Science.gov

Sample records for 96-03 vol 1-3

  1. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems. Bilge and Ballast Systems. Tank Vent and Sounding Systems. Overboard Discharges and Shell Connections....

  2. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems. Bilge and Ballast Systems. Tank Vent and Sounding Systems. Overboard Discharges and Shell Connections....

  3. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems. Bilge and Ballast Systems. Tank Vent and Sounding Systems. Overboard Discharges and Shell Connections....

  4. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems. Bilge and Ballast Systems. Tank Vent and Sounding Systems. Overboard Discharges and Shell Connections....

  5. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems. Bilge and Ballast Systems. Tank Vent and Sounding Systems. Overboard Discharges and Shell Connections....

  6. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 541 - 73 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  7. 1,3-Dichloropropene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Dichloropropene ( DCP ) ; CASRN 542 - 75 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  8. 1,3-Butadiene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Butadiene ; CASRN 106 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. A 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborine Debuts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Senmiao; Zakharov, Lev N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first synthesis and characterization of a 1,3-dihydro-1,3-azaborine, a long-sought BN isostere of benzene. 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborine is a stable structural motif with considerable aromatic character as evidenced by structural analysis and its reaction chemistry. Single crystal X-ray analysis indicates bonding consistent with significant electron delocalization. 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborines also undergo nucleophilic substitutions at boron and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In view of the versatility and impact of aromatic compounds in the biomedical field and in materials science, the present study further expands the available chemical space of arenes via BN/CC isosterism. PMID:22091703

  10. Ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dollard, G J; Dore, C J; Jenkin, M E

    2001-06-01

    -butadiene, with the deadline for compliance being brought forward to 31/12/2003. The UK Hydrocarbon Monitoring Network provides continuous hourly measurements of 1,3-butadiene at 13 sites, and has been operational since 1993. The dataset that is available allows spatial and temporal trends to be evaluated, and has proved to be invaluable in characterising the current ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene in the UK. Hourly maximum concentrations of 1,3-butadiene of up to 10 ppb (1 ppb=1 ppb, i.e. 1 vol. of 1,3-butadiene in 1,000,000,000 vol. of air. 1 ppb of 1,3-butadiene is ca. equal to 2.25 microg m(-3) at 20 degrees C) may be measured for several hours at the sites. Monthly mean concentrations are typically 0.1-0.4 ppbv. At most sites, these levels are driven by emissions from motor vehicles. Occasionally emissions of 1,3-butadiene from industrial sources may elevate 1,3-butadiene concentrations to several tens of ppb. Trend analysis of the data suggests that ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene in the UK are declining at about 10% per year. PMID:11397390

  11. OATYC Journal, Vol. II, Nos. 1-3, October 1976-Spring 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, James, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    "OATYC Journal," which is published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, is designed as a forum for the exchange of concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. Along with commentaries and letters of reaction from the readership, the three issues of volume II contain the following major articles: (1) "Focus:…

  12. Per Linguam: A Journal of Language Learning, Vol. 1-3, 1985-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, D. H., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Regular issues of "Per Linguam" appear twice a year. The document consists of the six regular issues for the years 1985, 1986, and 1987. These issues contain the following 32 articles: (1) "SALT in South Africa: Needs and Parameters" (van der Vyver); (2) "An Analysis of SALT in Practice" (Botha); (3) "SALT and the Teaching of African Languages"…

  13. LBRIG Newsletter [Newsletter of the Language by Radio Interest Group]. Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    Volume 2 of the Language by Radio Interest Group (LBRIG) Newsletter consists of news items, short articles, general information, and opinions on the subject of language learning by radio. The first number in the volume contains the following feature articles: "Radio and Communicative Competence," by Kimball L. Robinson; "Shortwave Broadcast and…

  14. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  15. 1-3 piezoelectric composites for high temperature transducer applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Zhang, Shujun; Xu, Zhuo; Wen, Fei; Geng, Xuecang; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    High temperature Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 /epoxy 1-3 composites were fabricated using the dice and fill method. The epoxy filler was modified with glass spheres in order to improve the thermal reliability of the composites at elevated temperatures. Temperature dependent dielectric and electromechanical properties of the composites were measured after aging at 250°C with different dwelling times. Obvious cracks were observed and the electrodes were damaged in the composite with unmodified epoxy after 200 hours, leading to the failure of the composite. In contrast, composites with >12 vol% glass sphere loaded epoxies were found to exhibit minimal electrical property variation after aging for 500 hours, with dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficient and electromechanical coupling being on the order of 940, 310pC/N and 57%, respectively. This is due to the improved thermal expansion behavior of the modified filler. PMID:23729863

  16. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. PMID:24973865

  17. FL V1.3

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-03

    A library of utility classes for computer vision. Contains implementations of various well-known image processing techniques, such as interest point operators and region descriptors. Includes interfaces to various libraries for image and video I/O, as well as an interface to LAPACK/BLAS. FL was developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and released under an open source license. Version 1.2 was a maintenance release provided by SNL under the LGPL license. Version 1.3 is amore » maintenance release, containing the following changes: - Improved image format handling. Now handles strided and planar memory layouts and a wider range of pixel formats. - Improved image file I/O, including better support for metadata, a wider range of stored pixel types, and a couple of new file formats. - Improvements to DOG and SIFT, and efficiency improvements in low-level convolution. - Improvements to networking, including a generic TCP listener. - Various improvements to numerical processing. The HISTORY file included in the distribution contains a more detailed description of the changes.« less

  18. FL V1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Frederick

    2009-08-03

    A library of utility classes for computer vision. Contains implementations of various well-known image processing techniques, such as interest point operators and region descriptors. Includes interfaces to various libraries for image and video I/O, as well as an interface to LAPACK/BLAS. FL was developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and released under an open source license. Version 1.2 was a maintenance release provided by SNL under the LGPL license. Version 1.3 is a maintenance release, containing the following changes: - Improved image format handling. Now handles strided and planar memory layouts and a wider range of pixel formats. - Improved image file I/O, including better support for metadata, a wider range of stored pixel types, and a couple of new file formats. - Improvements to DOG and SIFT, and efficiency improvements in low-level convolution. - Improvements to networking, including a generic TCP listener. - Various improvements to numerical processing. The HISTORY file included in the distribution contains a more detailed description of the changes.

  19. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g{sup −1}, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} are 201 mAh g{sup −1} and 155.4 mAh g{sup −1} (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  20. CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5 is a collection of 80 abstracts giving particular attention to education, training, and economic growth in developing countries, Iran, Japan, Kenya, the Solomon Islands, and Sri Lanka; vocational rehabilitation in Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the U. S. A.; agriculture in Chad, developing countries, and…

  1. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  2. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  3. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  4. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  5. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  6. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  7. 43 CFR 3452.1-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 3452.1-3 Section 3452.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., Cancellation, and Termination § 3452.1-3 Acceptance. The effective date of the lease relinquishment shall,...

  8. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  9. 27 CFR 1.3 - Forms prescribed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forms prescribed. 1.3 Section 1.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.3...

  10. 21 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1.3 Definitions. (a) Labeling includes all written, printed, or...

  11. 43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.1-3 Section 8365.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-3 Vehicles. (a)...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.1-3 Section 8365.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-3 Vehicles. (a)...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1210.1-3 Section 1210.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-3 Definitions. (a) Trainee means a person enrolled in...

  14. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1211.1-3 Section 1211.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer...

  15. 45 CFR 1216.1-3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1216.1-3 Section 1216.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-3 Policy. (a) Volunteers enrolled or participating in...

  16. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  17. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  18. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  19. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  20. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  1. 17 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.3 Definitions. Words used in the singular form in the rules and regulations in this chapter shall be deemed...

  2. 36 CFR 1.3 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 1.3 Section 1.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS... 1 through 7, 12 and 13 of this chapter, within a park area not covered in paragraphs (b) or (c)...

  3. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment was conducted to review the new information that has become available since EPA's 1985 health assessment of 1,3-butadiene.

    1,3-Butadiene is a gas used commercially in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber, plastics, and thermoplastic resins. The major...

  4. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions. 60-1.3 Section 60-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND...

  5. 45 CFR 1206.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.1-3 Section 1206.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  6. Synthesis of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, M.A.; Coburn, M.D.

    1994-08-09

    A process of preparing 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine includes forming a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine, e.g., reacting a 1,3,5-trialkyl hexahydrotriazine and tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ring opening said 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine to form a 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt, ring closing said 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt to form a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt, nitrating said 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt to form a 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine, and converting said 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine into 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine is disclosed. 1 fig.

  7. Synthesis of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine including forming a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine, e.g., reacting a 1,3,5-trialkyl hexahydrotriazine and tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ring opening said 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine to form a 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt, ring closing said 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt to form a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt, nitrating said 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt to form a 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine, and converting said 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine into 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine is disclosed.

  8. MILCOM '90 - IEEE Military Communications Conference, Monterey, CA, Sept. 30-Oct. 3, 1990, Conference Record. Vols. 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on military communications are presented. Among the general topics addressed are: advanced space technology, advances in networks, digital signal processing, error-control coding, acquisition and synchronization in spread spectrum communications, advances in communications, application-specific IC, satellite communication systems, multimedia communication networks, advanced and trellis-coded communications, spread spectrum communication system performance, solid-state microwave technologies, tactical communication networks, advanced modulation and coding. Also considered are: spread spectrum networks, wireless network communications, communication systems simulation and modeling, adaptive arrays, detectability of signals, meteor burst communication, optical communications, interference suppression, LPI systems, adaptive HF communications, communication network software, VLF/LF communications, network survivability, advances in direction-finding arrays.

  9. 1991 IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Singapore, Nov. 18-21, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference the application of neural networks to associative memories, neurorecognition, hybrid systems, supervised and unsupervised learning, image processing, neurophysiology, sensation and perception, electrical neurocomputers, optimization, robotics, machine vision, sensorimotor control systems, and neurodynamics. Attention is given to such topics as optimal associative mappings in recurrent networks, self-improving associative neural network models, fuzzy activation functions, adaptive pattern recognition with sparse associative networks, efficient question-answering in a hybrid system, the use of abstractions by neural networks, remote-sensing pattern classification, speech recognition with guided propagation, inverse-step competitive learning, and rotational quadratic function neural networks. Also discussed are electrical load forecasting, evolutionarily stable and unstable strategies, the capacity of recurrent networks, neural net vs control theory, perceptrons for image recognition, storage capacity of bidirectional associative memories, associative random optimization for control, automatic synthesis of digital neural architectures, self-learning robot vision, and the associative dynamics of chaotic neural networks.

  10. GLOBECOM '92 - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Orlando, FL, Dec. 6-9, 1992, Conference Record. Vols. 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented on such topics as the wireless data network in PCS, advances in digital mobile networks, ATM switching experiments, broadband applications, network planning, and advances in SONET/SDH implementations. Consideration is also given to gigabit computer networks, techniques for modeling large high-speed networks, coding and modulation, the next-generation lightwave system, signaling systems for broadband ISDN, satellite technologies, and advances in standardization of low-rate signal processing.

  11. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  12. 21 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 1.3 Definitions. (a) Labeling includes all written, printed, or graphic matter accompanying an... delivery in interstate commerce. (b) Label means any display of written, printed, or graphic matter on...

  13. 17 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which.... (e) Commodity. This term means and includes wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye,...

  14. Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of economic production processes for 1,3-propanediol is a success story for the creation of a new market for a (bulk) chemical. The compound and its favorable properties have long been known; also the fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol had been described more than 120 years ago. Nevertheless, the product remained a specialty chemical until recently, when two new processes were introduced, providing 1,3-propanediol at a competitive price. Remarkably, one of the processes is in the field of white biotechnology and based on microbial fermentation, converting a renewable carbon source into a bulk chemical. This review covers the most important patents that led to the commercialization of bio-based 1,3-propanediol. Furthermore, some of the recent developments towards a sustainable industry are addressed. Similar questions arise for a variety of products if they are to be produced bio-based in large scale. However, special emphasis is given to 1,3-propanediol production. PMID:19075867

  15. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. PMID:8354171

  16. Electronic Learning Centers. Grades 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This book contains directions for creating learning centers for use in grades 1-3 which use both computer and traditional activities. Information on each center includes goals and objectives, a time requirement, and specific guidelines for management of the activity. Required materials, including software, are indicated, and masters to duplicate…

  17. A Dogrib History. Grade 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Tara

    A publication on the history and traditional lifestyle of the Dogrib Tribe of Canada's Northwest Territories is intended for use in grades 1-3. Text is printed in large, clear letters and accompanied by many drawings. Some subjects covered are cooking, food, canoes, clothes, homes, and games. Sections are devoted to beavers and caribou and their…

  18. 1-3 piezocomposite SmartPanels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Daniel; Gentilman, Richard L.; Pham-Nguyen, Hong; Serwatka, William J.; McGuire, Patrick T.; Near, Craig D.; Bowen, Leslie J.

    1997-05-01

    Piezocomposite SmartPanelsTM, consisting of 1-3 actuators and pressure sensors and net-shape-molded PZT accelerometers in a large area low profile panel, have been fabricated at Materials Systems Inc. and evaluated at the Naval Research Laboratory. Single layer and two-layer 100 X 100 mm SmartPanels have been tested for sensor sensitivities, actuator authority, surface displacement uniformity, and sensor-actuator coupling. Multilayer GRP circuits boards are used both as stiff faceplates and to provide electrical connections and ground planes. The SmartPanel technology has recently been scaled up to 250 X 250 mm devices. SmartPanels draw upon PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic injection molding technology, which is used to produce cost-effective and robust 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials. The 1-3 materials are used extensively for SonoPanelTM transducers in a number of sensor and actuator applications. SonoPanels have been qualified for US Navy applications, based on successful completion of pressure and shock tests, and are currently being scaled up from 250 X 250 mm to 750 X 750 mm panels. Several applications for SmartPanels and SonoPanels are described, including conformable transducers, multielement arrays, pressure sensors, and velocity sensors.

  19. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  20. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  1. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXIX top); illustration of full milll, as enlarged to south. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 1859 Courtesy of Library of Congress NORTH AND EAST FRONTS - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  4. Industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, J A

    1990-01-01

    Sources of industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene are discussed both by process (production, consumers) and type (equipment leaks, point sources). Quantification of the emissions are presented, as reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986. The reported emissions attributed to equipment leaks (also known as fugitive emissions) range from about 50 to 95% of the total, depending on the specific production process used. The methods by which these emissions were estimated are discussed, with particular emphasis on the fugitive sources. Industry studies to better quantify the fugitive emissions are described. PMID:2401277

  5. Molecular characterization of the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum

    PubMed Central

    Raynaud, Céline; Sarçabal, Patricia; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The genes encoding the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum VPI1718 were characterized from a molecular and a biochemical point of view. This operon is composed of three genes, dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT. When grown in a vitamin B12-free mineral medium with glycerol as carbon source, Escherichia coli expressing dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT produces 1,3-PD and high glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-PD dehydrogenase activities. dhaB1 and dhaB2 encode, respectively, a new type of glycerol dehydratase and its activator protein. The deduced proteins DhaB1 and DhaB2, with calculated molecular masses of 88,074 and 34,149 Da, respectively, showed no homology with the known glycerol dehydratases that are all B12 dependent but significant similarity with the pyruvate formate lyases and pyruvate formate lyases activating enzymes and their homologues. The 1,158-bp dhaT gene codes for a 1,3-PD dehydrogenase with a calculated molecular mass of 41,558 Da, revealing a high level of identity with other DhaT proteins from natural 1,3-PD producers. The expression of the 1,3-PD operon in C. butyricum is regulated at the transcriptional level, and this regulation seems to involve a two-component signal transduction system DhaAS/DhaA, which may have a similar function to DhaR, a transcriptional regulator found in other natural 1,3-PD producers. The discovery of a glycerol dehydratase, coenzyme B12 independent, should significantly influence the development of an economical vitamin B12-free biological process for the production of 1,3-PD from renewable resources. PMID:12704244

  6. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100 C.

  7. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100.degree. C.

  8. Recent development of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode material of lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Ping; Xu, Quan-Bao; Yang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Jun-Jie; Yang, Guang

    2011-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, owing to its excellent electrochemical properties, has been used as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, especially for hybrid electric vehicles. It has many merits such as high capacity, long cycle life, low cost and little harm to environment. Therefore, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has become a great concern by scholars on energy and material fields. However, the electronic conductivity and the charge-discharge capacity at high current should be enhanced before any materials modifications. Here, this paper summarizes the main synthetic technologies of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in recent years, including synthesis methods, doping, surface coating modification, and the future development trends discussed. PMID:22408910

  9. Microbial degradation and toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Joonhong

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, current knowledge on the potential fate, microbial degradation, and toxicity of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the toxicological assessment of a variety of potential RDX degradation pathways in bacteria and fungi. The present review on microbial degradation pathways and toxicities of degradation intermediates suggests that, among aerobic RDX degradation pathways, the one via denitration may be preferred in a toxicological perspective, and that among anaerobic pathways, those forming 4- nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) via ring cleavage of 1-nitroso- 3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (MNX) may be toxicologically advantageous owing to its potential mineralization under partial or complete anoxic conditions. These findings provide important information on RDX-degrading microbial pathways, toxicologically most suitable to be stimulated in contaminated fields. PMID:23075780

  10. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  11. Study of the surface modification of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, A. M. A.; Abdel-Ghany, A. E.; Eid, A. E.; Trottier, J.; Zaghib, K.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    The surface of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNMCO) particles has been studied for material synthesized at 900 °C by a two-step process from a mixture of LiOH·H2O and metal oxalate [(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)C2O4] obtained by co-precipitation. Samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. We have investigated the effect of the heat treatment of particles at 600 °C with organic substances such as sucrose and starch. HRTEM images and RS spectra indicate that the surface of particles has been modified. The annealing does not lead to any carbon coating but it leads to the crystallization of the thin disordered layer on the surface of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. The beneficial effect has been tested on the electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials. The capacity at 10C-rate is enhanced by 20% for post-treated LNMCO particles at 600 °C for half-an-hour.

  12. Solution Properties of 1,3-Cyclohexadiene Polymers by Small Angle Neutron and Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seok I; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Wignall, George D; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Britt, Phillip F; Terao, Ken; Nakamura, Yo

    2006-01-01

    1,3-Cyclohexdiene polymers (PCHD) and their derivatives are of interest due to the six-member rings in the main chain, which are expected to impart higher mechanical strength and better thermal and chemical stability, as compared to common vinyl polymers. For example, hydrogenated PCHD has the highest glass transition temperature (T{sub g} {approx} 231 C) of all hydrocarbon polymers, and it also shows good heat, weather, impact, abrasion, and chemical resistance as well as low water absorption. In addition, PCHD has unique photochemical properties, such as excellent transparency, due to the isolated double bonds in the main chain. Also, block copolymers containing PCHD show unusual phase separation behavior. For example, a styrene/1,3-CHD block copolymer (PS-b-PCHD) with 50 vol % CHD (1,4/1,2 {approx} 95/5) exhibits a core-shell or hollow cylinder morphology, while a typical styrene/acyclic diene (isoprene or butadiene) block copolymer with similar composition exhibits a lamellar structure. Such phase behavior and many other properties strongly depend on the conformation of the polymer in solution or bulk. However, almost no data have been reported on the conformation of PCHD, probably because of the lack of well-defined and well-characterized samples. Here we report solution properties of PCHD in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform by multiangle laser light scattering, viscometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS).

  13. Bis(1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diazinan-2-one)dinitratodioxidouranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [U(NO3)2O2(C6H12N2O)2], exhibits a hexa­gonal–bipyramidal geometry around the UVI ion, which is situated on an inversion centre and coordinated by two oxide ligands in the axial positions, and four O atoms from two bidentate NO3 − and two O atoms from two 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diazinan-2-one (DMPU) ligands in the equatorial plane. These ligands are located in trans positions. The –(CH2)3– moiety in the DMPU ligand is disordered over two positions in a 0.786 (11):0.214 (11) ratio. PMID:21522544

  14. 3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August 1913, following page 80. 'TOWN AND COMMUNITY PLANNING, WALTER BURLEY GRIFFEN.' ORIGINAL PRESENTATION DRAWING AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, ART DEPARTMENT. - Joshua G. Melson House, 56 River Heights Drive, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  15. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XX); illustration used by eminent British textile engineer to exemplify the ultimate development in American cotton mill technology. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  16. Preparation, characterization of LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} film cathode.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S. H.; Abraham, D. P.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-01-01

    Positive electrodes based on the LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} material are being evaluated in high-power lithium-ion cells for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. To determine performance degradation mechanisms that are associated with the active material, we prepared carbon- and binder-free LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} film cathode on a Pt substrate using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Initial data from cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements conducted on the electrodes are reported.

  17. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  18. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) Hybrid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Show, Bijay Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Maity, Joydeep

    2014-09-01

    In this research work, the dry sliding wear behavior of 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite was investigated at low sliding speed (1 m/s) against a hardened EN 31 disk at different loads. In general, the wear mechanism involved adhesion (along with associated subsurface cracking and delamination) and microcutting abrasion at lower load. While at higher load, abrasive wear involving microcutting and microploughing along with adherent oxide formation was observed. The overall wear rate increased with increasing normal load. The massive particle clusters as well as individual reinforcement particles were found to stand tall to resist abrasive wear. Besides, at higher load, the generation of adherent nodular tribo-oxide through nucleation and epitaxial growth on existing Al2O3 particles lowered down the wear rate. Accordingly, at any normal load, 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite exhibited superior wear resistance (lower overall wear rate) than the reported wear resistance of monolithic 6351 Al alloy.

  19. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  20. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  1. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  2. Reactive extraction for downstream separation of 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, J J

    2000-01-01

    The downstream separation of 1,3-propanediol from dilute aqueous solution was studied. A process combining reversible reaction of 1, 3-propanediol with acetaldehyde to 2-methyl-1,3-dioxane and a simultaneous extraction of the product by organic solvent appears to be technically feasible and attractive. The dioxane yield was 91-92%, the overall conversion of 1,3-propanediol was ca. 98%, and recovery of dioxane into the organic extractant was 75%. PMID:10662493

  3. 14 CFR 1.3 - Rules of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules of construction. 1.3 Section 1.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS § 1.3 Rules of construction. (a) In Subchapters A through K of this chapter,...

  4. Production of α1,3-Galactosyltransferase–Deficient Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Carol J.; Koike, Chihiro; Vaught, Todd D.; Boone, Jeremy; Wells, Kevin D.; Chen, Shu-Hung; Ball, Suyapa; Specht, Susan M.; Polejaeva, Irina A.; Monahan, Jeff A.; Jobst, Pete M.; Sharma, Sugandha B.; Lamborn, Ashley E.; Garst, Amy S.; Moore, Marilyn; Demetris, Anthony J.; Rudert, William A.; Bottino, Rita; Bertera, Suzanne; Trucco, Massimo; Starzl, Thomas E.; Dai, Yifan; Ayares, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT or GCTA1) synthesizes α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitopes (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R), which are the major xenoantigens causing hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Complete removal of α1,3Gal from pig organs is the critical step toward the success of xenotransplantation. We reported earlier the targeted disruption of one allele of the α1,3GT gene in cloned pigs. A selection procedure based on a bacterial toxin was used to select for cells in which the second allele of the gene was knocked out. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that knockout of the second allele of the α1,3GT gene was caused by a T-to-G single point mutation at the second base of exon 9, which resulted in inactivation of the α1,3GT protein. Four healthy α1,3GT double-knockout female piglets were produced by three consecutive rounds of cloning. The piglets carrying a point mutation in the α1,3GT gene hold significant value, as they would allow production of α1,3Gal-deficient pigs free of antibiotic-resistance genes and thus have the potential to make a safer product for human use. PMID:12493821

  5. 43 CFR 3420.1-3 - Special leasing opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special leasing opportunities. 3420.1-3 Section 3420.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.1-3 Special leasing...

  6. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  7. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-3 Regionality. In making site recommendations for...

  9. 43 CFR 1865.1-3 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action on application. 1865.1-3 Section 1865.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... DOCUMENTS Correction of Conveyancing Documents § 1865.1-3 Action on application. The authorized...

  10. 43 CFR 1864.1-3 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action on application. 1864.1-3 Section 1864.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... DOCUMENTS Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in Land § 1864.1-3 Action on application. (a) BLM will...

  11. 49 CFR 1.3 - Organization of the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organization of the Department. 1.3 Section 1.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.3 Organization of the Department. (a) The Secretary of Transportation is the head of...

  12. The industrial production and use of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, N L

    1990-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief overview of the production and use of 1,3-butadiene in the United States. Starting as a coproduct of ethylene, the 1,3-butadiene monomer is extracted and purified, then transferred to consumers. Major uses of 1,3-butadiene include the manufacture of styrene-butadiene rubber, polybutadiene rubber, and adiponitrile. PMID:2205493

  13. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register. 1.3 Section 1.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to the application of the exemptions...

  14. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  15. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  16. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  17. 43 CFR 3135.1-3 - Separate filing for transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separate filing for transfers. 3135.1-3 Section 3135.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-3 Separate filing...

  18. 43 CFR 3135.1-3 - Separate filing for transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separate filing for transfers. 3135.1-3 Section 3135.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-3 Separate filing...

  19. 43 CFR 3135.1-3 - Separate filing for transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate filing for transfers. 3135.1-3 Section 3135.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-3 Separate filing...

  20. 43 CFR 3135.1-3 - Separate filing for transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separate filing for transfers. 3135.1-3 Section 3135.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-3 Separate filing...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-3 Regionality. In making site recommendations for...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-3 Regionality. In making site recommendations for...

  3. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice. PMID:15887778

  4. Mixed Inhibition of Adenosine Deaminase Activity by 1,3-Dinitrobenzene: A Model for Understanding Cell-Selective Neurotoxicity in Chemically-Induced Energy Deprivation Syndromes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yipei; Liu, Xin; Schneider, Brandon; Zverina, Elaina A.; Russ, Kristen; Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J.; Fierke, Carol A.; Richardson, Rudy J.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are acutely sensitive to 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) while adjacent neurons are relatively unaffected, consistent with other chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes. Previous studies have investigated the role of astrocytes in protecting neurons from hypoxia and chemical injury via adenosine release. Adenosine is considered neuroprotective, but it is rapidly removed by extracellular deaminases such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). The present study tested the hypothesis that ADA is inhibited by 1,3-DNB as a substrate mimic, thereby preventing adenosine catabolism. ADA was inhibited by 1,3-DNB with an IC50 of 284μM, Hill slope, n = 4.8 ± 0.4. Native gel electrophoresis showed that 1,3-DNB did not denature ADA. Furthermore, adding Triton X-100 (0.01–0.05%, wt/vol), Nonidet P-40 (0.0015–0.0036%, wt/vol), or bovine serum albumin (0.05 mg/ml or changing [ADA] (0.2 and 2nM) did not substantially alter the 1,3-DNB IC50 value. Likewise, dynamic light scattering showed no particle formation over a (1,3-DNB) range of 149–1043μM. Kinetics revealed mixed inhibition with 1,3-DNB binding to ADA (KI = 520 ± 100μM, n = 1 ± 0.6) and the ADA-adenosine complex (KIS = 262 ± 7μM, n = 6 ± 0.6, indicating positive cooperativity). In accord with the kinetics, docking predicted binding of 1,3-DNB to the active site and three peripheral sites. In addition, exposure of DI TNC-1 astrocytes to 10–500μM 1,3-DNB produced concentration-dependent increases in extracellular adenosine at 24 h. Overall, the results demonstrate that 1,3-DNB is a mixed inhibitor of ADA and may thus lead to increases in extracellular adenosine. The finding may provide insights to guide future work on chemically-induced energy deprivation. PMID:22106038

  5. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.

  6. Capacity improvement by deficit of transition metals in inverse spinel LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajou, Ayuko; Yoshida, Jun; Nakanishi, Shinji; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Okajima, Toshihiro; Okada, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Although inverse spinel materials have attracted attention because of their unusually high voltage characteristics, their rechargeable capacities are generally less than 50 mAh g-1, as a result of the coexistence of Li and transition metal ions at 16d octahedral sites. This work attempted to improve cathode functioning by optimizing the quantities of Li and transition metal ions residing at the 16d sites of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4. The rechargeable capacity of the LiNi0.28Co0.28Mn0.26V0.80O4 synthesized in the present study was found to be above 120 mAh g-1, representing the largest capacity reported to date for an inverse spinel material. The results of in-situ XANES analysis demonstrated that the charge-discharge reactions of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 corresponds to the Mn2+/Mn4+ and Co2+/Co3+ redox couples, mainly.

  7. Cell immobilization for microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Gungormusler-Yilmaz, Mine; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-06-01

    Cell and enzyme immobilization are often used for industrial production of high-value products. In recent years, immobilization techniques have been applied to the production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO). Biotechnological fermentation is an attractive alternative to current 1,3-PDO production methods, which are primarily thermochemical processes, as it generates high volumetric yields of 1,3-PDO, is a much less energy intensive process, and generates lower amounts of environmental organic pollutants. Although several approaches including: batch, fed-batch, continuous-feed and two-step continuous-feed were tested in suspended systems, it has been well demonstrated that cell immobilization techniques can significantly enhance 1,3-PDO production and allow robust continuous production in smaller bioreactors. This review covers various immobilization methods and their application for 1,3-PDO production. PMID:25600463

  8. MILCOM '91 - IEEE Military Communications Conference, McLean, VA, Nov. 4-7, 1991, Conference Record. Vols. 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on military communications are presented. Some of the general topics addressed are: network protocols and routing, circuit technology, VLF/LF systems, C3 modeling, digital signal processing in modulation/demodulation, spread spectrum networks, civil communications in Europe, propagation, antennas, communication systems performance, link level modeling, standards, modulation in satellite communications, modulation and spread spectrum, interference suppression in spread spectrum systems, key military technical problems, broadband networks, network control and management, satellite communication systems, meteor burst communications, trends in tactical communications. Also discussed are: LPI techniques, modulation techniques, spread spectrum communications, commercial and military communications systems and technology, network performance modeling, meteor burst applications, communications for distributed C3 systems, information security and computer security, sequencing and acquisition, LPI systems laser communications applications, technological opportunities.

  9. Inside English: Journal of the English Council of California Two-Year Colleges; Vol. V, Nos. 1-3, Fall 1978, Winter 1979, and Summer 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilson, Barbara, Ed.; Kurilich, Frances, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Designed primarily for English faculty at two-year colleges in California, "Inside English" includes articles on instructional innovations and major curricular, administrative, and employment issues of concern to teachers in the field as well as information on the activities of the English Council of the California Two-Year Colleges (ECCTYC). The…

  10. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  11. MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,3-Butadiene has been shown to be an indirect mutage in bacteria. Two of its potential metabolites, 3,4- epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, are genotoxic in prokaryote as well as eukaryote test systems. Exposure of rodents to 1,3-butadiene results in ovarian tumors in mice and testi...

  12. Volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene under different application methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric emission of volatile pesticides can be a significant source of air pollution. A field study was conducted to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emission by applying the chemical via subsurface drip irrigation with a reduced dosage (4.7 g m-2 or 47 kg ha- 1 ). Comparisons were made betwee...

  13. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS Reg. No. 107-88-0) may be safely... condensation of acetaldehyde followed by catalytic hydrogenation. (b) The food additive shall conform to...

  14. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Office of...

  15. Surface seals reduce 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the detrimental impact of soil fumigation and for maintaining the availability of fumigants to agricultural uses. This study determined the effectiveness of surface water applications to reduce emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin ...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1051 - 1,3-Butadiene. =

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3-Butadiene. = 1910.1051 Section 1910.1051 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1051 1,3-Butadiene.= (a) Scope and...

  17. 43 CFR 2720.1-3 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action on application. 2720.1-3 Section... INTERESTS Conveyance of Federally-Owned Mineral Interests § 2720.1-3 Action on application. (a) Within 90... estimated costs of an exploratory program, if one is needed, will rely upon reports on minerals prepared...

  18. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  19. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  20. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  1. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  4. [Development of a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takeshi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Tabuchi, Megumi; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-04-01

    This study developed a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale, to measure psychological wellbeing among older adults. In Analysis 1, we conducted a factor analysis of 13 items, and identified two factors: positive VOL and spiritual well-being. These factors had adequate degrees of internal consistency, and were related to positive mental health. In Analysis 2, we examined sociodemographic, social, and health predictors for VOL. The role of social factors was stronger than the role of health factors, and spiritual well-being was more related to moral or religious activities than positive VOL. These results suggest that predictors for VOL vary by culture. In Analysis 3, we investigated the relationship between VOL and desired years of life. Positive VOL significantly predicted more desired years of life, whereas spiritual well-being did not. Positive VOL had acceptable reliability and validity. Future research is required to investigate whether VOL predicts survival duration or end-of-life decisions. PMID:23705232

  5. Synthesis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazine, 1,3,6-thiadiazepane and quinoxaline derivatives from symmetrical dithiobiureas and thioureidoethylthiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Alaa A; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh; El-Shaieb, Kamal M; Abou-Zied, Ashraf H

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N;-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N;-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented. PMID:18007352

  6. A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Somwong, Pathom; Suttisri, Rutt; Buakeaw, Anumart

    2011-10-01

    A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene, 21α-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (1) together with six known friedelane triterpenes, 30-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (2), friedelane-1,3-dione (3), 26-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (4), friedelin (5), 21α-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-3-one (6) and kokoonol (7), were isolated from the stems of Salacia verrucosa (Celastraceae). The structures of these triterpenes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Compound 3 was strongly cytotoxic against SW620 cell line, whereas compounds 4 and 6 were moderately active against SW620, HepG2 and KATO-III cancer cell lines. PMID:21745551

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  9. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  10. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Catherine B.; Haris Shaikh, Lalarukh; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E. D.; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B.; Azizan, Elena A. B.; Brown, Morris J.

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  11. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3.

    PubMed

    Xie, Catherine B; Haris Shaikh, Lalarukh; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E D; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B; Azizan, Elena A B; Brown, Morris J

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  12. Waste form characteristics report, revision 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    This Waste Form Characteristics Report (WFCR) update, Version 1.3, incorporates substantial additions and changes to following 10 sections of the WFCR: 2.1.3.1 Cladding Degradation; 2.1.3.2 UO2 Oxidation in Fuel; 2.1.3.5 Dissolution Release from UO{sub 2}; 2.2.1.5 Fracture /Fragmentation Studies of Glass; 2.2.2.2 Dissolution Radionuclide Release from Glass; 2.2.2.3 Soluble-Precipitated/Colloidal Species from Glass; 3.2.2 Spent-Fuel Oxidation Models; 3.4.2 Spent-Fuel Dissolution Models; 3.5.1 Glass Dissolution Experimental Parameters; and 3.5.2 Glass Dissolution Models.

  13. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  14. Process to prepare 1,3-diamino-5-pentafluorosulfanylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor); Thrasher, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process was developed to prepare 1,3-diamino- 5-pentafluoro sulfanylbenzene. This process involved two steps: preparing the dinitro compound, 1,3-dinitro- 5-pentafluoro sulfanylbenzene, and reducing this compound to form the corresponding diamine. This diamine was reacted with various dianhydrides, diacidchlorides, and epoxy resins to form polyimides, polyamides, and cross linked epoxies. These polymers were used to prepare semi-permeable membranes, wire coatings, and films.

  15. Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shizhen; Wang, Yuanpeng; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel as it is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it produces about 10 % (w/w) glycerol, which is a promising new industrial microbial carbon, as a major by-product. One of the most potential applications of glycerol is its biotransformation to high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dihydroxyacetone (DHA), succinic acid, etc., through microbial fermentation. Glycerol dehydratase, 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-propanediol-oxydoreductase), and glycerol dehydrogenase, which were encoded, respectively, by dhaB, dhaT, and dhaD and with DHA kinase are encompassed by the dha regulon, are the three key enzymes in glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA, and these are discussed in this review article. The summary of the main research direction of these three key enzyme and methods of glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA indicates their potential application in future enzymatic research and industrial production, especially in biodiesel industry. PMID:26966462

  16. Metabolic engineering for the production of 1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Tong, I.T., Skraly, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    Metabolic engineering involves the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the modification of intermediary metabolic pathways. Microorganisms have recently been engineered to produce compounds such as indigo, ethanol, fatty acids and polyhydroxyalkanoates. As a model system for research in metabolic engineering, the authors have constructed a strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli, that is able to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from glycerol. This strain contains the genes for the glycerol deydratase and the 1,3-PD oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The authors have also investigated genetic and environmental strategies for improving the yield and productivity of 1,3-PD by the engineered organism. In addition to being a useful model system, 1,3-PD production is of current practical interest. First 1,3-PD (also known as trimethylene glycol) and 1,4-butanediol, the more readily available diols. Second, the volume of feedstock (glycerol) is expected to grow, as it is a by-product of the production of polyglycoside surfactants and biodiesel fluids.

  17. Cryptands with 1,3,5-tris(1',3'-dioxan-2'-yl)-benzene units: synthesis and structural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cîrcu, Monica; Soran, Albert; Hădade, Niculina Daniela; Rednic, Monica; Terec, Anamaria; Grosu, Ion

    2013-09-01

    Various cryptands based on 1,3-dioxane decorated 1,3,5-trisubstituted-benzene building blocks, connected by different chains (exhibiting ester, ether, or triazol groups) to several units with C3 symmetry, are reported. The structure of the compounds was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR, and MS. The role of the 1,3-dioxane units was targeted to ensure the preorganization of the substrate for the macrocyclization reactions on one side, and for easier NMR assignment of the structure of the cryptands on the other side. PMID:23924384

  18. Novel Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 cathode morphologies for high power Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oljaca, Miodrag; Blizanac, Berislav; Du Pasquier, Aurelien; Sun, Yipeng; Bontchev, Ranko; Suszko, Arek; Wall, Ryan; Koehlert, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we report unique Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 (NCM) materials produced using aerosol based liquid to solid conversion in different reactor configurations and using different atomization methods jointly termed Reactive Spray Technology (RST). A series of experiments was performed at different RST synthesis conditions suitable for large scale manufacturing to produce NCM powders with particle size ranging from 1 to ∼10 μm, varying degree of particle porosity and excellent compositional purity. The electrochemical testing in Li-ion cells indicates that NCM materials made via RST have high initial discharge capacity and good first cycle efficiency. NCM materials with small particle size and substantial intra-particle porosity show improved power rate performance at high discharge rates compared to larger particle size NCM. This was attributed to shorter diffusion length in the solid phase, increased electrochemically active surface area and high active phase accessibility due to the combined effect of smaller particle size and internal porosity. Specific capacity of small-particle NCM made by RST method was 167 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 137 mAh g-1 at 10 C, which compares favorably to 160 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 97 mAh g-1 at 10 C for NCM made by co-precipitation method having 10 μm average particle diameter.

  19. Electrolyte additive to improve performance of MCMB/LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 Li-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Wenquan; Amine, Khalil

    The electrolyte additive, 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5,5] undecane (TOS), was investigated as a means to improve the life of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB)/Li 1.1[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3] 0.9O 2 (NCM) cells for high-power applications. With the addition of an appropriate amount of TOS (no more than 1 wt%) to MCMB/NCM cells, the capacity retention was significantly improved at 55 °C compared with cells containing pristine electrolyte. Aging tests at 55 °C indicated that the capacity retention of the negative electrode had benefited as a result of the formation of a stable passivation film at the surface of the carbon electrode due to TOS reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that a TOS addition of more than 0.5 wt% increased the cell interfacial impedance. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability of lithiated MCMB was also improved with the TOS addition.

  20. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  1. Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

    1990-06-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

  2. The truth about the 1st cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathodes.

    PubMed

    Kasnatscheew, J; Evertz, M; Streipert, B; Wagner, R; Klöpsch, R; Vortmann, B; Hahn, H; Nowak, S; Amereller, M; Gentschev, A-C; Lamp, P; Winter, M

    2016-02-01

    The 1st cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) at 4.6 V vs. Li/Li(+) has been extensively investigated in NCM/Li half cells. It could be proven that the major part of the observed overall specific capacity loss (in total 36.3 mA h g(-1)) is reversible and induced by kinetic limitations, namely an impeded lithiation reaction during discharge. A measure facilitating the lithiation reaction, i.e. a constant potential (CP) step at the discharge cut-off potential, results in an increase in specific discharge capacity of 22.1 mA h g(-1). This capacity increase during the CP step could be proven as a relithiation process by Li(+) content determination in NCM via an ICP-OES measurement. In addition, a specific capacity loss of approx. 4.2 mA h g(-1) could be determined as an intrinsic reaction to the NCM cathode material at room temperature (RT). In total, less than 10.0 mA h g(-1) (=28% of the overall capacity loss) can be attributed to irreversible reactions, mainly to irreversible structural changes of NCM. Thus, the impact of parasitic reactions, such as oxidative electrolyte decomposition, on the irreversible capacity is negligible and could also be proven by on-line MS. As a consequence, the determination of the amount of extracted Li(+) ("Li(+) extraction ratio") so far has been incorrect and must be calculated by the charge capacity (=delithiation amount) divided by the theoretical capacity. In a NCM/graphite full cell the relithiation amount during the constant voltage (CV) step is smaller than in the half cell, due to irreversible Li(+) loss at graphite. PMID:26771035

  3. 1,3-Propanediol production from glycerol with Lactobacillus diolivorans.

    PubMed

    Pflügl, Stefan; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural producer Lactobacillus diolivorans as potential production organism of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Different cultivation parameters, such as oxygen supply, feeding-strategy, or medium composition have been tested in batch and fed-batch cultivations. The 1,3-propanediol concentration obtained in batch cultivations was 41.7 g/l. This could be increased to 73.7 g/l in a fed-batch co-feeding glucose and glycerol with a molar ratio of 0.1. Yeast extract as part of the MRS cultivation medium could be replaced by nicotinic acid and riboflavin. Furthermore, the addition of Vitamin B(12) to the culture medium increased production by 15% to a final titer of 84.5 g/l 1,3-propanediol. PMID:22728193

  4. Cyclops: a single beam 1.3 millimeter polarimeter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, J.; Walker, C. K.; Young, E. T.

    1997-02-01

    The authors present the design of a broadband, 1.3 mm polarimeter for astronomical observations and the results of first light observations at the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT). The systematic polarization of the instrument plus telescope is 1.1%. The observed linear polarization of DR21, P = 1.65%±0.14% and θ = 16°±2°, is consistent with previous measurements. The authors' 0.9% upper limit on the linear polarization of Cepheus A is the first 1.3 mm measurement reported. With Cyclops it is possible to map the magnetic fields in several of the brightest molecular cloud dust cores in the Milky Way. The authors comment on the expected performance of an achromatic Rexolite half-waveplate for λ = 800 μm to 1.3 mm.

  5. Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M G

    1990-01-01

    Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. PMID:2205483

  6. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 1,3-propanediol as nucleoside substitute.

    PubMed Central

    Seela, F; Kaiser, K

    1987-01-01

    1,3-Propanediol was protected with one dimethoxytrityl residue and converted into the methoxy- and cyanoethoxyphosphoramidites 2a and 2b, respectively. Solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, employing the phosphoramidite 2a resulted in the dodecamers d(CGCGAATTCGCG) (6-9), in which dA or dT residues were replaced by 1,3-propanediol. These oligomers showed a high tendency to form hairpins. Their phosphodiester bonds between the 3'-position of a nucleoside and the propanediol moiety was not cleaved by snake venom phosphodiesterase. PMID:3562246

  7. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  8. M1.3 - a small scaffold for DNA origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Hassan; Schüller, Verena J.; Eber, Fabian J.; Wege, Christina; Liedl, Tim; Richert, Clemens

    2012-12-01

    The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed ``M1.3'' as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3 origami with globally modified staples is affordable. As a proof of principle, two origami structures with globally 5'-capped staples were prepared and were shown to give higher UV-melting points than the corresponding assembly with unmodified DNA. M1.3 has the size of a gene, not a genome, and may function as a model for gene-based nanostructures. Small origami with M1.3 as a scaffold may serve as a workbench for chemical, physical, and biological experiments.The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed ``M1.3'' as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3

  9. Competing Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders in ν =1 /3 +1 /3 quantum Hall bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraedts, Scott; Zaletel, Michael P.; Papić, Zlatko; Mong, Roger S. K.

    2015-05-01

    Bilayer quantum Hall systems, realized either in two separated wells or in the lowest two subbands of a wide quantum well, provide an experimentally realizable way to tune between competing quantum orders at the same filling fraction. Using newly developed density matrix renormalization group techniques combined with exact diagonalization, we return to the problem of quantum Hall bilayers at filling ν =1 /3 +1 /3 . We first consider the Coulomb interaction at bilayer separation d , bilayer tunneling energy ΔSAS, and individual layer width w , where we find a phase diagram which includes three competing Abelian phases: a bilayer Laughlin phase (two nearly decoupled ν =1 /3 layers), a bilayer spin-singlet phase, and a bilayer symmetric phase. We also study the order of the transitions between these phases. A variety of non-Abelian phases has also been proposed for these systems. While absent in the simplest phase diagram, by slightly modifying the interlayer repulsion we find a robust non-Abelian phase which we identify as the "interlayer-Pfaffian" phase. In addition to non-Abelian statistics similar to the Moore-Read state, it exhibits a novel form of bilayer-spin charge separation. Our results suggest that ν =1 /3 +1 /3 systems merit further experimental study.

  10. Synthesis, molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)-2-phenylpropan-1,3-diones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babjaková, Eva; Dastychová, Lenka; Hanulíková, Barbora; Kuřitka, Ivo; Nečas, Marek; Vašková, Hana; Vícha, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The interest in the oxo-enol tautomerism of 1,3-dioxo compounds is justified by their usefulness in many synthetic fields. A series of new 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)propan-1,3-diones with a variably substituted phenyl ring at the C2 position was prepared either by the reaction of an appropriate Grignard reagent with adamatane-1-carbonyl chloride or by SEAr on the unsubstituted 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)-2-phenylpropan-1,3-dione. In addition to the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of three of the prepared compounds, the experimental 1H and 13C NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopic data were assigned and compared to those obtained by DFT computations. In the solid state, the syn-dioxo forms were exclusively observed, which are shown to also predominate in CHCl3 solutions. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface revealed that H⋯H and O⋯H contacts dominate the intermolecular interactions in the solid state, whereas π⋯π stacking plays a marginal role.

  11. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  12. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  13. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 172.712 Section 172.712 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712...

  14. 21 CFR 173.220 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true 1,3-Butylene glycol. 173.220 Section 173.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  15. 43 CFR 9239.1-3 - Measure of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measure of damages. 9239.1-3 Section 9239... Measure of damages. (a) Unless State law provides stricter penalties, in which case the State law shall...) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not be deemed to limit the measure of...

  16. 43 CFR 9239.1-3 - Measure of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measure of damages. 9239.1-3 Section 9239... Measure of damages. (a) Unless State law provides stricter penalties, in which case the State law shall...) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not be deemed to limit the measure of...

  17. 43 CFR 9239.1-3 - Measure of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measure of damages. 9239.1-3 Section 9239... Measure of damages. (a) Unless State law provides stricter penalties, in which case the State law shall...) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not be deemed to limit the measure of...

  18. 43 CFR 9239.1-3 - Measure of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measure of damages. 9239.1-3 Section 9239... Measure of damages. (a) Unless State law provides stricter penalties, in which case the State law shall...) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not be deemed to limit the measure of...

  19. Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Murray, L. W.

    2004-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatment. Nematode reproduction on nutsedges and associated chile pepper plants varied among years, possibly due to differing levels of tuber infection or soil temperature, but was not affected by fumigation. The presence of M. incognita resulted in greater yellow nutsedge tuber germination and reproduction. The efficacy of 1,3-D for management of M. incognita in chile pepper production is likely to be reduced when nutsedges are present in high numbers, reinforcing the importance of managing these weeds and nematodes simultaneously. PMID:19262797

  20. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  1. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  2. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  3. 31 CFR 1.3 - Publication in the Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.3 Publication in the Federal Register. (a) Requirement. Subject to...), separately state, publish and maintain current in the Federal Register for the guidance of the public...

  4. 43 CFR 3440.1-3 - Limitations on coal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coal use. 3440.1-3 Section...-3 Limitations on coal use. (a) A license to mine may be issued to a municipality for the nonprofit mining and disposal of coal to its residents for household use only. Under such a license, a...

  5. 43 CFR 3440.1-3 - Limitations on coal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coal use. 3440.1-3 Section...-3 Limitations on coal use. (a) A license to mine may be issued to a municipality for the nonprofit mining and disposal of coal to its residents for household use only. Under such a license, a...

  6. 43 CFR 3440.1-3 - Limitations on coal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coal use. 3440.1-3 Section...-3 Limitations on coal use. (a) A license to mine may be issued to a municipality for the nonprofit mining and disposal of coal to its residents for household use only. Under such a license, a...

  7. 43 CFR 3440.1-3 - Limitations on coal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coal use. 3440.1-3 Section...-3 Limitations on coal use. (a) A license to mine may be issued to a municipality for the nonprofit mining and disposal of coal to its residents for household use only. Under such a license, a...

  8. 21 CFR 173.220 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 173.220 Section 173.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.220...

  9. 40 CFR 1.3 - Purpose and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Purpose and functions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permits... research, monitoring, standard setting, and enforcement activities related to pollution abatement and... these activities are the Agency's coordination and support of research and antipollution...

  10. 40 CFR 1.3 - Purpose and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Purpose and functions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permits... research, monitoring, standard setting, and enforcement activities related to pollution abatement and... these activities are the Agency's coordination and support of research and antipollution...

  11. 21 CFR 173.220 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 173.220 Section 173.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents...

  12. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  13. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  14. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  16. 21 CFR 173.220 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 173.220 Section 173.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents...

  17. Synthesis of 1,3-Amino Alcohols, 1,3-Diols, Amines, and Carboxylic Acids from Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingshuo; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-01

    The half-sandwich ruthenium complexes 1-3 activate terminal alkynes toward anti-Markovnikov hydration and reductive hydration under mild conditions. These reactions are believed to proceed via addition of water to metal vinylidene intermediates (4). The functionalization of propargylic alcohols by metal vinylidene pathways is challenging owing to decomposition of the starting material and catalytic intermediates. Here we show that catalyst 2 can be employed to convert propargylic alcohols to 1,3-diols in high yield and with retention of stereochemistry at the propargylic position. The method is also amenable to propargylic amine derivatives, thereby establishing a route to enantioenriched 1,3-amino alcohol products. We also report the development of formal anti-Markovnikov reductive amination and oxidative hydration reactions to access linear amines and carboxylic acids, respectively, from terminal alkynes. This chemistry expands the scope of products that can be prepared from terminal alkynes by practical and high-yielding metal-catalyzed methods. PMID:26203776

  18. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  19. Asymmetric One-Pot Synthesis of 1,3-Oxazolidines and 1,3-Oxazinanes via Hemiaminal Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A highly efficient method for the enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 1,3-oxazolidines and 1,3-oxazinanes has been reported. The reaction proceeds via the formation of hemiaminal intermediates obtained by the enantioselective addition of respective alcohols to imines catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate catalyst, followed by intramolecular cyclization under mildly basic conditions. A wide range of substrates have been converted to the respective chiral heterocyclic products in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities using this one-pot procedure. PMID:25075467

  20. Chemiluminescence detection of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, David N; Barnett, Neil W; Agg, Kent M; Graham, Duncan; Lenehan, Claire E; Prior, Chad; Lim, Kieran F; Francis, Paul S

    2012-01-15

    A simple controlled chemical reduction of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine compounds with zinc amalgam generates species that elicit intense chemiluminescence with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III), which extends this widely utilised chemiluminescence reagent to a new class of analyte and presents a sound chemical basis for a screening test for nitramine high explosives. Examination of the chemiluminescence profiles under stopped-flow conditions revealed contributions from multiple transient species formed in the initial reduction step. PMID:22265569

  1. Subchronic toxicity studies on 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and tetryl in rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Daniel, F.B.

    1994-09-01

    Toxic effects of 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in male and female F344 rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of 1,3-DNB (0, 2.5, 10, 25, 75 and 150 mg/kg diet) for fourteen days. The average daily 1 ,3-DNB doses consumed were 0.21, 0.87, 2.02, 6.28 and 11.82 mg/kg b.w. for females and 0.21, 0.80, 1.98, 5.77 and 10.56 for males. Food consumption was significantly decreased in high dose animals of both sexes. Final body weights were not altered but relative organ weights were significantly changed in the 150 and 75 mg dose groups involving the spleen (males and females) and testes (males). Hematology and clinical chemistry studies indicated significantly increased values in both sexes relating to reticulocytes and methemoglobin in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups while the red blood cell count, hemoglobin level and % hematocrit were decreased in these same groups. In addition, the levels of bilirubin, protein and albumin were increased in high dose males, Histopathological evaluations suggested that the susceptible organs for 1,3-DNB toxicity were kidneys (hyaline droplets), spleen (erythroid cell hyperplasia), brain (malacia and microgliosis), testes (seminiferous tubular degeneration). These changes were noted mainly in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups except those changes involving the brain (150 mg/kg group only).

  2. Celsr1-3 cadherins in PCP and brain development.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Camille; Goffinet, André M; Tissir, Fadel

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2, and 3 (Celsr1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for important and distinct roles of Celsr1-3 in planar cell polarity (PCP) and brain development and maintenance. Although the role of Celsr in PCP is conserved from flies to mammals, other functions may be more distantly related, with Celsr working only with one or a subset of the classical PCP partners. Here, we review the literature on Celsr in PCP and neural development, point to several remaining questions, and consider future challenges and possible research trends. PMID:23140629

  3. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  4. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.; Tyson, C.A.; Johnson, J.S.

    1982-10-11

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 and 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. The only effects that were considered treatment-related were a squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of high-dose rats and the increased incidence of dried red material on the faces of these rats during exposures compared with other groups.

  5. 2-Nitro-1,3-dinitro­oxypropane

    PubMed Central

    Breiner, Megan M.; Chavez, David E.; Parrish, Damon A.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C3H5N3O8, was synthesized by reacting 2-nitro­propane-1,3-diol with acetyl nitrate. The mol­ecule is bisected by a crystallograpic mirror plane. In the crystal, the mol­ecules pack in a ribbon-like fashion along the c axis, with the central nitro groups pointing in the same direction. C—H⋯O contacts apparently provide some additional packing stabilization. PMID:23476570

  6. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure.

    PubMed

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G; Hopf, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety. PMID:23209535

  7. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  8. On the (1 + 3) threading of an almost FLRW universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, Aurel; Farran, Hani Reda

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Riemannian spatial connection and the kinematic quantities, we develop a new approach on the (1 + 3) threading of an almost FLRW universe, with respect to a non-normalized vector field. By this method, we obtain simple expressions for geometric objects and equations involved in the theory of cosmological perturbations. We state three forms of Raychaudhuri equation, which lead us to more accurate intervals for the conformal time with respect to the existence of caustics in the congruence of geodesics.

  9. Caveolin interaction governs Kv1.3 lipid raft targeting

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Capera, Jesusa; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Camps, Marta; Comes, Núria; Tamkun, Michael M.; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial localization of ion channels at the cell surface is crucial for their functional role. Many channels localize in lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae, specific lipid rafts which concentrate caveolins, harbor signaling molecules and their targets becoming signaling platforms crucial in cell physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such spatial localization are under debate. Kv1.3 localizes in lipid rafts and participates in the immunological response. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of Kv1.3 surface targeting, which govern leukocyte physiology. Kv1 channels share a putative caveolin-binding domain located at the intracellular N-terminal of the channel. This motif, lying close to the S1 transmembrane segment, is situated near the T1 tetramerization domain and the determinants involved in the Kvβ subunit association. The highly hydrophobic domain (FQRQVWLLF) interacts with caveolin 1 targeting Kv1.3 to caveolar rafts. However, subtle variations of this cluster, putative ancillary associations and different structural conformations can impair the caveolin recognition, thereby altering channel’s spatial localization. Our results identify a caveolin-binding domain in Kv1 channels and highlight the mechanisms that govern the regulation of channel surface localization during cellular processes. PMID:26931497

  10. Caveolin interaction governs Kv1.3 lipid raft targeting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Capera, Jesusa; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Camps, Marta; Comes, Núria; Tamkun, Michael M; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial localization of ion channels at the cell surface is crucial for their functional role. Many channels localize in lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae, specific lipid rafts which concentrate caveolins, harbor signaling molecules and their targets becoming signaling platforms crucial in cell physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such spatial localization are under debate. Kv1.3 localizes in lipid rafts and participates in the immunological response. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of Kv1.3 surface targeting, which govern leukocyte physiology. Kv1 channels share a putative caveolin-binding domain located at the intracellular N-terminal of the channel. This motif, lying close to the S1 transmembrane segment, is situated near the T1 tetramerization domain and the determinants involved in the Kvβ subunit association. The highly hydrophobic domain (FQRQVWLLF) interacts with caveolin 1 targeting Kv1.3 to caveolar rafts. However, subtle variations of this cluster, putative ancillary associations and different structural conformations can impair the caveolin recognition, thereby altering channel's spatial localization. Our results identify a caveolin-binding domain in Kv1 channels and highlight the mechanisms that govern the regulation of channel surface localization during cellular processes. PMID:26931497

  11. 8. Drawing,front elevation, published in 'The New York Architect', Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Drawing,front elevation, published in 'The New York Architect', Vol. 3,October 1909,page unknown,courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  13. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-yl)iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione

    PubMed Central

    Ghalib, Raza Murad; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In the title iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitro­gen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the iso­quinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, enclosing R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(10) loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking inter­ations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7) Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis. PMID:25705509

  14. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g-1) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li+ transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys

  15. 1,3-Bis[(4-methylbenzylidene)amino-oxy]propane.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Chao; Gao, Su-Xia; Dong, Wen-Kui; Tong, Jun-Feng; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    The title bis-oxime compound, C(19)H(22)N(2)O(2), synthesized by the reaction of 4-methyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde with 1,3-bis-(amino-oxy)propane in ethanol, adopts a V-shaped conformation. The dihedral angle between the rings is 84.59 (3)°. The mol-ecule is disposed about a crystallographic twofold rotation axis, with one C atom lying on the axis. In the crystal, mol-ecules are packed by C-H⋯π(Ph) inter-actions, forming chains. PMID:21578377

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  17. Palladium-catalysed hydroamidocarbonylation of 1,3-dienes.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Fang, Xianjie; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Herein, we report our recent result on the development of the selective catalytic method towards the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated imides via Pd-catalysed hydroamidocarbonylation of conjugated dienes. Note that this reaction proceeds under acid additive free conditions. Various dienes, including those of high industrial value (e.g. isoprene, 1,3-butadiene), are shown to be compatible with our established method (28 examples, 40-99% yield), which leads to the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated imides in a highly efficient and atom-economic fashion. PMID:27169986

  18. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  19. Syndrome measurement order for the [[7,1,3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we explore the accuracy of quantum error correction depending of the order of the implemented syndrome measurements. CSS codes require that bit-flip and phase-flip syndromes be measured separately. To comply with fault-tolerant demands and to maximize accuracy, this set of syndrome measurements should be repeated allowing for flexibility in the order of their implementation. We examine different possible orders of Shor-state and Steane-state syndrome measurements for the [[7,1,3

  20. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance. PMID:27189799

  1. Heats of NF(sub n) (n= 1-3) and NF(sub n)(+)(n = 1-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Accurate heats of formation are computed for NF(sub n) and NF(sub n)(+), for n = 1-3. The geometries and the vibrational frequencies are determined at the B3LYP level of theory. The energetics are determined at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Basis set limit values are obtained by extrapolation. In those cases where the CCSD(T) calculations become prohibitively large, the basis set extrapolation is performed at the MP2 level. The temperature dependence of the heat of formation, heat capacity, and entropy are computed for the temperature range 300 to 4000 K and fit to a polynomial.

  2. Reaction of dichlorocarbene with 2-phenyl-1,3-oxathiolane

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, D.V.; Safiev, O.G.; Zorin, V.V.; Rakhmankulov, D.L.

    1987-10-20

    It was established that the reaction of 2-phenyl-1,3-oxathiolane (I) with dichlorocarbene, generated from chloroform in 50% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide with the use of triethylbenzylammonium chloride as phase-transfer catalyst, leads to the formation of dichloromethyl thiobenzoate (II) and ethylene with yields of 24 and 38% respectively and 60% conversion in the substrate (I). The reaction was conducted at 35-40/sup 0/C for 24 h with the following amounts of the reagents; 0.5 mole of the substrate (I); 5 moles of chloroform; 600 mol of 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution; 1 g of triethylbenzylammonium chloride. Compound (II) was isolated by column liquid chromatography on aluminum oxide (40-250 ..mu..) with a 1:5 mixture of diethyl ether and hexane as eluant. The product was identified by means of the IR, PMR, and /sup 13/C NMR spectra.

  3. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  4. Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, A.P.; Biebl, H.; Deckwer, W.D.

    1996-10-01

    Glycerol is a byproduct from the soap and detergent industry and possibly from future biodiesel plants. The conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (PD) is of industrial interest due to the potential use of PD for the synthesis of polyesters. We have been studying the microbial conversion of glycerol to PD with work ranging from strain isolation, medium optimization, pathway analysis, product formation kinetics and growth modeling, downstream processing and reactor scale-up (up to 2000 1). PD yields of nearly 100% of the theoretical maximum (0.72 mol/mol glycerol) and final product concentrations of about 65 g/l were achieved with both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium butyricum. In addition to summarizing our experimental results the advances of bioconversion of glycerol will be reviewed in this presentation, with emphasis on discussing further research and development needs in this area. Results of process engineering and cost analysis will also be presented.

  5. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  6. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  7. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  8. 1,3,6,8-Tetraethynylpyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis (trimethylsilylethynyl) pyrene: Photophysical properties in homogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyamala, T.; Sankararaman, S.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2006-11-01

    The photophysical properties of two new tetra substituted derivatives of pyrene: 1,3,6,8-tetraethynylpyrene (TEP) and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(trimethylsilylethynyl)pyrene (TEP-TMS) have been studied. Studies were done with respect to mirror image symmetry in the absorption and emission spectra and permissive or forbidden nature of S 0-S 1 transition, solvent sensitivity of the first and third vibronic bands and fluorescence anisotropy. Both the derivatives exhibited a strongly allowed S 0-S 1 transition, high fluorescence quantum yield, shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to pyrene and invariance of the vibronic band intensity ratio to solvent polarity. The behavior of the two pyrene derivatives validates the hypothesis "solvent polarity mediates vibronic coupling and therefore the emission band intensities, for forbidden S 0-S 1 transitions". The trimethylsilyl derivative (TEP-TMS) was characterized by a strong fluorescence in solid state. The tetraethynyl derivative (TEP) showed high fluorescence anisotropy comparable to the well-known anisotropy probe DPH in glycerol at 0 °C. The fluorescence intensities of TEP and TEP-TMS did not show any significant change in the temperature ranger 0-40 °C for a low viscous solvent like ethanol and in the range 0-60 °C in glycerol. Unlike pyrene, no excimer emission was observed even up to 10 -3 M for TEP and TEP-TMS.

  9. Photochemically induced fluorescence studies of 1,3-diethyl-1,3-diphenylurea as stabilizer and its quantitative determination.

    PubMed

    Farokhcheh, Alireza; Alizadeh, Naader

    2014-07-01

    The photochemically induced fluorescence (PIF) studies of 1,3-diethyl-1,3-diphenylurea or ethyl centralite (EC) as stabilizer have been carried out under various conditions. Influences of solvent type (water, methanol, acetonitrile and chloroform), oxygen dependence and UV irradiation time on the spectroscopic properties of EC were studied. In order to obtain a better understanding of the photochemical mechanism, products were identified by mass spectrometry study. A novel fluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of EC based on the PIF. The method is based on the use of UV irradiation to produce fluorescent derivatives from EC as a non-fluorescent molecule. The determination is carried out by UV irradiation for 4min through measuring the fluorescence intensity in 354nm when an excitation wavelength of 227nm was used. Parameters related to the analytical signal and to the PIF are optimized. The linear range for determination of EC was 4×10(-8) to 2×10(-6)mol L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 2×10(-8)mol L(-1) with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 3% (n=5). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of EC in real propellant samples and the acquired results were favorably compared to those obtained with HPLC method. PMID:24795294

  10. Preparation and characterization of layered LiMn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3O 2 as a cathode material by an oxalate co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Shiosaki, Yuki; Noguchi, Hideyuki

    The layered LiMn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3O 2 cathode materials were synthesized by an oxalate co-precipitation method using different starting materials of LiOH, LiNO 3, [Mn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3]C 2O 4·2H 2O and [Mn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3] 3O 4. The morphology, structural and electrochemical behavior were characterized by means of SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis and electrochemical charge-discharge test. The cathode material synthesized by using LiNO 3 and [Mn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3]C 2O 4·2H 2O showed higher structural integrity and higher reversible capacity of 178.6 mAh g -1 in the voltage range 3.0-4.5 V versus Li with constant current density of 40 mA g -1 as well as lower irreversible capacity loss of 12.9% at initial cycle. The rate capability of the cathode was strongly influenced by particle size and specific surface area.

  11. 3-D dumbbell-like LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode materials assembled with nano-building blocks for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Lim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Won-Keun; Kwon, HyukSang

    2014-07-01

    Dumbbell-like microsphere carbonate precursors including multi-transition metal components (Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3CO3) assembled with nano-building blocks were synthesized by urea-assisted solvo/hydrothermal method, and layered cathode materials (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) were subsequently prepared using the similarly shaped carbonate precursors for Li-ion batteries. For the synthesis of hierarchical microsphere structures, the partial addition of viscous organic solvent (e.g. ethylene glycol) in aqueous solution played a crucial role, not only in suppressing the sudden particle growth but also in regulating the directional crystallization of carbonate particles on the surface. The dumbbell-like LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 assembled with nanocubes prepared via the urea-assisted solvo/hydrothermal method exhibited better electrochemical characteristics, such as initial discharge capacity, cyclic performance, and rate-capability as a cathode material of Li-ion batteries, compared with the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials prepared via the conventional co-precipitation method.

  12. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

    2008-12-10

    In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

  13. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots. PMID:24281674

  14. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice, BD was shown to be a potent multiple-site carcinogen at exposure levels of 625 and 1250 ppM. There were increased incidences of neoplasia in the heart, lung, mammary gland, and ovary; malignant lymphomas resulted in early deaths of the mice so that the planned 2-year study was stopped after only 61 weeks of exposure. The second study in mice was conducted at much lower exposure concentrations (6.25, 20, 62.5, 200, and 625 ppM) and lasted 104 weeks. Increased incidences of hemangiosarcomas of the heart and lung neoplasia were observed in males exposed to 62.5 ppM BD, while females had increased lung neoplasia even at the 6.25 ppM exposure level. Early deaths from lymphomas were again observed at the high exposure concentration (625 ppm). A noncancer toxicity observed in mice was a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia.

  16. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J H; Elashoff, J; Porter-Fink, V; Dressman, J; Amidon, G L

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with 113mIn or 99mTc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with 113mIn and of chicken liver labeled with 99mTc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as 99mTc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food. PMID:3360258

  17. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food.

  18. Triphosgene-Pyridine Mediated Stereoselective Chlorination of Acyclic Aliphatic 1,3-Diols†

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Saputra, Mirza A.; Tugwell, Thomas H.; Kartika, Rendy

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to chlorinate stereocomplementary acyclic aliphatic 1,3-diols using a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine. While 1,3-anti diols readily led to 1,3-anti dichlorides, 1,3-syn diols must be converted to 1,3-syn diol monosilylethers to access the corresponding 1,3-syn dichlorides. These dichlorination protocols were operationally simple, very mild, and readily tolerated by advanced synthetic intermediates. PMID:26323232

  19. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as “bad data” is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of “bad data.”.

  20. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  1. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  2. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the λ ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3σ (a typical value of 3σ is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different

  3. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene neurotoxicity - Passage effect in immortalized astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Laura L; Latham, Jackelyn D; Landis, Rory W; Song, Dong Hoon; Epstein, Tamir; Philbert, Martin A

    2016-03-01

    Age-related disturbances in astrocytic mitochondrial function are linked to loss of neuroprotection and decrements in neurological function. The immortalized rat neocortical astrocyte-derived cell line, DI-TNC1, provides a convenient model for the examination of cellular aging processes that are difficult to study in primary cell isolates from aged brain. Successive passages in culture may serve as a surrogate of aging in which time-dependent adaptation to culture conditions may result in altered responses to xenobiotic challenge. To investigate the hypothesis that astrocytic mitochondrial homeostatic function is decreased with time in culture, low passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (LP; #2-8) and high passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (HP; #17-28) were exposed to the mitochondrial neurotoxicant 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Cells were exposed in either monoculture or in co-culture with primary cortical neurons. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential, morphology, ATP production and proliferation were monitored in monoculture, and the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to buffer K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization was examined in co-cultures. In HP DI-TNC1 cells, DNB exposure decreased proliferation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly decreased mitochondrial form factor. Low passage DI-TNC1 cells effectively attenuated K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization in the presence of DNB whereas HP counterparts were unable to buffer K(+) in DNB challenge. Following DNB challenge, LP DI-TNC1 cells exhibited greater viability in co-culture than HP. The data provide compelling evidence that there is an abrupt phenotypic change in DI-TNC1 cells between passage #9-16 that significantly diminishes the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to compensate for neurotoxic challenge and provide neuroprotective spatial buffering. Whether or not these functional changes have an in vivo analog in aging brain remains to be determined. PMID:26769196

  4. Solar neutrinos and 1-3 leptonic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srubabati; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Effects of the 1-3 leptonic mixing on the solar neutrino observables are studied and the signatures of nonzero {theta}{sub 13} are identified. For this we have rederived the formula for 3{nu}-survival probability including all relevant corrections and constructed the isocontours of observables in the sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12}-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} plane. Analysis of the solar neutrino data gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.007{sub -0.007}{sup +0.080} (90% C.L.) for {delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The combination of the ratio CC/NC at Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and gallium production rate selects sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.017{+-}0.026 (1{sigma}). The global fit of all oscillation data leads to zero best value of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}. The sensitivity (1{sigma} error) of future solar neutrino studies to sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} can be improved down to 0.01-0.02 by precise measurements of the pp-neutrino flux and the CC/NC ratio as well as spectrum distortion at high (E>4 MeV) energies. Combination of experimental results sensitive to the low and high energy parts of the solar neutrino spectrum resolves the degeneracy of angles {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 12}. Comparison of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} as well as sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12} measured in the solar neutrinos and in the reactor/accelerator experiments may reveal new effects which can not be seen otherwise.

  5. Benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-pyridinium-2-olate (1/3).

    PubMed

    Campos-Gaxiola, José J; Zamora Falcon, Felipe; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz-Enríquez, Adriana

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO, contains one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecule (BTA) and three pyridin-2-ol mol-ecules each present in the zwitterion form. In the crystal, these entities are linked through O-H⋯O(-) and N(+)-H⋯O(-) hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to (10-1). These layers contain macrocyclic rings of composition [BTA]2[pyol]6 and with graph-set notation R (6) 8(44), which are stacked along c through π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.536 (2)-3.948 (3) Å]. They are inter-connected by N(+)-H⋯O(-) hydrogen-bonded chains of pyridin-2-ol mol-ecules running parallel to c, forming a three-dimensional network. There are also C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present which reinforce the three-dimensional structure. PMID:24826154

  6. Structural changes and thermal stability of charged LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries studied by time-resolved XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kyung-Wan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    Structural changes and their relationship with thermal stability of charged Li 0.33Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode samples have been studied using time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) in a wide temperature from 25 to 600 °C with and without the presence of electrolyte in comparison with Li 0.27Ni 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 cathodes. Unique phase transition behavior during heating is found for the Li 0.33Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode samples: when no electrolyte is present, the initial layered structure changes first to a LiM 2O 4-type spinel, and then to a M 3O 4-type spinel and remains in this structure up to 600 °C. For the Li 0.33Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode sample with electrolyte, additional phase transition from the M 3O 4-type spinel to the MO-type rock salt phase takes place from about 400 to 441 °C together with the formation of metallic phase at about 460 °C. The major difference between this type of phase transitions and that for Li 0.27Ni 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 in the presence of electrolyte is the delayed phase transition from the spinel-type to the rock salt-type phase by stretching the temperature range of spinel phases from about 20 to 140 °C. This unique behavior is considered as the key factor of the better thermal stability of the Li 1-xNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode materials.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of LiCo1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3PO4/C nanocomposite cathode of lithium batteries with high rate performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Sou; Taniguchi, Izumi

    2013-11-01

    Olivine structured LiCo1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3PO4/C nanocomposites were prepared by a combination of spray pyrolysis at 300 °C and wet ball-milling followed by heat treatment at 500 °C for 4 h in a 3%H2 + N2 atmosphere. The formation of a solid solution between LiCoPO4, LiMnPO4, and LiFePO4 at this composition was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with equipped energy dispersive spectroscopy verified that the LiCo1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3PO4/C nanocomposites were agglomerates of LiCo1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3PO4 primary particles with a geometric mean diameter of 107 nm and a uniform chemical composition, and carbon was well distributed on the surface of the agglomerates. The LiCo1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3PO4/C nanocomposite cathode exhibited a high discharge capacity of 159 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C in the potential range of 2.0-5.0 V, corresponding to 94% of theoretical capacity. The capacity retention was 87% after 50 cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 1 C. Furthermore, the rate capability test showed that the high capacity still was retained even at 5 C and 20 C rate with 106 and 72 mAh g-1, respectively.

  8. Morphology and electrochemical performance of Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 cathode material by a slurry spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Gu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shahua

    The spherical Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 powders with appropriate porosity, small particle size and good particle size distribution were successfully prepared by a slurry spray drying method. The Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, ICP, BET, EIS and galvanostatic charge/discharge testing. The material calcined at 950 °C had the best electrochemical performance. Its initial discharge capacity was 188.9 mAh g -1 at the discharge rate of 0.2 C (32 mA g -1), and retained 91.4% of the capacity on going from 0.2 to 4 C rate. From the EIS result, it was found that the favorable electrochemical performance of the Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 cathode material was primarily attributed to the particular morphology formed by the spray drying process which was favorable for the charge transfer during the deintercalation and intercalation cycling.

  9. 3, 3‧-sulfonyldipropionitrile: A novel electrolyte additive that can augment the high-voltage performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiangzhen; Huang, Tao; Pan, Ying; Wang, Wenguo; Fang, Guihuang; Ding, Kaining; Wu, Maoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Our study shows that 3, 3‧-sulfonyldipropionitrile (SDPN), as an electrolyte additive, can dramatically enhance the performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) at high voltages (3.0-4.6 V vs. Li/Li+). After adding 0.2 wt% SDPN to the electrolytes; i.-e., 1.0 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/EMC, the capacity for the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite cell to retain power was significantly increased from 59.5% to 77.3% after only 100 cycles, which shows the promising application of SDPN at higher voltages. Density functional theory calculation results indicate that SDPN had reduced oxidative constancy compared to ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). The effects of SDPN on cell performance are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The testing results indicate that the improvement in cycling activity could be ascribed to the thinner cathode electrolyte interface film originated from SDPN on the LIB using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which reduced the interfacial resistance at a high voltage, but also protected the decomposition of electrolytes and suppressed transition metal dissolution.

  10. Highly enhanced low temperature discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with lithium boron oxide glass modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, ShuangYuan; Wang, Lei; Bian, Liang; Xu, JinBao; Ren, Wei; Hu, PengFei; Chang, AiMin

    2015-03-01

    Although lithium ion battery is known to be an excellent renewable energy provider in electronic markets further application of it has been limited by its notoriously poor performance at low temperature, especially below -20 °C. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials coated by lithium boron oxide (LBO) glass was investigated at a temperature range from 20 to -40 °C. The results show that the LBO coating not only helps to improve the discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at room temperature but also increase the discharge capacity retention of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from 22.5% to 57.8% at -40 °C. Electrochemical impedance spectra results reveal that the LBO coating plays an important role in reducing the charge-transfer resistance on the electrolyte-electrode interfaces and improving lithium ion diffusion coefficients. The mechanism associated with the change of the structure and electrical properties are discussed in detail.

  11. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  12. Proprotein Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in the Rat Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line NR8383: Localization, Trafficking and Effects on Cytokine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Hugo; Refaie, Sarah; Gagnon, Sandra; Desjardins, Roxane; Salzet, Michel; Day, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is an important post-translational processing enzyme for the activation of precursor proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. Well characterized for its role in the neural and endocrine systems, we recently reported an unconventional role of PC1/3 as a modulator of the Toll-like receptor innate immune response. There are only a few reports that have studied PC1/3 expression in macrophages, and more investigation is needed to better characterize its function. These studies would greatly benefit from model cell lines. Our study aims to identify and characterize PC1/3 in a relevant model macrophage cell line and to determine the links between PC1/3 and innate immune cellular responses. We describe the rat alveolar cell line, NR8383, as expressing PC1/3 and the most common Toll-like receptors. In NR8383 cells, PC1/3 is localized at the Trans-Golgi network and traffics to lysosome related vesicles upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, we report the co-localization of PC1/3 and Toll-like receptor 4 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Down regulation of PC1/3 by shRNA produce a similar phenotype in NR8383 to what we previously reported in isolated peritoneal macrophages. PC1/3 shRNA induced changes in the cellular organization and expression of the specific trafficking regulator RAB GTPase. As a consequence, NR8383 down-regulated for PC1/3, present an abnormal cytokine secretion profile. We conclude that the NR8383 cell line represents a good model to study PC1/3 in macrophages and we present PC1/3 as an important regulator of vesicle trafficking and secretion in macrophages. PMID:23637853

  13. Biochemical and Cell Biological Properties of the Human Prohormone Convertase 1/3 Ser357Gly Mutation: A PC1/3 Hypermorph

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elias H.; Peinado, Juan R.; Martín, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    Satiety and appetite signaling are accomplished by circulating peptide hormones. These peptide hormones require processing from larger precursors to become bioactive, often by the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Several subcellular maturation steps are necessary for PC1/3 to achieve its optimal enzymatic activity. Certain PC1/3 variants found in the general population slightly attenuate its enzymatic activity and are associated with obesity and diabetes. However, mutations that increase PC1/3 activity and/or affect its specificity could also have physiological consequences. We here present data showing that the known human Ser357Gly PC1/3 mutant (PC1/3S357G) represents a PC1/3 hypermorph. Conditioned media from human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with PC1/3WT and PC1/3S357G were collected and enzymatic activity characterized. PC1/3S357G exhibited a lower calcium dependence; a higher pH optimum (neutral); and a higher resistance to peptide inhibitors than the wild-type enzyme. PC1/3S357G exhibited increased cleavage to the C-terminally truncated form, and kinetic parameters of the full-length and truncated mutant enzymes were also altered. Lastly, the S357G mutation broadened the specificity of the enzyme; we detected PC2-like specificity on the substrate proCART, the precursor of the cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript neuropeptide known to be associated with obesity. The production of another anorexigenic peptide normally synthesized only by PC2, αMSH, was increased when proopiomelanocortin was coexpressed with PC1/3S357G. Considering the aberrant enzymatic profile of PC1/3S357G, we hypothesize that this enzyme possesses unusual processing activity that may significantly change the profile of circulating peptide hormones. PMID:24932808

  14. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Irradiated 1,3-DIMETHYLXANTHINE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Ekramul

    ESR and ENDOR techniques were used to study the x-ray induced damage in single crystals of the organic molecule theophylline (1,3 dimethylxanthine). A K-band spectrometer operating at 25GHz was used for ESR and ENDOR measurements. X-irradiation was carried out at 25K, 80K, and at room temperature, and spectra were observed as the temperature was varied. The low temperature experiments were achieved by using a closed cycle helium refrigeration system. A detailed analysis was made of the spectra, and four different radicals (R1, R2, R3, and R4) were identified after irradiation. Radical R1 was identified as a hydrogen atom radical, stable from 20 to 60K; radical R2 was identified as an anion radical stable from 20 to 80K; radical R3 was formed by hydrogen abstraction from the methyl group at C(10); and radical R4 was found to be a hydrogen-adduct species. Radical R3 was characterized by the following parameters: (1) Methylene hydrogen hyperfine tensor values of 28.8, 17.8, 13.2 G, and 27.7, 18.9, 8.8 G; (2) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0019, and 2.0036; (3) Isotropic methyl group coupling of 4 G; (4) A spin density of 0.68 on C(10). Radical R4 was characterized by (1) an isotropic methelene hydrogen coupling of 37.1 G; (2) a maximum nitrogen coupling at N(9) of 21 G; (3) hydrogen coupling tensor values, due to protonation at N(9), of 12.0, 8.5, and 3.0 G; (4) rotating methyl group tensor values, at N(1), of 2.38, 2.71, and 5.19 MHz; (5) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0033, and 2.0049; (6) spin density of 0.38 on N(9). A kinetics study indicated that radical R3 converts to radical R4 at about 160 K.

  15. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  16. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-01-04

    This report describes LIP, the Livermore Interpolation Package. Because LIP is a stand-alone version of the interpolation package in the Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) access library, the initials LIP alternatively stand for the ''LEOS Interpolation Package''. LIP was totally rewritten from the package described in [1]. In particular, the independent variables are now referred to as x and y, since the package need not be restricted to equation of state data, which uses variables {rho} (density) and T (temperature). LIP is primarily concerned with the interpolation of two-dimensional data on a rectangular mesh. The interpolation methods provided include piecewise bilinear, reduced (12-term) bicubic, and bicubic Hermite (biherm). There is a monotonicity-preserving variant of the latter, known as bimond. For historical reasons, there is also a biquadratic interpolator, but this option is not recommended for general use. A birational method was added at version 1.3. In addition to direct interpolation of two-dimensional data, LIP includes a facility for inverse interpolation (at present, only in the second independent variable). For completeness, however, the package also supports a compatible one-dimensional interpolation capability. Parametric interpolation of points on a two-dimensional curve can be accomplished by treating the components as a pair of one-dimensional functions with a common independent variable. LIP has an object-oriented design, but it is implemented in ANSI Standard C for efficiency and compatibility with existing applications. First, a ''LIP interpolation object'' is created and initialized with the data to be interpolated. Then the interpolation coefficients for the selected method are computed and added to the object. Since version 1.1, LIP has options to instead estimate derivative values or merely store data in the object. (These are referred to as ''partial setup'' options.) It is then possible to pass the object to functions that

  17. Heteroadamantanes and their derivatives. 4. Synthesis of 1,3,5-triazaadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.I.; Kosmakov, V.A.; Unkovskii, B.V.

    1985-12-01

    Reduction of 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of Raney nickel gave 7-hydroxyamino- and 7-amino-1,3,5-triazaadamantane, from which 7-chloro-, 7-bromo-, and 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantanes were synthesized by substitutive deamination. Desulfurization of 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantane in the presence of Raney nickel gave 1,3,5-triazaadamantane.

  18. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  19. 19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, Jervis Library. CROSS SECTION OF CROTON DAM AS ORIGINALLY BUILT, SHOWING FORE-EMBANKMENT AND 1 TO 1-1/4 SLOPE ON DOWN RIVER SIDE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  20. 10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p. 356 (?),courtesy of Art Institute of Chicago, permission to duplicate courtesy of 'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p 356,courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago,permission to duplicate courtesy of'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates.

    PubMed

    Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Meng, Quanxin; McDonald, Jacob D; Scott, Bobby R; Seilkop, Steven K; Claffey, David J; Upton, Patricia B; Powley, Mark W; Swenberg, James A; Henderson, Rogene F

    2009-08-01

    Current risk assessments of 1,3-butadiene (BD*) are complicated by limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Hence, there is a critical need to identify early events and factors that account for the heightened sensitivity of mice to BD-induced carcinogenesis and to deter-mine which animal model, mouse or rat, is the more useful surrogate of potency for predicting health effects in BD-exposed humans. HEI sponsored an earlier investigation of mutagenic responses in mice and rats exposed to BD, or to the racemic mixture of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (BDO) or of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (BDO2; Walker and Meng 2000). In that study, our research team demonstrated (1) that the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene of splenic T cells from BD-exposed mice and rats could be correlated with the species-related differences in cancer susceptibility; (2) that mutagenic-potency and mutagenic-specificity data from mice and rats exposed to BD or its individual epoxy intermediates could provide useful information about the BD metabolites responsible for mutations in each species; and (3) that our novel approach to measuring the mutagenic potency of a given chemical exposure as the change in Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) over time was valuable for estimating species-specific differences in mutagenic responses to BD exposure and for predicting the effect of BD metabolites in each species. To gain additional mode-of-action information that can be used to inform studies of human responses to BD exposure, experiments in the current investigation tested a new set of five hypotheses about species-specific patterns in the mutagenic effects in rodents of exposure to BD and BD metabolites: 1. Repeated BD exposures at low levels that approach the occupational exposure limit for BD workers (set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) are mutagenic in female mice. 2. The differences in mutagenic responses of the Hprt gene to BD

  3. Structural and Electrochemical Study of Hierarchical LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Lecai; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xie, Man; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a facile nanoetching-template route is developed to synthesize porous nanomicrohierarchical LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microspheres with diameters below 1.5 μm, using porous CoMnO3 binary oxide microspheres as the template. The unique morphology of CoMnO3 template originates from the contraction effect during the oxidative decomposition of Ca0.2Mn0.4Co0.4CO3 precursors and is further improved by selectively removing calcium carbonate with a nanoetching process after calcination. The as-synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microsphere, composed of numerous primary particles and pores with size of dozens of nanometers, illustrates a well-assembled porous nanomicrohierarchical structure. When used as the cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized microspheres exhibit remarkably enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, excellent cycling stability, and better rate capability, compared with the bulk counterpart. Specifically, hierarchical LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 achieves a high discharge capacity of 159.6 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C with 98.7% capacity retention after 75 cycles and 133.2 mA h g(-1) at 1 C with 90% capacity retention after 100 cycles. A high discharge capacity of 135.5 mA h g(-1) even at a high current of 750 mA g(-1) (5 C) is also achieved. The nanoetching-template method can provide a general approach to improve cycling stability and rate capability of high capacity cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26371492

  4. Synthesis and performance of Li[(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)Mgx]O2 prepared from spent lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yaqing; Xu, Shengming; Huang, Guoyong; Jiang, Changyin

    2013-02-15

    To reduce cost and secondary pollution of spent lithium ion battery (LIB) recycling caused by complicated separation and purification, a novel simplified recycling process is investigated in this paper. Removal of magnesium is a common issue in hydrometallurgy process. Considering magnesium as an important additive in LIB modification, tolerant level of magnesium in leachate is explored as well. Based on the novel recycling technology, Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials are achieved from spent LIB. Tests of XRD, SEM, TG-DTA and so on are carried out to evaluate material properties. Electrochemical test shows an initial charge and discharge capacity of the regenerated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) to be 175.4 mAh g(-1) and 152.7 mAh g(-1) (2.7-4.3 V, 0.2C), respectively. The capacity remains 94% of the original value after 50 cycles (2.7-4.3 V, 1C). Results indicate that presence of magnesium up to x=0.01 has no significant impact on overall performance of Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2). As a result, magnesium level as high as 360 mg L(-1) in leachate remains tolerable. Compared with conventional limitation of magnesium content, the elimination level of magnesium exceeded general impurity-removal requirement. PMID:23298741

  5. First-principles study of native point defects in LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2 and Li2MnO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Sik

    2014-08-21

    We have studied native point defects in the layered oxides of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and Li2MnO3, the promising cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries for the application of high lithium capacity, by performing first-principles calculations. Through the calculations of formation energies for native point defects in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, it was found that the Ni vacancy and the LiNi antisite are the most dominant defects, which shows a good agreement with previous experiments. Contrary to the previous experimental analysis, however, the NiLi antisite defect is not dominant, even though both Ni and Li ions have a similar ionic radius. In Li2MnO3, the LiMn antisite defect is dominant under the O-rich and Mn-poor condition. In contrast, the MnLi antisite, the Li vacancy in the Li layer, and the oxygen vacancy are dominant at the chemical potential of the boundary in equilibrium with Li2O. To enhance the migration of Li ions for achieving high power, the experimental syntheses of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 under the Ni-rich condition and Li2MnO3 under O-rich and Mn-poor condition were suggested. For Li2MnO3 suffering from poor electronic conductivity, it was found that the electronic conductivity can be increased by p- and n-type extrinsic doping under the O-rich and Mn-poor condition and the chemical potential of the boundary coexisting with Li2O, respectively, without losing the Li ion conductivity. PMID:25001849

  6. Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Relaxed, Partially Charged Li1- x Ni1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 Secondary Particles.

    PubMed

    Gent, William E; Li, Yiyang; Ahn, Sungjin; Lim, Jongwoo; Liu, Yijin; Wise, Anna M; Gopal, Chirranjeevi Balaji; Mueller, David N; Davis, Ryan; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Park, Jin-Hwan; Doo, Seok-Kwang; Chueh, William C

    2016-08-01

    Ex situ transmission X-ray microscopy reveals micrometer-scale state-of-charge heterogeneity in solid-solution Li1- x Ni1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 secondary particles even after extensive relaxation. The heterogeneity generates overcharged domains at the cutoff voltage, which may accelerate capacity fading and increase impedance with extended cycling. It is proposed that optimized secondary structures can minimize the state-of-charge heterogeneity by mitigating the buildup of nonuniform internal stresses associated with volume changes during charge. PMID:27187238

  7. Etude par resonance magnetique nucleaire de l'azote 15 et du phosphore 31 d'amino-2 dimethyl-1,3 diaza-1,3 phospholanes-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouesnard, J. P.; Dorie, J.

    1980-10-01

    The 15N and 31P NMR study of 2-amino 1,3-dimethyl 1,3-diaza 2-phospholanes shows that the cyclic nitrogen atoms approach a pyramidal sp3 structure and the exocyclic nitrogen atoms an sp2 structure. A determination of the factors that govern δ 15N and 1J31P— 15N is attempted.

  8. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  9. The luminescence of the rare earth cryptates [Tb ⊂ 2.2.1] 3+ and [Sm ⊂ 2.2.1] 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, N.; Dellonte, S.; Blasse, G.

    1986-09-01

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of [Tb ⊂ 2.2.1] 3+ and [Sm ⊂ 2.2.1] 3+ in aqueous solution and the solid state are reported. The role played by multiphonon emission and non-radiative deactivatfon via the excited configuration state in determining the observed luminescence properties is examined.

  10. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...