Sesn3 gene was knocked down. Our findings suggest that inhibitory effect of ethanol on Sesn3 may play an important role in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. PMID:24833709

  16. Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as heat, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol production by this organism under other stresses such as heat and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-based construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol production by Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results Based on the fusion-PCR-based construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol production not only under osmotic stress but also under heat and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol production but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions

  17. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  18. Ethanol as a reinforcer for rats: effects of concurrent access to water and alternate positions of water and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Meisch, R A; Beardsley, P

    1975-07-23

    Water and ethanol solutions were concurrently made available on a continuous reinforcement schedule to 4 food-deprived male albino rats during daily 1-hr sessions in an operant conditioning chamber equipped with 2 levers and 2 liquid dippers. The number of ethanol reinforcements substantially exceeded the number of water reinforcements for each rat at each concentration studied (8, 16, and 32% w/v). Water reinforcements were low in number and did not vary with ethanol concentration. As the ethanol concentration was increased, the number of ethanol reinforcements obtained decreased, while the quantity consumed (mg/100 g of body weight/hr) increased. The highest rate of responding occurred at the beginning of the session. PMID:1161991

  19. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  20. Ethanol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and its possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K; Gärtner, U; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A

    1994-01-01

    Ethanol is oxidised not only in the liver, but also in the gastrointestinal tract. Although this ethanol metabolism is less than that of the liver, it has some important relevance with respect to the first pass metabolism of alcohol and to ethanol induced tissue toxicity. In the gastrointestinal tract, ethanol can be metabolised not only in the mucosal cell via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidising system (MEOS), but also in a great variety of bacteria. Depending on the gastrointestinal location, one or the other metabolic pathway of alcohol may be predominant. The metabolism of ethanol by gastric ADH, the so called first pass metabolism, influences ethanol blood concentrations not only in the portal vein and thus in the liver, but also in the systemic circulation. As gastric ADH activity is decreased in younger women, in the elderly, in the alcoholic, during fasting and after treatment with certain H-2-receptor antagonists, increased blood ethanol concentrations may occur in these situations after oral intake of ethanol. However, this first pass metabolism of alcohol is influenced not only by ADH activity but also by the speed of gastric emptying (e.g. slow gastric emptying leads to increased first pass metabolism). Finally, gastric morphology also determines first pass metabolism. Chronic atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric injury lead to a decrease of gastric ADH activity, and thus possibly to a decreased first pass metabolism of alcohol. In addition, the local production of acetaldehyde from ethanol in the oesophagus, where significantly more sigma-ADH is present, may contribute to tissue injury and this may lead to the well known ethanol associated oesophageal cancer development. Various isoenzymes of ADH exist in the colorectum and they are also capable of producing acetaldehyde in amounts sufficient to injure the mucosa. Besides ADH, the MEOS, a mixed function oxidase, also metabolises ethanol. This system is

  1. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOEpatents

    Kass, Michael Delos; Graves, Ronald Lee; Storey, John Morse Elliot; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott; Thomas, John Foster

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  2. Binge Ethanol and Liver: New Molecular Developments

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shivendra D.; Pruett, Stephen B.; Szabo, Gyongyi; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2016-01-01

    Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Binge (acute) ethanol (EtOH) is implicated in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). New studies from experimental animals and from humans indicate that binge EtOH has profound effects on immunological, signaling, and epigenetic parameters of the liver. This is in addition to the known metabolic effects of acute EtOH. Binge EtOH alters the levels of several cellular components and dramatically amplifies liver injury in chronically EtOH exposed liver. These studies highlight the importance of molecular investigations into binge effects of EtOH for a better understanding of ALD and also to develop therapeutic strategies to control it. This review summarizes these recent developments. PMID:23347137

  3. Ethanol sensor based on nanocrystallite cadmium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Gadkari, Ashok B.; Shinde, Tukaram J.; Vasambekar, Pramod N.

    2015-06-24

    The cadmium ferrite was synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques, respectively. The nanocrystallite CdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensor was tested for LPG, Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH. The sensitivity was measured at various operating temperatures in the range of 100-400°C. The sensor shows highest sensitivity and selectivity to C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH at 350°C. The response and recovery time was measured at operating temperature of 350°C. The sensor exhibits a lower response and recovery time for LPG and Cl{sub 2} as compared to ethanol.

  4. Effects of ethanol on vehicle energy efficiency and implications on ethanol life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Inderwildi, Oliver R; King, David A; Boies, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Bioethanol is the world's largest-produced alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its compatibility within existing spark-ignition engines and its relatively mature production technology. Despite its success, questions remain over the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of fuel ethanol use with many studies showing significant impacts of differences in land use, feedstock, and refinery operation. While most efforts to quantify life-cycle GHG impacts have focused on the production stage, a few recent studies have acknowledged the effect of ethanol on engine performance and incorporated these effects into the fuel life cycle. These studies have broadly asserted that vehicle efficiency increases with ethanol use to justify reducing the GHG impact of ethanol. These results seem to conflict with the general notion that ethanol decreases the fuel efficiency (or increases the fuel consumption) of vehicles due to the lower volumetric energy content of ethanol when compared to gasoline. Here we argue that due to the increased emphasis on alternative fuels with drastically differing energy densities, vehicle efficiency should be evaluated based on energy rather than volume. When done so, we show that efficiency of existing vehicles can be affected by ethanol content, but these impacts can serve to have both positive and negative effects and are highly uncertain (ranging from -15% to +24%). As a result, uncertainties in the net GHG effect of ethanol, particularly when used in a low-level blend with gasoline, are considerably larger than previously estimated (standard deviations increase by >10% and >200% when used in high and low blends, respectively). Technical options exist to improve vehicle efficiency through smarter use of ethanol though changes to the vehicle fleets and fuel infrastructure would be required. Future biofuel policies should promote synergies between the vehicle and fuel industries in order to maximize the society-wise benefits or

  5. Oxytocin prevents ethanol actions at δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors and attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael T; Peters, Sebastian T; Absalom, Nathan; Chebib, Mary; Neumann, Inga D; McGregor, Iain S

    2015-03-10

    Even moderate doses of alcohol cause considerable impairment of motor coordination, an effect that substantially involves potentiation of GABAergic activity at δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors (δ-GABA(A)Rs). Here, we demonstrate that oxytocin selectively attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment and ethanol-induced increases in GABAergic activity at δ-GABA(A)Rs and that this effect does not involve the oxytocin receptor. Specifically, oxytocin (1 µg i.c.v.) given before ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p.) attenuated the sedation and ataxia induced by ethanol in the open-field locomotor test, wire-hanging test, and righting-reflex test in male rats. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes, oxytocin was found to completely block ethanol-enhanced activity at α4β1δ and α4β3δ recombinant GABA(A)Rs. Conversely, ethanol had no effect when applied to α4β1 or α4β3 cells, demonstrating the critical presence of the δ subunit in this effect. Oxytocin had no effect on the motor impairment or in vitro effects induced by the δ-selective GABA(A)R agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, which binds at a different site on δ-GABA(A)Rs than ethanol. Vasopressin, which is a nonapeptide with substantial structural similarity to oxytocin, did not alter ethanol effects at δ-GABA(A)Rs. This pattern of results confirms the specificity of the interaction between oxytocin and ethanol at δ-GABA(A)Rs. Finally, our in vitro constructs did not express any oxytocin receptors, meaning that the observed interactions occur directly at δ-GABA(A)Rs. The profound and direct interaction observed between oxytocin and ethanol at the behavioral and cellular level may have relevance for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol intoxication and dependence. PMID:25713389

  6. Oxytocin prevents ethanol actions at δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors and attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Michael T.; Peters, Sebastian T.; Absalom, Nathan; Chebib, Mary; Neumann, Inga D.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    Even moderate doses of alcohol cause considerable impairment of motor coordination, an effect that substantially involves potentiation of GABAergic activity at δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors (δ-GABAARs). Here, we demonstrate that oxytocin selectively attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment and ethanol-induced increases in GABAergic activity at δ-GABAARs and that this effect does not involve the oxytocin receptor. Specifically, oxytocin (1 µg i.c.v.) given before ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p.) attenuated the sedation and ataxia induced by ethanol in the open-field locomotor test, wire-hanging test, and righting-reflex test in male rats. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes, oxytocin was found to completely block ethanol-enhanced activity at α4β1δ and α4β3δ recombinant GABAARs. Conversely, ethanol had no effect when applied to α4β1 or α4β3 cells, demonstrating the critical presence of the δ subunit in this effect. Oxytocin had no effect on the motor impairment or in vitro effects induced by the δ-selective GABAAR agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, which binds at a different site on δ-GABAARs than ethanol. Vasopressin, which is a nonapeptide with substantial structural similarity to oxytocin, did not alter ethanol effects at δ-GABAARs. This pattern of results confirms the specificity of the interaction between oxytocin and ethanol at δ-GABAARs. Finally, our in vitro constructs did not express any oxytocin receptors, meaning that the observed interactions occur directly at δ-GABAARs. The profound and direct interaction observed between oxytocin and ethanol at the behavioral and cellular level may have relevance for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol intoxication and dependence. PMID:25713389

  7. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. PMID:26851547

  8. SENSITIZATION TO SOCIAL ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS FOLLOWING REPEATED ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena; Spear, Linda Patia

    2009-01-01

    Ontogenetic studies using a social interaction paradigm have shown that adolescent rats are less sensitive to anxiolytic properties of acute ethanol than their adult counterparts. It is not known, however, whether adaptations to these anxiolytic effects upon repeated experiences with ethanol would be similar in adolescents and adults. The present study investigated sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats following 7 days of exposure [postnatal day (P) 27–33 for adolescents and P62–68 for adults] to 1 g/kg ethanol or saline (i.p.), as well as in animals left non-manipulated during this time. Anxiolytic effects of ethanol (0, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 g/kg for adolescents and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 g/kg for adults in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) were examined 48 hours after the last exposure using a modified social interaction test under unfamiliar test circumstances. At both ages, repeated ethanol exposure resulted in the development of apparent sensitization to anxiolytic effects of ethanol indexed via enhancement of social investigation and transformation of social avoidance into social indifference or preference, as well as expression of tolerance to the socially inhibiting effects induced by higher ethanol doses. Evidence for the emergence of sensitization in adults and tolerance at both ages was seen not only following chronic ethanol, but also after chronic saline exposure, suggesting that chronic manipulation per se may be sufficient to alter the sensitivity of both adolescents and adults to socially-relevant effects of ethanol. PMID:20113878

  9. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Schmer, M. R.; Vogel, K. P.; Mitchell, R. B.; Perrin, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3–9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2 -11.1 Mg·ha−1 with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ·ha−1·y−1. Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass. PMID:18180449

  10. Conversion of bakery wastes to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.E.

    1984-10-04

    The project had the following goals: (1) determine the actual yields of ethanol from the waste products of major bakeries in the Denver area by distillation in a laboratory bench scale distillation column; (2) determine the expected yields of ethanol from the major types of wastes produced by the large bakeries in the Denver area; (3) increase alcohol yields to the maximum possible by identifying any inhibitors and taking steps to remove them; (4) purify the distilled alcohol if necessary to remove any by-products distilled off with the alcohol. The production of alcohol from bakery wastes is feasible. The average yield of the bread type products is 19.8% by weight with yields ranging up to 25%. In other words, on the average, for every 1000 pounds of waste, 198 pounds or 30 gallons of alcohol would be produced. This estimate is conservative since a larger facility would tend to get a better yield (due to the difficulties of getting all the alcohol out of the small batches run). The major variable appeared to be the yeast. Fresh yeast should always be used. No yeast nutrients were tried in these experiments, since the yeast seemed to grow well. However, this could be an area of further investigation. It is possible that the yields could be kept consistently high by providing the yeast with nutrients. Finally, contamination of the alcohol with oils can be a problem, although not necessarily a very significant one. Methods do exist to remove the oil during the actual distillation, as well as, before distillation. Careful distillation also tends to lessen the problem. 7 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  11. In vivo ethanol elimination in man, monkey and rat: A lack of relationship between the ethanol metabolism and the hepatic activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Zorzano, A. ); Herrera, E. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo ethanol elimination in human subjects, monkeys and rats was investigated after an oral ethanol dosage. After 0.4 g. ethanol/kg of body weight, ethanol elimination was much slower in human subjects than in monkeys. In order to detect a rise in monkey plasma ethanol concentrations as early as observed in human subjects, ethanol had to be administered at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight. Ethanol metabolism in rats was also much faster than in human subjects. However, human liver showed higher alcohol dehydrogenase activity and higher low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than rat liver. Thus, our data suggest a lack of relationship between hepatic ethanol-metabolizing activities and the in vivo ethanol elimination rate.

  12. Reversal of morphine analgesic tolerance by ethanol in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Hull, L C; Gabra, B H; Bailey, C P; Henderson, G; Dewey, W L

    2013-06-01

    The chronic use of opioids in humans, accompanied by the development of tolerance, is a dangerous phenomenon in its own right. However, chronic opioid use is often made more dangerous by the coconsumption of other substances. It has been observed that the blood level of opioids in postmortem analyses of addicts, who consumed ethanol along with the opioid, was much less than that observed in individuals who died from opioids alone. This relationship between ethanol and opioids led us to investigate the hypothesis that ethanol alters tolerance to opioids. In the present study, we report that ethanol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the antinociceptive tolerance produced by morphine and the cross-tolerance between [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine in the mouse tail-flick test. The reversal of morphine tolerance was partially blocked by both the gamma receptor blocker bicuculline and by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptor blocker phaclofen and the administration of both inhibitors completely reversed the effects of ethanol on morphine tolerance. Diazepam, like ethanol, decreased morphine tolerance. However, this inhibition was reversed by the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline but not by the GABA(B) antagonist phaclofen. These findings have important implications for individuals who abuse opioids and ethanol as well as suggest a mechanism to reduce the amount of opioid needed in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23528610

  13. Reversal of Morphine Analgesic Tolerance by Ethanol in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hull, L. C.; Gabra, B. H.; Bailey, C. P.; Henderson, G.

    2013-01-01

    The chronic use of opioids in humans, accompanied by the development of tolerance, is a dangerous phenomenon in its own right. However, chronic opioid use is often made more dangerous by the coconsumption of other substances. It has been observed that the blood level of opioids in postmortem analyses of addicts, who consumed ethanol along with the opioid, was much less than that observed in individuals who died from opioids alone. This relationship between ethanol and opioids led us to investigate the hypothesis that ethanol alters tolerance to opioids. In the present study, we report that ethanol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the antinociceptive tolerance produced by morphine and the cross-tolerance between [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine in the mouse tail-flick test. The reversal of morphine tolerance was partially blocked by both the gamma receptor blocker bicuculline and by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor blocker phaclofen and the administration of both inhibitors completely reversed the effects of ethanol on morphine tolerance. Diazepam, like ethanol, decreased morphine tolerance. However, this inhibition was reversed by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen. These findings have important implications for individuals who abuse opioids and ethanol as well as suggest a mechanism to reduce the amount of opioid needed in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23528610

  14. Advances in ethanol production using immobilized cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Merchant, F.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The application of immobilized cell systems for the production of ethanol has resulted in substantial improvements in the efficiency of the process when compared to the traditional free cell system. In this review, the various methods of cell immobilization employed in ethanol production systems have been described in detail. Their salient features, performance characteristics, advantages and limitations have been critically assessed. More recently, these immobilized cell systems have also been employed for the production of ethanol from non-conventional feedstocks such as Jerusalem artichoke extracts, cheese whey, cellulose, cellobiose and xylose. Ethanol production by immobilized yeast and bacterial cells has been attempted in various bioreactor types. Although most of these studies have been carried out using laboratory scale prototype bioreactors, it appears that only fluidized bed, horizontally packed bed bioreactors and tower fermenters may find application on scale-up. Several studies have indicated that upon immobilization, yeast cells performing ethanol fermentation exhibit more favourable physiological and metabolic properties. This, in addition to substantial improvements in ethanol productivities by immobilized cell systems, is indicative of the fact that future developments in the production of ethanol and alcoholic beverages will be directed towards the use of immobilized cell systems. 291 references.

  15. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  16. Discovery of Ethanol-Responsive Small RNAs in Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung Hee; Lei, Roy; Henninger, Trey D.

    2014-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium that can produce ethanol by fermentation. Due to its unique metabolism and efficient ethanol production, Z. mobilis has attracted special interest for biofuel energy applications; an important area of study is the regulation of those specific metabolic pathways. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have been studied as molecules that function as transcriptional regulators in response to cellular stresses. While sRNAs have been discovered in various organisms by computational prediction and experimental approaches, their discovery in Z. mobilis has not yet been reported. In this study, we have applied transcriptome analysis and computational predictions to facilitate identification and validation of 15 novel sRNAs in Z. mobilis. We furthermore characterized their expression in the context of high and low levels of intracellular ethanol. Here, we report that 3 of the sRNAs (Zms2, Zms4, and Zms6) are differentially expressed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when low and high ethanol productions are observed, respectively. Importantly, when we tested the effect of ethanol stress on the expression of sRNAs in Z. mobilis, Zms2, Zms6, and Zms18 showed differential expression under 5% ethanol stress conditions. These data suggest that in this organism regulatory RNAs can be associated with metabolic functions involved in ethanol stress responses. PMID:24795378

  17. Simultaneous bioconversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrakant, P.; Bisaria, V.S.

    1998-12-31

    Lignocellulosic materials containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as their main constituents are the most abundant renewable organic resource present on Earth. The fermentation of glucose, the main constituent of cellulose hydrolyzate, to ethanol can be carried out efficiently. On the other hand, although bioconversion of xylose, the main pentose sugar obtained on hydrolysis of hemicellulose, to ethanol presents a biochemical challenge, especially if it is present along with glucose, it needs to be fermented to make the biomass-to-ethanol process economical. A lot of attention therefore has been focused on the utilization of both glucose and xylose to ethanol. Accordingly, while describing the advancements that have taken place to get xylose converted efficiently to ethanol by xylose-fermenting organisms, the review deals mainly with the strategies that have been put forward for bioconversion of both the sugars to achieve high ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity. The approaches, which include the use of (1) xylose-fermenting yeasts along, (2) xylose isomerase enzyme as well as yeast, (3) immobilized enzymes and cells, and (4) sequential fermentation and co-culture process are descried with respect to their underlying concepts and major limitations. Genetic improvements in the cultures have been made either to enlarge the range of substrate utilization or to channel metabolic intermediates specifically toward ethanol.

  18. Regulation of brain anandamide by acute administration of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Belen; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Sanchez-Vera, Irene; Giuffrida, Andrea; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena; Khaturia, Satishe; Navarro, Miguel; Parsons, Loren H.; Piomelli, Daniele; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid acylethanolamide AEA (arachidonoylethanolamide; also known as anandamide) participates in the neuroadaptations associated with chronic ethanol exposure. However, no studies have described the acute actions of ethanol on AEA production and degradation. In the present study, we investigated the time course of the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (4 g/kg of body mass) on the endogenous levels of AEA in central and peripheral tissues. Acute ethanol administration decreased AEA in the cerebellum, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum, as well as in plasma and adipose tissue. Parallel decreases of a second acylethanolamide, PEA (palmitoylethanolamide), were observed in the brain. Effects were observed 45–90 min after ethanol administration. In vivo studies revealed that AEA decreases were associated with a remarkable inhibition of the release of both anandamide and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. There were no changes in the expression and enzymatic activity of the main enzyme that degrades AEA, the fatty acid amidohydrolase. Acute ethanol administration did not change either the activity of N-acyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of the AEA precursor, or the expression of NAPE-PLD (N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D), the enzyme that releases AEA from membrane phospholipid precursors. These results suggest that receptor-mediated release of acylethanolamide is inhibited by the acute administration of ethanol, and that this effect is not derived from increased fatty acid ethanolamide degradation. PMID:17302558

  19. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  20. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  1. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  2. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, P.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  3. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  4. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  5. Lesions of the Lateral Habenula Increase Voluntary Ethanol Consumption and Operant Self-Administration, Block Yohimbine-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol Seeking, and Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Andrea L.; Sinclair, Michael S.; Tandon, Shashank; Taha, Sharif A.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug. PMID:24695107

  6. Comparison of blood ethanol stabilities in different storage periods

    PubMed Central

    Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Kocak, Havva; Meral, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measurements of blood ethanol concentrations must be accurate and reliable. The most important factors affecting blood ethanol stability are temperature and storage time. In this study, we aimed to compare ethanol stability in plasma samples at -20 °C for the different storage periods. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from intoxicated drivers (N = 80) and initial plasma ethanol concentrations were measured immediately. Plasma samples were then stored at -20 °C and re-assessed after 2, 3, 4, or 5 months of storage. Differences between the initial and stored ethanol concentrations in each group (N = 20) were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The deviation from the initial concentration was calculated and compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA’88) Proficiency Testing Limits. Relationships between the initial concentrations and deviations from initial concentrations were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation analysis. For all statistical tests, differences with P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Statistically significant differences were observed between the initial and poststorage ethanol concentrations in the overall sample group (P < 0.001). However, for the individual storage duration groups, analytically significant decreases were observed only for samples stored for 5 months, deviations from the initial concentrations exceeded the allowable total error (TEa). Ethanol decreases in the other groups did not exceed the TEa. Conclusion According to our results, plasma ethanol samples can be kept at -20 °C for up to 3-4 months until re-analysis. However, each laboratory should also establish its own work-flow rules and criterion for reliable ethanol measurement in forensic cases. PMID:25672467

  7. Peripheral oxytocin administration reduces ethanol consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Kaley; Loveless, Rebecca; DeLucca, Brandon; Wardley, Krystal; Deogan, Sumeet; Thomas, Cameron; Peris, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin interacts with mesolimbic dopamine neurons to mediate reward associated with filial behaviors, but also other rewarding behaviors such as eating or taking drugs of abuse. Based on its efficacy to decrease intake of other abused substances, oxytocin administration is implicated as a possible treatment for excessive alcohol consumption. We tested this hypothesis by measuring ethanol intake in male Sprague–Dawley rats injected with oxytocin or saline using two different ethanol self-administration paradigms. First, a dose–response curve was constructed for oxytocin inhibition of fluid intake using a modified drinking-in-the-dark model with three bottles containing .05% saccharine, 10% ethanol in saccharine, and 15% ethanol in saccharine. Doses of oxytocin tested were 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg (I.P.). Next, rats received 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin preceding operant sessions in which they were trained to lever-press for either plain gelatin or ethanol gelatin in order to compare oxytocin inhibition of ethanol intake versus caloric intake. For the three-bottle choice study, rats consumed significantly less ethanol when treated with the three higher doses of oxytocin on the injection day. In the operant study, 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin significantly decreased ethanol gel consumption to a greater extent than plain gel consumption, both in terms of the amount of gel eaten and calories consumed. These data affirm oxytocin's efficacy for decreasing ethanol intake in rats, and confirm clinical studies suggesting oxytocin as a potential treatment for alcoholism. PMID:26519603

  8. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes. PMID:26331212

  9. Incentives and barriers to siting biomass ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, C.T.; Fehrs, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, there are 38 facilities in the United States with the capacity to produce approximately 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol annually. Most are located in the Midwest and use corn as feedstock. Others use other starch-rich residues or waste materials, such as cheese whey, potato processing waste, and waste beer as feedstock. Ethanol can also be produced from cellulose-rich materials, such as wood waste, paper sludge, municipal solid waste, and short rotation woody crops. However, the processes to convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol are less technologically mature, which is the primary reason why no commercial facilities produce ethanol from cellulosic materials. A number of technical, economic, and environmental factors indicate there are substantial opportunities for producing ethanol from cellulosic materials. In the 11-state Northeast region alone (from Maine to Maryland), the amount of biomass materials discarded in 1993 and potentially available from energy crops in the future could produce more than 2.7 billion gallons per year of ethanol. If priority were placed in encouraging the use of high ethanol fuels (such as E85) in public vehicle fleets alone, as much as 175 million gallons per year of fuel could be used. Theoretical analyses of air, ash, and wastewater emissions from hypothetical biomass ethanol plants indicate such plants should be able to meet existing environmental standards. Sensitivity analyses of various siting issues indicate that the availability of production incentives, the cost of capital, and feedstock cost have the greatest impact on the economic viability of a biomass ethanol plant.

  10. Variability of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieber, R. J.; Tatum, S.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, G. B.; Mead, R. N.

    2014-02-01

    Ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured in 52 rain events collected between January 25, 2011 and March 4, 2012 in Wilmington, North Carolina, USA. Ethanol concentrations ranged from 23 nM to 908 nM with a volume weighted average concentration of 192 ± 20 nM while acetaldehyde ranged from 23 nM to 909 nM with a volume weighted average concentration of 193 ± 25 nM. There was a great deal of variability in the abundance of ethanol and acetaldehyde between rain events driven primarily by temporal and air mass back trajectory influences. The ratio of ethanol to acetaldehyde was at a minimum during periods of peak solar intensity underscoring the importance of alcohol oxidation by a photochemically generated oxidant such as hydroxyl radical in the gas and/or aqueous phase. Ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were not strongly correlated with rain amount suggesting that gas-phase concentrations were not significantly depleted during the storm or that they were resupplied during the course of the rain event. The concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde were correlated with nitrate and non-sea salt sulfate suggesting the importance of terrestrial and anthropogenic inputs at this location. Comparison of future ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in rainwater to the data presented in this study will help delineate potential consequences of these labile oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) on the chemistry of the troposphere as the United States transitions to more ethanol blended fuels. Aqueous phase impacts of increasing ethanol concentrations will be particularly significant to the oxidizing capacity of atmospheric waters because of its reactivity with OH and HO2 radicals in solution. Increased rainwater concentrations could also have significant ramifications on receiving watersheds because of the biogeochemical lability of the alcohol.

  11. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  12. Ethanol adsorption on the Si (111) surface: First principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, Alexander V.; Bonner, Carl E.; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-03-01

    Equilibrium atomic configurations and electron energy structure of ethanol adsorbed on the Si (111) surface are studied by the first principles density functional theory. Geometry optimization is performed by the total energy minimization method. Equilibrium atomic geometries of ethanol, both undissociated and dissociated, on the Si (111) surface are found and analysed. Reaction pathways and predicted transition states are discussed in comparison with available experimental data in terms of the feasibility of the reactions occurring. Analysis of atom and orbital resolved projected density of states indicates substantial modifications of the Si surface valence and conduction electron bands due to the adsorption of ethanol affecting the electronic properties of the surface.

  13. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  14. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  15. Ethanol withdrawal in mice precipitated and exacerbated by hyperbaric exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Galleisky, G.G.; Syapin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Mice were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 9 days. On removal of the diet, exposure to 12 atmospheres absolute of a mixture of helium and oxygen precipitated earlier withdrawal, increased withdrawal scores for the first 6 hours, and increased the peak withdrawal intensity compared to dependent animals exposed to control conditions. The enhanced withdrawal did not appear to reflect alterations in ethanol elimination, oxygen or helium partial pressures, body temperature, or general excitability. These results extend to chronically treated animals the evidence that hyperbaric exposure antagonizes the membrane actions of ethanol.

  16. Ethanol induces rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.B.

    1987-03-09

    Mice with unilateal striatal lesions created by 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA) injection were screened for rotational (circling) behavior in response to injection of amphetamine and apomorphine. Those that rotated ipsilaterally in response to amphetamine and contralaterally in response to apomorphine were subsequently challenged with 1 to 3 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol. Surprisingly, ethanol induced dose related contralateral (apomorphine-like) rotation which, despite gross intoxication, was quite marked in most animals. No significant correlation was found between the number of turns made following ethanol and made after apomorphine or amphetamine. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Intermolecular forces in acetonitrile + ethanol binary liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Arivazhagan, G.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Karthick, N. K.

    2015-10-01

    FTIR spectral measurements have been carried out on the binary mixtures of acetonitrile with ethanol at 1:0 (acetonitrile:ethanol), 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 0:1 at room temperature. DFT and isosurface calculations have been performed. The acetonitrile + ethanol binary mixtures consist of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 complexes formed through both the red and blue shifting H-bonds. Inter as well as intra molecular forces are found to exist in 1:3 and 1:4 complexes.

  18. [High concentration ethanol continuous fermentation using yeast flocs].

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Bai, F; Shao, M; Xie, J; Li, N

    2001-06-01

    Continuous ethanol fermentation using yeast flocs was carried out in 4 air-lift suspended-bed bioreactors operated in series. Drafted by CO2, with complete recycle of ethanol distilled effluent broth and at the dilution rate of 0.2/h, the average ethanol concentration of the fermentation broth was 96.6 g/L, while the average concentration of residual total sugar was 4.1 g/L and residual reducing sugar was 1.2 g/L. PMID:12549094

  19. Fetal Learning About Ethanol and Later Ethanol Responsiveness: Evidence Against “Safe” Amounts of Prenatal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Paula; Pueta, Mariana; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Near-term fetuses of different mammalian species, including humans, exhibit functional sensory and learning capabilities. The neurobiological literature indicates that the unborn organism processes sensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid, retains this information for considerable amounts of time, and is also capable of associating such stimuli with biologically relevant events. This research has stimulated studies aimed at the analysis of fetal and neonatal learning about ethanol, a topic that constitutes the core of the present review. Ethanol has characteristic sensory (olfactory, taste, and trigeminal) attributes and can exert pharmacologic reinforcing effects. The studies under examination support the hypothesis that low to moderate levels of maternal ethanol intoxication during late pregnancy set the opportunity for fetal learning about ethanol. These levels of prenatal ethanol exposure do not generate evident morphologic or neurobehavioral alterations in the offspring, but they exert a significant impact upon later ethanol-seeking and intake behaviors. Supported by preclinical and clinical findings, this review contributes to strengthening the case for the ability of prenatal ethanol exposure to have effects on the postnatal organism. PMID:18222969

  20. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A.; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Lennartsson, Patrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year. PMID:26682213

  1. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Meghan B.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5–15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste. PMID:20145204

  2. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INDUCED MOTOR IMPAIRMENT FOLLOWING ACUTE ETHANOL: ASSESSMENT VIA THE NEGATIVE GEOTAXIS REFLEX IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Spear, Linda Patia

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent rats have been observed to be less sensitive than adults to a number of ethanol effects that may serve as feedback cues to reduce further ethanol intake. Among these findings are a few reports of attenuated sensitivities of adolescents to ethanol-induced motor impairment. The purpose of the present study was to further explore potential age-related differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment in both male and female adolescent (postnatal day [P]28–32), and adult (P68-72) Sprague-Dawley rats using an inclined plane assessment of the negative geotaxis reflex. Adult males displayed significant motor impairment at 1.5 g/kg, whereas adolescent males required higher doses, showing significant motor impairment only at doses of 2.25 g/kg ethanol or greater. Intoxicated practice did not significantly influence level of motor impairment at either age. When female rats of both ages were separately analyzed in terms of their response to ethanol, a dose of 1.5 g/kg ethanol was found to significantly impair adults, whereas adolescent females showed significant motor impairment when challenged with 2.25 g/kg but not 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Yet when the 1.5 g/kg data of females at the two ages were directly compared, no significant age difference was seen at this dose. These data document an attenuated sensitivity of adolescent relative to adult rats to the motor impairing effects of ethanol using a stationary inclined plane test, an effect particularly robust in male animals, and demonstrates the utility of this test for assessment of motor coordination in adolescent and adult rats. PMID:20138187

  3. Maize proximate composition and physical properties correlations to dry-grind ethanol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry grind ethanol plants incur economic losses due to seasonal variations in ethanol yields. One possible cause associated with ethanol yield variability is incoming grain quality. There is little published information on factors causing variation in dry grind ethanol concentrations. The objective o...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ethanol used for blending must be either denatured ethanol meeting the specifications in 40 CFR 80.1610... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends... Calibration Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1611 - Standards and requirements for certified ethanol denaturant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified ethanol denaturant. 80.1611 Section 80.1611 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....1611 Standards and requirements for certified ethanol denaturant. Producers and importers of ethanol denaturant that is suitable for the manufacture of denatured fuel ethanol (DFE) meeting federal...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  9. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  10. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired. PMID:20739429

  11. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  12. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  13. Lime Pretreatment of Switchgrass at Mild Temperatures for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative feedstock for ethanol production. However, its recalcitrant structure necessitates a pretreatment step to break up the lignocellulosic matrix, thus improving the accessibility of carbohydrates to hydrolytic enzymes for sugar production. In this stud...

  14. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  15. Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Arcuri, Edward J.; Donaldson, Terrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

  16. Processing ethanol fermentation broths and stillage with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryan, M.

    1994-12-31

    The manufacture of ethanol from biomass requires several separation operations, many of which can benefit by the appropriate membrane technology. This paper discusses applications which may perhaps be done best with inorganic membranes. After the fermentation, the microbial (e.g., yeast) are usually separated from the fermentation broth and may be recycled for fermentation. The ethanol is stripped away from the fermentation broth by steam, leaving behind the {open_quotes}stillage{close_quotes}. This stillage is then separated into a high-solids fraction and a {open_quotes}thin{close_quotes} stillage; the latter forming as much as 60-80% of the total liquid throughput in an ethanol plant, could be stream to conserve water. Traditional separation methods used today include sedimentation, centrifugation and cake filtration. The authors have been studying the application of ceramic membranes for the separation (and possible recycling) of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in ethanol fermentation broths, and for the clarification of thin stillage.

  17. Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Gail

    2010-01-01

    New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution. PMID:20873028

  18. Psychophysical assessments of sourness in citric acid-ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Miguelina; Greco Driano, Ezequiel J; Evin, Diego; Calviño, Amalia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5, 15, and 45 mM citric acid alone and mixed with the same two ethanol levels were assessed by the Time Intensity Method (TI). Results were consistent with both methods. Sourness changed with citric acid concentration and ethanol levels. From TI measurements, a similar interactive pattern was obtained for parameters as duration, area under the curve, peak and average intensity. PMID:24665803

  19. Surface nanobubble nucleation dynamics during water-ethanol exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Water-ethanol exchange has been a promising nucleation method for surface attached nanobubbles since their discovery. In this process, water and ethanol displace each other sequentially on a substrate. As the gas solubility is 36 times higher in ethanol than water, it was suggested that the exchange process leads to transient supersaturation and is responsible for the nanobubble nucleation. In this work, we visualize the nucleation dynamics by controllably mixing water and ethanol. It depicts the temporal evolution of the conventional exchange in a single field of view, detailing the conditions for surface nanobubble nucleation and the flow field that influences their spatial organization. This technique can also pattern surface nanobubbles with variable size distribution.

  20. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    Report identifies and documents plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017 as a guide for setting government policy and targeting government investment to areas with greatest potential impact.