Science.gov

Sample records for 90k bionic ear

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  3. Bionic Nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian Mannoor, Manu

    bionic systems: 1) Bionic Nanosensors: featuring bio-integrated graphene nanosensors for ubiquitous sensing, 2) Bionic Organs: featuring 3D printed bionic ears with three dimensionally integrated electronics and 3) Bionic Leaves: describing ongoing work in the direction of the creation of a bionic leaf enabled by the integration of plant derived photosynthetic functional units with electronic materials and components into a leaf-shaped hierarchical structure for harvesting photosynthetic bioelectricity.

  4. Informed parental consent for cochlear implantation of young deaf children: social and other considerations in the use of the 'bionic ear'.

    PubMed

    Hyde, M; Power, D

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the social parameters surrounding the management of informed consent procedures for the parents of young deaf children for the surgical fitting of a cochlear implant ('bionic ear') to their child. Although most observers of this remarkable and well publicised medical development only see benefits in its use, the authors examine the nature of the conflict which has emerged between medical and media portrayals of the 'miracle' device and contrasting social, cultural and linguistic views of many Deaf people. The paper analyses the components of parental consent procedures for surgical implantation of their child, covering the risk-benefit analysis and, in particular, the information base that is provided for parents about the social construction of a 'Deaf life' by many Deaf people. PMID:14627014

  5. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  6. 90 K superconductivity of clean Pb1212 epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, S.; Kondo, A.; Kindo, K.; Kakeya, I.

    2016-08-01

    A single-phase {{Pb}}1-y{{Sr}}2{{{Y}}}1-x{{Ca}}x{{Cu}}2+y{{{O}}}7+δ (Pb1212) epitaxial film with {T}{{c,onset}}=90 {{K}} has been grown using a two-step technique, which allows lattice relaxation near the film/substrate interface and reduction of Pb vacancies. Using the upper critical field measurement, the coherence lengths are derived to be 20 and 4.3 Å, along the ab-plane and c-axis, respectively. The value of the irreversibility field is found to be close to that of YBa2Cu3O7. High magnetic field measurement has revealed normal state resistivity below {T}{{c}} and metallic behavior in the underdoped region.

  7. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  8. Coming Soon: The Bionic Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the latest advancement in the development of prosthetic arms. Bionic researchers are making significant advances in creating more agile prosthetics that users can control via their own nervous system. The bionic arm, which is still under development, can not only execute complex, thought-controlled movements, but also can…

  9. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A A ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  10. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  11. Amputee 'Feels' with Bionic Fingertip

    MedlinePlus

    ... bionic fingertip could help speed efforts to develop artificial limbs that provide sensory feedback, according to Silvestro ... the technology could also be used to create artificial touch in robots used in surgery, rescue and ...

  12. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  13. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  14. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  15. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  16. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  17. Ultrasonic Plastic Welding Using 90 kHz Upper and Lower Vibration Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    Direct and transmission welding characteristics of an ultrasonic plastic welding system using 90 kHz upper and lower vibration systems are studied. By using high frequency, welding characteristics of plastic specimens may be improved because ultrasonic vibration absorption by plastic material increases as vibration frequency increases. The 90 kHz ultrasonic vibration source designed consists of a radial-to-longitudinal vibration direction converter with four bolt-clamped Langevin-type piezoelectric ceramic (lead-zircon-titanate; PZT) transducers of 15 mm in diameter. The 90 kHz welding equipment consists of two vibration sources positioned at upper and lower parts and a welding frame. In the case of direct welding of various sheet specimens, the required total velocity of 90 kHz upper and lower welding tips is less than 60% that of 27 kHz welding tips. Direct and transmission welding characteristics of a 90 kHz welding system with two vibration sources are significantly improved compared with those of conventional systems.

  18. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the ear: Baby oil Commercial drops Glycerin Mineral oil Water Another method is to wash out the ... cloth or paper tissue wrapped around your finger. Mineral oil can be used to moisturize the ear and ...

  19. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  20. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear. CUTS ON THE OUTER EAR Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. Cover the injury ... Mosby; 2013:chap 143. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  1. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  2. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  3. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  4. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

  5. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  6. EDITORIAL: Special issue on medical bionics Special issue on medical bionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Robert K.; D, Ph

    2009-12-01

    neural prostheses in general. I would like to acknowledge our conference sponsors MiniFAB, National ICT Australia, School of Engineering University of Melbourne, Hearing CRC and the Bionic Ear Institute. Thanks to our conference participants, many of whom travelled great distances to be with us, the Scientific Advisory committee, the authors of the enclosed papers, the reviewers who ensured the publications were of high quality and the staff of IOP—particularly Jane Roscoe and Andrew Malloy—-who supported this conference from its outset and were instrumental in bringing this special section to fruition. Finally, I look forward to welcoming you to our next meeting scheduled for late 2012. Conference delegates

  7. The bionic ear and the mythology of paediatric implants.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, C

    1993-02-01

    Parents face a daunting task when deciding whether an implant is an optimal, or even a viable choice for their deaf child. Much of the confusion is as a result of vested interest by both proponents and critics of cochlear implantation. PMID:8339055

  8. "Bionic Woman" (2007): Gender, Disability and Cyborgs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a representation of overlapping categories of gender, disability and cyborgs in "Bionic Woman" (2007). The television show "Bionic Woman" (2007) is a popular culture representation that uniquely brings together these categories. Three themes emerged from an analysis of blogger discourse surrounding the show. The themes reveal…

  9. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid ... plant Note: Leaves and stems are the most dangerous when eaten ...

  10. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  11. Serum protein 90K/Mac-2BP is an independent predictor of disease severity during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Hofmann, J; Hartmann, G; Sebesta, C; Beer, F; Bauer, K; Huber, K R

    2000-03-01

    The serum protein designated 90K/Mac-2BP has been found at elevated concentrations in the sera of patients with various types of cancer and viral infections. The importance of the 90K/Mac-2BP serum concentrations in predicting the response towards interferon-alpha treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prompted us to utilize a new ELISA for soluble human 90K/Mac-2BP to monitor the serum concentrations of this protein in our HCV-positive patients. Seventy HCV-PCR and anti-HCV antibody positive patients were analyzed for their serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, cholinesterase, HCV-viral load, viral subtypes, and 90K/Mac-2BP. On correlation of age and 90K/Mac-2BP levels, we found an apparent correlation that was proved rather to be a strong dependence of 90K/Mac-2BP concentrations on disease severity/duration, which increases with age. Multiple correlation analysis demonstrated the independent nature of 90K/Mac-2BP concentrations, underscoring the potential high utility of this new marker. Our data corroborate the potential of the scavenger receptor family protein 90K/Mac-2BP as an independent predictor of disease severity during HCV infection. PMID:10905755

  12. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid Asparagine, a protein found in this plant Note: ... days to a week if treated correctly. Rarely, oxalic acid may cause swelling severe enough to block the ...

  13. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  14. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs

    PubMed Central

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2015-01-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  15. Photogrammetrically Measured Distortions of Composite Structure Microwave Reflectors at -90K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mule, Peter; Hill, Michael D.; Sampler, Henry P.

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a late 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (better than 0.3 deg. at 90 GHz.) map of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back composite Gregorian telescopes supported on a composite truss structure to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers. Proper position and shape of the telescope reflectors at the operating temperature of -90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the methods and analysis used to validate the in-flight position and shape predictions for the reflectors based on photogrammetric metrology data taken under vacuum with the reflectors at -90 K. Contour maps showing reflector distortion were generated. The resulting reflector distortion data are shown to be crucial to the analytical assessment of the MAP instrument's microwave system in-flight performance.

  16. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  17. Crosslinking of hemin to a specific site on the 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jihjing; Thach, R.E. ); Patino, M.M.; Gaffield, L.; Walden. W.E. ); Smith, A. )

    1991-07-15

    Incubation of a 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein (FRP) with small amounts of radiolabeled hemin resulted in the formation of a strong interaction between the two that was stable to SDS/PAGE. Of seven other proteins tested individually, only apohemopexin and bovine serum albumin showed similar crosslinking ability, albeit to a much lower extent. ({sup 14}C)Hemin specifically crosslinked to FRP in the presence of a 50-fold excess of total wheat germ proteins. Inclusion of catalase did not prevent the reaction of hemin with FRP, suggesting that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not involved. The subsequent addition of a stoichiometric amount of apohemopexin did not reverse the reaction. Exhaustive digestion of the complex with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a major labeled peptide of 17 kDa. These results show the existence of a highly specific, uniquely reactive hemin binding site on FRP.

  18. Desorption of hydroxyl radicals in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of amorphous solid water at 90 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Andersson, Stefan

    2009-08-07

    We have studied the desorption dynamics of OH radicals from the 157 nm photodissociation of amorphous solid water (ASW) as well as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposited on an ASW surface at 90 K. The translational and internal energy distributions of OH were measured using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization methods. These distributions are compared to reported molecular dynamics calculations for the condensed phase photodissociation of water ice and also reported results for the gas phase photodissociation of H{sub 2}O at 157 nm. We have confirmed that OH radicals are produced from two different mechanisms: one from primary photolysis of surface H{sub 2}O of ASW, and the other being secondary photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photoproducts on the ASW surface after prolonged irradiation at 157 nm.

  19. Lymphocyte expression of a 90 kD brush border antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leer, E H; Moullier, P; Ronco, P; Verroust, P

    1987-01-01

    This study analyses the expression by rat lymphocytes of six renal brush border (BB) antigens defined by a set of monoclonal antibodies and demonstrates that a 90 kD protein (gp 90), synthesized by BB and glomeruli is found on the surface of T and B cells. The other antigens, including the 330 kD protein involved in Heymann's nephritis--a model of epimembranous glomerulonephritis--are not detectable on the surface of lymphocytes. Immunochemical studies indicate that gp 90 and the related protein immunoprecipitated from thymocyte membranes co-migrate in SDS-PAGE. Quantitative binding analysis shows that the number of antigenic sites is in the same order of magnitude on thymocytes, spleen and bone-marrow lymphocytes as well as on two lines of pre-B and pre-T cells, but considerably lower on a highly differentiated helper T cell line. Images Fig. 4 PMID:3301100

  20. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  1. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  2. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  3. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  4. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  5. The calmodulin-binding domain of the mouse 90-kDa heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Minami, Y; Kawasaki, H; Suzuki, K; Yahara, I

    1993-05-01

    The mouse 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) and Ca(2+)-calmodulin were cross-linked at an equimolar ratio using a carbodiimide zero-length cross-linker. To identify the calmodulin-binding domain(s) of HSP90, CNBr-cleaved peptide fragments of HSP90 were mixed with Ca(2+)-calmodulin and cross-linked. Amino acid sequence determination revealed that an HSP90 alpha-derived peptide starting at the 486th amino acid residue was contained in the cross-linked products, which contains a calmodulin-binding motif (from Lys500 to Ile520). A similar motif is present also in HSP90 beta (from Lys491 to Val511). The synthetic peptides corresponding to these putative calmodulin-binding sequences were found to be cross-linked with Ca(2+)-calmodulin and to prevent the cross-linking of HSP90 and Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Both HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta bind Ca2+. The HSP90 peptides bind HSP90 and thereby inhibit the binding of Ca2+. In addition, the HSP90 peptides augment the self-oligomerization of HSP90 induced at elevated temperatures. These results suggest that the calmodulin-binding domain of HSP90 might interact with another part of the same molecule and that Ca(2+)-calmodulin might modulate the structure and function of HSP90 through abolishing the intramolecular interaction. PMID:8486648

  6. Ear defects.

    PubMed

    Shonka, David C; Park, Stephen S

    2009-08-01

    The projection and exposure of the auricle make it particularly susceptible to actinic injury and thus to cutaneous malignancies. Auricular reconstruction is challenging because of its unique surface anatomy and undulating topography. This article organizes auricular defects into different categories based on anatomic location and extent of tissue loss, including skin-only defects, small composite defects, full-thickness defects involving or sparing the upper third of the ear, and total auricular loss. The authors share an algorithm for repair of the array of auricular defects. PMID:19698921

  7. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  8. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  9. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  10. Circulating Galectin-1 and 90K/Mac-2BP Correlated with the Tumor Stages of Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Pen, Chen-Tzi; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Huang, Eng-Yen; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Yang, Kuender D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The simultaneous correlation of serum galectin-1, galectin-3, and 90K/Mac-2BP levels with clinical stages of patients with colorectal cancer has not yet been clarified. We plan to measure the serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and 90K/Mac-2BP of patients at different stages of colorectal cancer and analyze the correlation of these galectins with stages of colorectal cancers. Methods. 198 colorectal cancer patients (62 ± 13 (range 31–85) years old, 43.6% female) were recruited for this study. Subjects' blood samples were checked for serum galectin-1, galectin-3, 90K/Mac-2BP, and carcinoembryonic antigen by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We determined the correlation between plasma concentrations with clinical tumor stages. Results. Colorectal cancer patients with larger cancer sizes (stages T3, T4 rather than T1, T2) have higher serum 90K/Mac-2BP (P = 0.014) and patients with lymph node metastasis have higher serum galectin-1 (P = 0.002) but there was not a significant correlation between galectin-3 and tumor staging of colon cancer. In colorectal cancer patients even with normal carcinoembryonic antigen, serum galectin-1 could predict more lymph node metastasis. Conclusions. We found 90K/Mac-2BP correlated with the size of colorectal cancer. Galectin-1 but not galectin-3 was associated with lymph node metastasis. Galectin-1 could predict more lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients with normal serum carcinoembryonic antigen. PMID:26448934

  11. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Update Date 10/ ...

  12. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  13. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  14. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ear also can be involved in ...

  15. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... or wearing away of the bones of the middle ear, which help with hearing Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part of the ear that helps with balance Hearing ...

  16. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  17. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  18. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  19. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  20. Bionic Concept Applied to Flow Slab Design of PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. T.; Chang, C. P.

    A character of fuel cell with high potency and low pollution was known well and considered as a new generation of power technology. In this study a novel design of flow slab addressed and originated from bionic concept will be applied to improve the performance of PEMFC. Simulation results executed at Re = 100 show that the bionic flow type will possess a better uniformity of velocity and lower pressure drop. Besides, the integral performance concerned at SDR and PDR will also show the bionic flow type to be an outstanding design. Hence, this novel flow design addressed will be useful to promotion of PEMFC.

  1. Nitrogen-Pressure Shifts in the v3 Band of Methane Measured at Several Temperatures between 300 and 90 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumuhimbise, Anthony T.; Hurtmans, Daniel; Mantz, Arlan W.; Mondelain, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere requires accurate knowledge of spectroscopic line parameters for the molecules investigated. Knowledge of the temperature dependence of these parameters is also essential if agreement, at the noise level, between calculated and experimental data is to be achieved. The authors recently published results of nitrogen broadening measurements in the v3 band of 12CH4 using the 5.37 m long absorption path length all-copper Herriott cell. The temperature dependent line parameters determined in the laboratory were applied to fit a portion of the atmospheric spectrum recorded with a balloon-borne remote sensing FTIR instrument, called the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere, and operating in absorption against the sun. Since the authors had a relatively complete series of data for the P(9) transition in the v3 band of 12CH4, the A2 1 as well as the F2 1, F1 1 and A1 1 lines recorded at different pressures and at four temperatures between 300 and 90 K, we reanalyzed the data to derive pressure shift information at different temperatures. The temperatures for which data were collected and analyzed are 298, 140 and 90K. The high precision pressure shift data obtained here over a large range of temperature demonstrate the ability of our experimental arrangement to address specific questions on a given spectral window like in the balloon experiment or in a satellite project, for example.

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue on medical bionics Special issue on medical bionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Robert K.; D, Ph

    2009-12-01

    This special section of the Journal of Neural Engineering contains eight invited papers presented as part of the inaugural conference `Medical Bionics: A New Paradigm for Human Health' held in the beautiful seaside village of Lorne, Victoria, Australia from 16-19 November 2008. This meeting formed part of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Conference Series (www.oliphant.org.au) and was generously supported by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research of the Australian Government, the Australian Academy of Science and the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. This meeting was designed to bring experts from a variety of scientific, engineering and clinical disciplines together in a unique environment to discuss current progress in the field of medical bionics and to develop the concepts and techniques required to build the next generation of devices. The field is rapidly expanding, with new engineering solutions for neurological disorders being developed at an astonishing rate. Successful application of emerging engineering technologies into medical bionics devices requires a multidisciplinary research environment in order to deliver clinical solutions that are both safe and effective. Clinical success stories to date include spinal cord stimulators for the management of chronic neurological pain; auditory prostheses that allow the profoundly deaf to hear; and deep brain stimulation to negate movement disorders in Parkinson's disease. Other research programs currently undergoing clinical trials include devices that allow paraplegics to stand and even walk; brain-machine interfaces that provide quadriplegic patients with rudimentary control of a computer but may ultimately provide control of wheel chairs and artificial limbs; devices that detect and suppress epileptic seizures using brief trains of electrical stimulation; and retinal prostheses that will provide vision to the blind. The future for medical bionics is indeed

  3. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  4. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  5. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  6. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  7. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN2, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  8. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-29

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN{sub 2}, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  9. Regulatory role of the 90-kDa-heat-shock protein (Hsp90) and associated factors on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Erlejman, Alejandra G; Lagadari, Mariana; Toneatto, Judith; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela; Galigniana, Mario D

    2014-02-01

    The term molecular chaperone was first used to describe the ability of nucleoplasmin to prevent the aggregation of histones with DNA during the assembly of nucleosomes. Subsequently, the name was extended to proteins that mediate the post-translational assembly of oligomeric complexes protecting them from denaturation and/or aggregation. Hsp90 is a 90-kDa molecular chaperone that represents the major soluble protein of the cell. In contrast to most conventional chaperones, Hsp90 functions as a refined sensor of protein function and its principal role in the cell is to facilitate biological activity to properly folded client proteins that already have a preserved tertiary structure. Consequently, Hsp90 is related to basic cell functions such as cytoplasmic transport of soluble proteins, translocation of client proteins to organelles, and regulation of the biological activity of key signaling factors such as protein kinases, ubiquitin ligases, steroid receptors, cell cycle regulators, and transcription factors. A growing amount of evidence links the protective action of this molecular chaperone to mechanisms related to posttranslational modifications of soluble nuclear factors as well as histones. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the regulatory action of Hsp90 on transcriptional regulation and how this effect could have impacted genetic assimilation mechanism in some organisms. PMID:24389346

  10. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  11. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  12. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  13. Presenting Bionic: Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, K.

    2014-12-01

    Broader Impact plans are required of all NSF proposals. In 2011 the National Science Board, which oversees NSF, reconfirmed NSF's commitment to Broader Impacts in its task force report on the merit review system. At many institutions there are professionals that focus their work on supporting the Broader Impact work of researchers. This session will share the Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration (BIONIC) plan to create a professional network of individuals and offices committed to planning and carrying out effective Broader Impact programming. BIONIC is an NSF Research Coordination Network that is recommended for funding through the Biology Directorate. In this session we will share the goals of BIONIC, and the progress to date in reaching those goals (of which one aspect is the curating of effective Broader Impact initiatives).

  14. A bionic eye actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Li, Yuxiu; He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-04-01

    This research was conducted with the aim of developing an energy-efficient, noiseless, movable bionic eye for use in bionic toys. This novel bionic eye is actuated by an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator. The overall size of the eye was 39 mm in length, 45 mm in width, and 45 mm in thickness. The experimental results revealed such a bionic eye design is feasible. This type of bionic eye is appropriate for use in toys and robots to increase their visual impact.

  15. Structure of Gd0.95Bi0.05Fe3(BO3)4 single crystals at 293 and 90 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, E. S.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Dudka, A. P.; Verin, I. A.; Artemov, V. V.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.; Frolov, K. V.; Lyubutin, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of GdFe3(BO3)4 single crystals has been studied by X-ray diffraction at 293 and 90 K. The crystals are grown from a flux in the Bi2Mo3O12-B2O3-Li2MoO4-Gd2O3-Fe2O3 system. The results of chemical analysis and structural study show that these crystals contain bismuth as an impurity. It is found that bismuth atoms are located at gadolinium sites in the structure. A decrease in the temperature is accompanied by a lowering of the symmetry from sp. gr. R32 (at 293 K) to sp. gr. P3121 (at 90 K). The presence of two types of iron chains with different geometries at 90 K promotes a change in the magnetic properties of these crystals with a decrease in the temperature.

  16. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  17. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eardrum, ear canal, ossicles, cochlea, or the vestibular nerve. Here's a look at the most common ... may cause permanent hearing loss or balance problems. Vestibular therapy may help kids with balance problems. And ...

  18. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  19. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  20. Optimization of Programming Parameters in Children with the Advanced Bionics Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Baudhuin, Jacquelyn; Cadieux, Jamie; Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Maxson, Jerrica L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants provide access to soft intensity sounds and therefore improved audibility for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Speech processor programming parameters, such as threshold or T-level, Input Dynamic Range (IDR) and microphone sensitivity, contribute to the recipient’s program and influence audibility. When soundfield thresholds obtained through the speech processor are elevated, programming parameters can be modified to improve soft sound detection. Adult recipients show improved detection for low-level sounds when T-levels are set at raised levels, and show better speech understanding in quiet when wider IDRs are used. Little is known about the effects of parameter settings on detection and speech recognition in children using today’s cochlear implant technology. Purpose The overall study aim was to assess optimal T-level, IDR and sensitivity settings in pediatric recipients of the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant. Research Design Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 examined the effects of two T-level settings on soundfield thresholds and detection of the Ling 6 Sounds. One program set Ts at 10% of M-levels and another at 10 current units (CUs) below the level judged as “soft”. Experiment 2 examined the effects of IDR and sensitivity settings on speech recognition in quiet and noise. Study Sample Participants were eleven children 7 to 17 years of age (mean 11.3) implanted with the Advanced Bionics High Resolution 90K or CII cochlear implant system and had speech recognition scores of 20% or greater on a monosyllabic word test. Data Collection and Analysis Two T-level programs were compared for detection of the Ling Sounds and frequency modulated (FM) tones. Differing IDR/sensitivity programs (50/0, 50/10, 70/0, 70/10) were compared using Ling and FM-tone detection thresholds, CNC words at 50 dB SPL, and HINT-C sentences at 65 dB SPL in the presence of four talker babble (+8 signal-to-noise ratio). Outcomes

  1. Design and Testing of a Bionic Dancing Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Elliott J; Villagaray-Carski, Nathan C; Emerson, Robert W; Herr, Hugh M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba. The biomechanics of the ankle joint of a non-amputee, professional dancer were acquired for the development of the bionic control system. Subsequently, a professional dancer who received a traumatic transtibial amputation in April 2013 tested the bionic dance prosthesis and a conventional, passive prosthesis for comparison. The ability to provide similar torque-angle behavior of the biological ankle was assessed to quantify the biological realism of the prostheses. The bionic dancing prosthesis overlapped with 37 ± 6% of the non-amputee ankle torque and ankle angle data, compared to 26 ± 2% for the conventional, passive prosthesis, a statistically greater overlap (p = 0.01). This study lays the foundation for quantifying unique, expressive activity modes currently unavailable to individuals with disabilities. Future work will focus on an expansion of the methods and types of dance investigated in this work. PMID:26285201

  2. Design and Testing of a Bionic Dancing Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Elliott J.; Villagaray-Carski, Nathan C.; Emerson, Robert W.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba. The biomechanics of the ankle joint of a non-amputee, professional dancer were acquired for the development of the bionic control system. Subsequently, a professional dancer who received a traumatic transtibial amputation in April 2013 tested the bionic dance prosthesis and a conventional, passive prosthesis for comparison. The ability to provide similar torque-angle behavior of the biological ankle was assessed to quantify the biological realism of the prostheses. The bionic dancing prosthesis overlapped with 37 ± 6% of the non-amputee ankle torque and ankle angle data, compared to 26 ± 2% for the conventional, passive prosthesis, a statistically greater overlap (p = 0.01). This study lays the foundation for quantifying unique, expressive activity modes currently unavailable to individuals with disabilities. Future work will focus on an expansion of the methods and types of dance investigated in this work. PMID:26285201

  3. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  4. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  5. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  6. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  7. Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved You are here Home » Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Do You Need a Hearing Test? Interactive Quiz Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood ...

  8. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  9. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  10. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  11. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  12. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  13. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    PubMed

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones. PMID:19264422

  14. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  15. Transformative Reality: improving bionic vision with robotic sensing.

    PubMed

    Lui, Wen Lik Dennis; Browne, Damien; Kleeman, Lindsay; Drummond, Tom; Li, Wai Ho

    2012-01-01

    Implanted visual prostheses provide bionic vision with very low spatial and intensity resolution when compared against healthy human vision. Vision processing converts camera video to low resolution imagery for bionic vision with the aim of preserving salient features such as edges. Transformative Reality extends and improves upon traditional vision processing in three ways. Firstly, a combination of visual and non-visual sensors are used to provide multi-modal data of a person's surroundings. This enables the sensing of features that are difficult to sense with only a camera. Secondly, robotic sensing algorithms construct models of the world in real time. This enables the detection of complex features such as navigable empty ground or people. Thirdly, models are visually rendered so that visually complex entities such as people can be effectively represented in low resolution. Preliminary simulated prosthetic vision trials, where a head mounted display is used to constrain a subject's vision to 25×25 binary phosphenes, suggest that Transformative Reality provides functional bionic vision for tasks such as indoor navigation, object manipulation and people detection in scenes where traditional processing is unusable. PMID:23365890

  16. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear. PMID:26223352

  17. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  18. The 90-kDa junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein forms an integral part of a supramolecular triad complex in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Froemming, G R; Pette, D; Ohlendieck, K

    1999-08-11

    Although it is well established that voltage-sensing of the alpha(1)-dihydropyridine receptor triggers Ca(2+)-release via the ryanodine receptor during excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers, it remains to be determined which junctional components are responsible for the assembly, maintenance, and stabilization of triads. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern and neighborhood relationship of a novel 90-kDa sarcoplasmic reticulum protein. This protein is highly enriched in the triad fraction and is predominantly expressed in fast-twitching muscle fibers. Chronic low-frequency electro-stimulation induced a drastic decrease in the relative abundance of this protein. Chemical crosslinking showed a potential overlap between the 90-kDa junctional face membrane protein and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel, suggesting tight protein-protein interactions between these two triad components. Hence, Ca(2+)-regulatory muscle proteins have a strong tendency to oligomerize and the triad region of skeletal muscle fibers forms supramolecular membrane complexes involved in the regulation of Ca(2+)-homeostasis and signal transduction. PMID:10441473

  19. Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmelmann, C.; Sander, P.; Kranz, J.; Wycisk, E.

    New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating structural optimization tools, bionic structures and LAM guidelines into one design process. By consequently following this design process designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structures.

  20. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haichao; Wang, Guolin; Ding, Yangmin; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS) reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SST k - ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(4(5)), the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance. PMID:27018311

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haichao; Wang, Guolin; Ding, Yangmin; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS) reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SST k − ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(45), the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance. PMID:27018311

  3. Determination of optimal excitation patterns for local mechanical inner ear stimulation using a physiologically-based model.

    PubMed

    Schurzig, Daniel; Rau, Thomas S; Wallaschek, Jörg; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2016-04-01

    Within the field of hearing prosthetics it is known that patients with sufficient residual hearing benefit from the simultaneous employment of hearing aid and cochlear implant. Several attempts have been proposed to combine the sources of the corresponding acoustic and electric stimuli in a single, implantable device. However, since only little is known about the effect of also applying the acoustic stimulus locally from within the inner ear, the current state of research lacks detailed knowledge on the optimal stimulation at the corresponding bionic interface. Within this manuscript, a simple but yet physiologically-based inner ear model is presented which was designed specifically for the analysis of local acoustic or mechanical inner ear stimulation. A detailed model analysis is performed showing that it is capable of mirroring the known mechanical phenomena of this particular stimulation approach. Using the model, it is demonstrated how amplitude and phase shift values of stimuli applied from within the inner ear should be chosen for optimal inner ear stimulation. PMID:27032960

  4. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  5. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  6. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of corn stovers for methane production in a novel bionic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Fan, Shiyang; Jin, Shuguang; Wu, Dan; Fang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To improve the biogas production from corn stovers, a new bionic reactor was designed and constructed. The bionic reactor simulated the rumen digestion of ruminants. The liquid was separated from corn stovers and refluxed into corn stovers again, which simulated the undigested particles separated from completely digested materials and fed back again for further degradation in ruminant stomach. Results showed that the bionic reactor was effective for anaerobic digestion of corn stovers. The liquid amount and its reflux showed an obvious positive correlation with biogas production. The highest biogas production rate was 21.6 ml/gVS-addedd, and the total cumulative biogas production was 256.5 ml/gVS-added. The methane content in biogas ranged from 52.2% to 63.3%. The degradation of corn stovers were greatly enhanced through simulating the animal digestion mechanisms in this bionic reactor. PMID:24923659

  8. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. PMID:25746272

  9. The design of an asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shanglong; Qin, Jie; Guo, Wei; Fang, Kuang

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the wing vein of Lepidoptera, a designment of asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling is developed. Lepidoptera vein D was chosen to measure the angle of first and second branch level. Based on these regular patterns, an asymmetric bionic branching channel is designed in a 35 mm × 35 mm chip. Comparing with fractal-like branching channel, it provides a stronger heat transfer capability, lower pressure drop and lower flow resistance in the experiment.

  10. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery. PMID:27565392

  11. Medicalization: Current Concept and Future Directions in a Bionic Society

    PubMed Central

    Maturo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article illustrates the main features of the concept of medicalization, starting from its theoretical roots. Although it is the process of extending the medical gaze on human conditions, it appears that medicalization cannot be strictly connected to medical imperialism anymore. Other “engines” of medicalization are influential: consumers, biotechnology and managed care. The growth of research and theoretical reflections on medicalization has led to the proposal of other parallel concepts like pharmaceuticalization, genetization and biomedicalization. These new theoretical tools could be useful in the analysis of human enhancement. Human enhancement can be considered as the use of biomedical technology to improve performance on a human being who is not in need of a cure: a practice that is increasingly spreading in what might be defined as a “bionic society”. PMID:22654387

  12. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  13. Medicalization: current concept and future directions in a bionic society.

    PubMed

    Maturo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article illustrates the main features of the concept of medicalization, starting from its theoretical roots. Although it is the process of extending the medical gaze on human conditions, it appears that medicalization cannot be strictly connected to medical imperialism anymore. Other "engines" of medicalization are influential: consumers, biotechnology and managed care. The growth of research and theoretical reflections on medicalization has led to the proposal of other parallel concepts like pharmaceuticalization, genetization and biomedicalization. These new theoretical tools could be useful in the analysis of human enhancement. Human enhancement can be considered as the use of biomedical technology to improve performance on a human being who is not in need of a cure: a practice that is increasingly spreading in what might be defined as a "bionic society". PMID:22654387

  14. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  15. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  20. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands before touching your pierced ears. Applying rubbing alcohol also can help keep germs away. With an adult's help, soak a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol and apply it to both sides of the ...

  1. Keloid above the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  2. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  3. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  4. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  5. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  6. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  7. The visible ear surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Trier, Peter; Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time computer simulation of surgical procedures in the ear, in which a surgeon drills into the temporal bone to gain access to the middle or inner ear. The purpose of this simulator is to support development of anatomical insight and training of drilling skills for both medical students and experienced otologists. The key contributions in this application are the visualization and interaction models in the context of ear surgical simulation. The visualization is based on an existing data set, "The Visible Ear", containing a unique volume depicting the inner ear in natural colours. The applied visualization is based on GPU ray casting, allowing high quality and flexible volume rendering using modern graphics card. In connection with the visualization model, different methods for optimizing the GPU ray casting procedure are presented, along with a method for combining polygon based graphics with volume rendering. In addition, different light models are presented that contribute to a realistic rendering of the different parts of the inner ear. To achieve a physically plausible drilling experience, a Phantom Omni force feedback device is utilized. The applied interaction model facilitates a realistic user experience of the response forces from the drilling tool. PMID:18391361

  8. A novel function for the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90): facilitating nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Schlatter, Harald; Langer, Thomas; Rosmus, Susann; Onneken, Marie-Luise; Fasold, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus, and mature 40 S and 60 S subunits are exported stoichiometrically into the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of ribosomal subunits is a unidirectional, saturable and energy-dependent process. An in vitro assay for the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits involves the use of resealed nuclear envelopes. The export of ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes is enhanced by cytoplasmic proteins. Here we present evidence that the export-promoting activity was due to the cytoplasmic 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90). Isolated, purified Hsp90 vastly enhanced the export of 60 S ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes, while inhibition of Hsp90 function, either with the Hsp90-binding drug geldanamycin or with anti-Hsp90 antibodies, resulted in reduced release of 60 S ribosomal subunits. To confirm these findings under in vivo conditions, corresponding experiments were performed with Xenopus oocytes using microinjection techniques; the results obtained confirmed the findings obtained with resealed nuclear envelopes. These findings suggest that Hsp90 facilitates the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits, probably by chaperoning protein interactions during the export process. PMID:11879195

  9. Loss of striatal 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) is a key factor for motor, synaptic and transcription dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Anglada-Huguet, Marta; Giralt, Albert; Rué, Laura; Alberch, Jordi; Xifró, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor dysfunction due to the expression of mutant huntingtin that promotes degeneration of striatal GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons. Here we explore the role of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) in the physiopathology of HD. First, we show a reduction of Rsk1 and 2 protein levels in the striatum of two HD mouse models, R6/1 and Hdh(Q7/Q111) knock-in mice, at ages when they suffer from motor disturbances. Interestingly, the analysis of post-mortem samples from HD patients revealed a significant reduction of both Rsk forms in the putamen and caudate, but not in the cortex. Rsk1 and 2 levels were also reduced in the striatum of BDNF heterozygous mice, and upon BDNF neutralization in striatal cultures, suggesting that striatal loss of BDNF could be involved in the decrease of Rsk levels. Finally, we injected recombinant adeno-associated-virus (AAV5)-Rsk in the striatum of R6/1 mice at the onset of motor symptoms. Four weeks later, we found higher Rsk levels in the striatum accompanied by improvements in motor coordination, enhanced expression of synaptic markers and increased expression of genes related to synaptic plasticity, such as cfos and egr1. Altogether, we identified Rsk as a key factor in striatal alterations associated with motor deficits in HD. PMID:27063456

  10. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  11. Comparison of speech processing strategies for the design of an ultra low-power analog bionic ear.

    PubMed

    Sawigun, Chutham; Ngamkham, Wannaya; Serdijn, Wouter A

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturizing area and power consumptions of cochlear prosthetic devices is strongly required for full implantation. In this paper, several speech encoding strategies are studied and compared in order to find a compact speech processor that allows for full implantation and is able to convey both time and frequency components of the incoming speech to a set of electrical pulse stimuli. The study covers the widely recognized continuous time interleaved sampling (CIS) and strategies that convey the temporal fine structure (TFS), including race-to-spike asynchronous interleaved sampling (AIS), phase-locking (PL) using zero-crossing detection (ZCD), and PL using a peak-picking (PP) technique. To estimate the performances of the four systems, a spike-based reconstruction algorithm is employed to retrieve the original sounds after being processed by different strategies. The correlation factors between the reconstructed and original signals imply that strategies that convey TFS outperform CIS. Among them, the peak picking technique combines good performance with great compactness since envelope detectors are not required. PMID:21096335

  12. Ear disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H

    2011-01-01

    History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called "diving medicine" was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas), and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers. PMID:23022815

  13. Distinct functions of the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp90) in oestrogen and mineralocorticosteroid receptor activity: effects of hsp90 deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Binart, N; Lombès, M; Baulieu, E E

    1995-11-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp90) interacts both in vitro and in vivo with steroid receptors, encouraging further detailed physicochemical and functional analysis of its chaperone role. Thus, to explore the relationship between hsp90 and receptors, the baculovirus system was used to overexpress the chick hsp90 alpha (chsp90) along with the chick oestradiol receptor (cER) or the human mineralocorticosteroid receptor (hMR). These receptors were able to form 9 S complexes with chsp90, demonstrating the association of the co-expressed recombinant proteins. Three mutants of chsp90 (delta A, delta B and delta Z) have been created by deletion of the A (residues 221-290) and B (530-581) regions, rich in charged amino acids, and the Z (392-419) region, a putative leucine zipper. After co-expression, anti-receptor antibodies immunoprecipitated the cER or hMR complexed with the wild-type chsp90, the delta B or the delta Z mutant, but not with the delta A chsp90, indicating that deletion of the A region of chsp90 leads to a lack of interaction with these receptors. The hormone binding capacity of the cER was unaffected after its co-expression with each of the three mutants. In contrast, the hMR co-expressed with the delta B mutant failed to bind aldosterone, a finding confirmed in vivo by the absence of hormone-induced hMR nuclear translocation. Thus the B region is required for high-affinity ligand binding by the hMR. Our results suggest that the A region (but not the B or Z regions) is involved in binding of chsp90 to the cER and hMR, while the B region is essential for hormone binding by the hMR, consistent with a chaperone function for hsp90. PMID:7487934

  14. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. PMID:25796080

  15. A Bionic Camera-Based Polarization Navigation Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daobin; Liang, Huawei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Navigation and positioning technology is closely related to our routine life activities, from travel to aerospace. Recently it has been found that Cataglyphis (a kind of desert ant) is able to detect the polarization direction of skylight and navigate according to this information. This paper presents a real-time bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor. This sensor has two work modes: one is a single-point measurement mode and the other is a multi-point measurement mode. An indoor calibration experiment of the sensor has been done under a beam of standard polarized light. The experiment results show that after noise reduction the accuracy of the sensor can reach up to 0.3256°. It is also compared with GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) in the single-point measurement mode through an outdoor experiment. Through time compensation and location compensation, the sensor can be a useful alternative to GPS and INS. In addition, the sensor also can measure the polarization distribution pattern when it works in multi-point measurement mode. PMID:25051029

  16. A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobin; Liang, Huawei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Navigation and positioning technology is closely related to our routine life activities, from travel to aerospace. Recently it has been found that Cataglyphis (a kind of desert ant) is able to detect the polarization direction of skylight and navigate according to this information. This paper presents a real-time bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor. This sensor has two work modes: one is a single-point measurement mode and the other is a multi-point measurement mode. An indoor calibration experiment of the sensor has been done under a beam of standard polarized light. The experiment results show that after noise reduction the accuracy of the sensor can reach up to 0.3256°. It is also compared with GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) in the single-point measurement mode through an outdoor experiment. Through time compensation and location compensation, the sensor can be a useful alternative to GPS and INS. In addition, the sensor also can measure the polarization distribution pattern when it works in multi-point measurement mode. PMID:25051029

  17. [The bionic artificial joint capsule study (1)--mechanics simulation].

    PubMed

    Su, Shihu; Zhang, Jianhua; Tao, Dehua

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model was created for bionic artificial joint with joint capsule. Finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate and simulate mechanics distribution of the joint capsule under different thickness of the joint capsule, different loading, and different angular displacements. The results of the simulation show that the maximum stress is created in the joint area between artificial joint capsule. And the effect of the thickness of the artificial joint capsule on the stress magnitude and distribution is depend on motion model. On standing situation, the maximum stress decreases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. However, on walking situation, the maximum stress increases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. Whatever conditions simulated, the maximum stress of the artificial joint capsule is not over the limit of the material strength (9.97 megapascals). All the large stress, which gained from the simulation under different situations, locates at the interface between the capsule and the artificial joint. This is because the artificial joint and the capsule transfer loading each other at the interface. At the same time, supporting area of the capsule at the location of the interface is minimum for the whole vesicle. The stress concentration is inevitable at the interface due to the model structure. This result will offer guidance for the optimum joint structure of the capsule and the artificial joint. PMID:17333904

  18. Graphene-Based Bionic Composites with Multifunctional and Repairing Properties.

    PubMed

    Valentini, L; Bittolo Bon, S; Signetti, S; Pugno, N M

    2016-03-30

    In this work, a novel bionic composite inspired by the concept of yeast fermentation has been proposed. It was observed that the addition of graphene nanoplatelets during the fermentation of extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi allows coupling of the graphene sheets to the yeast cell wall. This process resulted in the formation of a composite film with improved mechanical and electrical properties along with the capability of converting the light stimulus in the electrical signal. The mechanical properties of the prepared composites, namely, the fracture strength and Young's modulus, were studied via numerical simulations and are related to the properties of the constituent phases via rules of mixture. Finally, it was observed that graphene nanoplatelets, added to the nutrient broth, were able to reassemble onto the stressed cell surface and repair the surface cracking, partially restoring the pristine electrical and mechanical properties. The method reported here may find potential application in the development of self-healable bioelectronic devices and microorganism-based strain and chemical biosensors. PMID:26971362

  19. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  20. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159452.html How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Simple steps after a day in the water ... 2016 SATURDAY, June 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Swimmer's ear -- a common summertime problem among children -- is easy ...

  1. Infant Ear Infections Becoming Less Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is director of pediatric otolaryngology at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, in New ... Galveston; Joseph Bernstein, M.D., director, pediatric otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York ...

  2. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  3. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  4. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  5. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Isolde

    2001-01-01

    The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula. PMID:11790893

  6. The caecilian ear: further observations.

    PubMed

    Wever, E G; Gans, C

    1976-10-01

    The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  10. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  12. Bionic Tactile Sensor for Near-Range Search, Localisation and Material Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Volker; Krause, André F.; Neitzel, Matthias; Lange, Oliver; Reimann, Bert

    Insects use their antennae (feelers) as near range sensors for orientation, object localisation and communication. Here, we use the stick insect antenna as a paragon for an actively moved tactile sensor. Our bionic sensor uses vibration signals from contact events for obstacle localisation and classification of material properties. It is shown how distance is coded by salient peaks in the frequency spectrum, and how the damping time constants can be exploited to distinguish between eight objects made of a range of materials. Thus, we demonstrate application of bionic principles for non-visual, reliable, near-range object localisation and material classification that is suitable for autonomous exploratory robots.

  13. The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

  14. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  15. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  16. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B; Kappel, Simon L; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  17. Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh M.; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2012-01-01

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biological ankle during level-ground walking, specifically providing the net positive work required for a range of walking velocities. We compared metabolic energy costs, preferred velocities and biomechanical patterns of seven people with a unilateral transtibial amputation using the bionic prosthesis and using their own passive-elastic prosthesis to those of seven non-amputees during level-ground walking. Compared with using a passive-elastic prosthesis, using the bionic prosthesis decreased metabolic cost by 8 per cent, increased trailing prosthetic leg mechanical work by 57 per cent and decreased the leading biological leg mechanical work by 10 per cent, on average, across walking velocities of 0.75–1.75 m s−1 and increased preferred walking velocity by 23 per cent. Using the bionic prosthesis resulted in metabolic energy costs, preferred walking velocities and biomechanical patterns that were not significantly different from people without an amputation. PMID:21752817

  18. Bionic ankle-foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation.

    PubMed

    Herr, Hugh M; Grabowski, Alena M

    2012-02-01

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biological ankle during level-ground walking, specifically providing the net positive work required for a range of walking velocities. We compared metabolic energy costs, preferred velocities and biomechanical patterns of seven people with a unilateral transtibial amputation using the bionic prosthesis and using their own passive-elastic prosthesis to those of seven non-amputees during level-ground walking. Compared with using a passive-elastic prosthesis, using the bionic prosthesis decreased metabolic cost by 8 per cent, increased trailing prosthetic leg mechanical work by 57 per cent and decreased the leading biological leg mechanical work by 10 per cent, on average, across walking velocities of 0.75-1.75 m s(-1) and increased preferred walking velocity by 23 per cent. Using the bionic prosthesis resulted in metabolic energy costs, preferred walking velocities and biomechanical patterns that were not significantly different from people without an amputation. PMID:21752817

  19. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens. PMID:27034611

  20. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens. PMID:27034611

  1. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  2. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  3. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  4. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  5. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  6. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  7. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  9. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  10. Ear canal hyperostosis--surfer's ear. An improved surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Seftel, D M

    1977-01-01

    The increased populatiry of surfing has produced a marked augmentation in the incidence of ear canal exostosis. However, when it becomes moderately severe, I prefer to call it "hyperostosis." Exposure to cold ocean water for many years can be an important etiologic factor in hyperostosis. There is a serious risk, and a high incidence of tympanic membrane perforations during the removal of large external canal hyperostosis. This injury can be prevented by placing a sheet of Silastic against the tympanic membrane beforehand. I describe the method. Serious degrees of hyperostosis, causing transient hearing loss and otitis externa, are increasingly common in coastal towns, where cold-water surfing is a popular year-around sport. PMID:831701

  11. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  12. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  13. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  15. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  16. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  17. Middle ear malformations in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Kidowaki, Naoko; Kamitani, Toru; Nakamura, Takashi; Taki, Masakatsu; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The majority of the congenital anomalies of middle ear are solitary and a non-hereditary. We report cases of identical twins with congenital incudo-stapedial disconnection. Case 1 was an 8-year-old girl. Hearing impairment was identified at the age of three. She was referred to our university hospital in April 2005. Pure-tone audiogram showed conductive hearing impairments. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnections in both ears. The exploratory tympanotomies on the right and left ears were performed in May and July 2005, respectively. The surgical findings showed absence of the long process and presence of the lenticular process of the incus in both ears. After the reconstructions of ossicular chain, the hearing of both ears improved. Case 2 was an 11-year-old girl. The hearing impairment of the right ear was identified in May 2008. She was referred to our university hospital three months later. Pure-tone audiogram showed the conductive hearing impairment in the right ear. CT revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnection in the right ear. The surgery showed the same findings as those of case 1. Anomalies of both cases suggest that the lenticular process of the incus and the stapes originate from a common primordium. PMID:24355584

  18. A bionic approach to mathematical modeling the fold geometry of deployable reflector antennas on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspired from biology, this study presents a method for designing the fold geometry of deployable reflectors. Since the space available inside rockets for transporting satellites with reflector antennas is typically cylindrical in shape, and its cross-sectional area is considerably smaller than the reflector antenna after deployment, the cross-sectional area of the folded reflector must be smaller than the available rocket interior space. Membrane reflectors in aerospace are a type of lightweight structure that can be packaged compactly. To design membrane reflectors from the perspective of deployment processes, bionic applications from morphological changes of plants are investigated. Creating biologically inspired reflectors, this paper deals with fold geometry of reflectors, which imitate flower buds. This study uses mathematical formulation to describe geometric profiles of flower buds. Based on the formulation, new designs for deployable membrane reflectors derived from bionics are proposed. Adjusting parameters in the formulation of these designs leads to decreases in reflector area before deployment.

  19. Dynamic model and performance analysis of landing buffer for bionic locust mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dian-Sheng; Zhang, Zi-Qiang; Chen, Ke-Wei

    2016-06-01

    The landing buffer is an important problem in the research on bionic locust jumping robots, and the different modes of landing and buffering can affect the dynamic performance of the buffering process significantly. Based on an experimental observation, the different modes of landing and buffering are determined, which include the different numbers of landing legs and different motion modes of legs in the buffering process. Then a bionic locust mechanism is established, and the springs are used to replace the leg muscles to achieve a buffering effect. To reveal the dynamic performance in the buffering process of the bionic locust mechanism, a dynamic model is established with different modes of landing and buffering. In particular, to analyze the buffering process conveniently, an equivalent vibration dynamic model of the bionic locust mechanism is proposed. Given the support forces of the ground to the leg links, which can be obtained from the dynamic model, the spring forces of the legs and the impact resistance of each leg are the important parameters affecting buffering performance, and evaluation principles for buffering performance are proposed according to the aforementioned parameters. Based on the dynamic model and these evaluation principles, the buffering performances are analyzed and compared in different modes of landing and buffering on a horizontal plane and an inclined plane. The results show that the mechanism with the ends of the legs sliding can obtain a better dynamic performance. This study offers primary theories for buffering dynamics and an evaluation of landing buffer performance, and it establishes a theoretical basis for studies and engineering applications.

  20. Dynamic model and performance analysis of landing buffer for bionic locust mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dian-Sheng; Zhang, Zi-Qiang; Chen, Ke-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The landing buffer is an important problem in the research on bionic locust jumping robots, and the different modes of landing and buffering can affect the dynamic performance of the buffering process significantly. Based on an experimental observation, the different modes of landing and buffering are determined, which include the different numbers of landing legs and different motion modes of legs in the buffering process. Then a bionic locust mechanism is established, and the springs are used to replace the leg muscles to achieve a buffering effect. To reveal the dynamic performance in the buffering process of the bionic locust mechanism, a dynamic model is established with different modes of landing and buffering. In particular, to analyze the buffering process conveniently, an equivalent vibration dynamic model of the bionic locust mechanism is proposed. Given the support forces of the ground to the leg links, which can be obtained from the dynamic model, the spring forces of the legs and the impact resistance of each leg are the important parameters affecting buffering performance, and evaluation principles for buffering performance are proposed according to the aforementioned parameters. Based on the dynamic model and these evaluation principles, the buffering performances are analyzed and compared in different modes of landing and buffering on a horizontal plane and an inclined plane. The results show that the mechanism with the ends of the legs sliding can obtain a better dynamic performance. This study offers primary theories for buffering dynamics and an evaluation of landing buffer performance, and it establishes a theoretical basis for studies and engineering applications.

  1. Design and Analysis of Bionic Cutting Blades Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo; Yang, Yuwang; Guo, Li; Chen, Donghui; Sun, Hongliang; Tong, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Praying mantis is one of the most efficient predators in insect world, which has a pair of powerful tools, two sharp and strong forelegs. Its femur and tibia are both armed with a double row of strong spines along their posterior edges which can firmly grasp the prey, when the femur and tibia fold on each other in capturing. These spines are so sharp that they can easily and quickly cut into the prey. The geometrical characteristic of the praying mantis's foreleg, especially its tibia, has important reference value for the design of agricultural soil-cutting tools. Learning from the profile and arrangement of these spines, cutting blades with tooth profile were designed in this work. Two different sizes of tooth structure and arrangement were utilized in the design on the cutting edge. A conventional smooth-edge blade was used to compare with the bionic serrate-edge blades. To compare the working efficiency of conventional blade and bionic blades, 3D finite element simulation analysis and experimental measurement were operated in present work. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the bionic serrate-edge blades showed better performance in cutting efficiency. PMID:27019583

  2. Design and Analysis of Bionic Cutting Blades Using Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Yang, Yuwang; Guo, Li; Chen, Donghui; Sun, Hongliang; Tong, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Praying mantis is one of the most efficient predators in insect world, which has a pair of powerful tools, two sharp and strong forelegs. Its femur and tibia are both armed with a double row of strong spines along their posterior edges which can firmly grasp the prey, when the femur and tibia fold on each other in capturing. These spines are so sharp that they can easily and quickly cut into the prey. The geometrical characteristic of the praying mantis's foreleg, especially its tibia, has important reference value for the design of agricultural soil-cutting tools. Learning from the profile and arrangement of these spines, cutting blades with tooth profile were designed in this work. Two different sizes of tooth structure and arrangement were utilized in the design on the cutting edge. A conventional smooth-edge blade was used to compare with the bionic serrate-edge blades. To compare the working efficiency of conventional blade and bionic blades, 3D finite element simulation analysis and experimental measurement were operated in present work. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the bionic serrate-edge blades showed better performance in cutting efficiency. PMID:27019583

  3. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  4. Dynamic bending of bionic flexible body driven by pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs) for spinning gait of quadruped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jingtao; Yu, Huangying; Wang, Tianmiao

    2016-01-01

    The body of quadruped robot is generally developed with the rigid structure. The mobility of quadruped robot depends on the mechanical properties of the body mechanism. It is difficult for quadruped robot with rigid structure to achieve better mobility walking or running in the unstructured environment. A kind of bionic flexible body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which is composed of one bionic spine and four pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs). This kind of body imitates the four-legged creatures' kinematical structure and physical properties, which has the characteristic of changeable stiffness, lightweight, flexible and better bionics. The kinematics of body bending is derived, and the coordinated movement between the flexible body and legs is analyzed. The relationship between the body bending angle and the PAM length is obtained. The dynamics of the body bending is derived by the floating coordinate method and Lagrangian method, and the driving force of PAM is determined. The experiment of body bending is conducted, and the dynamic bending characteristic of bionic flexible body is evaluated. Experimental results show that the bending angle of the bionic flexible body can reach 18°. An innovation body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which has the characteristic of flexibility and achieve bending by changing gas pressure of PAMs. The coordinated movement of the body and legs can achieve spinning gait in order to improve the mobility of quadruped robot.

  5. High-sensitive and high-efficient biochemical analysis method using a bionic electronic eye in combination with a smartphone-based colorimetric reader system.

    PubMed

    Kaiqi Su; Quchao Zou; Ning Hu; Ping Wang

    2015-08-01

    Bionic electronic eye (Bionic e-Eye), a developed smartphone-based colorimetric reader system, consists of smartphone or pad (iPhone 4s or iPad 3) as detection instrument and portable accessory as illumination provider, integrating with a wide-angle lens, a piece of lowest-power electro luminescent and a custom-made dark hood. A 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) was positioned on the electro luminescent and Bionic e-Eye captures the detection images by the back camera of smartphone. Being similar to human visual system, the hue, saturation and value (HSV, also called hex cone model) color model was employed in image processing algorithm of Bionic e-Eye. Optimized system dimension was determined by the system steadiness experiment of different photograph distances. Moreover, the commercially available BCA protein assay and CCK8 cell number assay were carried out to evaluate this Bionic e-Eye. Analytical performance of Bionic e-Eye had the better precision, higher sensitivity than microtiter plate reader (MTPR) and previous smartphone-based colorimetric reader for both two assays. Also, Bionic e-Eye using optical image detection had simultaneous and synchronous working mode, while MPTR using machine moving detection had asynchronous working mode in high throughput detection. Therefore, Bionic e-Eye will be an ideal point-of-care (POC) colorimetric detection device in the field of clinical application, industrial quality control, environment monitoring, and food assessment. PMID:26738081

  6. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  7. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  12. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  18. An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

    2013-10-01

    Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal. PMID:23917695

  19. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  20. Directional Sensitivity of the Human Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, John D.; Bazley, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Presents a classroom experiment that demonstrates the directional sensitivity of the human ear. Outlines the activity's procedures and provides a diagrammatical view of the experimental arrangement. Also included is an analysis of the expected results. (ML)

  1. Predictions of middle-ear and passive cochlear mechanics using a finite element model of the pediatric ear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Keefe, Douglas H; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-04-01

    A finite element (FE) model was developed based on histological sections of a temporal bone of a 4-year-old child to simulate middle-ear and cochlear function in ears with normal hearing and otitis media. This pediatric model of the normal ear, consisting of an ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea, was first validated with published energy absorbance (EA) measurements in young children with normal ears. The model was used to simulate EA in an ear with middle-ear effusion, whose results were compared to clinical EA measurements. The spiral cochlea component of the model was constructed under the assumption that the mechanics were passive. The FE model predicted middle-ear transfer functions between the ear canal and cochlea. Effects of ear structure and mechanical properties of soft tissues were compared in model predictions for the pediatric and adult ears. EA responses are predicted to differ between adult and pediatric ears due to differences in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues within the ear, and any residual geometrical differences between the adult ear and pediatric ear at age 4 years. The results have significance for predicting effects of otitis media in children. PMID:27106321

  2. Effect of the microhardness difference between base metal and bionic coupling unit on wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Chang, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, the samples with different microhardness difference between bionic coupling units and base metal were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade liner reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that when the microhardness difference is 561 HV0.2, the wear resistance of sample is the best.

  3. Superconductivity above 90 K in the square-planar compound system ABa2Cu3O(6 + x) with A = Y, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er, and Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Gao, L.; Huang, Z. J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconductivity has been found in the 90-K range in ABa2Cu3O(6 + x) with A = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er, and Lu in addition to Y. The results suggest that the unique square-planar Cu atoms, each surrounded by four or six oxygen atoms, are crucial to the superconductivity of oxides in general. In particular, the high Tc of ABa2Cu3O(6 + x) is attributed mainly to the quasi-two-dimensional assembly of the CuO2-Ba-CuO(2 + x)Ba-CuO2 layers sandwiched between two A layers, with particular emphasis in the CuO(2 + x) layers. Higher-Tc oxides are predicted for compounds with bigger assemblies of CuO2 layers coupled by Ba layers.

  4. Preparation of bionic nanostructures from butterfly wings and their low reflectivity of ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z. W.; Niu, S. C.; Li, W.; Ren, L. Q.

    2013-06-01

    This letter presents a bionic study on Parnassius butterfly wings with a prominent ultraviolet (UV)-selective antireflection effect. An accurate SiO2 inverse replica of the nanostructure with a unique optical function from butterfly wings is prepared in multiscale by combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. It is found that the original nanostructures of biotemplate are well inherited and the excellent UV-antireflection function could be modulated by tunable parameters such as the replica spacing, width, distribution, and shape as well as formation.

  5. Materials design considerations involved in the fabrication of implantable bionics by metallization of ceramic substrates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunil; Guenther, Thomas; Dodds, Christopher W D; Kolke, Sergej; Privat, Karen L; Matteucci, Paul B; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The Pt metallization of co-fired Al2O3/SiO2 substrates containing Pt feedthroughs was shown to be a suitable means to construct implantable bionics. The use of forge welding to join an electrode to such a metallized feedthrough was demonstrated and subsequently evaluated through the use of metallography and electron microscopy. Metallurgical phenomena involved in forge welding relevant to the fabrication of all types of biomedical implants are discussed within this paper. The affect of thermal profiles used in brazing or welding to build implantable devices from metal components is analysed and the case for considered selection of alloys in implant design is put forward. PMID:24109798

  6. Comparison of ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo in rats undergoing cardiovascular telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, I H E; Voipio, H-M; Leskinen, H; Luodonpää, M; Nevalainen, T O

    2011-07-01

    Individual and permanent identification of experimental animals is a common and often essential research practice. There is little information available on the short-term effects of these procedures on the animals. In this study, seven rats were implanted with telemetric devices. The effects of three different identification methods (ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo) were compared. Cardiovascular data were collected for 24 h after the procedures. Time periods of 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 h (dark) and 16-24 h after the procedure were analysed separately. The most pronounced differences in measured parameters were observed during the first hour after the procedures were performed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher (P < 0.012) following the ear tattoo than the microtattoo procedure by a difference of approximately 5 mmHg. Heart rate (HR) was significantly elevated (P < 0.001) after ear tattoo compared with both ear notching (Δ = 31 beats per minute [bpm]) and microtattoo (Δ = 44 bpm). During the 1-4 h period and the following dark period, the MAP was highest in the ear notching group, but no differences were observed in the HRs. During the following dark period (4-16 h) and the next day (16-24 h) differences in MAP and HR were minor. In conclusion, microtattoo appears to cause the mildest changes in HR and blood pressure. Based on these results, ear tattoo and ear notching should be replaced by microtattoo whenever possible. PMID:21504993

  7. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. PMID:26104342

  8. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesophageal temperature (Tes), taken as the reference for core temperature. Also, the oral and rectal temperatures were monitored. A three-dimensional print of the ear canal was made to determine the ear canal morphology. The core temperature of the subjects was increased by at least 1 degrees C during the experiment in order to investigate the dynamics of the core temperature assessment. Two devices were used to determine the IRTT: the Braun Thermoscan PRO 1 and the predecessor of the Braun IRT3020 (code name IRT3000P). Both IRTT-devices underestimated the core temperature, as measured by Tes, by 0.38 degrees C on average. The difference DeltaT between IRTT and Tes was related to ear canal morphology. The circumference of the ear canal at the distal bend in the ear canal and the visibility of the tympanum were the most important parameters. About 22% of the variance in DeltaT was explained by ear canal morphology for the steady state resting period. Wide ear canals and good visibility of the tympanic membrane were related to a smaller DeltaT. A good visibility of the tympanic membrane was generally found in the absence of cerumen. The IRT3000P showed better results than the PRO 1 (DeltaT: -0.31 +/- 0.27 degrees C and -0.44 +/- 0.30 degrees C respectively). Also, the IRT3000P was less dependent on ear canal morphology. The dynamic response of the measured core temperatures was determined by the decrease or rise in core temperature after the heating period was ended. The oesophageal temperature dropped by 0.22 degrees C. The IRTT and oral temperature showed an identical increase of 0.19 degrees C. The slow reacting rectal temperature had an after rise of 0.49 degrees C. PMID

  9. Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Andrew K; Gillespie, Lisa N

    2012-01-01

    Bionic devices electrically activate neural populations to partially restore lost function. Of fundamental importance is the functional integrity of the targeted neurons. However, in many conditions the ongoing pathology can lead to continued neural degeneration and death that may compromise the effectiveness of the device and limit future strategies to improve performance. The use of drugs that can prevent nerve cell degeneration and promote their regeneration may improve clinical outcomes. In this paper we focus on strategies of delivering neuroprotective drugs to the auditory system in a way that is safe and clinically relevant for use in combination with a cochlear implant. The aim of this approach is to prevent neural degeneration and promote nerve regrowth in order to improve outcomes for cochlear implant recipients using techniques that can be translated to the clinic. PMID:23186937

  10. Drug delivery to the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Andrew K.; Gillespie, Lisa N.

    2012-12-01

    Bionic devices electrically activate neural populations to partially restore lost function. Of fundamental importance is the functional integrity of the targeted neurons. However, in many conditions the ongoing pathology can lead to continued neural degeneration and death that may compromise the effectiveness of the device and limit future strategies to improve performance. The use of drugs that can prevent nerve cell degeneration and promote their regeneration may improve clinical outcomes. In this paper we focus on strategies of delivering neuroprotective drugs to the auditory system in a way that is safe and clinically relevant for use in combination with a cochlear implant. The aim of this approach is to prevent neural degeneration and promote nerve regrowth in order to improve outcomes for cochlear implant recipients using techniques that can be translated to the clinic.

  11. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Firenzuoli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

  12. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  13. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  14. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Neri, E; Caramella, D; Panconi, M; Berrettini, S; Sellari Franceschini, S; Forli, F; Bartolozzi, C

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. PMID:11194916

  15. Multiadaptive Bionic Wavelet Transform: Application to ECG Denoising and Baseline Wandering Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new modified wavelet transform, called the multiadaptive bionic wavelet transform (MABWT), that can be applied to ECG signals in order to remove noise from them under a wide range of variations for noise. By using the definition of bionic wavelet transform and adaptively determining both the center frequency of each scale together with the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-function, the problem of desired signal decomposition is solved. Applying a new proposed thresholding rule works successfully in denoising the ECG. Moreover by using the multiadaptation scheme, lowpass noisy interference effects on the baseline of ECG will be removed as a direct task. The method was extensively clinically tested with real and simulated ECG signals which showed high performance of noise reduction, comparable to those of wavelet transform (WT). Quantitative evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows that the average SNR improvement of MABWT is 1.82 dB more than the WT-based results, for the best case. Also the procedure has largely proved advantageous over wavelet-based methods for baseline wandering cancellation, including both DC components and baseline drifts.

  16. Wear properties of compact graphite cast iron with bionic units processed by deep laser cladding WC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Na; Wang, Cheng-tao; Lin, Peng-yu; Ren, Lu-quan

    2010-08-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, the wear resistance of compact graphite cast iron (CGI) processed by laser remelting gets a conspicuous improvement. In order to get a further anti-wear enhancement of CGI, a new method of deep laser cladding was used to process bionic units. By preplacing grooves then filling with WC powders and laser cladding, the bionic units had a larger dimension in depth and higher microhardness. Fe powder with different proportions from 30% (wt.) to 60% (wt.) was added into WC before laser processing for a good incorporation with CGI substrate. The improved laser cladding units turned out to induce higher wear resistance in comparison with laser remelting ones. The depth of the layer reached up to 1 mm. The results of dry sliding wear tests indicated that the specimen processed by laser cladding has a remarkable improvement than the ones processed by laser remelting. It should be noted that the wear mass loss was essentially dependent on the increase in WC proportion.

  17. [Design of plant leaf bionic camouflage materials based on spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Bi-Ru; Wu, Wen-Jian

    2011-06-01

    The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material, was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0.988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully. PMID:21847955

  18. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer

    PubMed Central

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D

    2016-01-01

    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level. PMID:26826485

  19. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamics for Bionic Oscillating Hydrofoil Based on Panel Method

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The kinematics model based on the Slender-Body theory is proposed from the bionic movement of real fish. The Panel method is applied to the hydrodynamic performance analysis innovatively, with the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations additionally, to evaluate the flexible deformation of fish in swimming accurately when satisfying the boundary conditions. A physical prototype to mimic the shape of tuna is developed with the revolutionized technology of rapid prototyping manufacturing. The hydrodynamic performance for rigid oscillating hydrofoil is analyzed with the proposed method, and it shows good coherence with the cases analyzed by the commercial software Fluent and the experimental data from robofish. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic performance of coupled hydrofoil, which consisted of flexible fish body and rigid caudal fin, is analyzed with the proposed method. It shows that the caudal fin has great influence on trailing vortex shedding and the phase angle is the key factor on hydrodynamic performance. It is verified that the shape of trailing vortex is similar to the image of the motion curve at the trailing edge as the assumption of linear vortex plane under the condition of small downwash velocity. The numerical analysis of hydrodynamics for bionic movement based on the Panel method has certain value to reveal the fish swimming mechanism. PMID:27578959

  20. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamics for Bionic Oscillating Hydrofoil Based on Panel Method.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Liu, Yanjun; Zhang, Muqun; Ding, Hongpeng

    2016-01-01

    The kinematics model based on the Slender-Body theory is proposed from the bionic movement of real fish. The Panel method is applied to the hydrodynamic performance analysis innovatively, with the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations additionally, to evaluate the flexible deformation of fish in swimming accurately when satisfying the boundary conditions. A physical prototype to mimic the shape of tuna is developed with the revolutionized technology of rapid prototyping manufacturing. The hydrodynamic performance for rigid oscillating hydrofoil is analyzed with the proposed method, and it shows good coherence with the cases analyzed by the commercial software Fluent and the experimental data from robofish. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic performance of coupled hydrofoil, which consisted of flexible fish body and rigid caudal fin, is analyzed with the proposed method. It shows that the caudal fin has great influence on trailing vortex shedding and the phase angle is the key factor on hydrodynamic performance. It is verified that the shape of trailing vortex is similar to the image of the motion curve at the trailing edge as the assumption of linear vortex plane under the condition of small downwash velocity. The numerical analysis of hydrodynamics for bionic movement based on the Panel method has certain value to reveal the fish swimming mechanism. PMID:27578959

  1. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction. PMID:26743130

  2. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer.

    PubMed

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D

    2016-04-01

    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level. PMID:26826485

  3. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  4. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. PMID:27135430

  5. [Complications Resulting from Taking Ear Impressions].

    PubMed

    Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kodera, Kazuoki; Zusho, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yoshikazu; Kanesada, Keiko; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, we carried out a study in a large sample to understand the secondary injuries caused during the taking ear impressions for hearing aids. This study is a follow-up of previous research conducted in 1986 (285 medical institutions) and 1999 (98 medical institutions). We posted a questionnaire survey to the otolaryngology departments of 3,257 medical institutions. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.9% (2,050 of the 3,257 institutions), and the results indicated that 301 of the 2050 institutions (14.7%) had experience with secondary injuries, with a total of 460 cases reported. In 342 of the 460 cases (74.3%), the secondary injuries occurred at hearing-aid dealerships, followed by 67 cases (14.6%) at affiliated medical institutions, and 51 cases (11.1%) in other locations, including other medical institutions, rehabilitation counseling centers, and educational institutions. The most common type of secondary injury (298 cases, 64.8%) was caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the ear, which in turn was a result of complications occurring during the removal of residual ear impression material. Of these 298 cases, 32 required excision of the foreign bodies and surgical intervention under general anesthesia. The remaining 10 cases exhibited isolated tympanic membrane perforation without foreign body-related complications. Furthermore, 146 cases (31.7%) developed bleeding and otitis externa following removal of the ear impression, and there were reports of cases with bleeding that required long-term outpatient care and treatment. Therefore, since retention of a foreign body in the ear and tympanic membrane perforation can occur even in patients without a history of surgery or prior otologic history, adjustment of hearing aids requires prior otorhinolaryngological examination. Furthermore, because of the risk of secondary injury when taking ear impressions, this procedure must be performed with caution under the guidance of an otolaryngologist. PMID

  6. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    PubMed

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  7. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  8. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  9. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  10. Acinetobacter and similar organisms in ear infections.

    PubMed

    Dadswell, J V

    1976-08-01

    Fifty-seven strains of acinetobacter-like organisms were isolated over a period of 26 months from the ears of 55 patients with acute or chronic otitis media, or otitis externa, and one strain was isolated in a survey of 50 normal ears. After comparison with eight reference strains, 32 of the isolates were identified as Acinetobacter anitratus, 22 as Acinetobacter Iwoffii, three as Moraxella spp. and one as Achromobacter sp. Analysis of the clinical findings suggests that although most of these organisms played little part in the disease process, a few strains were probably pathogenic in this situation. PMID:957420

  11. Results of bone conduction following surgery for chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, E; Seppä, J

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative bone conduction thresholds were compared in 181 chronic ears operated on over a 5-year period between 1990 to 1994. In the majority (92%) of cases the bone conduction thresholds remained unchanged (+/-10 dB). Nine ears (5%) showed better thresholds after surgery, with improvements ranging from 11 dB to 25 dB. This improvement was especially noted in ears with severe tympanic pathology. One ear with a large labyrinthine fistula became totally deaf after surgery. In 5 ears (3%) bone-conduction thresholds deteriorated, but remained measurable at all frequencies tested. In these latter cases this impairment ranged from 11 dB to 27 dB. Cholesteatomatous ears having intact ossicular chains were found to be at the highest risk of inner ear damage when "canal wall-down" mastoidectomies were performed. Methods for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss following chronic ear surgery are discussed. PMID:9332894

  12. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000220.htm Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor To ... enable JavaScript. Your child is being evaluated for ear tube insertion. This is the placement of tubes ...

  13. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  14. Endoscopic Management of Middle Ear and Temporal Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon; Nogueira, João Flávio

    2016-10-01

    Tantamount to the management of temporal bone neoplasms is the ability to visualize the pathology and its relationship with the numerous critical structures housed therein. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery provides the surgeon with an unparalleled view of the entire middle ear. This article presents the latest information on the usefulness of transcanal endoscopic ear surgery in the management of middle ear and temporal bone neoplasms. PMID:27468636

  15. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children. A comparison of immittance screening and traditional pure tone audiometry was conducted on 311 school aged children. The results of this study reveal the superiority of immittance audiometry in detecting middle ear pathology. PMID:21289666

  16. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's Health Ear Infections Water Safety (Recreational) About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  17. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  18. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  19. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. PMID:27554653

  20. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

  1. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) ... moyenne - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Middle Ear Infection 中耳炎 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual ...

  2. Platelet-derived growth factor induction of the immediate-early gene MCP-1 is mediated by NF-kappaB and a 90-kDa phosphoprotein coactivator.

    PubMed

    Freter, R R; Alberta, J A; Hwang, G Y; Wrentmore, A L; Stiles, C D

    1996-07-19

    A broad panel of agents including serum, interleukin-1, double-stranded RNA, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulate transcription of the "slow" immediate-early gene MCP-1. These disparate inducers act through a tight cluster of regulatory elements in the distal 5'-flanking sequences of the MCP-1 gene. We describe a 22-base element in this cluster which, in single copy, confers PDGF-inducibility to a tagged MCP-1 reporter gene. In mobility shift assays, the element binds a PDGF-activated form of NF-kappaB, and a 90-kDa protein (p90) which binds constitutively. Antibody supershift and UV cross-linking experiments indicate that the PDGF-activated NF-kappaB species is a Rel A homodimer. The DNA binding form of p90 is a nuclear-restricted serine/threonine phosphoprotein. Mutagenesis of the 22-base element shows that the NF-kappaB and p90 binding sites overlap, but binding of the two species is mutually independent. Both sites, however, are required for optimum PDGF induction of MCP-1. Therefore, p90 appears to be a coactivator with NF-kappaB in PDGF-mediated induction of MCP-1. PMID:8663287

  3. Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of Line Mixing and Pressure Broadening Parameters between 296 and 90 K in the v3 band of 12CH4 and their Influence on Atmospheric Methane Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondelain, Didier; Payan, Sebastien; Deng, Wenping; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Hurtmans, Daniel; Mantz, Arlan W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of the nitrogen broadening, narrowing and line-mixing coefficients of four lines of the P9 manifold in the v3 band of 12CH4 for atmospheric purposes. The data were collected using our tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer with active wavenumber control coupled to a newly developed cold Herriott cell with a path length of 5.37 m and a temperature uniformity of better than 0.01 K along the cell. We recorded and analyzed spectra recorded at sample temperature between 90 K and room temperature. We have investigate the influence of our new results in the inversion model used to retrieve methane profiles from atmospheric spectra; our new results make it possible to retrieve significantly more precise methane profiles. The atmospheric spectra we utilized were obtained by several of us with a balloon-born Fourier Transform infrared experiment in a limb configuration. Differences up to 7% on the retrieved volume mixing ratio were found compared to an inversion model using only HITRAN04 spectroscopic parameters.

  4. The formation and management of middle ear granulation tissue in chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Roland, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Granulation tissue is an important pathogenic feature of all types of chronic ear disease, and it can be controlled and treated with good aural toilet, appropriate antibiotic therapy, topical steroids, and chemical cautery or surgical debridement. PMID:14986396

  5. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  6. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  7. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  8. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  10. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  12. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  16. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  17. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  18. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  19. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  20. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  1. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  3. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  6. The fabrication and property of hydrophilic and hydrophobic double functional bionic chitosan film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xi, Zhen; Liu, Zhongxin; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yang

    2011-11-01

    A new kind of hydrophobic bionic chitosan film was fabricated by simulating the surface structure of lotus leaf. The titanium oxide nanotube array was used as templates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that one side of this films have nano-scale rough surface with spherical protrusions alike the surface of lotus leaf. The diameter of the protrusions is about 100 nm, which is equal to diameter of the titanium oxide nanotube. The water contact angle of chitosan films is up to 120 degrees and it is hydrophobic. The other side of the film is flat and the contact angle is 70 degrees. That indicated that the hydrophilism of natural materials is connected with the surface structures. The double functional chitosan films, one side is hydrophilic, the other is hydrophobic, can be made by an easy method. This method is non-toxic and clean. The double functional chitosan film will improve the application of chitosan films in medicine. PMID:22413283

  7. Super-hydrophobic surfaces from a simple coating method: a bionic nanoengineering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyang; Chen, Xianqiong; Xin, J. H.

    2006-07-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning behaviour of lotus leaves in nature, we developed a simple coating method that can facilitate the bionic creation of super-hydrophobic surfaces on various substrates, thus providing a feasible way of fabricating super-hydrophobic surfaces for civil and industrial applications. Micro-nanoscale binary structured composite particles of silica/fluoropolymer were prepared using an emulsion-mediated sol-gel process, and then these composite particles were applied to various substrates to mimic the surface microstructures of lotus leaves. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle larger than 150° are obtained, and these super-hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for rusting-resistant, anti-fog and self-cleaning treatments.

  8. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  9. Feedback analysis and design of RF power links for low-power bionic systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, M W; Sarpeshkar, R

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a feedback-loop technique for analyzing and designing RF power links for transcutaneous bionic systems, i.e., between an external RF coil and an internal RF coil implanted inside the body. The feedback techniques shed geometric insight into link design and minimize algebraic manipulations. We demonstrate that when the loop transmission of the link's feedback loop is -1, the link is critically coupled, i.e., the magnitude of the voltage transfer function across the link is maximal. We also derive an optimal loading condition that maximizes the energy efficiency of the link and use it as a basis for our link design. We present an example of a bionic implant system designed for load power consumptions in the 1-10-mW range, a low-power regime not significantly explored in prior designs. Such low power levels add to the challenge of link efficiency, because the overhead associated with switching losses in power amplifiers at the link input and with rectifiers at the link output significantly degrade link efficiency. We describe a novel integrated Class-E power amplifier design that uses a simple control strategy to minimize such losses. At 10-mW load power consumption, we measure overall link efficiencies of 74% and 54% at 1- and 10-mm coil separations, respectively, in good agreement with our theoretical predictions of the link's efficiency. At 1-mW load power consumption, we measure link efficiencies of 67% and 51% at 1- and 10-mm coil separations, respectively, also in good accord with our theoretical predictions. In both cases, the link's rectified output dc voltage varied by less than 16% over link distances that ranged from 2 to 10 mm. PMID:23851518

  10. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  11. Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this “better-ear,” even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

  12. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  13. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  14. Subarachnoid space: middle ear pathways and recurrent meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barcz, D V; Wood, R P; Stears, J; Jafek, B W; Shields, M

    1985-03-01

    Congenital bony abnormalities of the inner ear may result in a communication between the middle ear and the subarachnoid space. Patients with this anomaly often present with recurrent meningitis associated with acute otitis media or with middle ear fluid. This article presents three cases of recurrent meningitis with open middle ear--subarachnoid space connections. The first two cases involve a cerebrospinal fluid leak into the middle ear via the oval window, both patients having a Mondini-type of inner ear deformity. The pathway in the third case opened into the middle ear along the horizontal portion of the facial nerve. Computed tomography (CT) scanning with metrizamide and differential density calculations helped to identify the abnormal pathway and to confirm that the leak has been closed postoperatively. Use of the CT scanner in these cases can be helpful in planning the surgical closure and in postoperative follow-up. PMID:4039111

  15. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  16. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  17. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  18. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  19. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  20. The inner ear and the neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Agrup, Charlotte; Gleeson, Michael; Rudge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inner ear disorders are common and patients with vestibular failure often present to a neurology clinic because of their dizziness, gait unsteadiness and oscillopsia. Vestibular disorders can be divided into peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Most of the peripheral vestibular disorders have a clinical diagnosis, and a thorough history and examination will often provide a clear direction as to the diagnosis. Correct diagnosis allows treatment for many of the peripheral and central vestibular disorders. As inner ear damage is generally irreversible, early diagnosis allowing prompt treatment is important. The aim of this review is to discuss some audiovestibular conditions that may well appear in a neurology clinic, and to discuss some recent advances within the audiovestibular field that may be of interest to neurologists. Some of the most common audiovestibular conditions will be discussed along side more uncommon conditions. PMID:17229743

  1. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  2. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Liang, Yunhong; Zhu, Bing

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  3. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Liang, Yunhong; Zhu, Bing

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument. PMID:24985848

  4. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui Ren, Luquan; Liang, Yunhong; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhu, Bing

    2014-06-15

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  5. Morphology of the seagull's inner ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Tsao, P

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of the seagull ear was investigated and found to be generally similar to that of other Aves. Several specific outer middle and inner ear features were found to be sufficiently different as to be remarkable. Most notably, the dual membranes of the external auditory meatus: one, a collecting (and possibly amplifying and reflecting) parabolic membrane chamber situated immediately anterior to the slightly deeper tympanic membrane. The convex tympanic membrane attaches a cartilagenous extracolumella and a thick osseous columella, which is less thin and fragile than that observed in domestic fowl of comparable body size. The columella footplate and round window are completely covered with a second middle ear membrane which apparently serves as an H2O seal and hydrostatic pressure matcher. The short, hard seagull cochlea houses an elaborate basilar papilla which contains thousands of short and tall hair cells, each with a systematic arrangement of stereocilia bundles. In the seagull, the length of the basilar papilla and the length, width, and number of stereocilia, features which affect the transduction process and frequency resolution, are different from those reported for certain other Aves. PMID:3962648

  6. The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

  7. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  8. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  9. Analytical model of internally coupled ears.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2010-08-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461

  10. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  11. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  12. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  13. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain. PMID:17229537

  14. Effects of bionic units on the fatigue wear of gray cast iron surface with different shapes and distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-kai; Lu, Shu-chao; Song, Xi-bin; Zhang, Haifeng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    To improve the fatigue wear resistance of gray cast iron (GCI), GCI samples were modified by a laser to imitate the unique structure of some soil animals alternating between soft and hard phases; the hard phase resists the deformation and the soft phase releases the deformation. Using the self-controlled fatigue wear test method, the fatigue wear behaviors of treated and untreated samples were investigated and compared experimentally. The results show that the bionic non-smooth surface obtains a beneficial effect on improving the fatigue wear resistance of a sample, and the fatigue wear resistance of the bionic sample assembled with reticulate units (60°+0°), whose mass loss was reduced by 62%, was superior to the others. Meanwhile, a finite element (FE) was used to simulate the compression and the distributions of strain and stress on the non-smooth surface was inferred. From these results, we understood that the functions of the bionic unit such as reducing strain and stress, and also obstructing the closure and propagation of cracks were the main reasons for improving the fatigue wear property of GCI.

  15. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us. PMID:27340629

  16. Comparative inhibition by hard and soft metal ions of steroid-binding capacity of renal mineralocorticoid receptor cross-linked to the 90-kDa heat-shock protein heterocomplex.

    PubMed Central

    Galigniana, M D; Piwien-Pilipuk, G

    1999-01-01

    We analysed the inhibitory effects in vitro and in vivo of several metal ions on aldosterone binding to the rat kidney mineralocorticoid receptor with the purpose of assessing possible toxic effects of those ions on sodium retention, as well as to obtain information on receptor structural requirements for ligand binding. For the assays in vitro, the inhibitory effects of 20 metal ions were analysed on steroid-binding capacity for renal receptor cross-linked to 90-kDa heat-shock protein (hsp90) by pretreatment with dimethyl pimelimidate. Cross-linking prevented the artifactual dissociation of hsp90 (and, consequently, the loss of steroid binding) from the mineralocorticoid receptor due to the presence of high concentrations of salt in the incubation medium. Cross-linked heterocomplex showed no difference in ligand specificity and affinity with respect to native receptor, but increased stability upon thermal- or ionic-strength-induced destabilization was observed. Treatments in vitro with metal ions in the range 10(-8)-10(-1) M resulted in a differential inhibitory effect for each particular ion on aldosterone binding. Using the negative logarithm of metal concentration for 50% inhibition, the ions could be correlated with their Klopman hardness constants. The analysis of this relationship led us to postulate three types of reaction: with thiol, imidazole and carboxyl groups. The essential role played by these residues in steroid binding was confirmed by chemical modification of cysteines with dithionitrobenzoic acid, histidines with diethyl pyrocarbonate and acidic amino acids with Woodward's reagent (N-ethyl-5-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulphonate). Importantly, the toxic effects of some metal ions were also observed by treatments in vivo of adrenalectomized rats on both steroid-binding capacity and aldosterone-dependent sodium-retaining properties. We suggest that those amino acid residues are involved in the activation process of the mineralocorticoid receptor upon

  17. The 59 kDa FK506-binding protein, a 90 kDa heat shock protein binding immunophilin (FKBP59-HBI), is associated with the nucleus, the cytoskeleton and mitotic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Perrot-Applanat, M; Cibert, C; Géraud, G; Renoir, J M; Baulieu, E E

    1995-05-01

    FKBP59-HBI, a 59 kDa FK506 binding protein which binds the 90 kDa heat shock protein hsp90 and thus is a heat shock protein binding immunophilin (HBI), was originally discovered in association with unliganded steroid receptors in their heat shock protein containing heterooligomer form. It belongs to a growing family including other FKBPs which bind the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin, and cyclophilins which bind cyclosporin A, all having rotamase (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) activity which may be involved in protein folding. Targets for drug-immunophilin complexes have been mostly studied in vivo in T lymphocytes; however, immunophilins are present in all cell types, where their role and distribution are still unknown. Here we report the localization of FKBP59-HBI in various non lymphoid cells (mouse fibroblasts (L-929), monkey kidney cells (Cos-7), Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), and mouse neuronal cells (GT1)). Two polyclonal antipeptide antibodies directed against the C-terminal end (amino acids 441-458) (Ab 173) or the sequence 182-201 (Ab 790) of the FKBP59-HBI were used in light and confocal laser immunofluorescence. FKBP59-HBI was found in the cytoplasm and nucleus of interphase cells. Specific immunofluorescence was much stronger in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus when using Ab 173, and stronger in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm with Ab 790. Detailed observations of L-cells, which have a particularly flat morphology, showed a punctate as well as a fibrous cytoskeletal staining in the cytoplasm using antibody 173, a result which suggests interactions of FKBP59-HBI with an organized network. Colocalization experiments (using antibodies against tubulin, vimentin or actin) and use of cytoskeletal-disrupting drugs revealed partial association of FKBP59-HBI with the microtubules. Western blot experiments confirmed that the protein was present in the subcellular fractions containing either 'soluble' proteins released from

  18. Ear Cubes for local controlled drug delivery to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, M; Sircoglou, J; Gnansia, D; Tourrel, G; Willart, J-F; Danede, F; Lacante, E; Vincent, C; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-07-25

    A new type of advanced drug delivery systems is proposed: Miniaturized implants, which can be placed into tiny holes drilled into (or close to) the oval window. They consist of two parts: 1) A cylinder, which is inserted into the hole crossing the oval window. The cylinder (being longer than the depth of the hole) is partly located within the inner ear and surrounded by perilymph. This provides direct access to the target site, and at the same time assures implant fixation. 2) A cuboid, which is located in the middle ear, serving as a drug reservoir. One side of the cuboid is in direct contact with the oval window. Drug release into the cochlea occurs by diffusion through the cylindrical part of the Ear Cubes and by diffusion from the cuboid into and through the oval window. High precision molds were used to prepare two differently sized Ear Cubes by injection molding. The miniaturized implants were based on silicone and loaded with different amounts of dexamethasone (10 to 30 % w/w). The systems were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to artificial perilymph at 37°C. Importantly, drug release can effectively be controlled and sustained during long time periods (up to several years). Furthermore, the implants did not swell or erode to a noteworthy extent during the observation period. Drug diffusion through the polymeric matrix, together with limited dexamethasone solubility effects, seem to control the resulting drug release kinetics, which can roughly be estimated using mathematical equations derived from Fick's second law. Importantly, the proposed Ear Cubes are likely to provide much more reliable local long term drug delivery to the inner ear compared to liquid or semi-solid dosage forms administered into the middle ear, due to a more secured fixation. Furthermore, they require less invasive surgeries and can accommodate higher drug amounts compared to intracochlear implants. Thus, they offer the potential to open up new horizons for innovative

  19. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  20. Computer-integrated finite element modeling of human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Gan, R Z; Chang, K-H; Dormer, K J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to produce an improved finite element (FE) model of the human middle ear and to compare the model with human data. We began with a systematic and accurate geometric modeling technique for reconstructing the middle ear from serial sections of a freshly frozen temporal bone. A geometric model of a human middle ear was constructed in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment with particular attention to geometry and microanatomy. Using the geometric model, a working FE model of the human middle ear was created using previously published material properties of middle ear components. This working FE model was finalized by a cross-calibration technique, comparing its predicted stapes footplate displacements with laser Doppler interferometry measurements from fresh temporal bones. The final FE model was shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of the human middle ear. PMID:14595544

  1. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  2. The effects of fibrin tissue adhesive on the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Katzke, D; Pusalkar, A; Steinbach, E

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fibrin glue ('Tissucol', Immuno Pty. Ltd.) in the middle and inner ear. Small amounts of the adhesive were used in 36 operations performed on 18 rabbits. The light microscopic examination of these ears four, eight and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the adhesive was well tolerated and that it did not have any toxic effect on the middle ear or membranous labyrinth. The fibrin tissue adhesive can therefore safely be used to facilitate reconstructive middle-ear surgery and, with the aid of fascia, also for the closure of labyrinthine fistulae; or to achieve a definite seal of oval window niche after stapes surgery. PMID:6600776

  3. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  4. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  5. EARS, MARS combined radio observations - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomezzoli, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    The Lyrid meteor shower was generated on 21-22 April 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet C/1861 G1 (Thatcher). The Camelopardalids meteor shower was generated on 23-24 May 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet 209P/Linear. The EurAstro Radio Station (EARS) and the Malta Astro Radio Station (MARS) were operated in parallel for two combined radio observation campaigns. The campaigns revealed that further combined radio observation campaigns are necessary to solve the problem of estimating the number of lost radio meteor echoes.

  6. Morphometric study of the external and middle ear anatomy in sheep: a possible model for ear experiments.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Valter Alberto Ayres; Lavinsky, Luiz; De Oliveira, José Alfredo Preto

    2006-09-01

    Sheep are a potentially useful model for otologic surgical training and experimentation, currently limited by the scarcity of morphological comparisons between the structure of the ear in sheep and in humans. A detailed morphometric study of the ear in sheep was carried out using computed tomography. Measurements made with AutoCAD Release 14 were compared with measurements for the human ear reported in the literature. In general, ear structures in sheep are two-thirds the size of those in humans. The important anatomical similarities found in this study between the ear in sheep and in humans suggest that sheep may be a useful model for surgical training and experimentation in some middle ear procedures. PMID:16287111

  7. Effects of laser parameters on the geometrical characteristics of peg-shaped bionic coupling unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Liang, Yunhong; Yan, Qiongqiong; Ren, Luquan

    2014-12-01

    Peg-shaped bionic coupling unit (PBCU) processed by pulse laser is effective in anti-adhesion, anti-drag, anti-wear and anti-fatigue application. To obtain desired structural and morphological characteristics of the PBCU for industrial manufacturing, selection of proper processing parameters gradually becomes a growing important problem. Traditionally, the procedure of parameter selecting is often cost-plus and time-consuming. In this work, a statistical analysis of fabricating PBCU on the surface of medium carbon steel was conducted. The laser processing parameters utilized in the experiment and analysis are peak power 4-8 kW, pulse duration 6-16 ms and defocusing amount 6-10 mm. A series of mathematical models regarding the relationship between geometrical characteristics of PBCU and laser processing parameters were developed and checked. The results indicate that the developed models can be adequately used to control the structural and morphological characteristics of PBCU within the scope of analysis. Based on the models, the formation mechanism of the structural and morphological characteristics under different laser parameters were analyzed and discussed.

  8. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  9. Butterfly scales as bionic templates for complex ordered nanophotonic materials: A pathway to biomimetic plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, Zoran; Pantelić, Dejan; Sarajlić, Milija; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Matović, Jovan; Jelenković, Branislav; Vasiljević-Radović, Dana; Ćurčić, Srećko; Vuković, Slobodan; Pavlović, Vladimir; Buha, Jelena; Lačković, Vesna; Labudović-Borović, Milica; Ćurčić, Božidar

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we propose a possible use of butterfly scales as templates for ordered 2D or 3D nanophotonic materials, with complexity not easily reproducible by conventional micro/nanofabrication methods. Functionalization through laminar nanocompositing is utilized to impart novel properties to the biological scaffold. An extremely wide variability of butterfly scale forms, shapes, sizes and fine structures is observed in nature, many of them already possessing peculiar optical properties. Their nanophotonic functionalization ensures a large choice of forms and functions, including enhanced light localization, light and plasmon waveguiding and general metamaterial behavior, to mention a few. We show that one is able to achieve a combination of plasmonics and bionics, resulting in functionalities seldom if ever met in nature. As an illustration we have analyzed the photonic properties of the nanostructured scales on the wings of Purple Emperor butterflies Apatura ilia, Apatura iris and Sasakia charonda. Their intricate nanometer-sized structures produce remarkable ultraviolet-blue iridescence, spectrally and directionally narrow. We present our analysis of their plasmonic/nanophotonic functionalization including preliminary calculations and initial experimental results. As a simple example, we used radiofrequent sputtering to produce nanoaperture-based plasmonic structures at a fraction of the cost and necessary engineering efforts compared to the conventional top-down methods. We conclude that the described pathway to biomimetic plasmonics offers potentials for significant expansion of the nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic material toolbox.

  10. Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.

    2012-10-01

    A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

  11. Bionic optical imaging system with aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Liang, Dan

    2016-02-01

    A bionic optical imaging system with an aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens was designed and fabricated. The entire system mainly consisted of a doublet lens, a solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, a connecting part, and a CCD imaging device. To mimic the structure of the crystalline lens, the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens, a polymethyl methacrylate lens, and the liquid of ethyl silicone oil. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity using a microinjector, the curvatures of the front and rear surfaces of the PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change of focal length. The overall structure of the system was presented, as well as a detailed description of the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, material, and fabrication process. Under different injection volumes, the deformation of the PDMS lens was measured and simulated, pictures were captured, and the optical performance was analyzed in simulations and experiments. The focal length of the system ranged from 25.05 to 14.61 mm, and the variation of the diopter was 28.5D, which was larger than that of the human eye.

  12. Unifying inflation with late-time acceleration by a BIonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Capozziello, Salvatore; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain

    2015-07-01

    We propose a cosmological model that unifies inflation, deceleration and acceleration phases of expansion history by a BIonic system. At the beginning, there are k black fundamental strings that transited to the BIon configuration at a given corresponding point. Here, two coupled universes, brane and antibrane, are created interacting each other through a wormhole and inflate. With decreasing temperature, the energy of this wormhole flows into the universe branes and leads to inflation. After a short time, the wormhole evaporates, the inflation ends and a deceleration epoch starts. By approaching the brane and antibrane universes together, a tachyon is born, grows and causes the creation of a new wormhole. At this time, the brane and antibrane universes result connected again and the late-time acceleration era of the universe begins. We compare our model with previous unified phantom models and observational data obtaining some cosmological parameters like temperature in terms of time. We also find that deceleration parameter is negative during inflation and late-time acceleration epochs, while it is positive during the deceleration era. This means that the model is consistent, in principle, with cosmological observations.

  13. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  14. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  15. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  18. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  20. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  1. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  2. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  3. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  4. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  5. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  6. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

  7. Dichotic listening ear preference after childhood cerebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Woods, B T

    1984-01-01

    Patients with unilateral (right or left) nonprogressive cerebral lesions acquired in infancy (before age one) or childhood (ages one to fifteen) were given a dichotic listening test. The two groups of patients with the childhood lesions showed the pattern of ear preference typically seen after hemispheric lesions in adults; loss of right ear preference after left hemisphere (LH) lesions, and enhanced right ear preference after right hemisphere (RH) lesions. The two groups of patients with the very early lesions failed to show any consistent ear preference or to differ from one another in ear preference. It is postulated that this lack of a consistent lesion effect following very early lateralized brain lesions is due to the greater degree of functional reorganization that takes place after such lesions. PMID:6462424

  8. Alpha adrenoceptors in the rabbit ear thermoregulatory microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Koman, L A; Smith, B P; Gordon, E S; Smith, T L

    1998-03-01

    The rabbit ear microcirculation was analyzed in a chronic unanesthetized model to evaluate alpha adrenergic microvascular control in a thermoregulatory end organ. This model allowed direct measurement of microcirculatory responses without the effects of anesthetics or inflammatory responses induced by acute surgical intervention. The ipsilateral facial artery was catheterized for drug injections into the experimental ear. Microvascular diameter changes following stimulation or blockade of adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes were observed directly through a chronic microvascular chamber implanted in the rabbit ear. Vascular alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to be distributed differently across the arterioles and AVAs of the rabbit ear. Both alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to contribute to vasoconstriction of AVAs in the conscious rabbit ear. In contrast, alpha1-AR's (vs alpha2-ARs) appear to predominate in adrenergically mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction of arterioles. PMID:9521886

  9. Ear Infection and Hearing Loss Amongst Headphone Users

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, R.; Saim, L.; Thomas, A.; Said, R.; Liyab, B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service. PMID:22844220

  10. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  11. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  12. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child. PMID:24145273

  13. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  14. Relapsing Polychondritis: Inflamed Joints and Ears

    PubMed Central

    Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Şenel, Kazım

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of the cartilaginous structures, including elastic cartilage of the ear and nose, hyaline cartilage of the peripheral joints, fibrocartilage at axial sites, and cartilage of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The spectrum of its presentations may vary from intermittent mild episodes of chondritis to occasional organ involvement or even life-threatening manifestations. Case Report: We presented a 64 year-old male patient with bilaterally knee arthritis and discoloration of pinna. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness about this disease due to its rarity. With this case presentation, our goal was to draw attention to this disease, which could be delayed for the diagnosis. PMID:25759785

  15. Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

    PubMed Central

    Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2008-01-01

    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea. PMID:18386018

  16. Fish ears are sensitive to sex change

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stefan P.W.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Many reef fishes change sex during their life. The testing of life-history theory and effective fisheries management therefore relies on our ability to detect when this fundamental transition occurs. This study experimentally illustrates the potential to glean such information from the otolithic bodies of the inner-ear apparatus in the sex-changing fish Parapercis cylindrica. It will now be possible to reconstruct the complete, often complex life history of hermaphroditic individuals from hatching through to terminal reproductive status. The validation of sex-change associated otolith growth also illustrates the potential for sex-specific sensory displacement. It is possible that sex-changing fishes alter otolith composition, and thus sensory-range specificity, to optimize life history in accordance with their new reproductive mode. PMID:19033133

  17. Beyond the middle ear: endoscopic surgical anatomy and approaches to inner ear and lateral skull base.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Livio; Nogueira, João Flávio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment. However, in the natural evolution of the technique there are the steps toward of lateral skull base surgery and treatment of pathologic conditions of pertous bone. The endoscopic approaches to lateral skull base are (1) a transcanal exclusively endoscopic approach or (2) combined approaches (microscopic endoscope-assisted), including transotic, infralabyrinthine, and suprameatal translabyrinthine. PMID:23566905

  18. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

  19. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  20. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  1. Comparison of Tympanoplasty Results in Dry and Wet Ears

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Shahidi, Nikzad; Hemmatjoo, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is the standard and well established procedure for closure of tympanic membrane perforations .This paper compares the results of tympanoplasty in terms of hearing improvement and graft incorporation in patients with chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane between two groups with and without active drainage at the time of surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty referring patients to specialty and subspecialty clinics between the age 15 to 60 years-old were selected. All patients suffered from Chronic Otitis Media and they were categorized into two groups: a) those with wet ears and b) those with dry ears. Tympanoplasty surgery was performed through the use of embedding technique of temporalis fascia graft and in medial position (Medial Graft Technique). Finally, the data about the level of hearing improvement and the repair of tympanic membrane were analyzed. Results: Although there was hearing improvement in both groups - with wet or dry ear - no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. Following the surgery, tympanic membrane in two patients with wet ear and one with dry ear was not repaired, however according to the statistical analysis this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in contrast to the common perception that tympanoplasty results in the patients with wet ear is poorer than those with dry ear, there was little difference in the results of the operations performed on two groups. PMID:27429950

  2. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. PMID:26667632

  3. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-04-20

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  4. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  5. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

  6. Human fetal inner ear involvement in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mechanisms of pathogenesis of CMV-related SNHL are still unclear. The aim is to study congenital CMV-related damage in the fetal inner ear, in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology behind CMV-SNHL. Results We studied inner ears and brains of 20 human fetuses, all at 21 week gestational age, with a high viral load in the amniotic fluid, with and without ultrasound (US) brain abnormalities. We evaluated histological brain damage, inner ear infection, local inflammatory response and tissue viral load. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CMV was positive in 14/20 brains (70%) and in the inner ears of 9/20 fetuses (45%). In the cases with inner ear infection, the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis was always infected, followed by infection in the Reissner’s membrane. The highest tissue viral load was observed in the inner ear with infected Organ of Corti. Vestibular labyrinth showed CMV infection of sensory cells in the utricle and in the crista ampullaris. US cerebral anomalies were detected in 6 cases, and in all those cases, the inner ear was always involved. In the other 14 cases with normal brain scan, histological brain damage was present in 8 fetuses and 3 of them presented inner ear infection. Conclusions CMV-infection of the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis may alter potassium and ion circulation, dissipating the endocochlear potential with consequent SNHL. Although abnormal cerebral US is highly predictive of brain and inner ear damage, normal US findings cannot exclude them either. PMID:24252374

  7. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  8. Effect of thermal fatigue on the wear resistance of graphite cast iron with bionic units processed by laser cladding WC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhengjun; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chuanwei; Meng, Chao; Cong, Dalong

    2013-04-01

    Thermal fatigue and wear exist simultaneously during the service life of brake discs. Previous researchers only studied thermal fatigue resistance or abrasion resistance of compact graphite cast iron (CGI), rather than combining them together. In this paper, wear resistance after thermal fatigue of CGI was investigated basing on the principle of bionics, which was close to actual service condition of the brake discs. In the meanwhile, the effect of thermal fatigue on wear resistance was also discussed. Non-smooth bionic units were fabricated by laser cladding WC powder with different proportions (50 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 70 wt.%). Microstructure and microhardness of the units were investigated, and wear mass losses of the samples were also compared. The results indicate that thermal fatigue has a negative effect on the wear resistance. After the same thermal fatigue cycles times, the wear resistance of laser cladding WC samples is superior to that of laser remelting ones and their wear resistance enhances with the increase of WC content.

  9. Red ear syndrome: literature review and a pediatric case report.

    PubMed

    Moitri, Misha O; Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Archibald, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Red ear syndrome (RES) is characterized by recurrent unilateral or bilateral painful attacks of the external ear, accompanied by ear redness, burning, or warmth. Proposed etiologies of this rare condition include dysregulation of sympathetic outflow, upper cervical pathology, glossopharyngeal and trigeminal neuralgia, TMJ dysfunction, thalamic syndrome, and primary headache syndromes. Idiopathic cases also exist in the literature. Pediatric cases are particularly rare and more commonly associated with migraine. Given the various potential etiologies, no single treatment is effective in all cases. This paper summarizes the current understanding and management of RES, and describes a case of idiopathic pediatric RES. PMID:25583087

  10. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23894137

  11. Two Ears Are Not Always Better than One: Mandatory Vowel Fusion Across Spectrally Mismatched Ears in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Lina A J; Eggleston, Jessica L; Walker, Emily P; Oh, Yonghee

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and auditory prostheses can alter auditory processing by inducing large pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion between the two ears. Similar to integration of incongruent inputs in other sensory modalities, the mismatched, fused pitches are often averaged across ears for simple stimuli. Here, we measured parallel effects on complex stimulus integration using a new technique based on vowel classification in five bilateral hearing aid users and eight bimodal cochlear implant users. Continua between five pairs of synthetic vowels were created by varying the first formant spectral peak while keeping the second formant constant. Comparison of binaural and monaural vowel classification functions for each vowel pair continuum enabled visualization of the following frequency-dependent integration trends: (1) similar monaural and binaural functions, (2) ear dominance, (3) binaural averaging, and (4) binaural interference. Hearing aid users showed all trends, while bimodal cochlear implant users showed mostly ear dominance or interference. Interaural pitch mismatches, frequency ranges of binaural pitch fusion, and the relative weightings of pitch averaging across ears were also measured using tone and/or electrode stimulation. The presence of both large interaural pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion was not sufficient to predict vowel integration trends such as binaural averaging or interference. The way that pitch averaging was weighted between ears also appears to be important for determining binaural vowel integration trends. Abnormally broad spectral fusion and the associated phoneme fusion across mismatched ears may underlie binaural speech perception interference observed in hearing aid and cochlear implant users. PMID:27220769

  12. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two

  13. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  14. Profile of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema as neurogenic inflammatory model: comparison with arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Nagata, N.; Koshihara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the mechanism of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema compared with that of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear oedema, and evaluated the possible involvement of neuropeptides in the development of capsaicin-induced oedema. 2. Topical application of capsaicin (0.1-1.0 mg per ear) to the ear of mice produced immediate vasodilatation and erythema followed by the development of oedema which was maximal at 30 min after the treatment. This oedema was of shorter duration with less swelling than AA-induced oedema (2.0 mg per ear). 3. Capsaicin-induced ear oedema was unaffected when inhibitors of arachidonate metabolites including platelet activating factor (PAF) were administered before capsaicin (250 micrograms per ear) application, while these agents significantly prevented AA-induced oedema. Dexamethasone, histamine H1 and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists, and substance P (SP) antagonists were effective in inhibiting both models. Furthermore, a Ca(2+)-channel blocker and the capsaicin inhibitor, ruthenium red, were effective inhibitors of capsaicin oedema but had no effect on AA-induced oedema. 4. Phosphoramidon (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), an endopeptidase inhibitor, markedly (P < 0.001) enhanced only capsaicin-induced ear oedema, but bestatin (0.5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an aminopeptidase, failed to enhance oedema formation. 5. Neuropeptides (1-100 pmol per site) such as rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), SP, neurokinin A (NKA), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which are released from capsaicin-sensitive neurones, caused ear oedema by intradermal injection. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of CGRP (10 fmol per site) and SP (10pmol per site) on oedema formation was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508328

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  2. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  4. [Aural polyp in chronic inflammatory middle ear disease].

    PubMed

    López Aguado, D; López Campos, D; Pérez Piñero, B; Campos Bañales, M E

    2003-03-01

    240 patients with chronic otitis media (COM) were studied: 166 ears termed as non cholesteatomatous otitis media and 74 with cholesteatoma. In 38 ears an aural polyp was found with no evidence of cholesteatoma in 19 ears (11.4%) whereas a cholesteatoma was present in the remaining 19 ears. The histology of the polyp and the characteristics of the chronic process were matched: a) The aural polyp is an infrequent complication in COM. b) After histological analysis was found to present two different pictures: The inflammatory reaction polyp, present in non cholesteatomatous COM; and the polyp with granulation tissue and foreign body reaction (keratina) usually found in cholesteatomatous COM. c) The finding of granulation tissue reaction and keratina in an aural polyp is a good predictor for the presence of a cholesteatoma. PMID:12825338

  5. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your child's health care provider to help you ... What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor

  6. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient's risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27144044

  7. A rabbit ear model for cold stress testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gordon, S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P; Russell, G B; Koman, L A

    1994-01-01

    A rabbit ear model resembling the human digit was studied to determine the vascular response of the rabbit ear to a cold stress. Following moderate cooling (10 minutes at 5 degrees - 8 degrees C), auricular blood flow and cutaneous perfusion were reduced. This decrease was reversed by 30 minutes of warming. The response in the rabbit ear to cold stress is similar to that of normal human digits. The similarities between the control of the circulation in human digits and rabbit ears may result from the similarities in digital and auricular vascular receptors and receptor subtypes. Verification of the rabbit model provides an experimental method for obtaining important data regarding digital pathophysiology and the treatment of cold intolerance. Further study with this model will provide clinically relevant information regarding the pathophysiology of digital thermoregulatory abnormalities. PMID:7830538

  8. Ear projection and the posterior auricular muscle insertion.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, B; DeLuca, L

    1997-08-01

    Prominent ears is a common congenital anomaly affecting approximately 5 percent of the general population. The etiology has been attributed to three basic deformities in the ear structure: valgus of the concha with a cranioauricular angle greater than 40 degrees, underfolding of the anthelix, and rarely, hypertrophy of the concha. It is believed that by virtue of its insertion onto the ponticulus, the cranial surface of the concha, the posterior auricular muscle may function to pull the auricle back toward the head. A proximally (anteromedially) displaced insertion site would decrease the length of the effective momentum of the muscle, leading to protrusion of the auricle. This study was conducted to determine if indeed a relationship between the posterior muscle insertion site and ear projection could be established clinically by measuring these parameters intraoperatively in patients presenting for otoplasty and in patients without prominent ears who required conchal cartilage grafts for other procedures. PMID:9252616

  9. Barotrauma of the ears and sinuses after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Becker, G D; Parell, G J

    2001-05-01

    The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and currently available management of barotrauma affecting the ears and sinuses after scuba diving are reviewed, along with medical standards for resuming scuba diving after barotrauma has resolved. PMID:11407445

  10. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  11. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  12. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  13. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  14. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Kitajiri, Shin-Ichiro; Katsuno, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  15. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  16. Ear keloids: a review and update of treatment options

    PubMed Central

    SOBEC, RALUCA; DOBREANU, CODRIN; FODOR, LUCIAN; ŞOMCUTEAN, ANA; ŢICHIL, IOANA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Ear keloids are among the most challenging plastic surgery conditions and may have significant psychosocial impact for the patient. Their aesthetic considerations are serious and despite a variety of treatment options, they often proved to be recurrent. This paper reviews the management options of ear keloids available in literature up to date. Multiple therapeutic options are discussed, such as: surgical treatment, corticosteroid injections, laser therapy, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, pressure therapy, therapy with antitumor or immunosuppressive agents. PMID:26527968

  17. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I; Kwan, Kelvin Y; Corey, David P

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. PMID:26209310

  18. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. Database URL: https://shield.hms.harvard.edu PMID:26209310

  19. Temporal bone meningioma involving the middle ear: A case report

    PubMed Central

    RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; FATTORE, LUCIA; LIGUORI, MARIA ESTER; OLIVA, FLAVIA; LUCE, AMALIA; ABATE, TERESA; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; PIANESE, ANNALISA; RAUCCI, ALDO FALCO

    2015-01-01

    Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor involving the meninges. The localization of this type of tumor is rarely extracranial due to its typically low invasive properties. Furthermore, invasion of the middle ear is exceptional. The present study reported a case of meningioma extending into the middle ear from the middle cranial fossa through the tegmen tympani. The clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as the outcome of the patient, were described. PMID:26622828

  20. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model. PMID:15300453

  1. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  2. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits. PMID:27376950

  3. Retinoid signaling in inner ear development: A "Goldilocks" phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Dorothy A; Liu, Wei; Cvekl, Ales; Xie, Qing; Wassef, Lesley; Quadro, Loredana; Niederreither, Karen; Maconochie, Mark; Shanske, Alan

    2010-12-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically active derivative of vitamin A that is indispensable for inner ear development. The normal function of RA is achieved only at optimal homeostatic concentrations, with an excess or deficiency in RA leading to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. We present an overview of the role of RA in the developing mammalian inner ear, discussing both how and when RA may act to critically control a program of inner ear development. Molecular mechanisms of otic teratogenicity involving two members of the fibroblast growth factor family, FGF3 and FGF10, and their downstream targets, Dlx5 and Dlx6, are examined under conditions of both RA excess and deficiency. We term the effect of too little or too much RA on FGF/Dlx signaling a Goldilocks phenomenon. We demonstrate that in each case (RA excess, RA deficiency), RA can directly affect FGF3/FGF10 signaling within the otic epithelium, leading to downregulated expression of these essential signaling molecules, which in turn, leads to diminution in Dlx5/Dlx6 expression. Non-cell autonomous affects of the otic epithelium subsequently occur, altering transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) expression in the neighboring periotic mesenchyme and serving as a putative explanation for RA-mediated otic capsule defects. We conclude that RA coordinates inner ear morphogenesis by controlling an FGF/Dlx signaling cascade, whose perturbation by deviations in local retinoid concentrations can lead to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. PMID:21108385

  4. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance. PMID:7567003

  5. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  6. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. PMID:27526995

  7. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140–820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups (1236–1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the –SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027–1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  8. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  9. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  10. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  11. [The efficacy of alphamethrin-impregnated ear tags against ticks].

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; van Schalkwyk, P C

    1989-06-01

    The efficacy of 3 kinds of alphamethrin-impregnated ear tags was tested against natural Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi infestations of cattle. One type of ear tag was also tested in combination with a tail band of similar material. Ticks were counted macroscopically on their predilection sites. Counts of B. decoloratus, R. appendiculatus, and R. e. evertsi on all trial animals diminished steadily during the first 7d after application of the devices. Counts on untreated control cattle had returned to their pre-treatment levels by Day 14 in the case of B. decoloratus, and by Day 21 for R. appendiculatus. R. e. evertsi did not regain their pre-treatment numbers during the trial period on the controls, but did so on one of the treated groups. This temporary drop could be interpreted as being the result of pyrethroid contamination from the hands of the investigators at the time of applying the ear tags, but did not interfere with the assessment of the effect of the tags. None of the forms of treatment showed acceptable efficacy against B. decoloratus. Ear tags alone were not very effective against R. e. evertsi, but the numbers of these ticks on the perineum were diminished by the use of tail bands. Two kinds of ear tags showed superior efficacy against R. appendiculatus, and in the case of these, one ear tag appeared to be as effective as two. The effect against A. hebraeum was evidently influenced by the distribution of the impregnated devices. Two types of ear tags were used alone and had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2607535

  12. Wear properties of H13 with micron scale and nano scale grains bionic units processed by laser remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Cheng-tao; Liu, Yan; Ren, Lu-quan

    2013-12-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, a combination of soft part (untreated substrate) and hard part (laser remelting area) structure was designed on metal surface to get an improved performance. Different specimens were prepared which contained units with micro and nano scale grains. The microstructures were observed by environmental field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases. The results of these tests indicate that due to the rapid solidification condition in the water, nano scale grains have a high microhardness between 1300 and 1000 HV. Retained austenite was found in it. Some of them transform to martensite in block on ring wear test. Specimens with bionic unit have a better wear resistance. Especially, the units with nano grains bring a further enhancement. The alternate soft and hard in macroscopic (substrate and laser remelting area) and microscopic (austenite and martensite) structure played a key role in improving the H13 wear resistance.

  13. Auditory Location in the Irrelevant Sound Effect: The Effects of Presenting Auditory Stimuli to Either the Left Ear, Right Ear or Both Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlington, Lee; Bridges, Andrew M.; Darby, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments used both irrelevant speech and tones in order to assess the effect of manipulating the spatial location of irrelevant sound. Previous research in this area had produced inconclusive results (e.g., Colle, 1980). The current study demonstrated a novel finding, that sound presented to the left ear produces the greatest level of…

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi; Zhuge, Zengyu; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Jiufeng

    2010-10-01

    The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on the list of the world's threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated using Jaccard's similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC=0.674-0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC=0.832), while white eared pheasant was more closely related to Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.812). Genetic diversity was lower in brown eared pheasant (SC=0.913) and Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.903) than in white eared pheasant (SC=0.832) and blue eared pheasant (SC=0.853). PMID:20595068

  16. [Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and regulation of inner ear development].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xin-Huan; Cao, Xin

    2013-09-01

    During inner ear development, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is involved in the ventral otic identity, cell fate determination of statoacoustic ganglion neurons and hair cell development. Shh protein, secreted from floor plate, antagonizes Wnt protein from roof plate, which refines and maintains dorsoventral axial patterning in the ear. Shh, served as a mitogen during neurogenesis, directly promotes the development of spiral ganglion neuron. After Shh signaling pathway is activated, Ngn1 is freed from Tbx1 repression. As a result, Shh indirectly upregulates the expression of Ngn1, thus regulating neurogenic patterning of inner ear. In addition, Shh regulates the differentiation of hair cells by influencing cell cycle of the progenitor cells located in the cochlea. The basal-to-apical wave of Shh decline ensures the normal devel- opment pattern of hair cells. It is confirmed by a quantity of researches conducted in both animals and patients with hereditary hearing impairment that abnormal Shh signaling results in aberrant transcription of target genes, disturbance of the proper development of inner ear, and human hearing impairment. In humans, diseases accompanied by hearing disorders caused by abnormal Shh signaling include Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and medulloblastoma, etc. This review would provide a theoretical basis for further study of molecular mechanisms and clinical use of inner ear development. PMID:24400478

  17. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  18. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape. PMID:25858660

  19. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed

    Hachmeister, Jorge E

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. PMID:15369636

  20. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  1. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:15369636

  2. Ear-canal acoustic admittance and reflectance measurements in human neonates. II. Predictions of middle-ear dysfunction and sensorineural hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.; Zhao, Fei; Vohr, Betty R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes relationships between middle-ear measurements of acoustic admittance and energy reflectance (YR) and measurements of hearing status using visual reinforcement audiometry in a neonatal hearing-screening population. Analyses were performed on 2638 ears in which combined measurements were obtained [Norton et al., Ear Hear. 21, 348-356 (2000)]. The measurements included distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), and auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Models to predict hearing status using DPOAEs, TEOAEs, or ABRs were each improved by the addition of the YR factors as interactions, in which factors were calculated using factor loadings from Keefe et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 389-406 (2003)]. This result suggests that information on middle-ear status improves the ability to predict hearing status. The YR factors were used to construct a middle-ear dysfunction test on 1027 normal-hearing ears in which DPOAE and TEOAE responses were either both present or both absent, the latter condition being viewed as indicative of middle-ear dysfunction. The middle-ear dysfunction test classified these ears with a nonparametric area (A) under the relative operating characteristic curve of A=0.86, and classified normal-hearing ears that failed two-stage hearing-screening tests with areas A=0.84 for DPOAE/ABR, and A=0.81 for TEOAE/ABR tests. The middle-ear dysfunction test adequately generalized to a new sample population (A=0.82).

  3. Mechanical properties of stapedial tendon in human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Gan, Rong Z

    2007-12-01

    Measurement on mechanical properties of the stapedial tendon in human middle ear has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, we used the material testing system to conduct uniaxial tensile, stress relaxation, and failure tests on stapedial tendon specimens harvested from human temporal bones. The digital image correlation method was employed to assess the boundary effect on experimental data. The stress-strain relationship of the tendon obtained from experiments was analyzed using the hyperelastic Ogden model. The results presented include (1) the constitutive equation of the tendon for stretch ratio of 1-1.4 or stress range of 0-1.45 MPa, (2) the mean ultimate stress and stretch ratio of the tendon at 4.04 MPa and 1.65, respectively, and (3) the hysteresis and normalized stress relaxation function of the tendon. The data reported in this paper contribute to ear mechanics, especially for theoretical analysis of human ear function. PMID:18067396

  4. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  5. Rotation of middle ear ossicles during cetacean development.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, M D; Thewissen, J G; Oelschläger, H A

    2001-08-01

    Cetacean middle ears are unique among mammals in that they have an elongated tympanic membrane, a greatly reduced manubrium mallei, and an incudal crus longum that is shorter than the crus breve. Elongation of the tympanic membrane and reduction of the manubrium is thought to be related to an evolutionary rotation of the incus and malleus out of the plane of the tympanic membrane. We examined if rotation also occurs during ontogeny by comparing the middle ears of two species of dolphins (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata) at different stages of development. We observed that: the incus has the body and crural proportions as in terrestrial mammals early in development; the incudomallear complex rotates approximately 90 degrees following ossification; the tympanic membrane is not elongated until relatively late in development. Therefore, some of the unique characteristics of the cetacean middle ear develop as modifications of an initially terrestrial-like morphology. PMID:11466740

  6. Do musical hallucinations always arise from the inner ear?

    PubMed

    Gordon, A G

    1997-08-01

    It has been known for some time that musical hallucinations occur in deaf patients. This has been ignored, as it has been believed that neurological and psychiatric causes predominate. However, despite specific appeals, no one with musical hallucinations and a lesion in the brain but not in the ear has been produced. The postulated otological basis is a hyperactive state of the ear, a slight endolymphatic hydrops or pre-Meniere's disease. The hallucinations probably develop out of rhythmic tinnitus. A review of all the very disparate states and diseases supposedly causing musical hallucinations shows that peripheral ear symptoms are always present. It therefore seems that they always have the same simple otological trigger. PMID:9278923

  7. Human Action Recognition Using Wireless Wearable In-Ear Microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    To realize the ubiquitous eating habits monitoring, we proposed the use of sounds sensed by an in-ear placed wireless wearable microphone. A prototype of wireless wearable in-ear microphone was developed by utilizing a common Bluetooth headset. We proposed a robust chewing action recognition algorithm which consists of two recognition stages: “chew-like” signal detection and chewing sound verification stages. We also provide empirical results on other action recognition using in-ear sound including swallowing, cough, belch, and etc. The average chewing number counting error rate of 1.93% is achieved. Lastly, chewing sound mapping is proposed as a new prototypical approach to provide an additional intuitive feedback on food groups to be able to infer the eating habits in their daily life context.

  8. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  9. Soft tissue attenuation in middle ear on HRCT: Pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Anbarasu, Arangasamy; Chandrasekaran, Kiruthika; Balakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear disease is a common clinical entity; imaging, especially High resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), plays a crucial role in diagnosis and assessing the disease extent, helping to decide appropriate management. Temporal bone imaging is challenging and involves thorough understanding of the anatomy, especially in relation to HRCT imaging. Most of the middle ear pathologies appear as “soft tissue” on imaging. Careful analysis of the soft tissue on the HRCT is crucial in achieving the right diagnosis; clinical information is essential and the imaging findings need correlation with clinical presentation and otoscopic findings. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to enlist the pathologies that present as soft tissue in middle ear and to provide a structured and practical imaging approach that will serve as a guide for confident reporting in daily practice. PMID:23833422

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of Musashi1 expression during inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Yaoi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Hisa, Yasuo; Fushiki, Shinji

    2004-04-29

    Musashi1 (Msi 1) is an RNA binding protein associated with asymmetric cell divisions in neural progenitor cells. To investigate the involvement of Msi1 in the inner ear development, we studied the expression of Msi1 in mouse inner ears with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Msi1 was expressed in all otocyst cells at embryonic day (E) 10 and 12. Msi1 immunoreactivity became lost in hair cells after E14 in vestibule and after E16 in cochlea, whereas it persisted in supporting cells until adulthood. The subcellular localization of Msi1 changed from "cytoplasmic predominance" to "nuclear predominance" during the first 2 weeks after birth. The present data suggested that Msi may play a role in inner ear development. PMID:15076722

  11. To Have an Ear: Music and the Otological Experience.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Atia

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyzes the historical development of otology in relation to music. It illustrates the integral role of music perception and appreciation in the study of hearing, where hearing operates not simply as a scientific phenomenon but signifies particular meaningful experiences in society. The four historical moments considered-Helmholtz's piano-keyed cochlea, the ear phonautograph, the hearing aid, and the cochlear implant-show how the sounds, perceptions, and instruments of music have mediated and continue to mediate our relationships with hearing. To have an ear, one does not just bear a physiological hearing mechanism; one experiences the aesthetics of musical sound. PMID:24994077

  12. Optoacoustic monitoring of laser correction of the ear shape

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N; Sviridov, A P; Harding, S; Jumel, K; Walker, R; Jones, N

    2000-11-30

    Acoustic monitoring of a plastic operation for reshaping the porcine ear using radiation from a Ho:YAG laser was performed to control a change in the elasticity of the ear cartilage. Variations in the cartilage elasticity were controlled by changes in the amplitude and shape of an acoustic wave during the laser action. It is shown that the optoacoustic signal amplitude exponentially decreases at least by a factor of 2-2.5 at the moment of the cartilage reshaping caused by the action of radiation pulses from a Ho:YAG laser. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  14. Energy localization and frequency analysis in the locust ear

    PubMed Central

    Malkin, Robert; McDonagh, Thomas R.; Mhatre, Natasha; Scott, Thomas S.; Robert, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Animal ears are exquisitely adapted to capture sound energy and perform signal analysis. Studying the ear of the locust, we show how frequency signal analysis can be performed solely by using the structural features of the tympanum. Incident sound waves generate mechanical vibrational waves that travel across the tympanum. These waves shoal in a tsunami-like fashion, resulting in energy localization that focuses vibrations onto the mechanosensory neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that two mechanical properties of the locust tympanum, distributed thickness and tension, are necessary and sufficient to generate frequency-dependent energy localization. PMID:24196693

  15. Incorporating Endoscopic Ear Surgery into Your Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Elliott D; Kiringoda, Ruwan; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Paralleling the introduction of endoscopes for sinus surgery more than two decades ago, otology is facing a similar paradigm shift in the use of endoscopes to perform ear surgery. The wide-angle and high-resolution image provided by endoscopes allows for improved visualization of the tympanic cavity using minimally invasive surgical portals. Incorporating endoscopic ear surgery into otologic practice is challenging. A graduated and step-wise introduction of EES to otologic surgery is recommended to ensure safe and successful implementation. PMID:27565389

  16. An in-the-ear platform for recording electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Looney, D; Park, C; Kidmose, P; Rank, M L; Ungstrup, M; Rosenkranz, K; Mandic, D P

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to brain monitoring based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from within the ear canal. While existing clinical and wearable systems are limited in terms of portability and ease of use, the proposed in-the-ear (ITE) recording platform promises a number of advantages including ease of implementation, minimally intrusive electrodes and enhanced accuracy (fixed electrode positions). It thus facilitates a crucial step towards the design of brain computer interfaces that integrate naturally with daily life. The feasibility of the ITE concept is demonstrated with recordings made from electrodes embedded on an earplug which are benchmarked against conventional scalp electrodes for a classic EEG paradigm. PMID:22255920

  17. The cyclopean ear: a new sense for the praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Yager, D D; Hoy, R R

    1986-02-14

    The praying mantis, thought to be deaf, possesses a sensitive and specialized acoustic sense. Neural recordings show that the auditory system responds primarily to ultrasound between 25 and 45 kilohertz with thresholds of 55 to 60 decibels. Other insects with auditory tympana possess paired, laterally placed ears; the mantis has only a single ear that is located in the ventral midline between the metathoracic legs. Some species of mantis abruptly and dramatically alter their flight path when stimulated with ultrasonic pulses, suggesting a behavioral response to insectivorous echo-locating bats. PMID:3945806

  18. Computerized documentation in middle ear surgery. Methods and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Harris, S

    1981-01-01

    A computerized system for recording results of ear surgery is presented. Specially designed forms are filled in at the time of operation as well as 2 months, 6 months and annually for 1-5 years after operation. The data are processed in a Univac 1100-80 by specific programmes written in FORTRAN. A Follow-up programme gives up-to-date information on hearing and healing after different types of operations. An Annual Production Control programme gives more detailed information about various correlations, such as results in draining ears, frequency of residual cholesteatoma etc. Four years experience with the system and obtainable data is discussed. PMID:6274131

  19. Inquiring Ears Want to Know: A Fact Sheet about Your Hearing Test

    MedlinePlus

    Inquiring Ears Want to Know A fact sheet about your hearing test This sheet explains your audiogram (hearing test) ... 4000 Hz Sample audiogram results ofFtreesqtuteonnceyin Hz Left Ear Thresholds 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 -5 ...

  20. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  1. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine inner and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marco; Covelli, Eugenio M; Meomartino, Leonardo; Lamb, Christopher R; Brunetti, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    A series of high-resolution computed x-ray tomography (CT) images of the normal canine middle and inner ear are presented to serve as a reference for optimal interpretation of clinical CT images of animals with diseases affecting this region. PMID:11866039

  2. Systemic movement of Aspergillus parasiticus in maize stalks and ears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest infection of corn (Zea mays) kernels by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus is a chronic problem in the southern United States. It has been reported that these fungi infect developing kernels via the silk. This study was conducted to explore other avenues of infection of corn ears by ...

  3. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  4. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  5. An outbreak of erysipelas in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Cotter, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    An outbreak of erysipelas killed an estimated 5,000 aquatic birds on Great Salt Lake (Utah) in late November, 1975. Although several thousand ducks and gulls were using the lake, at least 99 percent of the victims were eared grebes. A hypothetical explanation for the selective mortality is offered.

  6. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Deborah B; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P; Lee, Justine C

    2016-05-01

    Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  7. English Vocabulary for Chinese Learners: Words in Your Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Monica

    1998-01-01

    This article describes "Words in Your Ear," a vocabulary learning program for tertiary Chinese students who are learners of English at the University of Hong Kong, noting the University's 3-year partnership agreement with IBM to provide notebook computers to first-year students and provide new collaborative research opportunities for faculty. With…

  8. [Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyan; Yang, Jun; Wu, Hao

    2013-07-01

    Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear is the common reason of pediatric hearing impairment and cosmic problem. The treatment composes of auricular plastic surgery and auditory reconstruction surgery. The use of BAHA, vibrant sound-bridge and tissue engineering materials can significantly improve the treatment outcomes. PMID:24073571

  9. Early Middle Ear Effusion and Language at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; McCormick, David P.; Baldwin, Constance D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 3 years of life to language outcomes at age seven. It was hypothesized, on the basis of a literature review, that (1) a low, but positive relation between early MEE and language measures in general will be observed at age seven, and (2) major effects will be demonstrated…

  10. Radiologic evaluation of the ear anatomy in pediatric cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Evangelos N; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsoumakas, Constantinos; Diomidous, Marianna; Cunningham, Michael J; Katostaras, Theophanis; Weber, Alfred L; Eavey, Roland D

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe computed tomography (CT) findings in middle ear cholesteatoma in pediatric patients. A cohort of 32 children with cholesteatoma (3-14 years old) entered the study. From them, 30 presented acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and 2 presented congenital cholesteatoma. All of the children were investigated using CT before surgery of the middle ear and mastoid. Computed tomography was performed with 1- or 2-mm axial and coronal sections of both temporal bones. Nineteen children with AC (63.3%) revealed a diffuse soft-tissue density isodense with muscle, whereas in 6 of them, the mass mimicked inflammation. The remaining revealed localized soft-tissue mass with partially lobulated contour. In AC, ossicular erosion was detected in 23 cases (76.7%), abnormal pneumatization in 19 cases (63.3%), and erosion-blunting of spur and enlargement of middle ear or mastoid in 8 cases (26.7%). The 2 congenital cholesteatomas revealed soft-tissue mass with polypoid densities, while a semicircular canal fistula was detected in one of them. High-resolution CT facilitates early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pediatric cholesteatoma by assessing the anatomic abnormalities and the extent of disease, which are crucial in middle ear and mastoid surgery. PMID:19390457

  11. Ganglion and “Dendrite” Populations in EAS Ears

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Linthicum, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims EAS technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffered from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various residual low tone hearing. Some of these were potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuro-anatomic situation in EAS ears. Methods Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audio-cytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented. Results IHCs and OHCs, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region, around 1 kHz, the OC with inner and outer hair cells were often conserved while in the lower basal turn, representing frequencies above 3 kHz, OC was atrophic and replaced by thin cells. Despite loss of hair cells and lamina fibers ganglion cells were present even after 28 years duration of deafness. Conclusions Conditions with profound SNHL with preserved low tone hearing may have several causes and the pathology may vary accordingly. In our patients with progressive adult-onset SNHL (amalgamated into “presbyacusis”) neurons were conserved even after long duration of deafness. These spiral ganglion cells may be excellent targets for electric stimulation using EAS technique. PMID:19955718

  12. The endoscopic study of human middle ear mucociliary transport.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M

    2016-07-01

    The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory. PMID:26223351

  13. Modeling individual differences in ferret external ear transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Booth, John; King, Andrew J.

    2003-04-01

    Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individual differences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.

  14. A symphony of inner ear developmental control genes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most complex and detailed organs in the vertebrate body and provides us with the priceless ability to hear and perceive linear and angular acceleration (hence maintain balance). The development and morphogenesis of the inner ear from an ectodermal thickening into distinct auditory and vestibular components depends upon precise temporally and spatially coordinated gene expression patterns and well orchestrated signaling cascades within the otic vesicle and upon cellular movements and interactions with surrounding tissues. Gene loss of function analysis in mice has identified homeobox genes along with other transcription and secreted factors as crucial regulators of inner ear morphogenesis and development. While otic induction seems dependent upon fibroblast growth factors, morphogenesis of the otic vesicle into the distinct vestibular and auditory components appears to be clearly dependent upon the activities of a number of homeobox transcription factors. The Pax2 paired-homeobox gene is crucial for the specification of the ventral otic vesicle derived auditory structures and the Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes play a major role in specification of the dorsally derived vestibular structures. Some Micro RNAs have also been recently identified which play a crucial role in the inner ear formation. PMID:20637105

  15. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Deborah B.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S.; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  16. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise. II. Temperature dependence of inner ear function.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Segenhout, J M

    1997-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a cascade model, consisting of a linear bandpass filter, a static nonlinearity, and a linear lowpass filter. From the computed Wiener kernels and the polynomial correlation functions, the characteristics of the three model components were obtained. With increasing temperature (1) tuning of the first filter increased in the majority (n = 16) of amphibian papilla fibers (best excitatory frequency, BEF < 1 kHz, n = 21) but remained unchanged in the majority (n = 10) of basilar papilla fibers (BEF > 1 kHz, n = 11), (2) the gain of the first filter remained unchanged, (3) the shape of nonlinear IO function remained unchanged, (4) the combined gain of the static nonlinearity and the second filter usually increased, but displayed considerable scatter across fibers (from -0.7 dB/degrees C to 3 dB/degrees C), and (5) the cutoff frequency of the second lowpass filter increases, with average 0.13 oct/degrees C. The immunity of the shape of the nonlinearity is considered evidence of a temperature independent gating mechanism in the transduction channels. The temperature dependence of the second filter may have resulted from a decrease of the hair cell membrane resistance, but may also reflect changes in subsequent staging of nerve fiber excitation. PMID:9447937

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  18. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  19. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  20. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  1. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  2. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 - Subject to the Ear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subject to the Ear? No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 732—Subject to the Ear? ER06FE04.001...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  5. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  7. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  8. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section. (2) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  10. Maize resistance and susceptibility to multiple ear-damaging pests: Progress and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of corn germplasm (including both inbred lines and experimental hybrids from diverse genetic background) have been examined separately for major ear-feeding insect and ear-colonizing disease resistance for two years. The ear-feeding insect damage assessment included corn earworm, maize w...

  11. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. PMID:24280942

  12. Potential Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Mazie Hybrids with Various Ear Development Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted at Jonesville, LA in 2000 and at St. Joseph, LA in 2001, and 2003 to compare three corn (maize, Zea mays L.) hybrids (a fixed-ear hybrid, Pioneer 33K81; a semi-fixed ear hybrid, Pioneer 3223; and a flex-ear hybrid; Golden Acres 8460) and to determine the effect of irrigati...

  13. Effects of Melodic Pattern Difficulty and Performance Experience on Ability To Play by Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delzell, Judith K.; Rohwer, Debbie A.; Ballard, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to determine the relative difficulty of playing selected types of melodic pattern by ear; studies the effects of performance experience and instrument family on the ability to play by ear; and investigates the relationship between tonal aptitude and ability to play by ear. Presents results and questions for further research. (DSK)

  14. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  19. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Pour, Saeed Soheili; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Mirelahi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP) and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP). Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05). Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced. PMID:24381615

  20. Influence of Orientations of Bionic Unit Fabricated by Laser Remelting on Fatigue Wear Resistance of Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue wear resistance improvements were researched by studying experimental samples with gray cast iron fabricated with bionic units in different orientations. Experimental samples were modified by laser surface remelting, including parallel, vertical, and gradient units to the wear direction. The remelting pool was then studied to determine the micro-hardness, microstructure, alteration of phase, and etc. Lab-control fatigue wear test method was applied with the treated and untreated samples tested under the laboratorial conditions. Wear resistance result was considered as the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) resistance and mechanisms of the modified samples were experimentally investigated and discussed. Results suggested that all treated samples demonstrated the beneficial effect on the RCF improvement due to lack of graphite and reinforcement of treated region. Results also indicated the sample with fastigiated units was more effective than that with vertical units or parallel units to the wear direction. Influence of the sample unit's angle which intensely depended on the conditions of actual application, however, was not identified.

  1. Ear segmentation using histogram based K-means clustering and Hough transformation under CVL dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Dekai

    2009-10-01

    Under CVL dataset, we provide an image segmentation approach based on adaptive histogram based K-means clustering and fast Hough transformation. This work firstly analyzes the characteristics of ear images in CVL face dataset. According to the analysis, we then use adaptive histogram based K-means clustering method to threshold ear images and then roughly segment the ear parts. After ear contour extraction, with boundary determination through vertical project, Hough transformation is utilized to locate the ear contour accurately. The experimental results and comparisons with other segmentation methods show our approach is effective.

  2. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  3. Structural Diversity in the Inner Ear of Teleost Fishes: Implications for Connections to the Mauthner Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Edds-Walton, Peggy L.

    1995-01-01

    A body of literature suggests that the Mauthner cell startle response can be elicited by stimulation of the ear. While we know that there are projections to the M-cell from the ear, the specific endorgan(s) of the ear projecting to the M-cell are not known. Moreover, there are many reasons to question whether there is one pattern of inner ear to M-cell connection or whether the endorgan(s) projection to the M-cell varies in species that have different hearing capabilities of hearing structures. In this paper, we briefly review the structure of fish ears, with an emphasis on structural regionalization within the ear. We also review the central projections of the ear, along with a discussion of the limited data on projections to the M-cell.

  4. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  5. Ear tuftedness: a lethal condition in the Araucana fowl.

    PubMed

    Somes, R G; Pabilonia, M S

    1981-01-01

    The lethal effects of the ear-tuft trait of the Araucana chicken are reported and the genetic basis of its inheritance is verified. The ear-tuft (Et) gene acts as an autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance in heterozygotes. This study gave two estimates of reduced penetrance, 4 and 14 percent. Homozygotes die during 17-19 days of incubation, although a few may hatch. Most of these die within a week, but occasionally an "escaper" will live to maturity; one such Et/Et individual was verified. Heterozygotes also experience increased embryonic mortality at about 20 or 21 days of incubation. In this study the average embryonic mortality among heterozygotes was 41.6 percent. Posthatch mortality also was significantly greater among tufted chicks than among nontufted chicks. PMID:7276512

  6. Congenital cerebrospinal fluid fistula through the inner ear and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Phelps, P D; Proops, D; Sellars, S; Evans, J; Michaels, L

    1993-06-01

    Congenital deformities of the labyrinth of the inner ear can be associated with a fistulous communication between the intracranial subarachnoid space and the middle ear cavity. We describe seven such cases, six confirmed by high resolution CT and one by postmortem histological section. The seven patients all presented with meningitis although a cerebrospinal fluid fistula was demonstrated at subsequent surgery or postmortem. The lesions were bilateral in three patients, unilateral in three and probably bilateral in the postmortem case although only one temporal bone was obtained. In every case there was a dilated sac instead of the normal two and a half turn cochlea on the affected side and this was confirmed at surgery. The demonstration of the basal cochlear turn is of paramount importance in any deaf child presenting with meningitis. A true Mondini deformity with a normal basal turn and some hearing is not at risk of developing a fistula. PMID:8345296

  7. Delayed effects of ionizing radiation on the ear

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, B.A.; Marks, J.E.; Glasgow, G.P.

    1985-07-01

    The question of damage to the ear from exposure to ionizing radiation was addressed by exposing groups of chinchillas to fractioned doses of radiation (2 Gy per day) for total doses ranging from 40 to 90 Gy. In order to allow any delayed effects of radiation to become manifest, the animals were sacrificed two years after completion of treatment and their temporal bones were prepared for microscopic examination. The most pronounced effect of treatment was degeneration of sensory and supporting cells and loss of eighth nerve fibers in the organ of Corti. Damage increased with increasing dose of radiation. The degree of damage found in many of these ears was of sufficient magnitude to produce a permanent sensorineural hearing loss.

  8. Transcription factors in the development of inner ear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuna; Qian, Wei; Jiang, Guochang; Ma, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Inner ear hair cells are the sensory receptors that detect and convert sound vibrations and head movements into neural signals. However, in humans, these cells are unable to regenerate if they are damaged or lost. Over thepast decade,there has been an exponential increase in interest and progress in understanding of the development of the inner ear and of hair cells, aiming to gain insights into hair cell repair or even regeneration. In hair cell development, various transcription factors have been found to be involved in the processes of hair cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Among these transcription factors, Math1, Gata3, Sox2 and Atoh1 have been highlighted for their crucial role in the fate of hair cells. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the role of transcription factors in hair cell development, focusing on the role and possible mechanisms of Math1, Gata3, Sox2 and Atoh1. PMID:27100495

  9. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Maier, Wolfgang; Ruf, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Here we present a brief, historical review of research into the mammalian middle ear structures. Most of their essential homologies were established by embryologists, notably including Reichert, during the 19th century. The evolutionary dimension was confirmed by finds of fossil synapsids, mainly from the Karroo of South Africa. In 1913, Ernst Gaupp was the first to present a synthesis of the available embryological and paleontological data, but a number of morphological details remained to be solved, such as the origin of the tympanic membrane. Gaupp favoured an independent origin of the eardrum in anurans, sauropsids, and mammals; we support most of his ideas. The present review emphasizes the problem of how the mammalian middle ear structures that developed at the angle of the lower jaw were transferred to the basicranium; the ontogenesis of extant marsupials provides important information on this question. PMID:26397963

  10. The amphisbaenian ear: Blanus cinereus and Diplometopon zarudnyi.

    PubMed

    Gans, C; Wever, E G

    1975-04-01

    Observations on the structure and function of the ear in amphisbaenians have been extended to two new species: to Blanus cinereus of the family Amphisbaenidae and Diplometopon zarudnyi of the family Trogonophidae. Blanus, considered one of the most primitive of this group of reptiles, shows a distinctive form of sound-receptive mechanism. The usual extracolumella is lacking, and the columella attaches to a cartilaginous plate beneath the skin posterior to the facial area. Diplometopon zarudnyi, a highly modified trogonophid, shows a columella and extracolumella of massive dimensions, with considerable calcification of the latter process. Cochlear potential measurements revealed the levels of auditory sensitivity in these species. A peculiar feature is the degree of stability of the ear's responses in the presence of large variations in body temperature. PMID:1055420

  11. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  12. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  13. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  14. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  15. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  16. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  17. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10–60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5–10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  18. Neurological manifestations of ear disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Garosi, Laurent S; Lowrie, Mark L; Swinbourne, Natalie F

    2012-11-01

    There are four major neuroanatomical structures associated with the ear that, when damaged, result in different neurologic clinical signs. These structures are the facial nerve, the ocular sympathetic tract, the vestibular receptors, and the cochlea. The clinical signs associated with disorders of each structure are discussed, followed by a summary of the diseases that should be considered in each case. The article begins with a description of the neuroanatomy of each of these structures. PMID:23122174

  19. A Hydrodynamic Model of Transport in the Wheat Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Joseph; Stieber, Joli; Bubenheim, David L.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The vascular arrangement in the main axis (rachis) of the wheat ear, studied and reported in a previous paper by the same, described a circuit-cascade system consisting of capacitance and resistance passages (so-called RC-circuits). Some hydromechanic aspects (e.g., resonance, impulse control) of this asymmetric transport system and their possible role and importance in the fluid supply are discussed. A theoretical analysis of how this system works, as well as samples of practical application are presented.

  20. Surgical Treatment of Keloids Secondary to Ear Piercing

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, A. Paul

    1978-01-01

    Keloids are medically benign, but often psychologically and cosmetically malignant lesions. They are most commonly located on the posterior aspect of the ear lobes. The author's treatment of choice is the combined intralesional steroid and surgical approach. Surgically, the best results are obtained when some of the skin overlying the keloid is used as a split thickness graft after all of the keloidal tissue has been removed. Explicit postoperative wound care instructions are important in insuring complication-free surgery. PMID:702572