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Sample records for 99m tc-ubi 29-41

  1. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  2. Studies on batch formulation of a kit for the preparation of the 99mTc-Ubiquicidin (29-41): An infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Arjun, Chanda; Mukherjee, Archana; Bhatt, Jyotsna; Chaudhari, Pradip; Repaka, Krishna Mohan; Venkatesh, Meera; Samuel, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an indigenous cold kit of Ubiquicidin, UBI (29-41), for easy preparation of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41) to be used as an infection imaging agent. A two component kit with the peptide and SnCl2 as vial 1 and optimum amount of NaOH as vial 2 was successfully formulated as seen from the consistent radiochemical and pharmaceutical purity of the product over six consecutive batches of kits. The utility of the kit could be demonstrated through in-vitro and in vivo specificity of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41). PMID:26405838

  3. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  4. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Collins, Emory D.

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  5. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  6. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  7. 7 CFR 29.41 - The Appropriations Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Appropriations Act. 29.41 Section 29.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for 2002 (Pub. L. 107-76)....

  8. Soft-tissue uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate and 99mTc-pyrophosphate in amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Piers, D A; van Rijswijk, M H; Meijer, S; Mandema, E

    1990-01-01

    This study describes the results of scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled methylene-diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) as a noninvasive test for the distribution of organ involvement in five different types of amyloidosis. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled phosphates appeared to be a sensitive noninvasive screening test for the extent and the distribution of organ involvement in systemic AA and systemic AL amyloidosis as well as in local bronchial amyloid, local dermal amyloid, and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Echocardiography, however, was more sensitive for demonstrating cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis than 99mTc-MDP or 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy. 99mTc-MDP images showed a better contrast than 99mTc-PYP images, although there was no difference in the extent or the intensity of soft-tissue uptake. PMID:2166666

  9. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program. PMID:24569706

  10. Pharmacokinetics of the phosphatidylserine tracers 99mTc-lactadherin and 99mTc-annexin V in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid normally located in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. PS is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during the early stages of apoptosis and in necrosis. In cell and animal studies, reversible PS externalisation to the outer membrane leaflet has been observed in viable cells. Hence, PS markers have been proposed as markers of both reversibly and irreversibly damaged cells. The purpose of this experimental study in pigs was to investigate the kinetics of the newly introduced PS marker technetium-99m-labelled lactadherin (99mTc-lactadherin) in comparison with the well-known PS tracer 99mTc-annexin V with special reference to the renal handling of the tracers. The effective dose for humans was estimated from the biodistribution in 24 mice. Methods Nine anaesthetised pigs randomly allocated into two treatment groups were administered a single injection of either 99mTc-lactadherin or 99mTc-annexin V. Renal perfusion was assessed by simultaneous injection of 51Cr-EDTA. Throughout the examinations, planar, dynamic scintigraphy of the trunk was performed, urine was collected and arterial and renal vein blood was sampled. The effective dose was estimated using the adult male phantom from the RADAR website. Results 99mTc-lactadherin was cleared four times faster from plasma than 99mTc-annexin V, 57 ± 13 ml/min (mean ± SD) versus 14 ± 2 ml/min. 99mTc-lactadherin had a predominant uptake in the liver, whereas 99mTc-annexin V was primarily taken up by the kidneys. The estimated effective human dose after single injection of 99mTc-lactadherin and 99mTc-annexin V was 5.8 and 11 μSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusions The high hepatic uptake of 99mTc-lactadherin compromises the use of 99mTc-lactadherin for imaging PS externalisation in the liver. Due to scatter from the liver, the use of in vivo visualisation of PS externalisation in the lower thorax and upper abdomen by 99m

  11. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  12. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  13. Relative biological effectiveness of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Narra, V R; Sastry, K S; Goddu, S M; Howell, R W; Strand, S E; Rao, D V

    1994-12-01

    The radiotoxicity of three 99mTc-labeled compounds is investigated using spermatogenesis in mouse testis as the experimental model, and spermatogonial cell survival as the biological end point. The radiopharmaceuticals studied are pertechnetate (99mTcO4-), pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), and hydroxyethylene diphosphate (99mTc-HDP). The mean lethal doses at 37% survival (D37) are 0.70 +/- 0.06, 0.84 +/- 0.13, and 0.59 +/- 0.08 Gy for 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-PYP, and 99mTc-HDP, respectively. When these results are compared with the D37 value obtained with external x rays or internal gamma rays, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of these compounds are 0.94 +/- 0.09, 0.79 +/- 0.13, and 1.1 +/- 0.16, respectively. These results show that the radiotoxicity of 99mTc in mouse testis is essentially similar to that of low-LET radiations (i.e., RBE approximately 1). To understand these results, the distribution of these radiocompounds in the testis is determined and correlated with the observed RBE values. The expected range of RBE values for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals in organs is 0.95 to 1.5, depending on the fraction of organ activity that is bound to DNA. This suggests that the Auger electrons emitted in the decay of 99mTc are not capable of causing extreme toxicity in vivo. These results provide further support for 99mTc as the radionuclide of choice for imaging in nuclear medicine. PMID:7700199

  14. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  15. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  16. (99m)Tc-labeled porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Shao, Shuai; Cheng, Kenneth T; Lovell, Jonathan F; Paik, Chang H

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles (PLN) have been developed with intrinsic capabilities as activatable multimodal photonic contrast agents. Radiolabeling of PLN encapsulating drugs could eventually be able to provide quantitative in vivo information for diagnosing and treating diseases. In this study, we developed (99m)Tc-labeled porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles ((99m)Tc-PLN) as a cargo-encapsulated formulation without significant impact on liposome integrity and encapsulation stability. 50 mM calcein was encapsulated into PLN by probe sonication. The size of the PLN was about 150 nm. The PLN were then reacted with (99m)Tc using SnCl2 dissolved in 1 mM HCl as a reducing agent and incubated for 10 min at 22 °C. The radiolabeling efficiency and stability of (99m)Tc-PLN were evaluated by instant thin-layer chromatography and low-pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). (99m)Tc labeling was successful with a >92% labeling efficiency. LPLC showed that the liposomal elution peaks of the porphyrin-lipid and the calcein overlapped with the radioactivity elution peak of (99m)Tc-labeled PLN. The (99m)Tc-labeling procedure did not change the size of PLN. Encapsulated calcein remained inert inside PLN. Thus, this work lays out a simple and effective radiolabeling method using SnCl2 in HCl in the preparation of (99m)Tc-PLN. PMID:24963601

  17. Importance of markers in Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial images

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.J.; Micklos, T.J.; Nishiyama, H.

    1985-02-01

    A false-positive Tc-99m PYP myocardial scan may result due to gastric activity from the breakdown of radiopharmaceuticals and accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in gastric cells. Importance of anatomic landmarks during early blood pool images is emphasized to prevent this error.

  18. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  19. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  20. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  1. (99m)Tc-labeled therapeutic inhaled amikacin loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M; Olivier, Kenneth N; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R; Paik, Chang H

    2013-12-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e. an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with (99m)Tc, nebulization properties of (99m)Tc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation ((99m)Tc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low-pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with (99m)Tc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified (99m)Tc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4 °C to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified (99m)Tc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of (99m)Tc-LAI, indicating that (99m)Tc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl₂ in 0.91 mM ascorbic acid produced (99m)Tc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  2. Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  3. 99mTc-labeled Therapeutic Inhaled Amikacin Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T.; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R.; Paik, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e., an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with 99mTc, nebulization properties of 99mTc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation (99mTc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with 99mTc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified 99mTc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4oC to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified 99mTc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of 99mTc-LAI, indicating that 99mTc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl2 in 0.91mM ascorbic acid produced 99mTc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  4. Lymphoscintigraphy in melanoma patients using Tc-99m dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, D.; Padgett, H.; Henze, E.; Carlson, C.; Bennett, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal of regional lymph nodes draining the site of a melanoma is a generally practiced procedure. It is often difficult in many cases of truncal melanomas near the midline or near the waistline to determine which group or groups of nodes to remove. Colloidal Au-198, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid have all been used and have given useful clinical information. Objections, however, have been raised to the local radiation dose with these compounds. To reduce this problem while obtaining greater information on lymph flow, the authors have studied dextran, a macromolecule commonly used as plasma substitute. Dextran (average mol. wt. 72,000) labeled with Tc-99m has been used to study lymph drainage from the site of truncal melanoma in 29 patients. Serial images in the first hour following intradermal injection clearly demonstrate tracer in efferent lymphatics within 5 to 10 minutes, and brief pooling in the regional lymph nodes between 20 and 60 minutes. When compared with particulate tracers such as micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid, the Tc-99m dextran appears to move much faster through the lymphatics. Overall distribution of the Tc-99m dextran to lymph nodes is very similar to previous findings with micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Dextran drainage to more than one group of regional nodes was seen in 12/29 patients as compared with 17/50 patients using micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. The superior images with Tc-99m dextran appear to make it the agent of choice.

  5. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  6. Comparison of technetium-99m pyrophosphate and technetium-99m DTPA aerosols for SPECT ventilation lung imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Isitman, A.T.; Collier, B.D.; Palmer, D.W.; Trembath, L.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Peck, D.C.; Dellis, C.J.

    1988-11-01

    Although (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently the most widely used radioaerosol, rapid alveolar clearance limits its usefulness for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation lung imaging. Previous research has shown that (/sup 99m/Tc)phosphate compounds have high alveolar deposition and slow clearance and thus provide suitable aerosols for pulmonary ventilation studies. We have compared the pulmonary retention and blood levels of (/sup 99m/Tc)pyrophosphate (PYP) and (99mTc)DTPA in eight normal nonsmoking male volunteers. These two radioaerosols have comparable pulmonary deposition. Technetium-99m PYP, however, has a much slower pulmonary clearance which allows sufficient time (20 or more minutes) for SPECT data acquisition using a single-headed rotating gamma camera. While the radiation absorbed dose to the lungs for (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP (0.31 rad/mCi) is greater than for (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (0.11 rad/mCi), it is at a clinically acceptable and safe level.

  7. Radiation absorbed dose from technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.; Zanelli, G.D.; Veall, N.

    1987-02-01

    The whole-body retention of intravenously administered (99mTc)DTPA was measured by urine analysis and whole-body counting in eight normal subjects. On average, the elimination of (99mTc)DTPA was faster in these subjects than in 11 patients under study for hypertension whose whole-body retention data were used in MIRD Dose Estimate Report No. 12. The average residence time for (99mTc)DTPA in total body, less bladder contents, was only 65% of the MIRD value. However, despite this difference, the dosimetry is similar in both cases largely owing to the influence of radioactivity in bladder contents. Approximately 2-3% of the administered radioactivity was retained in the body for a time that was long relative to the physical half-life of 99mTc, and probably reflects a small amount of protein binding of the DTPA preparation.

  8. [Diagnosis of achalasia using 99m-Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Mikosch, P; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Lind, P

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99mTc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99mTc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99mTc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99mTc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. PMID:9395425

  9. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  10. Imaging considerations for a technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agent

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Lister-James, J.; Campbell, S.; Holman, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with /sup 201/Tl chloride suffers from a number of physical, geometric, and dosimetric constraints that could be diminished if an agent labeled with /sup 99m/Tc were available. The cationic complex /sup 99m/Tc hexakis-(t-butylisonitrile)technetium(I) ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) has been shown to concentrate in the myocardial tissue of both animals and humans, with preliminary clinical studies demonstrating a number of technical attributes not possible with /sup 201/Tl. Technetium-99m-TBI is a promising myocardial imaging agent that may permit high quality planar, gated, and tomographic imaging of both myocardial ischemia and infarction with reduced imaging times and improved resolution.

  11. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.

    1986-02-01

    Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions.

  12. A neutral technetium-99m complex for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; Feld, T.; Wedeking, P.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m-CDO-MeB (Bis(1,2-cyclohexanedione-dioximato(1-)- O)-(1,2-cyclohexanedione dioximato(2-)-O)methyl-borato(2-)- N,N',N'',N''',N'''',N''''')-chlorotechnetium belongs to a family of compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). It has an intrinsic affinity for the myocardium, with negligible lung activity and rapid blood clearance. The uptake of 3.44% ID in rat heart at 1 min postinjection for ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB versus 3.03% for {sup 201}TI indicates high extraction of ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB by the myocardium. In dogs an ischemic defect is clearly seen in SPECT images obtained 10 min after injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB. Tissue distribution data in rats show that ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB is excreted primarily in the feces and to a lesser extent in the urine. Approximately 80% of the activity is excreted within 24 hr after injection.

  13. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  14. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  16. Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O.

    1996-11-01

    SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  20. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-01-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney. PMID:23559713

  1. [Complementary scintigraphic examinations (99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-MIBI and Octreoscan) in breast neoplasm assessment].

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, C; Chossiere, L; Rusu, V; Meignan, M

    1996-01-01

    Scintigraphic imagery was used in breast carcinoma mostly for the bone metastases screening, using 99mTc-MDP. Others radiopharmaceuticals can be used to visualize either the primary tumour or the soft tissues metastases. It's mainly the case of 99mTc-MIBI, and also of some somatostatin analogues, like Octreoscan. This case report of a patient with a T3N1M+ breast adenocarcinoma having different secondary sites represent also a prove of the complementarity of these explorations, which give the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation and, in the same time, the possibility of a better understood of the metastasizing mechanism. PMID:9455458

  2. Joint scintigraphy using technetium-99m pyrophosphate in experimental hemarthrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Salimi, Z.; Vas, W.; Restrepo, G.

    1986-02-01

    To determine the validity of a method for induction of experimental hemarthrosis in dogs and for the nuclear imaging of hemarthrosis, serial technetium-99m pyrophosphate ((/sup 99m/Tc)PYP) flow and blood-pool scans were performed monthly in eight dogs who received bi-weekly injections of autologous blood into their femoro-tibial joints (also called stifle joint). In four control dogs, one joint was injected with saline while the other joint received only a sham injection. In addition, two dogs received intra-articular injections of autologous blood into their right stifle joint and saline into their left stifle joint. These dogs were studied with /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ joint scintigraphy at monthly intervals. The dogs were periodically taken out of the study and explored surgically. Pathologic examination of synovial tissue was performed. Serial radiographs were also obtained and correlated with the scan and surgical findings. There was a striking abnormal increase in blood-pool activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP in the treated stifle joints, commencing at the first examination after 1 mo of blood injections and continuing for the length of the study. All radiographs showed only minimal joint space widening and some soft-tissue swelling. On pathologic examination, both grossly and microscopically, there was profuse pannus formation, with intense inflammatory infiltrate replacing much of the subsynovial fat. The scintigraphic findings correlated well with these pathologic findings. This study not only validates this method for simulating hemophilic hemarthrosis but also suggests that (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP joint scintigraphy is a simple, and noninvasive method for monitoring the early changes in hemophilic arthropathy and is superior to pertechnetate imaging for this disease process.

  3. Comparison of technetium-99m IgG with technetium-99m red blood cells labeling in cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Asli, Isa Neshandar; Semnani, Shahriar; Jallalat, Sara; Ansari, Mojtaba; Amini, Abdullatif; Barekat, Maryam; Assadi, Majid

    2011-01-01

    This first clinical prospective study was conducted to use of technetium-99m immunoglobulin G ((99m)Tc-IgG) as compared with autologous (99m)Tc-red blood cells (RBC) in gated blood pool ventriculography. We studied 12 patients who referred to us for a possible diagnosis of liver hemangioma or infection. Six patients underwent gated planar blood pool (GPBP) acquisition using (99m)Tc-RBC and 6 GPBP acquisition using (99m)Tc-IgG. The use of (99m)Tc-IgG in cardiac blood pool studies provided comparable images to (99m)Tc-RBC. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-IgG, which is readily available and needs only a single injection, may be an attractive alternative to (99m)Tc-RBC for the estimation of various cardiac function parameters like left ventricular function. PMID:21512662

  4. [A new lymph node imaging agent--99mTc-polyphase liposome oleatis (99mTc-plo)].

    PubMed

    Yu, B F

    1988-07-01

    A new lymph node radio-imaging agent, technetium-99m polyphase liposome oleatis (99mTc-plo), has recently been developed. Polyphase liposome oleatis was labelled with radionuclide by stannous chloride method. The labelled rate was 90% or more as technically identified by thin layer chromatography, external gamma-camera imaging and radioautography. In animal experiment, 0.2-0.3 ml (0.2 mci) of the 99mTc-plo was injected subcutaneously into the toes web of rats. After half an hour, the regional lymph nodes of popliteal fossa were visualized very clearly. The imaging figures may keep their distinct shadow up to 24 hours. The tested rabbits were sacrificed 10 hours after 99mTc-plo injection for detecting various kinds of tissue and organ with a scintillation counter. The regional lymph nodes revealed the highest uptake rate of the new agent, 12,116; 1,303; 1,615 times higher than that of the adjacent muscles, liver and spleen, respectively. In clinical experiment, 0.2-0.3 ml (0.5-0.8 mci) of the 99mTc-plo was injected subcutaneously into the toes web of patients. Half an hour later, the lymph nodes of inguinal, external iliac and common iliac regions appeared in sequence. If the new agent is injected perianally, the internal iliac lymph nodes will be seen. No side effect was observed in both types of experiment. This new agent has been tried in rats, rabbits and dogs with similar positive results. The new lymph node imaging technique is simple, safe, reliable and reproducible. This agent, being directed toward the lymph nodes and possessing affinity to cancer cells, is expected to be supplementary method to CT and B-ultrasonography for detecting lymphoid malignancy and lymph node metastasis. PMID:3248482

  5. Bone metastasis on Tc99-m sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Lachin; Jabi, Feraas

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to our department for a stress myocardial perfusion imaging study with Tc99m-sestamibi. Incidental focal uptake, found in the left upper anterior chest, was initially felt to be located in the left breast. After additional single-photon CT imaging was performed the same day, extracardiac foci within the ribs, spine, and left lung (worrisome for active metastases) were shown to be present, with the initial focus located within a left rib rather than a breast. A review of previous radiographic and nuclear imaging studies confirmed metastatic disease from recurrent follicular thyroid cancer. Atypical focal extracardiac activity must be closely scrutinized for the possibility of malignancy, as Tc99m-sestamibi (in addition to being myocardium-avid) is tumor-avid.

  6. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  7. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  8. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  9. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  10. Chemical breakdown of technetium-99m DTPA during nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdoerster, G.D.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.J.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1987-03-01

    Aerosols of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) used for measuring lung permeability and lung ventilation require a radioaerosol delivery system to produce an aerosol with reproducible size and radiochemical purity. To test how well nebulizers meet this requirement, radiochemical purity of aerosols produced with a jet and an ultrasonic nebulizer was evaluated. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of radioaerosols were 0.46 micron (sigma g = 1.6) for the jet nebulizer and 0.70 micron (sigma g = 1.7) for the ultrasonic nebulizer. Paper and liquid chromatographic assays were obtained on the (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol solute produced with each nebulizer. The results of these tests showed major differences in radiochemical purity. Aerosols produced in the jet nebulizer consistently showed greater than 90% of the radioactivity bound to the DTPA ligand whereas aerosols produced in the ultrasonic nebulizer showed less than 10% of the radioactivity bound to DTPA. The results support the need to test radiochemical purity of aerosols before using an aerosol nebulizer for pulmonary imaging and clearance studies.

  11. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  12. Detection of obstructive uropathy using 99m technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Grove, R.B.; Bauriedel, J.K.; Orr, S.C.; Melton, R.E.; Bowenn, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    A simple, accurate test with no morbidity and effective for the detection of urinary tract obstruction in patients with normal and impaired renal function would be of significant clinical use. The ability of 99m technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid to detect the presence or absence of obstruction is evaluated. Obstructions were defined as abnormal retention of activity in the collecting system persisting in the delayed images. Diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid identified correctly 13 of 13 patients proved to have obstruction and 17 of 18 without obstruction. These data indicate a sensitivity of 100 percent, specificity of 94 percent and accuracy of 97 percent.

  13. 99mTechnetium Sestamibi-123Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than 99mTechnetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ryhänen, Eeva M.; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with 123I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive 99mTc-sestamibi/123I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I scintigraphy is more accurate than 99mTc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone. PMID:25722888

  14. Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

  15. Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

  16. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  17. Binding of ciprofloxacin labelled with technetium Tc 99m versus 99mTc-pertechnetate to a live and killed equine isolate of Escherichia coil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kate; Drost, W Tod; Mattoon, John S; Kowalski, Joseph J; Funk, Julie A; Crabtree, Amanda C

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes a simple methodology for evaluating the bacterial binding of ciprofloxacin labelled with technetium Tc 99m. Using this methodology, the binding of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by live Escherichia coli was compared with the binding of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by killed E. coli and the binding of 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) by live E. coli. The antimicrobial effect of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin on E. coli was evaluated. Four groups were defined: live E. coli with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, live E. coli with 99mTcO4 , killed E. coli with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, and killed E. coli with 99mTcO4-. After 0, 2, and 4 h of incubation of 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units of E. coli suspended in 5 mL of sterile distilled water with 1.85 MBq of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin or 99mTcO4, 1 mL from each sample was centrifuged. The radioactivity of the bacterial pellet and that of the supernatant were measured separately, and the percentage of sample radioactivity attributable to bacterial binding was calculated. Of the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, 3.6% to 5.9% was bound to live or killed E. coli; only 0.1% to 0.2% of the 99mTcO4- was bound to live E. coli (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in 99mTc-ciprofloxacin binding was found between live and killed E. coli (P = 0.887). An antimicrobial effect on E. coli was seen with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin: colony counts were reduced after 4 h. The small amount of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin binding and the lack of difference in binding between live and killed E. coli may limit the utility of this methodology in evaluating the presence of E. coli infection. PMID:16479725

  18. Discordant uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid in a patient with severe acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, C; Matsunaga, T; Kubo, K

    1994-08-01

    A patient with recently diagnosed severe acute hepatitis underwent serial liver scintigraphy with Tc-99m Sn colloid and Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin. In initial studies, radionuclide distribution on Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin scintigraphy was completely discrepant to that on Tc-99m Sn colloid scintigraphy. In a follow-up study 1 month later, the distribution of both radionuclides in the liver appeared relatively homogeneous. The uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid reflects the function of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, respectively. Both kinds of scintigraphic study may be helpful to assess histopathologic change of different hepatic tissue architectures. PMID:7955747

  19. Macrocyclic complexes of technetium-99m for use as diagnostic radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Troutner, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes the use of the class of lipophilic macrocyclic complexes of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) as diagnostic radionuclides. The complexes are formed by complexing in aqueous solution technetium-99m pertechnetate (TcO/sub 4/--99m) under reducing conditions with an alkylene amine oxime containing from 2 to 4 carbons in the alkylene group. The complexes have a zero charge, containing an O-H-O ring closure bond, and are sufficiently stable for parenteral administration.

  20. Fractionated elution using the TEKCIS technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jonathan; De Mil, Rémy; Peyronnet, Damien; Hecquard, Claudine; Agostini, Denis; Lemonnier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The TEKCIS technetium-99m (Tc) generator was designed to allow dry column shipment and automatized conception. A high Tc radioactive concentration is required in a subset of radiopharmacy procedures. Fractionated elution can be a useful tool to meet this requirement, especially when current elution is close to the generator expiration date. The aim of our study was to assess TEKCIS generator elution kinetics and to determine the optimal fractionated elution time to fit with procedures requiring the highest Tc radioactive concentration in clinical use. After duplicate elution at several predetermined elution times, the volume and activity of each eluate were measured. Two optimal time points were selected to perform fractionated elution and repeatability (n=34 and 33) assessed on TEKCIS generators calibrated at 6 or 8 GBq. The complete eluate volume (5 ml) was collected after 60 s of elution. A logarithmic equation was established between eluate volume (v, ml) from elapsed elution time (t, s): v=1.8335ln(t)-2.5965. Using the reciprocal equation, elution times required to obtain some commonly eluted volumes were calculated. Fractionated elutions during 15 and 20 s were selected and an average elution volume from 2.74 to 3.27 ml was collected, with an average elution yield of approximately 90 and 100%, respectively. Our work provides a simple and reliable methodology for the use of fractionated elution with the new TEKCIS generator. PMID:26945284

  1. Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: preparation and preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Krohn, K.A.

    1985-10-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ((Tc) NGA), a labeled analog ligand to the hepatocyte-specific receptor, hepatic binding protein (HBP), was prepared and tested for labeling yield, stability, biodistribution, toxicity, and dosimetry. The ligand was synthesized by the covalent coupling of a carbohydrate bifunctional reagent, 2-imino-2-ethyloxymethyl-1-thiogalactose, to human serum albumin. Testing in mice and rabbits revealed the product to be nontoxic and apyrogenic. Biodistribution studies in rabbits demonstrated the liver as the single focus of tracer uptake. Dosimetry was based on kinetic studies in three baboons. Absorbed doses to liver, small intestine, urinary bladder wall, and uterus were 0.089, 0.28, 0.56, and 0.88 rad/mCi, respectively. Total body, lens of the eye, red marrow, ovaries, and testes were less than 0.06 rad/mCi. High liver specificity imparted by receptor binding combined with high labeling yield, stability, acceptable dosimetry, and safety provide (Tc)NGA with the attributes required for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function.

  2. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracer from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labelled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We concluded that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  3. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracers from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labeled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We conclude that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  4. Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

  5. Lung ventilation studies with technetium-99m Pseudogas

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lomas, F.E.; Evans, V.A.; McLaren, C.J.; Arnot, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Technetium-99m Pseudogas is an ultrafine near monodisperse aerosol of 0.12-microgram diam particle size. This report describes initial clinical experiences with 27 patients referred for investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism, and in whom Pseudogas ventilation images were compared with a high quality commercial aerosol. An additional group of ten patients with severe COPD was examined in a comparative trial of Pseudogas with 81mKr. Pseudogas was better than a conventional aerosol in reaching a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using a simple blinded comparison with coded images. In addition, bronchial deposition was minimal unless COPD was severe. Moderately well patients had no difficulty inhaling the necessary activity in one or two breaths, and even severely ill and frail aged persons could accomplish the passive breathing maneuver in less than a minute. Clearance of Pseudogas was directly to the systemic circulation with a half-time of 10 min in normal subjects extending up to 100 min in patients with airways disease.

  6. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine Radiopharmaceuticals using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pirdamooie, Shokufeh; Shanei, Ahmad; Moslehi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of absorbed dose to the kidneys, spleen, and liver during technetium-99 m ethylene dicysteine and technetium-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan, were divided into two groups (Groups 1 and 2). The first group (Group 1) and the second group (Group 2) received intravenous injection of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTP, respectively. A certain amount of radiopharmaceuticals was injected into each patient and was immediately imaged with dual-head gamma camera to calculate the activity through the conjugated view method. Then, the doses of kidney, liver, and spleen were measured using medical internal radiation dosimetry method. Finally, absorbed dose of these organs was compared. Based on these different results (P < 0.05), organs absorbed dose was significantly less with radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC as compared with 99mTc-DTPA. PMID:26284173

  7. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  8. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  9. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  10. Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine: a new renal tubular function agent.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, L

    2000-03-01

    Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine (EC), a metabolite of ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD), is a new technetium-labelled renal tubular function tracer introduced as an alternative to ortho-iodohippurate (OIH) and with imaging qualities similar to 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). The elimination of 99mTc-EC is principally via active tubular transport. It is available in lyophilised kit form which can be easily prepared at room temperature, and the compound remains stable for at least 8 h. Both in normal individuals and in patients, plasma clearance of 99mTc-EC has been reported to be around 0.75 of OIH clearance. Thus there is a very strict correlation between 99mTc-EC and OIH clearance, and several algorithms are available to estimate OIH clearance from 99mTc-EC clearance. The renal extraction ratio of 99mTc-EC is 0.70. The distribution volume of 99mTc-EC is twice that of 99mTc-MAG3 (20% of body weight) and slightly higher than that of OIH. The plasma protein-bound fraction of 99mTc-EC (30%) is significantly lower than that of 99mTc-MAG3 and OIH. The same applies to red blood cell binding of 99mTc-EC (5.7%). There is negligible uptake in the liver and intestines. Within 1 h 70% of 99mTc-EC is excreted in the urine. 99mTc-EC provides the same scintigraphic information as 99mTc-MAG3. The lower liver activity makes 99mTc-EC particularly attractive in patients with renal failure. The 99mTc-EC clearance can be accurately estimated from a single plasma sample obtained at 54 min after injection. In conclusion, 99mTc-EC is a suitable renal imaging agent and for some applications is even more attractive than OIH: it provides an index of tubular function and yields high-quality images. The labelling procedure is easy, radiochemical purity is high and the complex is stable for a long time. The extent to which 99mTc-EC is adopted for clinical use will ultimately depend upon its cost and availability. PMID:10774890

  11. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    PubMed

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. PMID:27015650

  12. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  13. Tissular distributions and kinetics of two renal 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in rat.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, F; Petiet, A; Petegnief, Y; Colas-Linhart, N; Bok, B

    2001-05-01

    A digital radioimager (RI), conventional radioautography (RA), and tracks microradioautography (MRA) were used to assess the biodistributions and kinetics of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic (99mTc-DMSA) and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) in rat at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Three groups of male Wistar rats were studied. Using gamma-counting, kidney, liver, spleen and blood kinetics of both tracers were assessed in the three groups. Using RA and RI, renal slices were analyzed in group 1 the animals being sacrified from 2 to 60 min after injection of 99mTc-MAG3, and in group 2 the animals being sacrificed from 0.5 to 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA. Using MRA, renal slices were analyzed for 99mTc-DMSA (group 3). RA films and RI images displayed the variation with time of the cortical and medullary uptakes of the tracers. No regional heterogeneity within the different structures could be seen neither with RA films nor with MRA. The remaining activity in the blood 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA was evaluated. The tissular distributions of both tracer being homogenous, mean values of cortical uptake seems to be acceptable for dosimetric studies. Our results incite to use of 99mTc-MAG3 instead of 99mTc-DMSA when both tracers may be indicated. PMID:11441950

  14. Generation of parametric images during routine Tc-99m PYP inhalation/Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scintigraphy. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Miron, S D; Wiesen, E J; Feiglin, D H; Cohen, A M; Bellon, E M

    1991-07-01

    A simple technique is described for generating ventilation/perfusion ratio and perfusion/ventilation ratio images from the posterior Tc-99m PYP aerosol inhalation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion images obtained during routine lung scintigraphy. These images highlight areas of ventilation/perfusion incongruence--mismatch or reverse mismatch--that may sometimes be difficult to detect on conventional images. PMID:1834387

  15. Technetium-99m labeled RBC imaging in gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging is becoming increasingly useful in detecting gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites. A patient is presented who had massive GI bleeding from an unsuspected gastric leiomyoma in whom a Tc-99m sulfur colloid GI bleed image was negative. The Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging done on the day after sulfur colloid imaging revealed increased gastric activity due to active bleeding from an intragastric leiomyoma. Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging helped in early detection of the bleeding site resulting in its successful treatment. This experience also reinforces the assertion that Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging may be more helpful than Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging in patients with upper GI or intermittent bleeding.

  16. Characterization of technetium-99m-L,L-ECD for brain perfusion imaging, Part 1: Pharmacology of technetium-99m ECD in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Walovitch, R.C.; Hill, T.C.; Garrity, S.T.; Cheesman, E.H.; Burgess, B.A.; O'Leary, D.H.; Watson, A.D.; Ganey, M.V.; Morgan, R.A.; Williams, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (({sup 99m}Tc)ECD) is a neutral, lipophilic complex which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Brain retention and tissue metabolism of ({sup 99m}Tc)ECD is dependent upon the stereochemical configuration of the complex. While both L,L and D,D enantiomers are extracted by the brain, only the L,L but not the D,D form, is metabolized and retained in the monkey brain (4.7% injected dose initially, T 1/2 greater than 24 hr). Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies in one monkey indicates {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD to be distributed in a pattern consistent with regional cerebral blood flow for up to 16 hr postinjection. Dual-labeled {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine autoradiography studies performed 1 hr after administration show cortical gray to white matter ratios of both isotopes to be equivalent (approximately 4-5:1). These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD will be useful for the scintigraphic assessment of cerebral perfusion in humans.

  17. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  18. Diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma with Tc-99m RBC SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ki, W W; Shin, J W; Won, K S; Ryu, J S; Yang, S O; Lee, H K; Kim, Y J

    1997-08-01

    The authors report two cases of orbital cavernous hemangioma diagnosed by Tc-99m RBC SPECT. Tc-99m RBC SPECT showed a typical scintigraphic pattern commonly seen in hepatic hemangioma in which there is intense focally increased uptake on delayed SPECT images. Tc-99m RBC SPECT in orbital cavernous hemangioma may be as useful a diagnostic modality as in hepatic hemangioma. PMID:9262901

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  20. 99mTc-Labeled HYNIC-DAPI Causes Plasmid DNA Damage with High Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, 99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by 99mTcO4− (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the 99mTcO4− treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the 99mTcO4– treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the 99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, 99mTcO4− induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately 10-fold in terms of

  1. Hypoxia-induced redox alterations and their correlation with 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-HL-91 uptake in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Serra, Maria Elisa Silva; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Rio, Joana; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Laranjo, Mafalda; Rocha-Gonsalves, António Manuel; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2010-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and is an example of a solid tumour in which hypoxia is a common feature and develops because of the inability of the vascular system to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to growing tumours. Hypoxia effects on tumour cell biology can be detected and characterized using different methods. The use of imaging with gamma-emitting radionuclides to detect hypoxic tissue was first suggested by Chapman in 1979 [N Engl J Med 301 (1979) 1429-1432]. (99m)Tc-4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2,11-dione dioxime, also known as (99m)Tc-HL-91, has been among the most studied hypoxia markers. The objective of this study was to correlate the uptake of (99m)Tc-HL-91 and (99m)Tc-MIBI in colon cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to compare this information with some parameters such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the in vitro (99m)Tc-HL-91 uptake is higher in hypoxic conditions, which is confirmed by the decreased uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI. Flow cytometry results demonstrate that hypoxic conditions used are not enough to induce cellular death, but are responsible for the alterations in the intracellular redox environment, namely, increase of ROS production, proteic pimonidazol-derived adduct formation and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Therefore, these results confirm that (99m)Tc-HL-91 is a radiopharmaceutical with favourable characteristics for detecting hypoxia. PMID:20152711

  2. Effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the myocardial distribution of technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.A.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Kloner, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) is a promising new radiotracer for myocardial imaging. Its myocardial uptake is sufficiently high in humans to permit planar, tomographic, and gated images of excellent technical quality. We studied the behavior of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion in order to determine the relationship between (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI myocardial concentration and blood flow. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) measured with radiolabeled microspheres was excellent. In a dog model of transient hyperemia, the concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was directly related to blood flow but underestimated the degree of hyperemia. Technetium-99m TBI redistributed into transiently ischemic myocardium. The myocardial concentrations of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and thallium-201(/sup 201/TI) in transiently ischemic myocardium were similar at 10 and 30 min following reperfusion and were significantly higher than blood flow prior to reperfusion. When (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was injected into the left anterior descending artery, the washout was slow, falling to 78% of initial activity at 120 min after injection. In conclusion, (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI reflects regional myocardial blood flow accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates blood flow at high flows. The rate of myocardial redistribution after reperfusion is similar for (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and /sup 201/TI.

  3. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  4. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  5. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

  6. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent (99m)Tc-Hydroxamamide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported (99m)Tc-hydroxamamide ((99m)Tc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for (99m)Tc-Ham complexes, and all (99m)Tc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent (99m)Tc-Ham complexes ([(99m)Tc]SB2A and [(99m)Tc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the (99m)Tc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  7. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, A M; Turbiner, E H

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism. PMID:3595023

  8. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  9. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  10. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  11. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo. PMID:25537991

  12. [Hepatic clearance of 99mTc-GSA in cases of postoperative biliary atresia--a retrospective comparison with hepatic clearance of 99mTc-PMT].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Maruoka, S; Yamada, S

    1998-11-01

    There are a few reports about usefulness of 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy (GSA imaging) for the evaluation of postoperative state of biliary atresia. However, comparison of significance for the disease between GSA imaging and 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary imaging have not been reported. Fifty-six GSA imagings for 41 postoperative biliary atresia patients were reviewed and their scintigraphic findings and the functional parameters were compared with those obtained from 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary imaging. In quantitative analysis, although the hepatic clearance of both tracers calculated by graphical analysis (Patlak plot) were well correlated in most cases, a discrepancy was observed in several cases with jaundice. The authors conclude that the hepatic clearance of 99mTc-GSA is a more accurate index of the hepatic reserve than that of 99mTc-PMT which can be influenced by hyperbilirubinemia and that the combination of both examinations is helpful to evaluate development of liver injury in postoperative biliary atresia patients. PMID:9916401

  13. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150 μg tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200 μg of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach. PMID:22389852

  14. Effect of technetium-99m on iodine-131 thyroid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Klopper, J.F.; Erlank, P.

    1985-06-01

    Following administration of 2.5-5.0 mCi(/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate, several hundred microcuries may be present in the necks of hyperthyroid patients after 6 hr. Coincidence summing of Tc-99m photons may disturb I-131 uptake measurements in such patients if an oral diagnostic dose of I-131 is administered immediately after completion of a (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate scintigram. Using a lower discriminator level of 300 keV, false increases of 10%-50% may occur at 6 hr. The 24-hr uptake is also affected if an I-131 predose measurement is performed after administration of the Tc-99m dose. The authors have shown that these errors may be prevented by using a 1-mm lead filter in front of the scintillation detector. The attenuation of Tc-99m photons by the filter effectively eliminates summation pulses while it reduces the I-131 count rate by approximately 28%.

  15. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using 99mTc-HMPAO

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with 99mTc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free 99mTc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs. 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of new biotinylated (99m) Tc/Re-tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of three new biotinylated fac-[(99m)Tc/Re(CO)3](+) complexes with the tridentate ligands L1, L2, and L3 are reported. L1-L3 contain the chelators 2-((5-aminopentyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)acetic acid, 2-(2-aminoethylthio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-amino-3-(1-carboxy-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylthio)propanoic acid, respectively, which are conjugated to biotin's carboxylate via their amine group. The fac-[Re(CO)3(L1-L3)] complexes were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR, where the (N,N,O) coordination for ReL1 and the (N,S,O) coordination for ReL2 and ReL3 were confirmed. The tracer complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)3(L1-L3)] were synthesized in high yield and were found highly stable in 10(-3) M L-histidine and L-cysteine over 24 h. Furthermore, they exhibited high binding affinity (>90%) for avidin. Rat plasma studies showed complete cleavage of biotin from (99m)TcL1 after 1 h and a low percentage of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 with no biotin cleavage metabolites present, over 24 h. Similarly, rat urine analysis showed the presence of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3, while (99m)TcL1 was cleaved. Biodistribution studies of (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 revealed fast blood and tissue clearance. PMID:26817576

  18. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  19. [Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin in hepatobiliary disease].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Itoh, K; Nagao, K; Katoh, H; Okushiba, T; Satoh, M; Tomiyama, M; Hiraguchi, E; Tanabe, T

    1993-02-01

    A clinical study with 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) was performed in 10 patients with hepatobiliary disease. In this study, scintigraphic data and images with 99mTc-GSA were compared with several serological liver function tests, the hepatic blood perfusion index and image quality using 99mTc-DTPA-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA). Dynamic and serial hepatic images were obtained over a 20 min period after 99mTc-GSA injection, and time activity curves from the heart and liver were generated. The blood clearance index (HH15), and the hepatic uptake index (LHL15) were calculated from each curve of the heart and liver, respectively. In addition, using two compartment fitting, the blood clearance (KH1, KH2) index was calculated, and using exponential fitting, the hepatic uptake index (KL) was calculated. The mean HH15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.81 +/- 0.05, 0.64 +/- 0.10, respectively. The mean LHL15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.79 +/- 0.04, 0.91 +/- 0.06, respectively. There were significant differences between non-LC group and LC group in HH15, and LHL15, KH1 and KL. There were also significant correlations of KH1 with HH15, and KL with LHL15. Parameters of 99mTc-GSA showed significant correlations with various liver functions. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy showed clearer liver images in hepatobiliary diseases than 99mTc-HSA. These results suggest that 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy is useful in estimating preserved liver function and hepatic morphology. PMID:8468807

  20. False Negative (99m)Tc-Hydroxymethane Diphosphonate Three-phase Bone Scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilesomab Scan in Detecting Tibia Osteomyelitis Concomitant with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teik Hin; Lee, Boon Nang

    2014-09-01

    We described a case of 51-year-old female patient presented with a right calf necrotising fasciitis (NF) where osteomyelitis (OM) was suspected. (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate three-phase bone scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan failed to demonstrate classical features of OM. The final diagnosis was only made by isolating Acinetobacter sp. in both intra-operative bone and tissue cultures from below-knee amputation. As conclusions, the detection of lower limb OM by (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan is not easy when there is concurrence overlying NF. The unusual three-phase bone scan finding of pericortical accumulation of tracer as an early sign of OM is highlighted in this case. PMID:25538491

  1. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  2. Technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody with preserved immunoreactivity and high in vivo stability

    SciTech Connect

    Arano, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Furukawa, T.; Horiuchi, K.; Yahata, T.; Saji, H.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.

    1987-06-01

    Recent availability of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) and their radiolabeling through the use of the bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) have become an alternative procedure for in vivo radioimmunodetection. Using a newly synthesized BCA, a p-carboxyethylphenylglyoxal-di(N-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CE-DTS), the coupling and technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) labeling of monoclonal IgG against hCG were carried out. In the system presented, factors affecting stability and immunoreactivity were examined. Immunoreactivity of the original IgG (56C) was preserved by conjugating one CE-DTS molecule per molecule of IgG (56C) using the phosphorylazide method, however, /sup 99m/Tc labeling pH affected the immunoreactivity and limited the /sup 99m/Tc labeling reaction between pH 4.5 and 6.2. A screening of labeling conditions, such as pH, reaction time, and reducing agent system were then carried out. Technetium-99m-labeled IgG (56C), (/sup 99m/Tc)CE-DTS-IgG (56C), showed good stability upon incubation with mice sera and comparable mice biodistribution to that of indium-111 (/sup 111/In) DTPA-IgG (56C). Thus, these results indicate the excellent potential of CE-DTS as a BCA for labeling MoAb with /sup 99m/Tc.

  3. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade 99mTc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of 99mTc production.

  4. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22–86 years). We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26–73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22–86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85). In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  5. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  6. Popliteal cysts and deep venous thrombosis: Tc-99m red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, G.O.; Brand, C.A.; Ada, A.; Wong, C.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-four patients who clinically were suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) underwent Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) venography followed by contrast venography. The sensitivity (88%) and specificity (94%) of Tc-99m RBC venography of DVT confirmed findings of previous studies. Twenty-four patients who had proved popliteal cysts and swollen calves also were examined using Tc-99m RBC venography. Large cysts showed lack of DVT features, photon deficient cold areas in the popliteal fossa, and diversion of venous flow around the photon deficient area. These features were seen in 25% of the study population (six patients), and assisted in the distinction between the two conditions.

  7. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  8. The role of Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Sayit, E; Durak, I; Capakaya, G; Yilmaz, M; Durak, H

    2001-04-01

    The cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign orbital tumor in adults. Its presentation is during the forth to fifth decades with a slowly progressive unilateral proptosis. Intraconal cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to differentiate from other intraconal lesions such as schwannomas, meningiomas and hemangiopericytomas. We report a case of orbital cavernous hemangioma diagnosed by Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy revealed a typical scintigraphic pattern in which there is intense focally increased uptake on the delayed image. We conclude that Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy can be a useful method in the differential diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma as in hepatic hemangioma. PMID:11448074

  9. Indications for /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan in children

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.

    1987-03-01

    The /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan provides an image of functional renal parenchyma. This static scan has specific indications and cannot be used simply in place of a /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan. The major clinical indications for this investigation are the detection and/or evaluation of a renal scar, the small or absent kidney, an occult duplex system, certain renal masses, systemic hypertension or suspected vasculitis. The physiology of the /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan is reviewed briefly.

  10. Quantitative analysis by digital computer of Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatogram in diffuse parenchymal liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Narabayashi, I.; Ishido, N.; Sugimura, K.; Nabeshima, K.; Sugimura, C.; Matsuo, M.; Kimura, S.; Kajita, A.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5 methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatograms were analyzed to provide information about the liver and bile duct. Calculations were based on a 4 compartmental model and included corrections for blood, tissue, liver and bile backgrounds. The time-activity curves for Tc-99m PMT in the cardiac region were described as the sum of 2 exponential functions, while curves for the hepatic region were described as the sum of 3 exponential components. The measured hepatograms were compared with simulated hepatograms and good agreement between the two curves showed that the compartmental model adequately described the blood and bile activities in vivo. Hepatic excretion rates were 0.179 +- 0.028 in 3 normal subjects. 0.102 +- 0.012 in 4 patients of chronic hepatitis and 0.116 +- 0.061 in 6 patients of liver cirrhosis. In the cases of diffuse parenchyal liver diseases, there were lower rate constants for the excretion from the liver to the bile ducts than in normals and the relative distribution values also larger than normal. Prior to the development of this compartmental model, no useful kinetic model had been found which could satisfactorily explain the time-activity curves. Experience in human studies proves this method to be accurate in determining the rate constants for hepatobiliary transport of Tc-99m PMT.

  11. Lassen's equation is a good approximation of permeability-surface model: new α values for 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Brain perfusion tracers like [99mTc] d,l-hexamethyl-propyeneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) and [99mTc] ethyl-cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) underestimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at high flow values. To improve linearity between tracer accumulation and rCBF, two different models have been proposed. One is Lassen's correction algorithm for back-diffusion of tracer, and the other is based on the permeability-surface (PS) model for correction of low first-pass extraction. Although both these models have the same goal, they have completely different forms of equation. It was demonstrated that mathematical approximation of the PS model equation leads to Lassen's equation. In this process, the relationship between PS, CBF values and Lassen's parameter was acquired, and how to correct both the back-diffusion and low first-pass extraction was also demonstrated. A computer simulation confirmed that the two models provided similar consequences when the parameter value is chosen according to the relationship found. Lassen's equation can be used to correct not only back-diffusion but also low first-pass extraction. To perform overall correction, the parameter value we have been using for decades may be too weak. I estimated that the parameter value for overall correction of HMPAO would be around 0.5, and that of ECD would be around 0.65. PMID:24736892

  12. Production of Molybdenum-99 by (n, ) activation and direct separation of Technetium-99m without column generator fabrication: A viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Pillai, M R A

    2012-01-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc adsorption-type column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies that are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo are discussed. To provide an alternative source of 99Mo, the principal focus of this analysis is a detailed discussion of the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of low-specific-activity 99Mo (LSA 99Mo) by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors. In order to enhance the availability of 99Mo, development of an increased network of reactors for production of LSA 99Mo is described, as well as utilization of currently unused reactors. The time spent in manufacturing of 99Mo/99mTc column generators is responsible for the loss of more than 50% of F99Mo produced. Hence, the authors propose a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several folds. Additional important advantages of the use of LSA 99Mo include precluding the need for fission product waste management and phasing out the need for high- and low-enriched uranium as target materials for medical radioisotope production.

  13. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD. PMID:24251309

  14. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  15. Incidentally detected diaphragmatic hernia mimicking angina pectoris with Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cınar, Alev; Sadıc, Murat; Demırel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years 99mTechnetium methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) is widely used in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In this imaging protocol besides the cardiac evaluation, numerous other organs are included in the field of view. 99mTechnetium MIBI is taken up in all metabolically active tissue in the body except for the brain. Extracardiac uptake patterns as benign or serious conditions can be revealed during the MPI. In the imaging protocol, we should be aware of distribution of this radiotracer in order to recognize the abnormal uptake. Here in, we present a large diaphragmatic hernia, seemed as a mirror vision of myocardium that was determined incidentally during the MPI with 99mTc MIBI. PMID:24379540

  16. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 MBq) of /sup 99m/TcO-4. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n . 4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  17. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m, has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 M Bq) of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n=4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  18. A partial defect in technetium-99m pyrophosphate image suggesting cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, M; Hiroe, M; Sugimoto, K; Miyahara, Y; Ishii, Z; Taniguchi, K; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction who died of cardiac rupture on the 2nd hospital day. Dual isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) performed on the 2nd hospital day showed a large perfusion defect in the anteroseptal wall on 201Tl image and a increased accumulation on 99mTc-PYP image in the anterior area consistent with a partial defect. Autopsy performed 1 h after death revealed a tear in the left ventricular anterior wall consistent with the defect on the 99mTc-PYP image. We propose that the finding of a partial defect in 99mTc-PYP is an interesting finding which may be associated with cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction. PMID:1533369

  19. Correlation of Tc-99m GSA hepatic studies with biopsies in patients with chronic active hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tomiguchi, S; Kira, T; Oyama, Y; Nabeshima, M; Nakashima, R; Tsuji, A; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Yoshimatsu, S; Sagara, K

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether scintigraphic findings of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl-HSA (GSA) correspond to histopathologic findings, Tc-99m GSA hepatic scintigraphy and biopsy were compared in 65 patients with chronic active hepatitis. After injecting 185 MBq of Tc-99m GSA, anterior images were obtained at 5 minutes and 15 minutes. Scintigrams were classified into three grades according to the extent of visualization of the cardiac blood pool on 5 minute and 15 minute images. Biopsies were subjectively graded for findings of necrosis and fibrosis. Scintigraphic grades on 5 minute images were correlated with hepatic necrosis and fibrosis and those on 15-minute images with hepatic fibrosis. Scintigraphic abnormalities of Tc-99m GSA correlated well with histopathologic abnormalities, especially with hepatic fibrosis and necrosis in patients with chronic active hepatitis. PMID:7586877

  20. Imaging of inflammatory arthritis with technetium-99m-labeled IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, F.C.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Camps, J.A.; Feitsma, H.I.; Markusse, H.M.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (IgG) radiolabeled with 99mTc was compared to that of (99mTc)albumin and (99mTc)nanocolloid in rats with collagen induced arthritis. Serial scintigrams were acquired directly, 4 and 24 hr after injection. A clearly discernable image of the site of synovitis was seen with (99mTc)IgG as early as 4 hr postinjection. The relative intensity of the inflammatory lesion was maximal at 24 hr. Discrimination between arthritic and nonarthritic joints as well as correlations between the relative intensity of the arthritic joint and clinical indices of joint inflammation were superior with IgG compared to albumin or nanocolloid. These studies show that localization and severity of inflammatory joint disease can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific IgG.

  1. Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.

    1988-06-01

    Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

  2. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a "true" rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201. PMID:2145751

  3. Cholecystitis: prospective evaluation of sonography and /sup 99m/ Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Worthen, N.J.; Uszler, J.M.; Funamura, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Major and minor criteria are determined for sonographic diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis. A prospective study of 113 cases was performed on patients with suspected acute cholecystitis who were evaluated by cholesonography and /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy. Data support the use of sonography as the intial imaging procedure for the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA is useful in those cases without stones which exhibit minor criteria for gallbladder abnormality.

  4. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  5. Scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis with Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate: concise communication. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Frederick, R.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Berger, D.E.

    1983-11-01

    Using both Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate and gallium-67 citrate, images of the lower extremities in New Zealand white rabbits were obtained on sequential days after inoculation of tibias with Staphylococcus aureus. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was positive earlier in the course of infection than Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. In addition to 4-hr Ga-67 scintigrams, 24-hr and 48-hr scintigrams were obtained contributing substanitally to interpretation. However, 72-hr Ga-67 scintigrams contributed little additional information.

  6. Problems in the scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis in children. [/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.C.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Ogden, J.; Gottschalk, A.

    1980-06-01

    /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate studies in 21 children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis were compared with radiographic, clinical and surgical findings. Eleven /sup 99m/Tc studies revealed obvious abnormalities, four showed subtle abnormalities, two were misleading, and four were normal. No consistent explanation for the lack of positive radionuclide findings was found. We concluded that pediatric osteomyelitis presents a spectrum of scintigraphic appearances and interpretation is often difficult.

  7. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22-86 years).We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with T99mc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26-73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22-86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85).In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  8. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  9. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  10. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  11. [Delayed Tc-99m-PMT imaging in the specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z M

    1988-09-01

    The results of Tc-99m-PMT imaging on 100 patients with various malignant and benign hepatic diseases verified histologically (73 hepatocellular carcinoma, 3 liver cell adenoma, 1 cholangiocarcinoma, 5 metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 liver cyst, 12 hemangioma, 1 fatty degeneration, 1 liver regeneration, 1 postoperative liver fibrosis and 1 liver cirrhosis) are reported. All lesions appeared as decreased radioactivity or "cold" defect region on early Tc-99m-PMT imaging, rendering it valuable for the diagnosis of tumor localization. In 92 (95.8%) of the 96 patients with various hepatic tumors and 25 (86.2%) of the 29 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (less than 5 cm), the tumors were localized by early Tc-99m-PMT imaging. In 14 of the 73 patients with established hepatocellular carcinoma, the tumors gave greater radioactivity than that of the surrounding liver tissues, whereas in 31 patients the radioactivity of the tumor equalled the normal liver on delayed Tc-99m-PMT imaging (positive rate 61.6%). There was no significant difference between the positive rates of serum AFP level and the tumor size shown by delayed Tc-99m-PMT imaging in hepatocellular carcinomas. The radioactivity in 3 liver cell adenoma patients was similar to the gallbladder. No false positive result was seen in the other malignant and benign hepatic tumors. This study indicates that delayed Tc-99m-PMT imaging is highly specific in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:2854779

  12. Systematic evaluation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin versus 99mTc-sestamibi to study murine myocardial perfusion in small animal SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The “back-translation” of clinically available protocols to measure myocardial perfusion to preclinical imaging in mouse models of human disease is attractive for basic biomedical research. With respect to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) approaches, clinical myocardial perfusion imaging protocols are established with different 99mTc-labeled perfusion tracers; however, studies evaluating and optimizing protocols for these tracers in high-resolution pinhole SPECT in mice are lacking. This study aims at evaluating two clinically available 99mTc-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers (99mTc-sestamibi vs. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin) in mice using four different imaging protocols. Methods Adult C57BL/6 male mice were injected with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) or 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (TETRO) (4 MBq/g body weight) either intravenously through the tail vein (n = 5) or retroorbitally (n = 5) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) under anesthesia (n = 3) or i.p. in an awake state (n = 3) at rest. Immediately after injection, a multi-frame single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) acquisition was initiated with six subsequent time frames of 10 min each. Reconstructed images of the different protocols were assessed and compared by visual analysis by experts and by time-activity-curves generated from regions-of-interest for various organs (normalized uptake values). Results Visually assessing overall image quality, the best image quality was found for MIBI for both intravenous injection protocols, whereas TETRO only had comparable image quality after retroorbital injections. These results were confirmed by quantitative analysis where left ventricular (LV) uptake of MIBI after tail vein injections was found significantly higher for all time points accompanied with a significantly slower washout of 16% for MIBI vs. 33% for TETRO (p = 0.009) from 10 to 60 min post injection (PI). Interestingly, LV washout from 10 to 60 min PI

  13. Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

  14. Reverse discordant behavior and progressive filling of a cold nodule on Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huot, D.; Ton-That, Q.T.; Le Bel, L.; Carrier, L.; Picard, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on a patient with reverse discordant behavior between Tc-99m pertechnetate and I-131 associated with progressive filling of a cold nodule on the Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Cationic technetium-99m complexes of N-substituted pyridoxal derivatives as renal function agents

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Koji; Takata, Jiro

    1994-10-01

    New cationic technetium-chelating agents containing a pyridinium group have been synthesized and evaluated as potential renal radiopharmaceuticals. The pyridinium compounds used in the study are N-methyl pyridoxal chloride, N-ethyl pyridoxal chloride, N-propyl pyridoxal chloride, 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-formylpyridinium chloride, 1-methyl-2-formyl-3-hydroxpyridinium chloride and the Schiff`s bases of N-methyl pyridoxal chloride with amino acid, amino acid ester and amino acid amide. Complexes of these chelating agents with {sup 22m}Tc were prepared using a Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} or a SnCl{sub 2} solution as a reducing agent. The purity of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes was determined by paper electrophoresis in 0.1 Mtris buffer. Electrophoresis indicates slightly positive-charged species. The log P values of these complexes showed a hydrophilic nature. Urinary excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc N-alkylated pyridoxal derivatives, {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3) and {sup 131}I-o-iodohippurate were determined in mice and rats at different time intervals. In a rat model, the pyridoxal-derived {sup 99m}Tc complexes are rapidly excreted in urine and provide clear renal scintigrams. Hepatobiliary excretion was negligible, reducing scan interference from the intestines. Total clearances were lower than that of {sup 131}I-hippurate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. The rate of urinary clearance of the new tracers was not significantly faster than {sup 99m}Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the inhibitor N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide had only a minimal effect on the renal behavior. Though the new tracers have cationic properties, the pyridinium group did not contribute largely to the excretion of active transport. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  17. Imaging human atherosclerosis with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Schoen, F.J.; Isaacsohn, J.L.; Fischman, A.J.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1988-09-01

    The feasibility of localizing human atherosclerotic plaques by gamma scintillation camera external imaging with technetium-99m-labeled low density lipoproteins (99mTc-LDL) was tested in 17 patients who had atherosclerosis. Imaging demonstrated focal accumulation of radiolabel consistent with 99mTc-LDL sequestration by plaques in the carotid, iliac, or femoral vessels of four patients 8 to 21 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Focal accumulation of 99mTc-LDL also appeared in the location of coronary lesions in four patients, but this accumulation could not be distinguished with certainty from residual blood pool radioactivity. When carotid endarterectomy specimens from six patients who received 99mTc-LDL 1 day before endarterectomy were examined, the specimens had focal accumulations of radiolabel, with two to four times greater radioactivity in some regions of each specimen than in others; this occurred whether or not the lesions were detected on the gamma camera images. Lesion composition may have determined whether accumulation was quantitatively sufficient to produce an external image. Histologically, the imaged carotid specimen had abundant foam cells and macrophages and poorly organized intramural blood consistent with a plaque hemorrhage; in contrast, nonimaged endarterectomy specimens were mature, fibrocalcific plaques. We conclude that: 1) 99mTc-LDL did accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques; 2) in some patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-LDL was sufficient for detection by gamma camera imaging; 3) the amount of LDL that accumulated appeared to depend on lesion composition; and 4) the design of new radiopharmaceuticals with reduced residual blood pool activity relative to plaque accumulation should lead to improved external imaging of atherosclerosis.

  18. Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence.

    PubMed

    Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N(3)S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr(3)]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG(3) and an N(3)S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and (99m)Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd<5 nM). The biodistribution was markedly dependent on the BFC and co-ligand used, with the amidothiol ligands showing a greater degree of hepatobiliary clearance, the HYNIC/tricine complex higher blood levels and the HYNIC/EDDA complex the highest level of renal excretion and lowest blood levels. All peptide conjugates showed receptor-mediated uptake in tumour xenografts, but tumour uptake was significantly lower for the (99m)Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with (99m)Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide, (99m)Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. PMID:10436200

  19. [A new radiopharmaceutical for bone imaging: experimental study of 99mTc-HEDTMP].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu; Deng, Houfu; Jiang, Shubin; Luo, Shunzhong; Lei, Yong

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare 99mTc-HEDTMP [N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethlenediamine-1,1,2-tri (methylene phosphonic acid), a new kind of bone seeking compound; to investigate its biological properties; and to explore the possibility of using it as a potential radiopharmaceutical for skeleton scintigraphy. HEDTMP was labeled with 99mTc by "pretinning" method, the radiochemical purity was 97.00% +/- 0.34%. 99mTc-HEDTMP was found to be stable in 5 hours in vitro with the radiochemical purity over 95% even after being diluted by physiological saline with the factor of dilution 100. The plane bone scanning of rabbits showed that 99mTc-HEDTMP was principally absorbed by skeletal system. Skull, spine and legs could be observed clearly, and were more legible than the images of 99mTc-MDP. Mice trial also indicated the high bone seeking of 99mTc-HEDTMP. The skeletal uptake was 11.92% ID/g, 13.19% ID/g, 10.14% ID/g, 10.04% ID/g, 7.71% ID/g separately at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours after the injection. Kidney seemed to be the major excretory organ. The clearance of blood was quick and the retaining amount in non-target organs was small. These results indicate that 99mTc-HEDTMP can be prepared easily, and its biological properties can be compared favorably with the commonly used bone imaging agent, and it is well worth further researching as a promising potential radiopharmaceutical in nuclide diagnosis for skeleton diseases. PMID:20842850

  20. Impact of boronate capping groups on biological characteristics of novel (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zheng, Yumin; Tomaselli, Elena; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2015-02-18

    This study sought to explore the impact of boronate groups on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of novel (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-ISboroxime: R = isoxazol-4-yl (IS); (99m)Tc-MPboroxime: R = N-methylpyridinium (MP); (99m)Tc-PAboroxime: R = pyrazol-3-yl (PA); (99m)Tc-PYboroxime: R = pyridin-3-yl (PY); and (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime: R = uracil-5-yl (5U)). All five new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers were prepared in high yield and high radiochemical purity (RCP = 90-98%), and they remained stable in the kit mixture for >6 h. Biodistribution and imaging (planar and SPECT) studies were carried out using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Planar image quantification was performed to compare their myocardial retention and liver clearance kinetics. It was found that their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the biexponential decay function. The initial heart uptake at 0-1 min after injection followed the general ranking order of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (4.98 ± 1.05%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (4.56 ± 0.91%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (4.03 ± 1.23%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-PYboroxime (4.07 ± 0.80%ID) > (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime (3.24 ± 0.67%ID) > (99m)Tc-MPboroxime (2.53 ± 0.65%ID). The fast-phase myocardial retention time followed the general order of (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (3.21 ± 0.29 min) > (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (1.63 ± 0.40 min) ∼ (99m)Tc-PYboroxime (1.57 ± 0.29 min) ∼ (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (1.55 ± 0.32 min) > (99m)Tc-MPboroxime (0.68 ± 0.16 min) > (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime (0.33 ± 0.11 min). (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (3.05 ± 1.10%ID/g) and (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (3.75 ± 0.68%ID/g) had the 2 min initial heart uptake very close to that of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (3.30 ± 0.50%ID/g). However, the myocardial retention time of (99m)Tc-PAboroxime was significantly longer than that of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime and (99m)Tc-Teboroxime. Even though the best time window is 0-5 min for SPECT image acquisition, high quality SPECT images could be obtained during the first 30 min

  1. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  2. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  3. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  4. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation. PMID:26948953

  5. Evaluation of five miniature chromatography systems for determining labeling efficiency of technetium Tc 99m pentetate.

    PubMed

    Robbins, P J

    1983-04-01

    The reliability and reproducibility of five miniature chromatography systems for the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-labeled technetium Tc 99m pentetate was evaluated. Radiochemical purity of technetium Tc 99m pentetate was determined 15-30 minutes after preparation once a month for nine consecutive months. A reference value was determined by gel filtration or by conventional-length paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Radiochemical purity was determined simultaneously by five miniature chromatography systems. The miniature systems included an in-house system and commercial systems distributed by Ackerman Nuclear, Ashley Innovations, Atomic Products, and Technical Advancement. Each miniature system was tested in duplicate. A follow-up comparison of the Ackerman Nuclear and in-house systems was performed for an additional nine months. Labeling efficiency by the reference method was greater than 97% for all nine months. The miniature systems gave results that were comparable in most months. Very low labeling efficiency occurred with the Ackerman Nuclear system in month 9. The follow-up comparison produced only one unconfirmed result for the Ackerman Nuclear system that would have caused a laboratory to erroneously discard a batch of technetium Tc 99m pentetate. The miniature chromatography systems evaluated generally will give reliable and reproducible results for the radiochemical purity of technetium Tc 99m pentetate for nine months after receipt of the systems. PMID:6342380

  6. Technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate for cerebrospinal fluid leaks: radiopharmaceutical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ponto, James A; Graham, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To confirm the anticipated image quality and absence of adverse reactions in patients undergoing clinical practice cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak imaging procedures using technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP). METHODS Following the recent discontinuation of preservative-free calcium trisodium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid kits, PYP was selected as a suitable alternative for CSF leak imaging procedures. Procedures were established for its preparation and dispensing, paying special attention to safety considerations, and its use in clinical practice was implemented. Medical records, including images, were reviewed for the first 15 patients undergoing clinical practice CSF imaging procedures using Tc-99m PYP to confirm anticipated image quality and absence of adverse effects. RESULTS Review of CSF leak imaging procedures using Tc-99m PYP in 15 patients showed images to be of uniformly high quality. The vast majority of injected radiopharmaceutical remained in the CSF throughout the duration of the imaging procedure, allowing visualization of CSF leaks. Only a small amount of Tc-99m PYP diffused into the blood with resultant uptake on the skeleton and excretion into the urine, which did not interfere with image interpretation. No adverse reactions were noted in any of the patients. CONCLUSION With proper attention to safety considerations, Tc-99m PYP is a safe and effective alternative for performing CSF leak imaging procedures. PMID:24257695

  7. Use of 99mTc-doxorubicin scintigraphy in females with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F I; Proença, F P P; Ferreira, C G; Ventilari, S C; Rosado de Castro, P H; Moreira, R D; Fonseca, L M B; Gutfilen, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Doxorubicin (Eurofarma, São Paulo, Brazil) is an antitumour agent widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and can be used for tumour tracking when labelled with a radionuclide. Here, we present the results obtained with technetium-99m (99mTc)-doxorubicin, using the direct method, to evaluate its uptake in breast cancer. Methods: Four females with confirmed breast carcinoma diagnosis and breast image reporting and data system Category 5 on mammography underwent whole-body and thorax single-photon emission CT/CT imaging 1 and 3 h after 99mTc-doxorubicin administration. Results: We observed increased uptake in breast carcinoma lesions and elimination via renal and hepatic pathways. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-doxorubicin may be a promising radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of patients with breast cancer. Further studies are ongoing. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of a directly labelled doxorubicin tracer in humans. 99mTc-doxorubicin could provide information on the response of tumours to doxorubicin. PMID:26111270

  8. Accumulation of iodine-131 and technetium-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sadahiro, S.; Kubouchi, K.; Ohmura, T.; Tsumura, O.; Akatsuka, S.

    1988-04-01

    Carcinoma of the thyroid is usually delineated as a cold defect on images with radioiodine and Tc-99m pertechnetate. However, several cases that showed an accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma or in their metastases, but did not show any accumulation of radioiodine, have been reported. This paper presents a rare case of an advanced follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid that accumulated both Tc-99m pertechnetate and I-131. In this 41-year-old male patient, there were two primary foci in the thyroid; one occupied the whole left lobe with extension to the mediastinum and the other located in the lower part of the right lobe. In addition, there was a lymph node metastasis in the upper mediastinum adjacent to the left lobe. On images with both I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate, the tumor in the left lobe and the metastatic lymph node were delineated, but the tumor in the right lobe was not. Accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in the lower part of the tumor of the left lobe was more distinct than that of I-131. Therefore, it is considered that despite similar histologic findings the trapping ability of the cancerous tissue differed from area to area.

  9. [The study on the in-vitro stability of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid].

    PubMed

    Lee, B F; Chung, K L; Jong, S B; Yang, C C; Chen, C L; Chen, Y J; Chen, S L; Yu, H S; Ting, G; Shen, L H

    1996-09-01

    Tc(V)-99m DMS, developed by Yokoyama et al. in 1981, has been recognized to be advantageous for the scintigraphic diagnosis of various malignant tumors and their metastasis, the aim of this study is to assess the in-vitro stability of Tc(V)-99m DMS. Thin-layer chromatography, including paper chromatography and silica gel thin layer chromatography, is performed to determine the change of radiochemical species presented in the reconstituted solution of Tc(V)-99m DMS prepared from the DMS kit (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council R.O.C.) and the commercial DMSA kit (Nephroscint, IRE CELLTARG Radiopharmaceuticals Japan). The bioscan imaging scanner is used to measure the Rf value and labeling efficiency of radiochemical species on the chromatographic strip. The in-vitro stability of Tc(V)-99m DMS prepared from the DMS kit and the commercial DMSA kit is studied by examining various parameters which include temperature(degree C) and time(hr) after reconstitution. The results show that the in-vitro stability of Tc(V)-99m DMS prepared from the DMS kit is actually better than that from the commercial DMSA kit. The one-step labeling method of DMS kit is much simpler than the two-step labeling method of DMSA kit. PMID:8819352

  10. Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy – indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J; Babu, Sanjay; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article. PMID:24250023

  11. Tumor targeting with a (99m)Tc-labeled AS1411 aptamer in prostate tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Noaparast, Zohreh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Piramoon, Majid; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    AS1411, a 26-base guanine-rich oligonucleotide aptamer, has high affinity to nucleolin, mainly on tumor cell surfaces. In this study, a modified AS1411 was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated as a potential tumor-targeting agent for imaging. The AS1411 aptamer was conjugated with HYNIC and labeled with (99m)Tc in the presence a co-ligand. Radiochemical purity and stability testing of the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-AS1411 aptamer were carried out with thin layer chromatography and a size-exclusion column in normal saline and human serum. Cellular nucleolin-specific binding, cellular internalization in DU-145 cells, as high levels of nucleolin expression, were performed. Additionally, biodistribution in normal mice and DU-145 tumour-bearing mice was assessed. Radiolabeling of the aptamer resulted in a reasonable yield and radiochemical purity after purification. The aptamer was stable in normal saline and human serum, and cellular experiments demonstrated specific binding of the AS1411 aptamer to the nucleolin protein. Based on biodistribution assessment of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-AS1411, rapid blood clearance was seen after injection and it appears that the excretion route was via the urinary system at 1 h post-injection. Tumours also showed a higher accumulation of radioactivity with this labeled aptamer. (99m)Tc-AS1411 can be a potential tool for the molecular imaging of nucleolin-overexpressing cancers. PMID:25673264

  12. Mechanism of localization of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, M K; Kahn, P C

    1976-07-01

    The gross and subcellular localizations of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in myocardial infarcts were studied in a rabbit model. Experiments utilizing double-nuclide labeling were carried out using a useful mapping technique. Concentration of the various chelates decreases in an expected manner from the center of the infarcted area toward its periphery, but it is higher near the epicardial surface than toward the endocardium. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate is concentrated in the same infarcted areas as 45Ca ion or 32P-pyrophosphate, but to a much greater degree. The uptake is dependent on both the degree of necrosis and residual blood flow. Gel filtration experiments with rabbit serum indicate that 99mTc-tagged pyrophosphate, tetracycline, and diphosphonate are mainly protein-bound, whereas 32P-pyrophosphate is not. Subcellular localization studies show that 99mTc-tetracycline and 99mTc-pyrophosphate are bound primarily to soluble protein, and only a small fraction is associated with nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes. The uptake of technetium chelates in myocardial infarcts may be due to the formation of polynuclear complexes with denatured macromolecules rather than to the deposition of calcium in mitochrondria. PMID:178842

  13. Diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in infants and children with Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, R.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Lilly, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Thirteen infants and children from 42 days to 14 years old with hepatobiliary disease underwent Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA hepatobiliary imaging. Five patients had biliary atresia, four had biliary hypoplasia, two had neonatal hepatitis, and there were single examples of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging accurately differentiated biliary atresia (complete bile duct obstruction) from other forms of childhood hepatobiliary disease by demonstrating no intestinal radioactivity in the former and the presence of intestinal radioactivity in the latter. In addition, two of four patients with biliary hypoplasia had nonhomogeneous parenchymal transit, and the one patient with congenital hepatic fibrosis showed possible intrahepatic cysts. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA provides information not previously available with I-131-rose bengal; this information is likely to be useful in the noninvasive evaluation of childhood hepatobiliary disease.

  14. Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M. )

    1989-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

  15. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  16. Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

    1988-11-01

    Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

  17. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Berkowitz, D.; Fox, M.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy was performed in 15 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Fourteen of the 15 patients with acute disease had positive findings, indicating the presence of cystic duct or common duct obstruction. One case in which the gallbladder was visualized failed to respond to sincalide stimulation; this was classified as a suggestive finding of disease. The diagnostic accuracy of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy was far superior to the other imaging studies used (8 sonograms, 1 intravenous cholangiogram, 3 oral cholecystograms, 1 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). The /sup 99m/Tc-IDA study is recommended as the imaging procedure of choice for examining patients with suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  18. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  19. Preparation, biodistribution and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Rizvi, Faheem Askari; Roohi, Samina; Hina, Saira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khalid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar

    2015-11-01

    A complex of lincomycin was synthesized with technetium-99m. The synthesis was carried out by using SnCl2.2H2O as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as stabilizer. The effect of various parameters such as amount of ligand/reducing agent, pH value and reaction time on radio labeling process was studied. The characterization of the (99m)Tc-Lincomycin was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis Biodistribution studies were carried out by analyzing the model of bacterial infectious rats (Sprague-Dawley). The uptake of infectious lesions at different time interval was also studied by using scintigraphic technique. The complex showed effective target to non-target ratio for various inflammatory or infectious lesions. The (99m)Tc-Lincomycin effective binding to living bacteria and could be used successfully as an infection imaging agent. PMID:26639473

  20. Permeability of the bronchial mucosa to /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowite, J.S.; Bennett, W.D.; Sheetz, M.S.; Groth, M.L.; Nierman, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    Previous investigators, using 99mTc-DTPA aerosol as a marker to assess epithelial permeability in asthma, did not find an increased permeability in this group. However, they either failed to deliver the aerosol to the optimal site (bronchial mucosa, not alveoli) or failed to account for mucociliary clearance in analyzing their results. We studied 10 asthmatics and eight age-matched control subjects using a dosimeter (Spira-Elektra 2) and a carefully controlled breathing pattern to deliver aerosol to the subjects' airways. Two aerosols were delivered on separate days in each patient; 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and 99mTc-HSA (human serum albumin), using similar breathing patterns to ensure reproducibility of the deposition pattern with the two aerosols. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, rate constants Ktot and Km were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modelling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. There was no significant difference between Ktot in normal subjects and asthmatics; however, because of the slower mucociliary clearance in the asthmatic group, and the relative importance of mucociliary clearance in determining the washout of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, there was a significant difference in airway permeability between the normal subjects and the asthmatics (t1/2 = 296 min +/- 141 SD and 126 min +/- 58, p less than 0.01, in normal subjects and asthmatics, respectively).

  1. Myocardial uptake and kinetic properties of technetium-99m-Q3 in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.; Millard, R.W.; McGoron, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    We postulated that {sup 99m}Tc-Q3, a cationic imaging agent, produces myocardial activity related to myocardial blood flow during myocardial ischemia and pharmacologic coronary artery vasodilation, and shows little or no myocardial redistribution over 4 hr after intravenous injection. In six Group 1 dogs, the chest was opened, the left circumflex coronary artery was acutely ligated, and dipyridamole (0.32, 0.56 or 0.84 mg/kg) was infused into the right atrium, followed by 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres. The animals were euthanized and 357 myocardial samples were assayed in a well counter for {sup 99m}Tc activity. One week later, radiolabeled microsphere activity was counted and myocardial blood flow calculated. In nine Group 2 dogs, a variable occluder was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery and an ischemic level of circumflex blood flow was maintained constant over 4 hr as measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was then infused into the right atrium followed by 10mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Gamma camera images were acquired at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following k{sup 99m}Tc-Q3 injection. Microsphere blood flow and endocardial biopsies (n - 6 dogs) were performed at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following {sup 99m}TcQ3 injection. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Subcellular distribution of technetium-99m-N-NOEt in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Uccelli, L.; Giganti, M.; Duatti, A. ||

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular distribution of bis(N-ethoxy N-ethyl)dithiocarbamato, nitrido technetium(V) ({sup 99m}TcN-NOEt) in rat heart by differential centrifugation techniques. Extraction of the activity from homogenized rat heart tissue was also performed to assess whether myocardial retention might induce changes in the chemical identity of the complex. Anesthetized rats were intravenously injected with {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt, the heart tissue was extracted and homogenized and tissue fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The efficiency of organelle separation was determined by assay of each centrifugal fraction using enzyme markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5{prime}-nucleotidase (5{prime}ND) activities were assayed using standard spectrophotometric methods. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was determined using a p-iodo-nitrotetrazolium-linked assay. Severe cell membrane and organelle disruption were induced by prolonging the homogenization time and their effect on the subcellular distribution of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was studied. The activity from homogenized heart tissue was extracted using the Folch technique and analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Most of the {sup 99}TcN-NOEt activity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic components of the cell. No evidence of specific association of activity with the cytosolic and mitochondrial components was observed. Organelle and membrane cleavage did not cause release of activity into the cytosol. Approximately 90% of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt activity was extracted from ventricular tissue and the chemical nature of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was not altered by uptake by myocardium. Cell membranes are the most apparent site of localization of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt in heart tissue. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  4. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  5. Ectopic Intrathymic Parathyroid adenoma demonstrated on Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT.

    PubMed

    Usmani, S; Oteifa, M; Abu Huda, F; Javaid, A; Amanguno, H G; Al Kandari, F

    2016-05-01

    Intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. In this case, Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT successfully localized abnormal tracer uptake in the mediastinum with corresponding low density lesion on CT images suggestive of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma which late on confirmed on histopathology. After the median sternotomy a large intrathymic parathyroid adenoma was identified and excised. With the help of gamma probe the surgeons detect the lesion early and with more confidence as well as reducing the total operation time. Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT scintigraphy and gamma probe localization is recommended for preoperative and intra operative localization of ectopic parathyroid adenomas. PMID:27250890

  6. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  7. Failure to diagnose cardiac treatment rejection with Tc99m-PYP images

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Goris, M.L.; Mason, J.W.; Reitz, B.A.

    1981-08-01

    The possibility of diagnosing transplant rejection using Tc-99m-PYP imaging was examined in 12 cardiac transplant recipients. Two patients were studied on two occasions. The presence or absence of active rejection was established by endomyocardial biopsy. The intensity and pattern of myocardial uptake of the tracer did not differ significantly in the two patients studied at the time of rejection compared to the remainder. It is concluded that a single Tc-99m-PYP study cannot be used to diagnose cardiac transplant rejection.

  8. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography of the lower limb in symptomatic pulmonary embolization.

    PubMed

    Lisbona, R; Rush, C; Lepanto, L

    1987-02-01

    Tc-99m RBC venography of the legs was obtained in 42 patients with primary pulmonary symptomatology and a diagnosis of pulmonary embolization. In 31 of these 42 patients (74%), the nuclear venogram revealed the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a source of embolization. Of the 31 patients with leg DVT documented by venography, 13 (42%) showed thrombosis confined to the calf. Clinical findings suggested that only 20 of the 31 patients (65%) with DVT could have harboured a source of embolization in the legs. Tc-99m RBC venography is a useful noninvasive test for the global and comprehensive assessment of patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolization. PMID:3829541

  9. Thallium-201 and technetium-99m-pyrophosphate: myocardial imaging in the coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The editor and contributors have developed a textbook that explains the use of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate for the detection of acute myocardial infarct. Their integrated approach emphasizes the complementary nature of both imaging modalities. One aim of this book is to discuss the technical characteristics of the two myocardial imaging methods. The text has fourteen chapters. Instrumentation, mechanisms of accumulation of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate, acute myocardial infarct, unstable angina pectoris, atypical chest pain, and the interrelationship of the techniques are among the topics discussed. (JMT)

  10. Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H. )

    1990-10-16

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

  11. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27230842

  12. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  13. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  14. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes in detection of inflammatory lesions: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Soini, I.; Lantto, T.; Paakkinen, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected benign, inflammatory, or infectious diseases were imaged with ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate. Technetium-99m leukocytes showed 22 true-positive, no false-positive, 19 true-negative, and two false-negative findings and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 23, 7, 12 and 1, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes were 92%, 100%, and 95%, and with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 96%, 63%, and 81%. Technetium-99m leukocyte scintigraphy has a promising future in comparison with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate because of the ready availability of ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO, the good image quality, more rapid results (within few hours), and the lower radiation exposure to the patient with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes. The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes in chronic osteomyelitis needs further evaluation.

  15. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  16. Quantitative simultaneous 111In/99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment—where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). Methods: The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired

  17. Ibogaine labeling with 99mTc-tricarbonyl: synthesis and transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; André, Pascal; Blondeel, Sandy; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie; du Moulinet d'Hardemarre, Amaury; Declèves, Xavier; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2009-12-01

    The (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl core may be used as an ideal tool for gamma-labeling ligands in noninvasive SPECT imaging. However, most (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl-labeled agents have difficulty crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We radiolabeled the neuroactive indole ibogaine with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl and measured its transport into the mouse brain by in situ brain perfusion. We measured the interactions of [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) and (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl with the main BBB efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP in vitro and in vivo. Ibogaine was radiolabeled (yield: over 95%). [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) entered the brain (K(in)) poorly (0.18 microL/g/s), at about the same rate as (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl (0.16 microL/g/s) and [(99m)Tc-sestamibi](+) (0.10 microL/g/s). The CNS tracer [(99m)Tc-HMPAO](0) entered the brain approximately 70-times higher than [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+). In vitro studies revealed that neither [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) nor (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl ion were substrates for P-gp or BCRP. But lowering the membrane dipole potential barrier with phloretin enhanced the brain transport of [(99m)Tc(OH(2))(3)(CO)(3)](+) approximately 3-fold. Thus, ibogaine directly labeled with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl is not suitable for CNS imaging because of its poor uptake. Brain transport is not restricted by efflux transporters but is reduced by its lipophilicity and interaction with the membrane-positive dipole potential. PMID:19492342

  18. Radionuclide venography: two stage--flow and equilibrium technique using 99mTc pertechnetate, and 99mTc RBC labelled "in vivo".

    PubMed

    Snarski, A M

    1989-01-01

    A new method involves 2 stages: 1st, injection of three 10 ml boluses of 99mTc-pertechnetate through a dorsal vein of the foot with recording of 3 separate dynamic studies of venous flow in the calf, thigh and pelvis; and 2nd, static equilibrium venography (EV), which can be completed 15 min later after 99mTc-RBC labelling in vivo. The method was performed in 100 patients with suspected DVT. Due to the large pertechnetate bolus followed with 20-40 ml flush of normal saline, the flow study provides a significant improvement in filling of major calf veins, which makes this technique more similar to contrast phlebography. The flow study was found much more sensitive than EV, especially for calf DVT. However, EV, providing information about the unaffected leg, plays an important complementary role when the study is negative for DVT. In conclusion, both stages are recommended for routine examination of patients referred with suspected DVT. PMID:2540983

  19. Preparation, biodistribution, and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-clindamycin: an infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Hina, Saira; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Roohi, Samina; Haque, Asma; Qasim, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial infection is found to be the cause of death throughout the world. Nuclear medicine imaging with the help of radiopharmaceuticals has great potential for treating infections. In the present work, clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, was labeled with technetium-99 m (~380 MBq). Clindamycin has been proven to be efficient for treating serious infections caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Quality control, characterization, biodistribution, and scintigraphy of radiolabeled clindamycin were done, and labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. More than 95 % labeling efficiency with technetium-99 m ((99m)Tc) was achieved at pH 6-7 while using 2.5-3 μg SnCl2 · H2O as a reducing agent and 100 μg of ligand at room temperature. The characterization of the compound was performed by using electrophoresis, HPLC and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates the neutral behavior of (99m)Tc-clindamycin. HPLC analysis confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-clindamycin were performed Sprague Dawley rats bearing bacterial infection. Scintigraphy and biodistribution studies showed a high uptake of (99m)Tc-clindamycin in the liver, heart, lung, and stomach as well as at S. aureus-infected sites in rabbits. PMID:25113549

  20. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

  1. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, Mj; Jora, Charu; Pandit, Ag

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis is a form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, also known as Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome. It is a rare disease. In this report, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with this rare disorder, having significant findings on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. PMID:21969783

  2. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, MJ; Jora, Charu; Pandit, AG

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis is a form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, also known as Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome. It is a rare disease. In this report, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with this rare disorder, having significant findings on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. PMID:21969783

  3. Diagnosis of pyogenic pelvic inflammatory diseases by 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Rachinsky, I; Boguslavsky, L; Goldstein, D; Golan, H; Pak, I; Katz, M; Lantsberg, S

    2000-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the major health problems of women of child-bearing age. Among the most serious complications of PID is the formation of a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Early diagnosis of this condition may prevent serious surgical complications such as peritonitis and sepsis, which may be fatal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TOA. Twenty women with high clinical suspicion of TOA underwent 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy. The labelling of leucocytes with 99mTc-HMPAO was performed according to a standard protocol. Scans were obtained at 1, 3 and 24 h following the injection of the labelled leucocytes. In eight cases the early and/or late scan was positive, in 11 cases it was negative, and in one case of ovarian cyst torsion, confirmed by laparoscopy, it showed slight uptake in the capsule of the cyst (false-positive). The sensitivity of 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 100% and overall accuracy 95%. It is concluded that leucocyte scintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, physiological and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of TOA. The 24-h scan is crucial, since in some cases the abscess was not clearly visualized on the early scan. Leucocyte scintigraphy may reduce the need for CT, diagnostic laparoscopy and unnecessary invasive surgical procedures. PMID:11189939

  4. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Abnormal Tc-99m-MDP/GA-67 scan patterns in association with active chronic osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.

    1985-05-01

    In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.

  6. Exploring the Potential of (99m)Tc(CO)3-Labeled Triazolyl Peptides for Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ganguly, Soumya; Baishya, Rinku; Dewanjee, Saikat; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the authors have reported on (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled peptides that serve as carriers for biomolecules or radiopharmaceuticals to the tumors. In continuation of that work they report the synthesis of a pentapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Gly-His; pep-1), a hexapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Asp-Gly-His; pep-2), and a tetrapeptide (Asp-Gly-Arg-His; pep-3) and the attachment of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole to the β carboxylic function of the aspartic acid unit of pep-2 and pep-3. The pharmacophores were radiolabeled in high yields with [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) metal aqua ion, characterized for their stability in serum and saline, as well as in His solution, and found to be substantially stable. B16F10 cell line binding studies showed favorable uptake and internalization. In vivo behavior of the radiolabeled triazolyl peptides was assessed in mice bearing induced tumor. The (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3 demonstrated rapid urinary clearance and comparatively better tumor uptake. Imaging studies showed visualization of the tumor using (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3, but due to high abdominal background, low delineation occurred. Based on the results further experiments will be carried out for targeting tumor with triazolyl peptides. PMID:27093344

  7. Frostbite with rhabdomyolysis and renal failure: radionuclide study. [/sup 99m/Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.; Kloiber, R.; Gagnon, R.; Damtew, B.; Lough, J.

    1981-08-01

    There is a growing list of muscle lesions exhibiting concentration of bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate complexes; however, rhabdomyolysis due to cold injury has not been included. We performed a multiradiopharmaceutical study that yielded interesting results on a patient who sustained frostbite injury of the legs that led to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

  8. Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

    1984-06-01

    Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

  9. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  10. Renal dysplasia in infants: appearance on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Roach, P J; Paltiel, H J; Perez-Atayde, A; Tello, R J; Davis, R T; Treves, S T

    1995-01-01

    Infantile renal dysplasias, including multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK), are reported rarely to accumulate radiopharmaceuticals on renal scintigraphy. 99mTc DMSA is a highly sensitive tracer for detecting functioning renal cortical tissue and may be more suited to studying renal dysplasia than 99mTc DTPA. We reviewed the ultrasound studies and 99mTc DMSA scintigrams of 42 infants (age range 1-12 months) with known or suspected MCDK. Overall, uptake on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy was evident in 6/41 (15%) dysplastic kidneys. Of the 18 patients who underwent nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed that uptake correlated closely with the presence of mature renal cortical tissue in the affected kidney. Our study shows that a small, but significant number of MCDK will show low-grade uptake on DMSA scintigraphy. This finding may be relevant given the reliance placed on renal scintigraphy in planning treatment for infants with suspected MCDK, particularly with the increasing trend for the non-operative management of this condition. PMID:7491206

  11. [A case of stunned myocardium with marked 99mTc-PYP accumulation].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Nishikawa, H; Motoyasu, M; Shimizu, Y; Fukui, A; Ono, N; Kakuta, Y; Konishi, T; Nakano, T

    1993-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with unstable angina was admitted to our department. Upon admission, electrocardiography revealed a QS pattern in Leads V1-V3. Left ventriculography disclosed akinesis of the anterior wall and the septum. Myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) revealed marked accumulation (Parkey's grade III) in the anterior wall, septum and apical region. Coronary arteriography revealed stenosis (99% with delay) in the LAD #6. Based on these findings, we performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on this patient. About 3 months later, the patient underwent PTCA again because stenosis had recurred. The resting 201Tl myocardial scintigram, taken immediately after the first PTCA, demonstrated complete defects in the anterior wall, septum and apical region. After the second PTCA, no stenosis was observed. About 1 year later, the wall motion returned to normal (except in part of the apical region), suggesting that this was a case of stunned myocardium. On the same occasion, the 201Tl uptake was normal except in the apical region. The present case was regarded as stunned myocardium which demonstrated marked radioactivity accumulation when examined by 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigraphy. In the past, 99mTc-PYP has been thought to be incorporated into irreversibly impaired myocardium (e.g., in cases of acute myocardial infarction). The uptake of 99mTc-PYP into stunned myocardium has not been reported before. Thus, this case is rare and noteworthy. PMID:8455342

  12. [The pathophysiologic basis for the incorporation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate into myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Duska, F; Hadas, L; Volenec, K; Palicka, V; Mazurová, Y; Vizd'a, J; Kafka, P; Urbanová, E; Kuba, M; Veverková, O

    1989-08-01

    The investigation studied the relation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate incorporation (99mTc-PYP) into experimental, 48-hours old myocardial infarction in dogs to tissue vascular supply and to the extent of necrotic tissue. The experimental myocardial infarction was induced in five animals during an operation by the ligation RIVA. The myocardial blood supply was measured in tissue samples, taken from transverse sections of the infarction by means of 86Rb captation. The extent of myocytolysis was measured by depletion of tissue creatine kinase (CK). In the subendocardial layer of the infarction it became obvious that 99mTc-PYP incorporation was proportional to the decrease of tissue blood supply. No relation between the extent of necrosis and the incorporation of the radioactive chemical was demonstrated. The accumulation of 99mTc-PYP requires the necrosis to be present, but its extent apparently does not influence the intensity of incorporation. In the subepicardial infarction layer there was neither a relation of the radioactive chemical cumulation to the blood flow, nor to the extent of the necrosis proved. PMID:2551518

  13. Acute subendocardial infarction with diffuse intense Tc-99m PYP uptake and minimal Tl-201 abnormality.

    PubMed

    Taki, J; Taki, S; Ichiyanagi, K; Akashi, Y; Hisada, K

    1992-08-01

    Tc-99m PYP scintigraphy performed on a patient with severe anterior chest pain showed diffuse intense uptake with central decreased activity corresponding to the left ventricular cavity. Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy at rest revealed a minimal perfusion abnormality with decreased apical uptake in the lateral view. Because of these findings, diffuse subendocardial infarction was suggested. PMID:1387053

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of (99m)Tc-Labeled Dimeric Folic Acid for FR-Targeting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Song, Manli; Shi, Changrong; Zhang, Pu; Xu, Duo; You, Linyi; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Liu, Ting; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. In our study, the multimeric concept was used to synthesize a dimeric folate derivative via a click reaction. The novel folate derivative (HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) and its in vitro physicochemical properties, ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging as a potential FR targeted agent were evaluated. It is a hydrophilic compound (log P = -2.52 ± 0.13) with high binding affinity (IC50 = 19.06 nM). Biodistribution in KB tumor-bearing mice showed that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ had high uptake in FR overexpressed tumor and kidney at all time-points, and both of them could obviously be inhibited when blocking with free FA in the blocking studies. From the in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging results, good tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ was observed in KB tumor-bearing mice and it could be blocked obviously. Based on the results, this new radiolabeled dimeric FA tracer might be a promising candidate for FR-targeting imaging with high affinity and selectivity. PMID:27338334

  15. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-02-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported.

  16. (99m)Tc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging.

    PubMed

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a (99m)Tc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with (99m)Tc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. (99m)Tc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs. PMID:26875936

  17. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  18. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  19. Pharmacologic alterations in Tc-99m binding by red blood cells: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Wexler, J.P.; Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1983-05-01

    The effect of two antihypertensive agents (captopril and prazosin) and of digoxin on the efficiency of Tc-99m binding to RBCs was evaluated in the rat. RBCs were labeled with Tc-99m in vivo in six groups of rats: I-normotensive controls Wistar rat (WR), II-prazosin treated WR, III-spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), IV-prazosin-treated SHR, V-digoxin-treated WR, and VI-captopril-treated WR. The percentage of intravascular Tc-99m bound to RBC (%T) and the percentage of injected dose remaining intravascular 5 min after injection (%i.v.) were determined. Mean %T was 94.2, 83.8, 94.9, 86.1, 79.7, and 93.3 for groups I-VI respectively. Mean %I.V. was 96.4, 74.6, 94.9, 79.0, 74.4, and 87.4 for groups I-VI respectively. The findings demonstrate a significant reduction of RBC tagging with Tc-99m in rats treated with prazosin and digoxin but not with captopril. The data suggest a potential interference by patient medication with the performance of blood-pool studies.

  20. Evaluation of LeVeen-shunt patency using Tc-99m labelled macroaggregated albumin.

    PubMed

    Adil, Allah Rakha; Waqar, Amin

    2005-12-01

    A LeVeen peritoneo-venous shunt is placed for intractable ascites. Determination of obstruction site in the shunt tube is a difficult problem. We describe a simple nuclear medicine method using 111MBq (3mCi) of Technetium-99m labeled macro-aggregated albumin injected intraperitoneally. PMID:16398982

  1. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  2. Soft tissue metastases and lung cancer recurrence detected by Tc-99m depreotide scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Miliziano, John S; Bradley, Yong C

    2002-06-01

    A 63-year-old woman with previously treated stage I lung cancer was reexamined 5 years later for recurrence. A conventional work-up using computed tomographic scanning and transbronchial biopsy showed nothing abnormal. A Tc-99m depreotide scan, however, led to a noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer recurrence with metastases, and it directed a noninvasive tissue diagnosis. PMID:12045431

  3. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-12-01

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  4. Horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia on 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Sachin; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    The ‘horseshoe kidney’ is the most common renal fusion anomaly. In this disorder, two developed kidneys are connected to each other at the lower part and grow together. We report a case of horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia in 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy. PMID:24761069

  5. Evaluation of Tc-99m leukocyte scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Marcus, C.S.; Henneman, P.L.; Inkelis, S.H.; Wilson, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    A new /sup 99m/Tc Microlite leukocyte scan was performed in 38 patients to assess its value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Autologous leukocytes are labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by inducing phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc albumin microcolloid particles. The advantages of this test over the standard indium-111 scan include superior imaging capability, a marked reduction (greater than 75%) in the radiation dose, and performance of the test including labeling, in less than 3 hr. Imaging is performed at 5-90 min postinjection of labeled cells. There were 19 male and 19 female patients with ages ranging from 10 to 80 years, in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was indeterminate on clinical examination. Of the 13 of the 38 patients (34%) who came to surgery 12 had acute appendicitis. The WBC scan correctly identified 10 of the 12 cases of appendicitis. There were two false-negative studies. In the nonoperative group of 25 patients admitted for observation, 21 studies were reported as negative and four identified other sites of inflammation. All patients with a negative study have remained asymptomatic on follow-up. With a sensitivity of 83% (10/12) and a specificity of 100% (26/26) the /sup 99m/Tc leukocyte scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for diagnosis of appendicitis in this preliminary study of patients with equivocal clinical exams.

  6. The role of kidney uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate during quantitation of gastric scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Klopper, J.F.; Erlank, P.

    1984-07-01

    It is shown that during quantitative gastric scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate significant errors may occur if kidney uptake is ignored. The magnitude of the error was assessed in 12 patients, and could lead to an over-estimation of gastric uptake by up to 20%.

  7. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced 99Mo supply, direct production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with 99mTc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical 99mTc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  8. Tc-99m complexes of new functionalized propylene amine oxime (PnAO) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Kothari, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    1994-05-01

    Three new functionalized PnAO ligands, 3,3,9,9-tetra-methyl-6-R-4, 8-diazaundecane-2,10-dionedioxime (R=benzyl, p-nitrobenzyl and p-aminobenzyl) were synthesised. Tc-99m complexes of these ligands were prepared by direct reduction of Tc-99m O{sub 4}{sup -} using stannous tartrate in the presence of ligands at pH 9.0. Complexation yields were greater than 95% at 1h and 24h post preparation as assessed by ITLC, HPLC and extraction into CHCl3. All three of the complexes were neutral and lipophilic (logP > 2.0) and eluted as single peak from a RP HPLC column. Biodistribution studies of the Tc-99m complexes of the benzyl and the nitrobenzyl derivatives were done in Wistar rats. Both complexes showed brain uptake but were washed out of the brain similar to the behavior of Tc-99m PnAO.

  9. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  10. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1986-10-01

    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references.

  11. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  12. Nano Liposomes Labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, a Novel Agent for Blood Pool Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Kayvan; Momenypoor, Salimeh; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin; Aryana, Kamran; Johari Daha, Fariba; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    In-vitro labeling of RBC with 99mTc is an intricate procedure and there is always a need for an alternate blood pool imaging agent. The aim of this study was to prepare an effective nano sized liposome (NLs) similar to human RBC for blood pool scintigraphy. This study formulates PEG-NLs and non-PEG-NLs using film method plus high pressure homogenization technique. Biodistribution studies were performed on BALB/C mice 1, 4 and 24 h after tail vein injection of labeled NLs with 99mTc hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Planar images were acquired using a 256 × 256 matrix following99m Tc-HMPAO-NLs injection into ear vein of rabbits 1, 2 and 24 h later. SPECT images were obtained 15 minutes after the injection (64 slices, 30 second/projection). The mean diameter, zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI) of the PEG-NLs and the NLs were (80.88 ± 0.594 nm, -12.5 ± 0.56 mv, 0.158 ± 0.025) and (94.14 ± 0.114 nm, -35.5 ± 0.67 mv and 0.198 ± 0.007), respectively. 99mTc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs showed a significant circulation tracer activity (7.74 ± 1.63%ID/g at 1 h and 4.9 ± 0.77 %ID/g at 4 h), with low liver accumulation (12.07 ± 3.66 %ID/g at 1 h and 14.85 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 4 h). Heart to liver, spleen and background ROIs (region of interests) for 99m Tc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs were 1.25, 4 and 4.28 respectively at 2 h which changed to 1.06, 1.75 and 2.51 respectively at 24 h. The 99mTc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs with a prolonged blood circulation time could be an excellent RBC alternative for scintigraphy and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26664365

  13. Physical phantom evaluation of simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Jan, Meei-Ling; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope imaging from two different energy gamma rays such as 99mTc and 123I is a promising technology in nuclear medicine. Its advantages are to abbreviate the acquisition procedure with an identical geometrical registration of the different isotope images, the same physiological condition without motion artifacts, and help patient throughput and comfort. However, the energy photopeaks of 99mTc and 123I radionuclides are very close. We had developed a new approach for accurate cross-talk and scatter corrections in simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I based on independent components analysis (ICA). Nevertheless, a large number of input energy windows are required as ICA input components, which is not useful in clinical application because commercial cameras have only 3-8 energy windows. The aim of this work was to design a new method through wavelet transformation followed by ICA with multiple energy windows (W_eICA) for cross-talk and scatter correction using a smaller number of energy windows in clinical use. There were three cylinders (A-C) with identical volume of 20 ml. Cylinder A was filled with 99mTc solution of 18.5 MBq, cylinder B with 123I solution of 18.5 MBq, and cylinder C with 99mTc solution of 55.5 MBq. The Image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. Three kinds of images were acquired by energy window setting. (1) For single-isotope imaging only, energy windows of 20% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc and at 159 keV for 123I were used. (2) In the asymmetric energy window method (AEW), energy window of 15% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc in conjunction with 10% asymmetric energy window in an upper bound at 159 keV for 123I was acquired. (3) Then we set six energy windows with 15 keV width ranging from 83 to 173 keV to form six images as input components of ICA. After the W_eICA method derived 99mTc/ 123I images alone, we compared the images from the W_eICA approach and the AEW method. In the results, the recovery rate of 99mTc was 1

  14. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99mTc-DTPA in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G; Piraccini, R; D'Andrea, G

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the practical reliability of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination with 99mTc-DTPA and plasma sampling, the authors compared the results obtained with 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA in 50 patients using five easily applied methods (two double-plasma-sample methods and three single-plasma-sample methods), and two kits with different compositions. It was observed that: 1) there is no difference between the results obtained with the two different kits. 2) Compared with 51Cr-EDTA the 99mTc-DTPA overestimates the result by about 2 mL/min: precision is slightly lower with 99mTc-DTPA than with 51Cr-EDTA but is sufficient for practical use. 3) The method recommended by the authors on the basis of this experience is the Russell's method with two samples. 4) The simplified methods with one sample give comparable results to the Russell's method for GFR levels between 50 and 115 mL/min, while the results are unsatisfactory below 50 mL/min. 5) Among the single-sample methods, the authors suggest that of Christensen and Groth. 6) A preliminary estimate of GFR (from the serum creatinine level, for instance) is useful for the choice between double-plasma-sample methods and simplified methods. In conclusion, the authors consider that the estimation of GFR with 99mTc-DTPA can be performed efficiently in clinical practice even when operating in absolutely routine conditions. PMID:7786917

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl quinolone complexes.

    PubMed

    Kydonaki, Theocharis E; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Mendes, Filipa; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Paulo, António; Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Psomas, George

    2016-07-01

    New rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid (Hoxo) and enrofloxacin (Herx) and containing methanol, triphenylphosphine (PPh3) or imidazole (im) as unidentate co-ligands, were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of complex [Re(CO)3(oxo)(PPh3)]∙0.5MeOH was determined by X-ray crystallography. The deprotonated quinolone ligands are bound bidentately to rhenium(I) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The binding of the rhenium complexes to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) was monitored by UV spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and competitive studies with ethidium bromide; intercalation was suggested as the most possible mode and the DNA-binding constants of the complexes were calculated. The rhenium complex [Re(CO)3(erx)(im)] was assayed for its topoisomerase IIα inhibition activity and was found to be active at 100μM concentration. The interaction of the rhenium complexes with human or bovine serum albumin was investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy (through the tryptophan quenching) and the corresponding binding constants were determined. The tracer complex [(99m)Tc(CO)3(erx)(im)] was synthesized and identified by comparative HPLC analysis with the rhenium analog. The (99m)Tc complex was found to be stable in solution. Upon injection in healthy mice, fast tissue clearance of the (99m)Tc complex was observed, while both renal and hepatobiliary excretion took place. Preliminary studies in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells showed cellular uptake of the (99m)Tc tracer with distribution primarily in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and less in the nucleus. These preliminary results indicate that the quinolone (99m)Tc/Re complexes show promise to be further evaluated as imaging or therapeutic agents. PMID:26795497

  16. 99mTc-DPD uptake reflects amyloid fibril composition in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pilebro, Björn; Suhr, Ole B.; Näslund, Ulf; Westermark, Per; Lindqvist, Per; Sundström, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Aims In transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis various principal phenotypes have been described: cardiac, neuropathic, or a mixed cardiac and neuropathic. In addition, two different types of amyloid fibrils have been identified (type A and type B). Type B fibrils have thus far only been found in predominantly early-onset V30M and in patients carrying the Y114C mutation, whereas type A is noted in all other mutations currently examined as well as in wild-type ATTR amyloidosis. The fibril type is a determinant of the ATTR V30M disease phenotype. 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosing heart involvement in ATTR amyloidosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ATTR fibril composition and 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy outcome in patients with biopsy-proven ATTR amyloidosis. Methods Altogether 55 patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and amyloid fibril composition determined were examined by 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy. The patients were grouped and compared according to their type of amyloid fibrils. Cardiovascular evaluation included ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers. The medical records were scrutinized to identify subjects with hypertension or other diseases that have an impact on cardiac dimensions. Results A total of 97% with type A and none of the patients with type B fibrils displayed 99mTc-DPD uptake at scintigraphy (p < 0.001). Findings from analyses of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, and echocardiography, though significantly different, could not differentiate between type A and B fibrils in individual patients. Conclusion In ATTR amyloidosis, the outcome of 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy is strongly related to the patients’ transthyretin amyloid fibril composition. PMID:26849806

  17. (99m)Tc-DPD uptake reflects amyloid fibril composition in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Pilebro, Björn; Suhr, Ole B; Näslund, Ulf; Westermark, Per; Lindqvist, Per; Sundström, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Aims In transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis various principal phenotypes have been described: cardiac, neuropathic, or a mixed cardiac and neuropathic. In addition, two different types of amyloid fibrils have been identified (type A and type B). Type B fibrils have thus far only been found in predominantly early-onset V30M and in patients carrying the Y114C mutation, whereas type A is noted in all other mutations currently examined as well as in wild-type ATTR amyloidosis. The fibril type is a determinant of the ATTR V30M disease phenotype. (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosing heart involvement in ATTR amyloidosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ATTR fibril composition and (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy outcome in patients with biopsy-proven ATTR amyloidosis. Methods Altogether 55 patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and amyloid fibril composition determined were examined by (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy. The patients were grouped and compared according to their type of amyloid fibrils. Cardiovascular evaluation included ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers. The medical records were scrutinized to identify subjects with hypertension or other diseases that have an impact on cardiac dimensions. Results A total of 97% with type A and none of the patients with type B fibrils displayed (99m)Tc-DPD uptake at scintigraphy (p < 0.001). Findings from analyses of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, and echocardiography, though significantly different, could not differentiate between type A and B fibrils in individual patients. Conclusion In ATTR amyloidosis, the outcome of (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is strongly related to the patients' transthyretin amyloid fibril composition. PMID:26849806

  18. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Ishikawa, N; Takeda, T; Tanaka, Y; Pan, X Q; Sato, M; Todoroki, T; Hatakeyama, R; Itai, Y

    1995-11-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GAS) was evaluated. 99mTc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, and mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by compute tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6 +/- 2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9 +/- 2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9 +/- 5.2%, p < 0.0001, and 71.9 +/- 7.6%, p < 0.0001, respectively). There was a linear correlation between the hepatic volume ration and various indices of reserve hepatic function, such as LHL15 (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), HH15(r = 0.74, p < 0.0001), and ICG15 (r = 0.75, p < 0.0005). These results indicate that the hepatic volume ratio is proportional to the severity of hepatic dysfunction, and suggest that the functional hepatic volume measured with 99mTc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. PMID:8770291

  19. Polymer embedded nanocrystalline titania sorbent for 99Mo-99mTc generator.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Gandhi, Shyamla; Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, A K

    2008-09-01

    A new sorbent material, polymer embedded nano crystalline titania (Titanium Polymer-TiP) has been developed, from titanium (IV) chloride and isopropyl alcohol, for the adsorption of 99Mo, which is a precursor to 99mTc, a workhorse in radio-pharmaceuticals. The infrared absorption spectra of the TiP showed peaks corresponding to Ti-O groups. X-ray diffraction pattern of the adsorbent corresponded to rutile TiO2. The surface area of this polymer was 30 m2/g with an average pore size of 40 nm. The average crystallite size of TiO2, embedded in polymer, was found to be 5 nm. TEM micrograph of the adsorbent revealed the network of polymer with dispersed titania phase. Potential of this adsorbent for the preparation of 99Mo-99mTc generator has been explored. 99Mo could be adsorbed on to the adsorbent column containing TiP at pH 1 from which 99mTC could be eluted with normal (0.9%) saline solution with an elution yield of approximately 80%. The quality of the 99mTcO4 obtained was in accordance with the international specifications applicable for radiopharmaceutical use. A process demonstration run was carried out with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) 99Mo activity level making use of the above adsorbent and consistent results were obtained over a period of one week, which is generally the shelf life of 99MO-99mTC generator. PMID:19049039

  20. Imaging Thromboembolism with Fibrin-Avid 99mTc-Peptide: Evaluation in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Aruva, Mohan R.; Daviau, Judy; Sharma, Shubh S.; Thakur, Mathew L.

    2006-01-01

    A pentapeptide, Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-Pro, with high affinity for α-chain-fibrin was labeled with 99mTc (99mTc-TP850) and evaluated in swine to image experimental venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Scatchard analysis was performed to determine fibrin affinity for TP850 and the number of binding sites (receptors) per milligram of fibrin. DVT was induced in the left jugular vein and PE was induced by introducing a preformed autologous blood clot into the right atrium using a 7-French introducer sheath inserted into the right jugular vein. 99mTc-TP850 was injected at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 h later. Animals were imaged for up to 4 h after injection, heparinized, and sacrificed. Lungs were extirpated, radiographed, and imaged, and the PE was removed. Other tissues, including blood and normal lungs, were harvested and, concomitantly, 99mTc was counted for determination of target-to-tissue ratios and the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue. Results The affinity for human fibrin was 10−9 mol/L and there were >1015 receptors per milligram of fibrin. DVT and PE were visualized for up to 4 h after injection with high DVT/blood (7.9–22.6), DVT/muscle (31.1–89.4), PE/blood (1–155), and PE/lung (0.8–245) ratios. Thereafter, the PEs fragmented spontaneously below the spatial resolution of the γ-camera and, despite the high associated radioactivity, could not be localized in vivo. The fragmented clots were detectable by scintigraphy on excised lungs and provided excellent concordance with radiograms. Conclusion 99mTc-TP850 with its modest affinity (10−9 mol/L), rapid blood clearance, and high DVT and PE uptake is a promising agent for imaging vascular thrombosis. PMID:16391200

  1. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. ); Thakur, M.L. ); Marcus, C.S. ); Ballou, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  2. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP (k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)) and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure.

  3. [Noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac involvement by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in 2 cases of familial amyloid polyneuropathy and 1 case of secondary amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Takezaki, M; Ishida, Y; Morozumi, T; Tani, A; Sato, H; Hori, M; Kitabatake, A; Kamada, T; Kimura, K; Kozuka, T

    1989-12-01

    To validate the significance of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis, 2 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) and 1 patient with amyloidosis secondary to chronic rheumatic arthritis were studied. All three patients had echocardiographic abnormalities, which were increased wall thickness of the interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall, and granular sparkling appearance in the septum. In 2 patients with FAP, abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP was diffusely detected in Tc-99m PYP SPECT. In the remaining 1 patient with secondary amyloidosis, however, Tc-99m PYP SPECT showed no abnormality, although we had confirmed the presence of myocardial amyloid deposits (type AA amyloid protein) with high amount in the histological examination. Thus, these results indicate that Tc-99m PYP scintigraphy may have a limitation in detecting cardiac involvement in secondary amyloidosis although it is useful in FAP. PMID:2560088

  4. Assessment of antioxidative ability in brain: Imaging of glutathione localization with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1994-05-01

    An oxidative stress is postulated to be important in tissue injury after ischemia and reperfusion, inflammation, aging and various disease. Glutathione (GSH), one of the major antioxidants in the brain, is presumed to be responsible for the metabolism and retention of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO. In order to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain, the relationship between the concentrations of tissue GSH and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO was studied in mice. Increasing load of diethyl maleate (DEM), a reducing agent of GSH and several other thiols, before [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO injection, led to a dose dependent decrease of GSH and [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO. At the highest dose of loaded DEM, the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the brain was decreased to 20-30% of the control. In contrast, pretreatment with DEM did little affect the [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO uptake. To elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain, we studied the in vitro interactions of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH, ascorbate and cysteine by measuring octanol-extractable radioactivity, which is remaining intact [Tc-99m] HM-PAO, as a function of incubation period. The disappearance raw of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [TC-99m] d,l-HM-PAO were 0.18 and 0.96%/min, respectively. Either meso or d,l-isomer did not interact with ascorbate or cysteine. This result suggested that the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] meso- and d,l-isomers in brain was related to their specific interaction with GSH, and did not related to non-specific interaction with various thiols or other reducing agents. This extremely high reaction rate of [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH could explain the capability of a small amount of GSH to trap [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO in maximum DEM loading. These results indicated that [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO would be suitable to image the concentration of GSH in the brain, as opposed d,l-isomer that images blood flow.

  5. Quantitative simultaneous 99mTc∕123I cardiac SPECT using MC-JOSEM

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Trott, Cathryn M.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous rest 99mTc-Sestamibi∕123I-BMIPP cardiac SPECT imaging has the potential to replace current clinical 99mTc-Sestamibi rest∕stress imaging and therefore has great potential in the case of patients with chest pain presenting to the emergency department. Separation of images of these two radionuclides is difficult, however, because their emission energies are close. The authors previously developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based joint ordered-subset expectation maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm (MC-JOSEM), which simultaneously compensates for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. In this work, the authors evaluated the performance of MC-JOSEM in a realistic population of 99mTc∕123I studies using cardiac phantom data on a Siemens e.cam system using a standard cardiac protocol. The authors also compared the performance of MC-JOSEM for estimation tasks to that of two other methods: standard OSEM using photopeak energy windows without scatter correction (NSC-OSEM) and standard OSEM using a Compton-scatter energy window for scatter correction (SC-OSEM). For each radionuclide the authors separately acquired high-count projections of radioactivity in the myocardium wall, liver, and soft tissue background compartments of a water-filled torso phantom, and they generated synthetic projections of various dual-radionuclide activity distributions. Images of different combinations of myocardium wall∕background activity concentration ratios for each radionuclide were reconstructed by NSC-OSEM, SC-OSEM, and MC-JOSEM. For activity estimation in the myocardium wall, MC-JOSEM always produced the best relative bias and relative standard deviation compared with NSC-OSEM and SC-OSEM for all the activity combinations. On average, the relative biases after 100 iterations were 8.1% for 99mTc and 3.7% for 123I with MC-JOSEM, 39.4% for 99mTc and 23.7% for 123I with NSC-OSEM, and 20.9% for 99mTc with SC

  6. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  7. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  8. [Imaging of thromboembolism by scintigraphy with the 99m-technetium-labelled synthetic peptide P280].

    PubMed

    Lastoria, S; Vergara, E; Varrella, P; Muto, P; Acampa, W; Caracò, C; Salvatore, M

    1995-12-01

    P280, a synthetic peptide composed of 26 aminoacids, has high affinity (Kd = 100 nM) and specificity for the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) receptor expressed on activated platelets. In this study we investigated the potential usefulness of imaging deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in humans with 99mTc-P280. In 15 patients (9 men and 6 women; mean age +/- s.d.: 49.2 +/- 14.1) with known DVT and/or PE, serial images were acquired within 24 hours of the injection of approximately 200 micrograms of P280 radiolabelled with 10-23 mCi of 99mTc. P280 was labelled with the ligand exchange method using 99mTc-glucoheptonate. Rapid blood clearance (< or = 5% ID was still circulating in 1 hour) enabled identification of thrombi as early as 60 minutes after the injection, with significant thrombi-to-background ratios (range: 2-4) in 11/15 patients (73%), in 7/9 with DVT, in 2/3 with PE and in 2/3 patients with both DVT and PE. Radiotracer uptake was clearly detectable also in late scans, which confirms that 99mTc-P280 specifically binds to the thrombi through a receptor-mediated mechanism. PE localizations were detectable 3-4 hours after peptide injection, and in 2 cases SPECT enabled the detection of thrombi missed on planar views. Conversely, the test was negative in 4 patients who had the onset of clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of DVT and/or PE more than 40 days before scintigraphy. The lack of 99mTc-P280 uptake in the latter patients suggested that the peptide does not bind to thrombi when thrombogenesis is not active. These preliminary results clearly indicate scintigraphy with 99mTc-P280 to be a suitable, noninvasive and highly specific tool to image fresh clots causing DVT and/or PE. Thus, this technique might overcome the limitations of the imaging procedures currently in use. PMID:8685469

  9. External radiation exposure of personnel working with 99mTechnetium.

    PubMed

    Schürnbrand, P; Schicha, H; Thal, H; Emrich, D

    1982-01-01

    Radiation from 99mTc was measured at typical locations in those areas of a nuclear medicine department where approximately 50 Ci 99mTc is used per year. In addition, measurements of shielded and unshielded syringes containing 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals were carried out. From these data radiation exposure of hands and of the whole body of personnel was calculated, taking into consideration the mean working times in the areas and the times of direct and indirect handling of 99mTc. They were compared with the mean values obtained by personnel dosimetry through quartz fibre pocket dosimeters and TLD finger ring dosimeters. The whole body radiation calculated from local measurements for technicians (163 +/- 15 mR/year) (mean +/- SE) and for physicians (260 +/- 15 mR/year) was very low judged by the maximum permissible dose of 5,000 mrem/year and correlated well with those of personnel dosimetry (165 +/- 15 R and 265 +/- 15 R/year respectively). Although local radiation was rather high during generator elution and while preparing radiopharmaceuticals (13 +/- 1.2 mR/h) the radiation exposure to the hands of the radiochemists measured by the TLD finger ring dosimeter was low (2.6 +/- 0.2 R/year). This was attained by consistently using long distance tools in order to avoid direct contact with 99mTc-containing vials and syringes. The most critical point of radiation exposure in our investigation were the finger tips during injection of 99mTc, when syringe shielding was not used (80-130 mR/injection of 10 mCi). Under our conditions this amounts to 330-560 R/year when a total of 40 Ci is injected by the same physician. This by far exceeds the maximum permissible dose of 60 rem/year. The dose can be reduced extensively to only 2-3 R/year when tungsten shielding of the syringe is consistently used. PMID:7094926

  10. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  11. Effects of ligand structure on the lipophilicity and biodistribution of Tc-99m-amine oxime chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Volkert, W.A.; McKenzie, E.; Hoffman, T.J.; Troutnert, D.E.; Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Propylene amine oxime (PnAO) or 3,3'-(1-3-propanediyl-diimino) bis(3-methyl-2-butanone) dioxime, forms a neutral-lipid soluble Tc-99m-chelate in aqueous solutions. When injected it efficiently crosses the intact normal blood-brain-barrier (BBB) with approximately 80% extracted on first transit in baboon brain at normal cerebral blood flow (50 ml/min/100g). In this study the authors evaluated the effects of altered ligand structure (backbone) on the physical properties and biodistribution of several different Tc-99m amine oxime chelates in rodents. Three analogues of PnAO were evaluated: ethyleneamine oxime (EnAO), butylene-amine (BnAO), and amine oxime (AO). Each formed a neutral Tc-99m complex, determined by electrophoresis. Their octanol/saline partition coefficients were distinctly different with Tc-99m-BnAO (0.49 +- 0.09) and Tc-99m-AO (0.07 +- 0.02) being significantly less than Tc-99m-PnAO (44.3 +- 4.9). It was not possible to prepare Tc-99m-EnAO in aqueous solution as a single chemical species but when the complex was injected into rats it localized in normal brain almost identical to Tc-99m-PnAO. Both Tc-99m-AO and Tc-99m-BnAO failed to exhibit any detectable brain uptake and were both rapidly excreted through the kidneys and liver. These results show that slight structural modifications of the ligand backbone can significantly alter chelate lipid solubility and brain extraction. This infers that Tc-99m-AO and - BnAO have complex structures that are distinctly different from Tc-99m-PnAO and -EnAO.

  12. Technetium-99m bis (aminoethanethiol) complexes with amine sidechains--potential brain perfusion imaging agents for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Efange, S.M.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Guo, Y.Z.; Blau, M.

    1987-06-01

    In an effort to develop new clinically useful technetium-99m bis(aminoethanethiol) ((/sup 99m/Tc)BAT) complexes for the evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion, two new BAT ligands containing amines in the sidechain were synthesized and subsequently complexed with /sup 99m/Tc to yield the target complexes: (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA and (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA. Each complex was obtained as mixtures of two isomers, syn and anti, which were separated chromatographically. In biodistribution studies, both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA showed little uptake in the brain. In contrast, the brain uptake values at 2 and 15 min for (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-anti were 0.99 and 0.26, whereas, the corresponding values for DEA-syn were 2.27, 0.64% dose/organ, respectively. Autoradiographic studies (in rats) using both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA show a fixed regional distribution and a higher concentration of radioactivity in the gray matter relative to the white matter. Planar imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-syn clearly demonstrates localization of the complex in the brain with a T 1/2 of 41 min, suggesting some potential for use with single photon emission computed tomography.

  13. Size Control of (99m)Tc-tin Colloid Using PVP and Buffer Solution for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particle size is an important characteristic that allows mapping sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy. This investigation aimed to introduce different ways of making a (99m)Tc-tin colloid with a size of tens of nanometers. All agents, tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, poloxamer-188, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were mixed and labeled with (99m)Tc. Either phosphate or sodium bicarbonate buffers were used to adjust the pH levels. When the buffers were added, the size of the colloids increased. However, as the PVP continued to increase, the size of the colloids was controlled to within tens of nanometers. In all samples, phosphate buffer added PVP (30 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-PPTC-30) and sodium bicarbonate solution added PVP (50 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-BPTC-50) were chosen for in vitro and in vivo studies. (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 (<20 nm) was primarily located in bone marrow and was then secreted through the kidneys, and (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 (>100 nm) mainly accumulated in the liver. When a rabbit was given a toe injection, the node uptake of (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 decreased over time, while (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 increased. Therefore, (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 could be a good candidate radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection. The significance of this study is that nano-sized tin colloid can be made very easily and quickly by PVP. PMID:26028937

  14. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  15. Value of obtaining renal images following brain scintigraphy with technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Spicer, M.J.; Jackson, R.E.; Byrd, B.F.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1986-08-01

    The value of adding an extra view of the kidneys immediately following brain imaging with Tc-99m glucoheptonate was investigated in a two-year retrospective study at our institution. Between October 1982 and October 1984, 561 individuals underwent Tc-99m glucoheptonate brain imaging with the added renal view. Twenty-nine of these individuals (5.2%) demonstrated renal abnormalities. The abnormal renal findings were clinically correlated in 24 of these persons. Sixteen (67%) of these 24 individuals were unaware of any renal abnormality. Useful information can be obtained from renal images incidental to brain imaging at no added expense or radiation exposure to the patient, and at a minimal cost in time to the imaging clinic.

  16. Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: Appearance on thallium-201-chloride/technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Alexander, E. III; Loeffler, J.S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Holman, B.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Sequential thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained in a patient with extracranial metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. Thallium-201 uptake was high (three times the scalp background) in all pathologically confirmed extracranial metastases and moderate (1.6 times scalp background) intracranially, where most biopsy specimens showed gliosis with scattered atypical astrocytes. Technetium-99m-HMPAO uptake was decreased intracranially in the right frontal and parietal lobes which had been irradiated. It was also decreased in one well-encapsulated scalp lesion and high in another scalp mass with less defined borders. Possible mechanisms of tumor uptake of these agents are reviewed.

  17. Hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Melmed, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-five patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis underwent hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA. A positive scan (nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct and gut) was found in 29 patients; 25 of them (86%) had surgically proven acute cholecystitis and 4 (14%) had chronic cholecystitis. Five of the 25 with acute cholecystitis had acalculous disease. A negative examination (gallbladder visualization) occurred in 63 patients; 18 (29%) had chronic cholecystitis and 45 (71%) were subsequently found to have nonbiliary disease. Three indeterminate studies (nonvisualization of both the gallbladder and gut) were obtained in patients with choledocholithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. In the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, the 99mTc-PIPIDA hepatobiliary scan was 100% sensitive and 94% specific.

  18. Localization of human brain tumors by Tc-99m labelled P-280 synthetic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, P.; Varrella, P.; Vergara, E.

    1994-05-01

    A preliminary study in humans, using a 3021D molecular weight synthetic peptide (26 amino acids) which includes the RGD sequence that binds to the IIb/IIIa receptor expressed by activated platelets as well as by neoplasm cells, is reported. P-280 labelled with Tc-99M, via a chelator fused to the peptide, allows external gamma imaging. We have studied 21 patients (8 M/ 13 F, 21 to 80 years) with various diseases to define the pharmacokinetic and diagnostic accuracy of this probe. Imaging was performed as follows: dynamic, 0-15 min; planar 0.5, 2 and 4hrs; SPET 3 hrs. p.i. Doses ranged between 17.5-28 mCi of Tc-99m P-280 (0.2-0.4 mg).

  19. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  20. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors. PMID:26910106

  1. Tc-99m glucoheptonate scintigraphy in a case of renal vein thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.N.; Zilleruelo, G.; Thompson, T.; Al-Sheikh, W.; Strauss, J.

    1985-02-01

    Tc-99m glucoheptonate flow and static studies with computer-assisted analysis provided specific diagnostic information in unilateral renal vein thrombosis complicating a case of nephrotic syndrome. Decreased flow with congestion, a large kidney with parenchymal thickening, pelvocalyceal thinning, good function, and no obstruction in the proper clinical settings indicated the diagnosis of a chronic form of renal vein thrombosis with compensating collateralization. The differential diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of Technetium-99m glucoheptonate single photon emission computed tomography for brain tumor grading

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Syed Shafiq; Junaid, Syed; Ahmed, Syed Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m glucoheptonate (Tc-99m GHA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain tumor grading. Subjects and Methods: The study was performed on 30 patients referred from the Department of Neurosurgery, who were from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected through interview, history taking, and clinical examination followed by recording the desired parameters and finally imaging. The study subjects were divided into five groups: Controls (n = 4), low-grade tumors (n = 8), high-grade tumors (n = 8), metastases (n = 5), and nonneoplastic lesions (n = 5). This division was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification postclinico-histological diagnosis. Each of the subjects underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography/contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and Tc-99m GHA SPECT preoperatively. All were followed up postoperatively, and histopathological reports were regarded as the gold standard for tumor grading wherever available. Results: It was found that high-grade tumors (Grades III/IV and IV/IV according to the WHO classification) showed significantly higher tumor to normal (T/N) ratios as well as Tmax/N ratios when compared with low-grade tumors (Grades I/IV and II/IV), metastases or nonneoplastic lesions. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study suggest that in situations where a preoperative grading of tumor is required Tc-99m GHA can be used in tumor grading and its use should be encouraged. Semi-quantitative analysis using both T/N as well as Tmax/N can be used in differentiating high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. PMID:27057217

  3. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua; Horwitz, P.

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  4. Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

  5. Efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Tyler, J.L.; Kulkarni, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    We studied the efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Only patients with positive enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had scans with greater than or equal to 2+ focal uptake. None of 26 patients with negative or equivocal enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had greater than 2+ diffuse uptake. These results support the contention that infarct-avid imaging has little clinical utility in patients with equivocal evidence of myocardial infarction.

  6. Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.

    1986-03-01

    A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

  7. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  8. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  9. Imaging necrotic myocardium: Detection with 99mTc-pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E. )

    1989-08-01

    The major value of hot-spot imaging of the myocardium is its ability to define areas of necrosis rather than areas of diminished blood flow or cellular function. Applications of hot-spot imaging include the diagnosis and quantitation of myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and cardiac transplant rejection. The two agents in clinical use, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin, are discussed. 52 references.

  10. Fortuitous findings of /sup 99m/Tc PIPIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Nusynowitz, M.L.; Hollimon, P.W.

    1982-05-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc labeled radiopharmaceuticals is employed primarily for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and for demonstration of biliary tract potency. This produce may also provide diagnostic information in the identification of unusual or atypical hepatobiliary disorders; frequently, this occurs as an incidental result of the test. Researchers present five cases in which trauma, infection, or obstructive abnormalities were diagnosed fortuitously.

  11. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholecystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct, or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 hr, hydrops with cysic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  12. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  13. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy in patients with calcification within the cardiac silhouette.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, R W; Sternberg, L; Huckell, V F; Staniloff, H M; Feiglin, D H; Morch, J E

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintiscanning was performed in 22 patients with radiographically detected calcification within the cardiac silhouette. All but one of these scintigrams showed a localised area of increased activity similar to that ordinarily seen in acute myocardial infarction. Scintiscans in 3 patients after removal of the calcified aortic valve reverted to negative. It was concluded that this technique for acute infarct detection may yield false positive results in the presence of cardiac calcification. Images PMID:207292

  14. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraph

    SciTech Connect

    Kempi, G.E.; Van Der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  15. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, G.; Kempi, V.; van der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  16. 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging of Omental Extrahepatic Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ba D; Yang, Ming; Roarke, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of omental perfusion by an extrahepatic branch of the right hepatic artery depicted during pre-embolization planning with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT imaging. This omental scintigraphic finding corresponds to an extrahepatic branch of the right hepatic artery demonstrated by selective angiography and related CT angiography. The authors would like to add the omentum to the previously reported sites of extrahepatic vascularization encountered during the hepatic pre-embolization imaging. PMID:26650883

  17. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  18. Gamma scintigraphy using Tc-99m labeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Alcorn, L.N.; Rhodes, B.A.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A case report is presented describing a 27-year-old woman with invasive trophoblastic hydatidiform mole metastatic to the lung. Gamma scintiscanning, using a polyclonal and monoclonal antibody specific to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, and labeled with Tc-99m, is described. The area of the primary lesion in the uterus was demonstrated with both antibodies tested without computer subtraction techniques; metastatic deposits in the lung were detected only with the aid of blood pool subtraction techniques.

  19. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  20. Clinical experience with technetium-99m teboroxime, a neutral, lipophilic myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) teboroxime is a new technetium-based myocardial perfusion imaging agent (investigational code = SQ30217 (Cardiotec, Squibb Diagnostics)). A member of a class of neutral, lipophilic, technetium-containing complexes known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes, this agent is chemically very different from the cationic tracer thallium-201 (Tl-201) and from the cationic technetium complex Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite, Du Pont Imaging Agents). Tc-99m teboroxime has high myocardial extraction, rapid blood clearance, little lung uptake and rapid myocardial washout. A biexponential pattern of myocardial washout is demonstrated in animals and in man. Effective half-lives of the 2 washout components in man are 5.2 minutes and 3.8 hours and represent approximately 66 and 33% of the myocardial activity, respectively. The first half-life for the myocardium is approximately 11 minutes. As the agent washes out of the heart, hepatic uptake occurs, peaking at about 5 minutes after injection. The liver is the major organ of excretion and receives, along with the large bowel, the largest radiation dose. Rapid imaging protocols using standard cameras have achieved good myocardial counts from 3 planar views acquired over a 4- to 5-minute period or for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired over a 10-minute period. An entire stress/rest procedure can be completed in 1 hour. Analysis of data from 155 patients from 4 centers using planar or SPECT imaging showed a sensitivity and specificity for blinded readings of 82 and 91%, respectively, when compared against overall clinical impression. 13 references.

  1. Tc-99m dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cadiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with Tc-99m (Tc) after Sn/sup 2 +/ reduction. Stannous dextrane (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding Tc-99m. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. Technetium-99m dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights ( 4 x 10/sup 4/ = Dx-40; 5 x 10/sup 5/ = Dx-500; 1 x 10/sup 6/ = Dx-2000) and with Tc-99m red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man.

  2. /sup 99m/Tc dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cardiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with /sup 99m/Tc (Tc) after Sn2+ reduction. Stannous dextran (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding /sup 99m/Tc. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. /sup 99m/Tc dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights (4 X 10(4) . Dx-40; 5 X 10(5) . Dx-500; 2 X 10(6) . Dx-2000) and with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man.

  3. Sequential technetium-99m/gallium-67 scintigraphic evaluation of subclinical osteomyelitis complicating fracture nonunion

    SciTech Connect

    Esterhai, J.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Brown, J.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with a history of post-traumatic fracture nonunion underwent sequential /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 67/Ga citrate scintigraphy in an attempt to differentiate between posttraumatic fracture nonunion and nonunion complicated by subclinical osteomyelitis. Neither technetium nor gallium studies alone nor in combination, with or without clinical correlation, could help delineate between fracture nonunion and nonunion complicated by subclinical osteomyelitis because of the increased technetium and gallium radioisotope uptake associated with the nonunion site.

  4. Deep vein thrombosis detection by 99m TC-MDP scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Moallem, A.; Lichsztral, R.

    1984-08-01

    A new observation is reported wherein 99m Tc-MDP is incorporated into recanalizing thrombophlebitis. In one patient with subacute disease, inflammatory vascularity is appreciated during the first one to two minutes after injection. Both patients showed evidence of late phosphate uptake in their greater saphenous veins two hours later. Intravenous isotope injections may be given in an arm vein: foot injections are not required.

  5. Development new radiopharmaceutical based on 5-thio-d- glucose labeled technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, E. S.; Skuridin, V. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Larionova, L. A.; Varlamova, N. V.; Zelchan, R.

    2016-06-01

    The article considers the obtaining and possibility of using 5-thio-D-glucose labeled technetium-99m for the diagnosis of malignant tumors by single photon emission computed tomography. The analysis of the level of international developments of radiopharmaceuticals based on derivatives of glucose has been carried out. Also the article provides information on of using experimental batches of lyophilisate on the basis of 5-thio-D-glucose for preliminary biomedical testing on the mice.

  6. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  7. Evaluation of 99mTcN-MPO as a New Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Agent in Normal Dogs and in an Acute Myocardial Infarction Canine Model: Comparison with 99mTc-Sestamibi

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Li, Renfei; Jin, Zhongnan; Wen, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Baofeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose 99mTcN-MPO ([99mTcN(mpo)(PNP5)]+: mpo=2-mercaptopyridine oxide and PNP5=N-ethoxyethyl-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine) is a cationic 99mTc-nitrido complex, which has favorable biodistribution and myocardial uptake with rapid liver clearance in Sprague Dawley rats. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi in normal dogs, and to evaluate the potential of 99mTcN-MPO as a myocardial perfusion agent in canines with acute myocardial infarction. Methods Five normal mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 99mTcN-MPO. Venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min post-injection (p.i.). Anterior-posterior planar images were acquired by γ-camera at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min p.i. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the heart, liver, and lungs. The heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were calculated by dividing the mean counts in heart ROI by the mean counts in the liver and lung ROI, respectively. For comparison, 99mTc-sestamibi was also evaluated in the same five dogs. The interval period between the two examinations was 1 week to eliminate possible interference between these two radiotracers. In addition, single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in the canine infarct model were collected 24 h after myocardial infarction at 30 and 60 min after the administration of 99mTcN-MPO (n=4) or 99mTc-Sestamibi (n=4). Results It was found that 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi displayed very similar blood clearance characteristics during the first 90 min p.i. Both 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi had a rapid blood clearance with less than 50% of initial radioactivity remaining at 1 min and less than 5% at 30 min p.i. 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi both showed good heart/lung contrast. The heart/liver ratio of 99mTcN-MPO increased with time (0.53±0.06 at 10 min, 0.90±0.062 at

  8. Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Guzman, Fabiola; Jimenez Martinez, Thania Susana; Arriola, Humberto; Longoria Gandara, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions' influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1.

  9. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  10. Feasibility study of accelerator based production of molybdenum-99/technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchelidze, Lali

    Stability of supply in the medical radioisotope market is now of overriding importance. One of the most commonly used radioisotopes is 99mTc, which is produced from 99Mo decay. 99Mo has been produced in nuclear reactors before, however these reactors are aging and have been not reliable lately and there is a great need to find an alternative for the production. In the current project, photo-neutron production of 99Mo/ 99mTc was investigated. An electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center was used to study the feasibility of 99mTc production using bremsstrahlung photon beams from the accelerator. The kinematic recoil process that occurs with every photo nuclear reaction was exploited. With the emission of a neutron in a photo nuclear reaction, the parent nucleus recoils in order to conserve momentum. This recoil can be used to separate 99Mo from 100Mo, at which point one has a very pure and very high specific activity source of 99Mo. We verified the photo-neutron production rates for 99Mo. Also, the kinematic recoil process was modeled and separation efficiencies were measured experimentally. We concluded that it is feasible to produce high 99Mo activities, however nano-particles of molybdenum have to be used and a clean nano-particle separation method has to be achieved.

  11. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  12. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  13. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH/sub 2/O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH/sub 2/O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation.

  14. Recurrent hepatitis C after living donor liver transplantation detected by Tc-99m GSA liver scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kaibori, Masaki; Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Uchida, Yoichiro; Ishizaki, Morihiko; Hijikawa, Takeshi; Saito, Takamichi; Imamura, Atsushi; Hirohara, Junko; Uemura, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Yasuo

    2006-11-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after living donor liver transplantation was investigated using technetium-99m- diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99m-GSA) liver scintigraphy. Four patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to HCV infection were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Scintigraphy was performed to determine the hepatic uptake ratio of the tracer corrected for disappearance from the blood, as well as the maximal removal rate of the tracer by hepatocytes, as parameters of hepatic functional reserve. In all patients, serum HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was detected 3 months after transplantation. The corrected hepatic uptake ratio and removal rate showed little change after transplantation in two patients without the recurrence of HCV infection. In another two patients, these levels were decreased at 3 months after transplantation. In one patient, recurrent HCV infection was diagnosed by confirmatory histologic examination at 12 months after transplantation. In the other patient, both levels declined further at 8 months. Although treatment was initiated with a combination of interferon plus ribavirin, this patient died of progressive hepatic failure. In conclusion, a decrease in scintigraphic parameters at 3 months after transplantation suggests recurrent HCV infection affecting the graft. Tc-99m-GSA liver scintigraphy is a useful noninvasive method for evaluating graft functional reserve. PMID:16977504

  15. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  16. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  17. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  18. Evaluation of splenic autotransplant using Tc-99m-damaged erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mansi, L.; Salvatore, M.; Ariemma, G.; Tricarico, A.; Sicoli, F.; Calise, F.

    1985-05-01

    In order to avoid functional damage due to splenectomy, autologous heterotopic transplant of splenic slices was performed in 24 acutely traumatized patients. These patients were studied at different times ( 10 days to 1 year ) following autotransplant, after i.v. injection of 110 MBq (3 mCi) of Tc-99m labeled erythrocytes (damaged by heating at 49.5/sup 0/C for 15 minutes). Whole body scans were obtained 1 hour after the injection, using a computerized gamma camera. Haemocatheretic function was demonstrated in all patients, at the level of heterotopic tissue, starting one month after surgery, with an increase in tissue volumes and radiotracer uptake in follow up studies. Activity was also seen in liver and, mainly 10 days after transplant, in bone marrow. No significant uptake was seen at thyroid level. No further information was obtained analyzing the angiographic phase and/or 24 hours delayed scans. In 5 patients Tc-99m-erithrocytes proved to be better than Tc-99m-colloids for splenic autotransplant imaging, mainly in early examinations. The authors conclude that radioisotopic studies can give both a functional evaluation and a morphologic demonstration of splenic transplanted tissue, in comparison with the purely morphological analysis allowed for by CT and US.

  19. Evaluation of peritoneovenous shunt patency with Tc-99m labeled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, G; D'Ovidio, N G; Casu, A R; Mura, R; Costanza, C; Lai, N; LeVeen, H H

    1983-04-01

    The LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) was investigated in 40 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Five millicuries of Tc-99m-tagged human albumin microspheres (15-36 microns) were injected into the peritoneal cavity between the umbilicus and the left anterior superior iliac spine. The radiotracer was always detectable by scintigram in the lungs when the shunt was patent. In case of malfunction, by contrast, the radioactivity was either restricted to the venous tube or confined below the diaphragm for at least 4 hr. In the presence of complete obstruction, whereas the tube was not visualized after peritoneal injection, it was outlined by direct injection of 2 mCi of Tc-99m albumin microspheres into its subcutaneous tract, where it crossed the 12th rib, immediately above the valve. This technique sufficed to establish whether the site of obstruction was at the valve or in the tubing itself. In one patient, poor visualization of the tube and a delayed image of the lungs was caused by partial occlusion of the valve with fibrinoid debris. This radiotracer method proved simple, quick, and led to an immediate selective replacement when the shunt was not patent. Therefore, the use of this test is recommended for a definitive diagnosis, since there were neither false negatives nor false positives. No complications such as embolism or bacterial infection were encountered with Tc-99m human albumin microspheres, which are excellent tracers. PMID:6220137

  20. Clinical experience with technetium-99m DTPA aerosol with perfusion scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Gardner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of radioaerosol imaging, 156 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were studied. In 25 patients, a preperfusion xenon-133 (Xe-133) study was compared with a postperfusion study using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. It was found that they were of equal value most of the time (56%), but that the aerosol study was more often helpful. Because of this, and the technical ease of using six standard views with radioaerosol, the series was completed using perfusion scintigraphy followed by radioaerosol images. In 19 patients the perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99 macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was normal or nearly normal and no aerosol study was required. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol images were satisfactory when the count rate was at least twice and preferably three times that of the previous perfusion study. There were 17 studies (11%) classified as intermediate. There were 26 patients classified as high probability for PE, and angiographic or autopsy correlation was available in 14. All of the 14 proved to have PE. In the 113 patients classified as low probability, there were ten with angiographic or autopsy correlation. In the ten, there was one patient with a small pulmonary embolus found at autopsy. Clinical follow-up for over two months confirmed the absence of PE in the remainder of this group. Aerosol studies have proven technically easier to perform and a satisfactory substitute for xenon imaging in suspected PE.

  1. Reexamination of cross sections of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Aikawa, M.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear medicine community has been expressing concerns world wide regarding shortages of 99mTc supply based on fission production of 99Mo from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to prepare 99Mo/99mTc generators. As an alternative to reactor produced 99Mo/99mTc generator technology, the direct production of 99mTc on accelerators is considered. There are a number of methods of using accelerators to produce 99mTc and/or 99Mo. Direct production of 99mTc on highly enriched 100Mo target using cyclotrons is interesting for energies up to 20 MeV, so as to minimize the impurities from additional open reaction channels. To estimate the quality of the accelerator produced 99mTc all the possible reaction routes should be mapped which could be potentially involved in this technology. However, a well defined excitation function for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc primary reaction is needed, in order to achieve acceptable good results in assessing the quality of the accelerator-produced 99mTc by theoretical calculations. Most of the available experimental cross section data series for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. A large difference more than a factor of two may, indeed, be observed between the lowest and the highest datasets values. The aim of this study was therefore to get a new evaluation for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc cross section, through three independent experiments, aiming at a more confident estimation about the amplitude of the excitation function.

  2. Optimized preparation of a (99m)Tc-radiolabeled probe for tracing microRNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Xu, Xiao-jie; Ma, Chao; Wang, Rong-fu; Yan, Ping; Zhang, Chun-li; Sun, Hong-wei; Li, Ding

    2015-03-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have been used for a variety of purposes in microRNA (miRNA) research including functional evaluation, target recognition, and gene studies. Although several (99m)Tc-radiolabeled oligonucleotides have been reported in antisense imaging, none of those were related to miRNA tracing. Moreover, separation after labeling was always required to achieve acceptable radiochemical purity. In this study, we prepared a (99m)Tc-radiolabeled oligonucleotide under optimized conditions for the purpose of tracing miRNA. A 22mer anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO) was designed completely complementary to the sequence of mature miR-21. AMO probe modified with 2'-O-Methyl and phosphorothioate backbone was designed and synthesized. This probe was conjugated with a bifunctional chelator S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (NHS-MAG3) via a primary amine on 5'-end. Furthermore, it was radiolabeled and its optimization labeling conditions were performed by varying the amount of stannous ion, (99m)Tc-pertecnetate, and reaction time, respectively. Finally, the labeled product was identified by gel electrophoresis and evaluated for its serum stability. The AMO was synthesized with partial 2'-OMe and phosphorothioate modification to improve its stability. Excess of MAG3 impurity was removed by precipitation of tin and MAG3 after the conjugation. The labeling efficiency reached 97 % under the optimal reaction conditions of 2 μg/μL SnCl2·2H2O addition, (99m)Tc solution with high specific activity, and 90-min reaction at room temperature. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the peak of radioactivity located the same position of oligomer, which identified the successful radiolabeling. After incubated with human fresh serum for 12 h, labeled AMO showed good stability with high radiochemical purity and no significant degradation. A (99m)Tc-labeled AMO targeting miR-21 can be prepared with high labeling efficiency under optimized conditions, which provides a good support for

  3. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p <0,05). In all study point average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualize in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reaches a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) for 2 hour study and then its accumulation remains practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% at 24 hours. In the case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node visualized in all animals for 15 minutes when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred at 2 hour of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) to 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic radiopharmaceutical showed

  4. Preparation and Biodistribution of Technetium-99m-Labeled Bis- Misonidazole (MISO) as an Imaging Agent for Tumour Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Fan, Di; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of tumour hypoxia is an important aspect in determining the course of tumour therapy. In this study, we developed a novel imaging agent, (99m)Tc-ethylenedicysteine-bis-misonidazole ((99m)Tc-EC-MISO), for diagnosing tumour hypoxia. We used 2-nitroimidazole as a reactant to synthesize the amino derivative of misonidazole (MISO) in the first step and then conjugated the di-amino derivative of MISO to the chelating agent ethylenedicysteine (EC) for labelling (99m)Tc in the second step. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) was reduced by tin chloride (SnCl2) for radiolabeling. The radiochemical purity was up to 94%. Tissue biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were conducted on subcutaneous gliomal tumour-bearing mice. The tumour-to-muscle ratio in the (99m)Tc-EC-MISO group increased with time, up to 4.6 at 4 h after injection. SPECT/CT imaging confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with (99m)Tc-EC-MISO at 2 h. By introducing a second 2-nitroimidazole redox centre, an apparent hypoxic accumulation of this novel (99m)Tc-labeled imaging agent in the tumour was observed. PMID:25938423

  5. Lung uptake on Tc-99m albumin colloid liver spleen scan and on Ga-67 scan in angiotropic lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kacki, M.H.; Joyce, J.M.; Coupal, J.J.; Ryo, U.Y. )

    1990-03-01

    Lung uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid has been reported in various hepatic and extrahepatic diseases, and lung uptake of gallium-67 may occur in patients with various interstitial lung disease without radiographic abnormality. This may be the first case of Tc-99m albumin colloid and Ga-67 lung uptake in a patient with angiotropic lymphoma of the liver, spleen, and uterus.

  6. Choledochal cyst complicated by acute cholecystitis and bypass obstruction: diagnostic role of Tc-99m-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gold, M.; Goldstein, R.D.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    An unusual case of malignant degeneration of a choledochal cyst is presented. The presence of acute cholecystitis with the cystic duct originating from the cyst as well as the subsequent obstruction of the cyst-jejunal surgical anastomosis was readily detected with Tc-99m-dimethyl-iminodiacetic (Tc-99m-HIDA) cholescintigraphy.

  7. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumori, A.; Kadota, K.; Kawai, C.

    1980-04-01

    The myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) in perimyocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 in BALB/c mice was studied. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake ratio, measured by the ratio of counts/min per gram for the heart to counts/min per gram for the skull, began to increase 5 days after virus inoculation when myocardial necroosis was evident. On the seventh day after the inoculation, /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio reached a maximum. Histologically, fine, dystrophic calcification appeared in the necrotic fibers. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake was in proportion to the extent of the myocardial lesions. Thereafter, cellular infiltrations increased with time and were most severe on the fourteenth day, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had begun to fade. On the twenty-eighth day, perimyocardial fibrosis increased and calcification was still present, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had decreased. Myocardial uptake with severe pathologic lesions was visualized on a whole-body image on the seventh day after inoculation with the virus. The findings may provide a basis upon which /sup 99m/Tc-PYP imaging may be applied to viral perimyocarditis in humans.

  8. Development of (99m)Tc-Labeled Pyridyl Benzofuran Derivatives To Detect Pancreatic Amylin in Islet Amyloid Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Masashi; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Saji, Hideo

    2016-06-15

    While islet amyloid deposition comprising amylin is one of pathological hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), no useful amylin-imaging probe has been reported. In this study, we evaluated two (99m)Tc-labeled pyridyl benzofuran derivatives as novel amylin-imaging probes using the newly established islet amyloid model mouse. Binding experiments in vitro demonstrated that [(99m)Tc]1 displayed a higher affinity for amylin aggregates than [(99m)Tc]2. Autoradiographic studies using human pancreas sections with T2DM revealed that [(99m)Tc]1 clearly labeled islet amyloid in T2DM pancreatic sections, while [(99m)Tc]2 did not. Although the initial uptake of [(99m)Tc]1 by the normal mouse pancreas was low (0.74%ID/g at 2 min post-injection), [(99m)Tc]1 showed higher retention in the model mouse pancreas than that of the normal mouse, and exhibited strong binding to amylin aggregates in the living pancreas of the model mice. These results suggest that [(99m)Tc]1 is a potential imaging probe targeting islet amyloids in the T2DM pancreas. PMID:27219875

  9. Hypertension in children. Increased efficacy of technetium Tc/sup 99m/ succimer in screening for renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.; Ingelfinger, J.

    1985-02-01

    Renal scintigraphy with technetium Tc-99m succimer (DMSA) and technetium Tc-99m pentetate (DTPA) was used to study 80 hypertensive pediatric and adolescent patients. Renal abnormalities such as asymmetry of function, size, or shape were identified in 13 patients. Both excretory urography and technetium Tc-99m pentetate studies were successful in detecting 54% of the abnormalities in patients studied; technetium Tc-99m succimer identified 92%. The accuracy of the latter was 96%, with a specificity of 97%. The ability of technetium Tc-99m succimer renal scintigraphy to identify accurately the presence or absence of renal abnormalities warrants its inclusion in the initial examination of pediatric and adolescent patients with hypertension.

  10. Role of 99mTc-Sulesomab Immunoscintigraphy in the Management of Infection following Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Real, Raquel; Linhares, Paulo; Fernandes, Hélder; Rosas, Maria José; Gago, Miguel F.; Pereira, Jorge; Vaz, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Infection constitutes a serious adverse event in patients submitted to deep brain stimulation, often leading to removal of the device. We set to evaluate the potential role of immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody fragments (99mTc-sulesomab) in the management of infection following DBS. 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy seems to correlate well with the presence and extent of infection, thus contributing to differentiate between patients who should remove the hardware entirely at presentation and those who could undergo a more conservative approach. Also, 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy has a role in determining the most appropriate timing for reimplantation. Finally, we propose an algorithm for the management of infection following DBS surgery, based on the results of the 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy. PMID:22028965

  11. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  12. Successful Labeling of \\text{99mTc-MDP Using \\text{99mTc Separated from 99Mo Produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Kin, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Sato, Yuichi; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Sato, Norihito; Ohta, Akio; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Teranaka, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    We have for the first time succeeded in separating \\text{99mTc from a MoO3 sample irradiated with accelerator neutrons free from any radioactive impurities and in formulating \\text{99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (\\text{99mTc-MDP). 99Mo, the mother nuclide of \\text{99mTc, was produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction using about 14 MeV neutrons provided by the 3H(d,n)4He reaction at the Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The \\text{99mTc was separated from 99Mo by sublimation and its radionuclide purity was confirmed to be higher than 99.99% by γ-spectroscopy. The labeling efficiency of \\text{99mTc-MDP was shown to be higher than 99% by thin-layer chromatography. These values exceed the United States Pharmacopeia requirements for a fission product, 99Mo. Consequently, a \\text{99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation formed by using the mentioned 99Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99Mo, which is currently produced using a highly enriched uranium target in aging research reactors. A longstanding problem to ensure a reliable and constant supply of 99Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated.

  13. Investigations of ascorbate for direct labeling of antibodies with technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Winnard, P. Jr.; Virzi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a method for the direct labeling of antibodies with {sup 99m}Tc was described in which sulfhydryls were reportedly generated by reduction of antibody disulfides with ascorbic acid. Thereafter, these proteins may be labeled at high efficiency with {sup 99m}Tc following reduction of pertechnetate with dithionite. This investigation was initially conducted to evaluate the mechanism of the increased stability towards cysteine challenge reported for the label and subsequently to determine the role of ascorbate in the labeling process. It was possible to reproduce the reported high labeling efficiencies by increasing the dithionite concentration fivefold, presumably because of variabilities among lots of commercial sodium dithionite. Despite success in labeling, it was not possible to confirm that antibody reduction followed the treatment with ascorbate. Using both Ellman`s reagent and 2,2`-dithiodipyridine as indicators, the authors were unable to detect sulfhydryls on one IgG antibody treated at ten times the suggested ascorbate-to-antibody molar ratio. It was estimated that the number of sulfhydryls generated could not have been more than 1% (dithiodipyridine) to 2% (Ellman`s). Furthermore, radiolabeling efficiencies for two IgG antibodies and stabilities of the label to cysteine challenge were unchanged when the ascorbate was eliminated. The number of sulfhydryls generated by treatment of the antibody with dithionite at 1-2 times the concentration required for adequate labeling was about 1% (dithiodipyridine) to 5% (Ellman`s). For the conditions of this investigation and for the antibodies employed, ascorbate apparently played no more than a minor role at best in the labeling process. If antibody reduction occurred, this most likely was a result of residual dithionite presented to the protein along with the reduced {sup 99m}Tc. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Evaluation of the severity of traumatic rhabdomyolysis using technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Chang, H R; Kao, C H; Lian, J D; Shu, K H; Cheng, C H; Wu, M J; Chen, C H

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative scoring method was designed to assess the extent of muscle damage. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) scintigraphy was performed for 9 patients experiencing crush injury in the Chichi (Taiwan) earthquake. The magnitude of muscle uptake of 99mTc-PYP was graded as follows: grade 0, less than bone radioactivity (BRA); grade 1, equal to BRA; grade 2, higher than BRA; or grade 3, greatly higher than BRA. The area of muscle injury was estimated according to the rule of nines. The sum of the muscle injury size multiplied by its corresponding grading was defined as the anterior or posterior score according to the anterior or posterior images. Each image was interpreted by two physicians and average anterior and posterior scores were calculated. The muscle score was defined as the geometric mean of the average anterior and posterior scores. Significant correlations were obtained between the muscle score and duration of time trapped (r = 0.868, p < 0.01), peak serum creatine kinase level (r = 0.866, p < 0.01), peak serum phosphorus level (r = 0.877, p < 0.01) and number of hospital days (r = 0.875, p < 0.01). A negative correlation between the muscle score and blood pH (r = -0.706, p < 0.01) was also observed. We concluded that this scoring method may be used as an adjunct for evaluating the locations of trauma and the severity of crush syndrome, and for predicting the duration of hospital stay. PMID:11423690

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy in maxillofacial flaps.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Reingard M; Schultes, Guenter; Sorantin, Erich

    2003-02-01

    In oro-maxillofacial malignancies, new therapeutic approaches are placing changing demands on the diverse diagnostic modalities. In contradistinction to mandibular reconstruction of former years, the transplants (microvascular anastomosed pedicled flaps, "flaps") now consist of one or more arteries feeding a soft tissue component attached to a piece of bone suitably fitted to fill the defect. We addressed the diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy in differentiating between viability and non-viability of the soft tissue portion of flaps in the immediate postoperative assessment. A total of 60 patients who had received flaps for reconstruction of the mandible after partial resection were investigated with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin 3-5 days after surgery. Scintigraphy consisted of (a) radionuclide angiography, (b) static planar imaging in four projections starting at 10 min post injection, and (c) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) performed immediately after the planar imaging. Normal perfusion associated with no defects throughout the soft tissue portion of the transplant was observed in 46/60 patients. This scintigraphic pattern was identical to viability and normal postoperative follow-up. Hypoperfusion and small defects on planar and SPET images indicated viability and uncomplicated postoperative healing in 6/60 patients, but non-viability/inadequate healing of the flap in 4/60 patients. Absence of perfusion combined with a large defect on static planar and SPET images definitively showed the non-viability of the flap (4/60 patients). It is concluded that (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the immediate postoperative assessment of the viability and the adequacy of implantation of the soft tissue portion of flaps. Therefore tetrofosmin scintigraphy is an important modality in order (a) to define the optimal therapeutic regimen in the immediate postoperative period and (b) to provide better prognosis. PMID

  16. Technetium-99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, T.E.; Lyons, K.P.; Raiszadeh, M.; Fardi, M.; Snider, P.

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of 6 hours. The chromatographic findings are in agreement with the in-vivo distribution of the agent which showed no significant radioactivity in thyroid, kidneys, liver, or bladder. The resulting Tc-99m-CBS solution is administered orally in drinking water. Preliminary animal studies have been conducted on 5 adult 3 kg New Zealand rabbits sedated with 50 mg Ketamine I.M. The rabbits were intubated with I.V. tubing advanced to the stomach. They were given a gastric erosive suspension of 600-1000 mg/kg of pulverized ASA in 10 cc tap water. Four hours later they were given 3-4 mCi of the radiotracer in a 5 cc volume of water. Serial in-vivo images were obtained for 2 hours which included thyroid, abdomen, and urinary bladder. Next the stomachs were excised, opened along the greater curvature, imaged, vigorously washed and reimaged. All 5 rabbits showed avid localized binding of radiotracer which remained fixed even with vigorous washing. Areas of normal appearing mucosa were relatively devoid of radiotracer. This new compound may have significant clinical usefulness in the detection of peptic ulcer disease. In addition, such a non-invasive technique, carrying none of the risks or discomfort of endoscopy could also find application in the evaluation of the response to therapy.

  17. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 ..mu..Ci Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 ..mu..Ci In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 ..mu..Ci is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results.

  18. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    SciTech Connect

    Liem, Peng Hong; Tran, Hoai Nam; Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Arbie, Bakri

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  19. Systemic absorption of Tc-99m-pertechnetate during dacryoscintigraphy: a note of caution.

    PubMed

    Ayati, Narjess-Khatoon; Malekshahi, Reza Gholami; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Aryana, Kamran; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2010-10-01

    We report a 37-year-old patient with the history of bilateral epiphora, who was referred to our department for dacryoscintigraphy imaging. The patient had bilateral obstruction of the lacrimal apparatus at the sac-duct level on the scintigraphy images. Delayed imaging showed Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid due to systemic absorption of the tracer from the conjunctiva. We recommend using tracers with large particle size and lower possibility of mucosal absorption for dacryoscintigraphy in order to decrease unnecessary thyroid radiation. PMID:20572752

  20. Kit for the rapid preparation of .sup.99m Tc red blood cells

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Powell; Smith, Terry D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and sample kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc-labeled red blood cells in a closed, sterile system. A partially evacuated tube, containing a freeze-dried stannous citrate formulation with heparin as an anticoagulant, allows whole blood to be automatically drawn from the patient. The radioisotope is added at the end of the labeling sequence to minimize operator exposure. Consistent 97% yields in 20 minutes are obtained with small blood samples. Freeze-dried kits have remained stable after five months.

  1. Synthesis and application of lactosylated, 99mTc chelating albumin for measurement of liver function.

    PubMed

    Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Martinez-Duncker, Ivan; Marty, Anne-Laure; Richard, Cyrille; Prigent, Alain; Moati, Frederic; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Mignet, Nathalie

    2010-04-21

    Neogalactosylated and neolactosylated albumins are currently used as radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging the liver asialoglycoprotein receptors, which allows the quantification of hepatic liver function in various diseases and also in healthy liver transplant donors. We developed an original process for synthesizing a chelating neolactosylated human albumin using maleimidopropyl-lactose and maleimidopropyl-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives. The lactosylated protein (LACTAL) conjugate showed excellent liver uptake compared to nonlactosylated protein and a very high signal-to-noise ratio, based on functional assessment of biodistribution in mice using (99m)Tc-scintigraphy. PMID:20201600

  2. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  3. Serendipity in Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. [Visualization of nonbiliary incidental abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Sugarman, L.A.; Frank, M.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1980-05-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy has contributed significantly to the diagnosis of acute and chronic biliary tract disorders. Yet attention should also be focused on the other structres visualized during the blood pool, hepatocyte, renal excretory, and intestinal phases of the study. Nonbiliary pathology was detected in 42 of 294 patients (14.3%) studied for suspected acute cholecystitis. The serendipitous detection of previously unsuspected abnormalities assisted in directing further work-up away from suspected biliary disease and towards the real source of the patient's acute problem in 28 cases (9.5%).

  4. Spectrum of 99m-Tc-IDA cholescintigraphic patterns in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Badia, J.; Sugarman, L.A.; Kluger, L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with 99m-Tc labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives has proved to be extremely reliable in the evaluation of suspected acute cholecystitis. The major diagnostic feature of the study is the presence (cystic dust patency) or absence (cystic duct obstruction) of gallbladder visualization. Secondary findings include degree and rate of liver uptake, visualization and caliber of the intrahepatic and common bile ducts, and the presence of intestinal activity as well as rapidity of biliary tract-to-bowel transit of the radiotracer. Various combinations of these secondary parameters result in a spectrum of cholescintigraphic patterns which can assist in determining the cause of the patient's acute clinical problem.

  5. Clinical experience with 99mTc-disofenin as a cholescintigraphic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.; Jansholt, A.L.; Vera, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    99mTc-disofenin, a derivative of iminodiacetic acid, was used for cholescintigraphy in 6 volunteers (in addition to assessment of blood and urine clearance) and in 82 patients referred for evaluation of hepatobiliary tract disease. This radionuclide was cleared rapidly from the blood by the hepatocytes, which permitted satisfactory to excellent images of the hepatobiliary system; interference by renal activity was seen in only 9/82 patients (11%). Acute cholecystitis was correctly diagnosed in 20 patients, although 9 (45%) had jaundice; bilirubin levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.6 mg/dl. The biliary tract was normal in 16 of the 27 patients with jaundice (60%).

  6. Two year experience with /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy in teaching hospital practice

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, N.V.; Friend, P.J.; Wraight, E.P.

    1986-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four sequential patients who underwent /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy have been studied. Patients were investigated for suspected acute cholecystitis, chronic cholelithiasis, enterogastric reflux or jaundice, and in the assessment of biliary tract drainage after transplantation of the liver and other operations of the biliary tract. The technique is most valuable in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis when its accuracy rate is 96 per cent; it is also useful in the assessment of postoperative biliary drainage. It is least helpful in the investigation of jaundice and suspected chronic cholelithiasis.

  7. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: sensitivity in detection using technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C.

    1986-07-01

    Forty-one proved cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis imaged with technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy were retrospectively analyzed. After the exclusion of one indeterminate scan (showing poor initial hepatic uptake and excretion), the study yielded a 92.5% (37 of 40) sensitivity for the detection of cystic or common bile duct obstruction. Each of the three patients with false-negative scintigrams had other abnormal scintigraphic findings suggestive of biliary tract disease. Of the 20 patients (48.8%) with focal or diffuse gangrenous cholecystitis or perforation, seven (35%) exhibited either free peritoneal spill or increased pericholecystic activity to indicate the presence of advanced disease.

  8. (99m)Tc-HMDP scintigraphy rectifies wrong diagnosis of AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Galat, Arnault; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Colombat, Magali; Attias, David; Itti, Emmanuel; Meignan, Michel; Lebras, Fabien; Molinier-Frenkel, Valérie; Benhaiem, Nicole; Guellich, Aziz; Rosso, Jean; Damy, Thibaud

    2015-08-01

    A 71-year-old African man without history of cardiac disease was referred to our center for dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram and cardiac MRI were suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis (CA). The diagnosis of the light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) was made after a first endomyocardial biopsy. Accordingly chemotherapy was started. Systematic 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy showed moderate cardiac uptake (visual score of 2), unusual for AL-CA, and permitted to rectify the diagnosis. Hereditary transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis was confirmed by a second endomyocardial biopsy with a positive Congo-red and anti-transthyretin antibody stainings, mass spectrometry and genetic analysis (Val122Ile mutation). PMID:26002815

  9. Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: in vivo characterization of receptor-mediated binding to hepatocyctes

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-04-01

    The biodistribution and kinetics of a receptor-binding hepatic radiopharmaceutical, Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA), were investigated using mammalian and avian models. The radiopharmaceutical exhibited four significant features associated with receptor-mediated binding at the hepatocyte membrane in mammals: (a) high tissue specificity, (b) high molecular specificity, (c) affinity-dependent uptake, and (d) dose-dependent uptake. Diminished hepatic uptake by the avian model illustrated low nonspecific binding. The kinetic sensitivity to ligand-receptor affinity and stoichiometry illustrated the principal feature of receptor-binding radiopharmaceuticals, namely, quantitative assessment of tissue function based upon the biochemical interaction of a ligand and its specific receptor.

  10. Utility of (99m)Tc RBC Scintigraphy in Diagnosing Parotid Venous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rosan; Saad, Hannan; Srinivasan, Ashok; Brown, Richard K J

    2015-07-01

    Venous malformations of the parotid glands are uncommon and can be difficult to confirm on routine anatomical imaging alone because of overlap of imaging features with other more common parotid lesions. (99m)Tc RBC scans combined with SPECT/CT offer a noninvasive way to diagnose parotid venous malformations without the need for biopsy. Combined with anatomical findings of phleboliths (when present), the diagnosis can be reliably determined. We present a case where MRI and biopsy were inconclusive, but the SPECT/CT was used to confirm the suspicion of a benign venous malformation. PMID:26018710

  11. CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrate functional differences between the liver lobes

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Tokorodani, Ryoutarou; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Hata, Yasuhiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Murata, Yoriko; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the functional differences between the 2 liver lobes in non-cirrhotic patients by using computed tomography/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (CT/99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion images. METHODS: Between December 2008 and March 2012, 264 non-cirrhotic patients underwent preoperative liver function assessment using CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. Of these, 30 patients, in whom the influence of a tumor on the liver parenchyma was estimated to be negligible, were selected. Specifically, the selected patients were required to meet either of the following criteria: (1) the presence of an extrahepatic tumor; or (2) presence of a single small intrahepatic tumor. These 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the percentage volume (%Volume) and the percentage function (%Function) of each lobe. The ratio between the %Function and %Volume (function-to-volume ratio) of each lobe was also calculated, and the ratios were compared between the 2 lobes. Furthermore, the correlations between the function-to-volume ratio and each of 2 liver parameters [lobe volume and diameter ratio of the left portal vein to the right portal vein (LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio)] were investigated. RESULTS: The median values of %Volume and %Function were 62.6% and 67.1% in the right lobe, with %Function being significantly higher than %Volume (P < 0.01). The median values of %Volume and %Function were 31.0% and 28.7% in the left lobe, with %Function being significantly lower than %Volume (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratios of the right lobe (1.04-1.14) were significantly higher than those of the left lobe (0.74-0.99) (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratio showed no significant correlation between the lobe volume in either lobe. In contrast, the function-to-volume ratio showed significant correlations with the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio in both lobes (right lobe: negative correlation, rs = -0.37, P = 0.048; left lobe: positive

  12. Aspiration after percutaneous gastrostomy. Assessment by Tc-99m labeling of the enteral feed.

    PubMed

    Cole, M J; Smith, J T; Molnar, C; Shaffer, E A

    1987-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia, a recognized complication of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, is considered uncommon with percutaneously placed gastrostomy tube feeding. We report aspiration pneumonia during enteral alimentation in a neurologically compromised but conscious patient. Aspiration continued despite changing the route of enteral feeding from nasogastric to percutaneous gastrostomy. Quantitative scintigraphic studies with Tc-99m-labeled enteral infusion demonstrated frequent episodes of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration of gastric contents, which increased when the infusion rate was speeded up for nutritional replacement. Gastric retention also occurred at the higher infusion rate. Thus, percutaneous gastrostomy may not decrease the frequency of aspiration in patients at risk. PMID:3104444

  13. Spatially resolved assessment of hepatic function using 99mTc-IDA SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 99mTc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) hepatobiliary imaging is usually quantified for hepatic function on the entire liver or regions of interest (ROIs) in the liver. The authors presented a method to estimate the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) voxel-by-voxel from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with a 99mTc-labeled IDA agent of mebrofenin and evaluated the spatially resolved HEF measurements with an independent physiological measurement.Methods: Fourteen patients with intrahepatic cancers were treated with radiation therapy (RT) and imaged by 99mTc-mebrofenin SPECT before and 1 month after RT. The dynamic SPECT volumes were with a resolution of 3.9 × 3.9 × 2.5 mm{sup 3}. Throughout the whole liver with approximate 50 000 voxels, voxelwise HEF quantifications were estimated and compared between using arterial input function (AIF) from the heart and using vascular input function (VIF) from the spleen. The correlation between mean of the HEFs over the nontumor liver tissue and the overall liver function measured by Indocyanine green clearance half-time (T1/2) was assessed. Variation of the voxelwise estimation was evaluated in ROIs drawn in relatively homogeneous regions of the livers. The authors also examined effects of the time range parameter on the voxelwise HEF quantification.Results: Mean of the HEFs over the liver estimated using AIF significantly correlated with the physiological measurement T1/2 (r= 0.52, p= 0.0004), and the correlation was greatly improved by using VIF (r= 0.79, p < 0.0001). The parameter of time range for the retention phase did not lead to a significant difference in the means of the HEFs in the ROIs. Using VIF and a retention phase time range of 7–30 min, the relative variation of the voxelwise HEF in the ROIs was 10%± 6% of respective mean HEF.Conclusions: The voxelwise HEF derived from 99mTc-IDA SPECT by the deconvolution analysis is feasible to assess the spatial distribution of hepatic function in the

  14. Survey of /sup 99m/Tc contamination of laboratory personnel: hand decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Van Tuinen, R.J.; Lukes, S.J.; Feller, P.A.

    1980-11-01

    Decontamination after exposure to various /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals was tested with serial hand washings both with and without soap. All radiopharmaceuticals were removed more effectively with soap and the degree of decontamination related closely to the number of washings. The affinity of the radiopharmaceuticals for the skin varied, depending upon the labeled material, and only macroaggregated albumin was effectively removed to less than 1% of its original activity with soap. Activity transfer to the opposite hand could be substantial with macroaggregated albumin and sulfur colloid if soap is not used.

  15. Indirect evidence of intravesical ureterocele on 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepa; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Misra, Ritu; Ali, Md Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Ureterocele is a common ureteric anomaly detected in pediatric population. Ureterocele diagnosis and evaluation need a variety of radiological methods. We report a case of 5-year-old female child sent for 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and excretory function of kidneys in view of right-sided hydroureteronephrosis and pyonephrosis with percutaneous tube in situ. Incidental photopenia was noted in the urinary bladder. On ultrasonography of abdomen cause of this photopenia was found to be an intravesical ureterocele. PMID:27095867

  16. Radiolabelled nanohydroxyapatite with 99mTc: perspectives to nanoradiopharmaceuticals construction.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Ospina, Carlos Alberto; Rossi, Alexandre Malta; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    The use of nanoparticles is under intense investigation. The possible advantages proposed by these systems are very impressive and the results may be quite schemer. In this scenario, the association of nanoparticles with radioactive materials (radionuclide) may be the most important step since the discovery of radioactive for nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy, especially for cancer targeting and therapy. In this study, we developed radiolabelled nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite with technetium 99m for bone cancer imaging. The results demonstrated that it is possible to label nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, and due to its physicochemical properties is possible to develop nano-radiopharmaceutical for bone imaging. PMID:23586417

  17. [99mTc-MAA peritoneal scintigraphy in pleuroperitoneal comunication in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martínez, A C; Marín Ferrer, M D; Coronado Poggio, M; Escabias Del Pozo, C; Coya Viña, J; Martín Curto, L

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is a fully-contrasted alternative for the treatment of end-stage renal disease although it is not exempt of complications. Peritonitis and exit-site infections are among the most frequent complications found. Pleural effusion secondary to pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is a serious and uncommon complication in these patients. We present the case of a 50-year old man diagnosed of end-stage renal disease undergoing treatment with peritoneal dialysis who presented progressive dyspnea and right pleural effusion. The peritoneal scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-MAA makes it possible to confirm communication of intraperitoneal dialysis fluid to the pleural cavity. PMID:20117860

  18. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

  19. [Diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy; usefulness of 99mTc MDP scintigraphy and muscle MRI for determination of affected sites].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Saitoh, Y; Yatabe, K; Sueishi, M; Kawai, M

    1999-11-01

    We studied the effectiveness of 99mTc-MDP (methylendiphosphate) scintigraphy in imaging inflammatory myopathy. The three subjects including 1 male and 2 female patients had high creatine kinase (CK) levels and proximal dominant muscle weakness. In whole body muscle surveillance by 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, abnormal 99mTc-MDP accumulation was found in the extremities of all patients. The sites with high 99mTc-MDP accumulation showed high intensity on T2 weighted MR imaging, suggesting an inflammatory process. Muscle biopsy was performed on two patients from the muscles with the abnormal MRI findings, which showed the diagnostic finding of inflammatory changes. Because muscle involvement in inflammatory myopathy differs from muscle to muscle, it is sometimes difficult to choose appropriate muscle biopsy sites for diagnostic purposes. Affected muscles are more easily identified by using 99mTc-MDP muscle scintigraphy and muscle MRI, therefore, a correct diagnosis and choice of biopsy site can be made. 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy is permitted for use in myocardial infarction alone and 111In-antimyosin scintigraphy is not available in Japan. Therefore, we recommend 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy for diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy and for determination of muscle biopsy sites. PMID:10689932

  20. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  1. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.

    1984-08-01

    A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

  2. Protein binding studies of technetium-99m-labeled phosphine and isocyanide cationic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Zanelli, G.D.; Cook, N.; Lahiri, A.; Ellison, D.; Webbon, P.; Woolley, G.

    1988-01-01

    Most /sup 99m/Tc/phosphine/isocyanide complexes synthesized to date show preferential uptake by the myocardium of many animal species but not in man. A new complex has been synthesized, (/sup 99m/Tc(DEPE)2(CNR)2), +(DEPIC), where R = t - butyl isocyanide, which in three animal species images the myocardium very well, but in humans it remains primarily in the blood pool. One reason for the difference in the behavior of these complexes in different species could be the characteristics of their binding to plasma proteins. The protein binding characteristics of DEPIC and two other well-known complexes have therefore been studied. Whereas the other complexes bind nonspecifically to many proteins both in animal and human plasma, DEPIC binds almost exclusively to prealbumin in humans but nonspecifically to other proteins in the rabbit. The binding sites in human plasma appear to be those normally occupied by thyroxine on the prealbumin tetramer and these can be blocked by sodium salicylate.

  3. Localization and stability of technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate in rat neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, R.F.; Loo, C.Y.

    1988-08-01

    Technetium-99m has been suggested as an alternative radiolabel for white cells, and while its physical characteristics are nearly ideal, its stability and site of localization in this procedure are unclear. We examined these parameters by radiolabeling 10(8) neutrophils from rat peritoneum with 74 to 370 MBq technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate. We found that the percentage of initial activity bound to neutrophils was quite variable, possibly because the radiolabel associated with several subfractions: 19.8 +/- 11.5% (mean +/- s.d.) with nuclei and plasma membranes, 25.6 +/- 3.9% with mitochondria, 26.6 +/- 9.8% with microsomes, and 29.2 +/- 6.9% with cytosol. Approximately 80-90% of the radioactivity associated with neutrophils was not bound to protein and only about one-half of the activity localized to cell membranes was removable over 4 hr by pepsin digestion. We concluded that the variable labeling efficiency was due to the radiolabel's rather loose association with several cellular subfractions rather than specific binding to a unique substrate.

  4. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cerebral abscesses.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, F; Sara, R; Milella, M; Ruffini, L; Sterzi, R; Causarano, I R; Sberna, M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain abscess is often difficult, as the clinical symptoms are not specific. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are highly sensitive, but different cerebral lesions, especially neoplasms, can have the same ring-like contrast enhancement. Brain abscess is a severe illness requiring rapid diagnosis to choose the most appropriate therapy. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is commonly used to detect an inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to present the results obtained with leucocyte scintigraphy in 65 patients with intracranial mass lesions and clinical findings compatible to or suggestive of brain abscess. The final diagnosis, based on surgery, clinical findings and stereotatic puncture, was brain abscess in 17 patients, primary brain neoplasm in 22, brain metastasis in 16, lymphoma in 2, cysticercosis in 2, hematoma in 2 and cerebral infarction in 4. 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was positive in all abscess cases. The scan was negative in the rest of the patients examined, with the exception of one lesion, which was finally diagnosed as a tumour (1 false-positive). All patients who did not have false-negative scans were treated with steroids. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, 97.8% and 98.4%, respectively. In conclusion, in our experience, leucocyte scintigraphy is a valuable aid in the differential diagnosis between abscess and neoplasm. PMID:10654146

  5. 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. Two of three hepatomas had increased blood-pool activity associated with increased flow in a pattern identical to the increased blood-pool activity. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that 99mTc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  6. /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  7. (99m)Tc-human serum albumin nanocolloids: particle sizing and radioactivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Persico, Marco G; Lodola, Lorenzo; Buroni, Federica E; Morandotti, Marco; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Aprile, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Several parameters affect the biodistribution of administered nanocolloids (NC) for Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) detection: particle size distribution, number of Tc atoms per particle and specific activity (SA). Relatively few data are available with frequently conflicting results. (99m)Tc-NC-human serum albumin (HSA) Nanocoll®, Nanoalbumon® and Nanotop® were analysed for particles' dimensional and radioactivity distribution, and a mathematical model was elaborated to estimate the number of particles involved. Commercially available kits were reconstituted at maximal SA of 11 MBq/µg HSA. Particles size distribution was evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering. These data were related to the radioactivity distribution analysis passing labelled NC through three polycarbonate filters (15-30-50-nm pore size) under vacuum. Highest radioactivity was carried by 30-50 nm particles. The smallest ones, even though most numerous, carried only the 10% of (99m)Tc atoms. Nanocoll and Nanotop are not significantly different, while Nanoalbumon is characterized by largest particles (>30 nm) that carried the most of radioactivity (80%). Smallest particles could saturate the clearing capacity of macrophages; therefore, if the tracer is used for SLN detection, more node tiers could be visualized, reducing accuracy of SLN mapping. Manufacturers could implement technical leaflets with particle size distribution and could improve the labelling protocol to provide clinicians useful information. PMID:26198778

  8. The normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary study

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, V.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The biliary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p less than 0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p less than 0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  9. Normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary stud

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, W.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA TC 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The billiary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p<0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p<0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  10. 99mTechnetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, U A; Garve, K; Brink, I; Miehle, N; Peter, H H; Kelly, T

    2007-07-01

    We aimed to assess the specificity and sensitivity of (99m)technetium pyrophosphate muscle scintigraphy in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected myopathy. We reviewed the charts of 166 patients; 52% of the subjects had myalgias, 36% had muscle weakness, 45% had an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK), and 49% had an increased C reactive protein (CRP). Scintigraphy was positive in 34 patients (20%). The test was more sensitive in the presence of muscle weakness, elevated CK, or increased CRP. The presence of myalgias did not influence the odds. Sensitivity was 60% in patients with the final diagnosis of polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or inclusion body myositis, and 70% in noninflammatory myopathies. Eight percent had false positive scintigrams. In individuals with biopsy-proven myopathy (51 subjects), the diagnostic sensitivity was 43%, and its specificity was 60%. Low positive and high negative likelihood ratios (5.0 and 0.65, respectively) document an only limited diagnostic efficiency of (99m)Tc-PYP scintigraphy in the evaluation of inflammatory and noninflammatory myopathies and suggest that the test is not helpful in the routine diagnostic workup of muscle complaints, even after a priori selection of patients for CK plus CRP abnormalities. PMID:17119862

  11. Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

  12. Demonstration of 99mTc-labelled plasmin on the surface of ex vivo thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Tengborn, L.; Hedner, U.; Rohlin, M.; Stahlberg, F.

    1982-12-15

    In an vitro system using the Chandler model for the preparation of in vitro thrombi trace amounts of porcine or human 99mTc-labelled plasmin was found to adsorb to the surface of a preformed thrombus. A radioactive lining of the thrombus could be demonstrated using autoradiography after addition of 99mTc-labelled plasmin in concentrations of 0.04 - 0.07 or 0.4 - 0.7 CTA u/thrombus made from 2 ml whole blood (0.035 - 0.35 microM). The same pattern was found for porcine as for human plasmin. The presence of tranexamic acid in concentrations of 3 to 12 mM did not affect the binding of plasmin indicating that the plasmin binding to fibrin was independent of the lysine binding sites. Furthermore alpha 2-antiplasmin was demonstrated on/in the thrombus also when no plasmin was present indicating a binding of alpha 2-antiplasmin to the thrombus. The plasmin bound to the thrombus was proteolytically inactive. In order to obtain thrombolysis most of the alpha 2-antiplasmin in the surrounding medium had to be neutralized.

  13. Drug-induced modulation of Tc-99m pyrophosphate tissue distribution: what is involved

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    More than ten years after their introduction, Tc-99m-labeled phosphates and phosphonates (TcP) continue to be of interest to the investigator and to hold promise for new clinical applications in the future. Initially, TcP compounds were valued because of their bone-seeking properties. Emphasis shifted from bone to soft tissue when Bonte et al. introduced Tc-99m-labeled pyrophosphate (TcPPi) for myocardial infarct scanning. Detailed information about TcPPi uptake in ischemic and necrotic myocardial tissue at the subcellular level has accumulated. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism of TcPPi uptake in infarcted myocardium is more detailed than understanding of uptake by bone. A new, and potentially powerful, approach to the use of TcP is being proposed by Carr et al. The authors attempt to modulate favorably the tissue distribution of TcPPi by prior administration of drugs in pharmacological quantities. The authors demonstrate that uptake of TcPPi can be enhanced in the necrotic myocardium, uptake by bone can be reduced, and the lesion-to-blood ratio can be altered favorably when vitamin D/sub 3/ or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) is administered in pharmacological doses before the TcPPi injection. A short review is presented of background information helpful for interpreting the drug effects on TcPPi uptake in bone or necrotic myocardial tissue.

  14. ( sup 99m Tc)diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in arthritis of the immature dog knee

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Soballe, K.; Henriksen, T.B.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Buenger, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between (99mTc)diphosphonate uptake and bone hemodynamics was studied in canine carrageenan-induced juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood flow was determined with microspheres, plasma and red cell volumes were measured by labeled fibrinogen and red cells, and the microvascular volume and mean transit time of blood were calculated. Normal femoral epiphyses had lower central and higher subchondral blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values. Epiphyseal vascular volume was uniform, resulting in a greater transit time of blood centrally. In arthritis, blood flow and diphosphonate uptake were increased subchondrally and unaffected centrally, while epiphyseal vascular volume was increased throughout, leading to prolonged transit time centrally. The normal metaphyses had low blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values in cancellous bone and very high values in growth plates, but a large vascular volume throughout. The mean transit time therefore was low in growth plates and high in adjacent cancellous bone. Arthritis caused decreased blood flow and diphosphonate uptake in growth plates but increased vascular volume and transit time of blood. Diphosphonate uptake correlated positively with blood flow and plasma volume and negatively with red cell volume in a nonlinear fashion. Thus, changes in diphosphonate uptake and microvascular hemodynamics occur in both epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone in chronic synovitis of the immature knee. The (99mTc)diphosphonate bone scan seems to reflect blood flow, plasma volume, and red cell volume of bone.

  15. Uptake and clearance analysis of Technetium99m labelled iron oxide nanoparticles in a rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Saeed, M A; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Rashid, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticles as solid colloidal particles are extensively studied and used as anticancer drug delivery agents because of their physical properties. This current research aims to prepare water base suspension of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles and their biodistribution study to different organs, especially the brain, by using a single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera. The water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesised by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method and labelled with Tc99m for intravenous injection. The nanoparticles were injected without surface modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used for characterisation. Peaks of XRD and EDS indicate that the particles are magnetite and exist in aqueous suspension. The average diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles without any surface coating determined by TEM is 10 nm. These particles are capable of evading the reticuloendothelial system and can cross the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit. The labelling efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles labelled with Tc99m is 85%, which is good for the biodistribution study. The sufficient amount of iron oxide nanoparticles concentration in the brain as compared with the surrounding soft tissues and their long blood retention time indicates that the water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles may be an option for drug delivery into the brain. PMID:26023157

  16. Pathophysiology of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate and thallium-201 scintigraphy of acute anterior myocardial infarcts in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Buja, L M; Parkey, R W; Stokely, E M; Bonte, F J; Willerson, J T

    1976-01-01

    In 17 dogs with acute myocardial infarcts produced by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, a comparative study was made of myocardial scintigrams obtained with technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) and thallium-201 (201T1), tissue levels of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 uptake, histopathologic alterations, and regional myocardial perfusion measured with radioactive microspheres. 9 of the 10 hearts examined histologically had transmural infarcts with outer peripheral, inner peripheral, and central zones characterized by distinctive histopathologic features. A progressive reduction in myocardial blood flow was demonstrated between normal myocardium and the centers of the infarcts, and correlated well with progressive reduction in 201T1 upatke in the same regions. Marked 99mTc-PYP concentration occurred in areas with partial to homogeneous myocardial necrosis and residual perfusion located in the outer peripheral regions of the infarcts. The latter areas also were characterized by the presence of muscle cell calcification. The patterns of distribution of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 explained the filling defects on 201T1 myocardial scintigrams and the doughnut patterns on 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigrams in dogs with transmural infarcts. One dog with a subendocardial infarct had a small homogeneous area of activity on the 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigram, and showed marked uptake of 99mTc-PYP in subendocardial areas of extensive necrosis and calcification still receiving some coronary perfusion. Thus, the data indicate that the status of regional myocardial perfusion is a key determinant for the occurrence of distinctive patterns of myocardial necrosis and for the scintigraphic detection of acute myocardial infarcts with 99mTc-PYP and 201T1. Images PMID:180053

  17. High 99mTc-DPD myocardial uptake in a patient with apolipoprotein AI-related amyloidotic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Candida Cristina; Obici, Laura; Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pieroni, Maurizio; Longhi, Simone; Perlini, Stefano; Verga, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Amyloidotic cardiomyopathy is still a widely underdiagnosed condition that usually requires endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for a definite diagnosis. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) has proven highly sensitive for detecting amyloidotic cardiomyopathy due to transthyretin-related amyloid deposition. Herein we report the first description of the (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy profile in a patient with suspected amyloidotic cardiomyopathy and a final EMB- and genetically-proven diagnosis of familial apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis due to Leu174Ser variant. PMID:23231421

  18. Subacute splenic abscess. Appearance on indium-111 leukocyte, gallium-67, and technetium-99m sulfur colloid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, W.; Chiu, B.K.; Wright, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    A case of a 23-year-old man with an encapsulated, anaerobic splenic abscess is reported. Both the In-111 leukocyte and Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans demonstrated an intrasplenic defect. The Ga-67 citrate scan revealed uptake in the rim of the abscess only where the abscess cavity was relatively photon-deficient. The combined Tc-99m sulfur colloid/In-111 leukocyte/Ga-67 scan appearance of a subacute splenic abscess has not been described previously. In cases suspected to be splenic abscesses the combined In-111 leukocyte/Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging is the most useful.

  19. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  20. Sites and Mechanisms of Localization of Technetium-99m Phosphorus Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Myocardial Infarcts and other Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Buja, L. Maximilian; Tofe, Andrew J.; Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Mukherjee, Amal; Parkey, Robert W.; Francis, Marion D.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Willerson, James T.

    1977-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the localization at the cellular level of technetium-99m phosphorus (99mTc-P) radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and the mechanisms responsible for 99mTc-P uptake in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues. In 20 dogs with proximal left anterior descending coronary arterial ligation for 1-3 days, elevated calcium levels were measured at all sites of increased 99mTc-P uptake (acute myocardial infarcts, necrotic thoracotomy muscle, lactating breast, and normal bone); however, a consistent linear relationship between 99mTc-P and calcium levels was not observed. A strong correlation (r = 0.95 and 0.99, n = 2 dogs) was demonstrated between levels of 3H-diphosphonate and 99mTc-P in infarcted myocardium. Autoradiographic studies with 3H-diphosphonate revealed extensive labeling in the infarct periphery which contained necrotic muscle cells with features of severe calcium overloading, including widespread hypercontraction as well as more selective formation of mitochondrial calcific deposits. Autoradiography also demonstrated labeling of a small population of damaged border zone muscle cells which exhibited prominent accumulation of lipid droplets and focal, early mitochondrial calcification. Cell fractionation studies revealed major localization of both 99mTc-P and calcium in the soluble supernate and membrane-debris fractions of infarcted myocardium and less than 2% of total 99mTc-P and calcium in the mitochondrial fractions; however, electron microscopic examination showed that mitochondria with calcific deposits were not preserved in the mitochondrial fractions. In vitro studies evaluating the role of serum protein binding on tissue uptake of 99mTc-P agents demonstrated that, in spite of significant complexing with serum proteins, serum 99mTc-P activity retained the ability to adsorp to calcium hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. In vivo studies showed that concentration of human serum albumin

  1. (99m)Tc-amitrole as a novel selective imaging probe for solid tumor: In silico and preclinical pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Essa, B M; Sakr, T M; Khedr, Mohammed A; El-Essawy, F A; El-Mohty, A A

    2015-08-30

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) inhibitors are very selective for solid tumor due to their high binding affinity to the LPO enzyme. A computational study was used to select top-ranked LPO inhibitor (alone and in complex with (99m)Tc) with high in silico affinity. The novel prepared (99m)Tc-amitrole complex demonstrated both in silico and in vivo high affinity toward solid tumors.(99m)Tc-amitrole was radio-synthesized with a high radiochemical yield (89.7±3.25). It showed in vitro stability for up to 6h. Its preclinical evaluation in solid tumor-bearing mice showed high retention and biological accumulation in solid tumor cells with a high Target/Non-Target (T/NT) ratio equal to 4.9 at 60min post-injection. The data described previously could recommend (99m)Tc-amitrole as potential targeting scintigraphic probe for solid tumor imaging. PMID:25956074

  2. 99mTc-N4amG: Synthesis Biodistribution and Imaging in Breast Tumor-bearing Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Ning; Chanda, Mithu; Yu, Dong-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Zhang, Yin-Han; Mendez, Richard; Yang, David J.

    2013-01-01

    99mTc-N4-guanine (99mTc-N4amG) was synthesized and evaluated in this study. Cellular uptake and cellular fraction studies were performed to evaluate the cell penetrating ability. Biodistribution and planar imaging were conducted in breast tumor-bearing rats. Up to 17%ID uptake was observed in cellular uptake study with 40% of 99mTc-N4amG was accumulated in the nucleus. Biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies showed increased tumor/muscle count density ratios as a function of time. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using 99mTc-N4amG in tumor specific imaging. PMID:23208240

  3. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average

  4. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the

  5. Development of kit formulations for (99m) TcN-MPO: a cationic radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Liu, Shuang

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a kit formulation for [(99m) TcN(mpo)(PNP5)](+) (MPO = 2-mercaptopyridine oxide), ((99m) TcN-MPO) to support its clinical evaluations as a SPECT radiotracer. Radiolabeling studies were performed using three different formulations (two-vial formulation and single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2 ) to explore the factors influencing radiochemical purity (RCP) of (99m) TcN-MPO. We found that the most important factor affecting the RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO was the purity of PNP5. (99m) TcN-MPO was prepared >98% RCP (n = 20) using the two-vial formulation. For single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2 , β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is particularly useful as a stabilizer for PNP5. The RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO was 95-98% using β-CD, but its RCP was only 90-93% with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). It seems that PNP5 fits better into the inner cavity of β-CD, which forms more stable inclusion complex than γ-CD in the single-vial formulations. The results from biodistribution and imaging studies in Sprague-Dawley rats clearly demonstrated biological equivalence of three different formulations. Single photon-emission computed tomography data suggested that high quality images could be obtained at 0-30-min post-injection without significant interference from the liver radioactivity. Considering the ease for (99m) Tc-labeling and high RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO, the non-SnCl2 single-vial formulation is an attractive choice for future clinical studies. PMID:25070025

  6. Filling out phenomenon with technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT at the site of mild cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, K.; Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Uehara, T.

    1989-05-01

    Although the distribution of (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) in the brain is said to be in a flow-related manner without temporal change, we present cases with leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO (filling out phenomenon) in the delayed image of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clarify its clinical significance. The filling out phenomenon was observed in seven out of 21 cases of cerebrovascular disease and four cases of arteriovenous malformation. The leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was also confirmed by visual and semiquantitative analysis. In the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the blood, the percent dose of plasma fraction at 4 hr was reduced to 54% of activity at 30 min. The percent dose of brain blood could be predicted as 3.36%/1 at 30 min and 2.35%/1 at 4 hr after correction with the hematocrit of the brain. The filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was attributed to a significant reduction of blood activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the plasma. Since the initial image might mask reduced rCBF with an increase of rCBV, the late image would have an advantage in accurately evaluating rCBF from the clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO bound to the plasma. Therefore, the filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in late images of brain SPECT could show the area of mild cerebral ischemia accompanying cerebral vascular reserve.

  7. Tc-99m radioaerosol clearance as an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This investigation examines radiopharmaceutical clearance as an index of alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and as an indicator of disease. Specific objectives include: evaluation of radiopharmaceutical chemical purity following aerosolization, investigation of a chemically related family of compounds to develop new radiopharmaceuticals with improved chemical properties, determination of reproducibility of the radiopharmaceutical clearance technique and the evaluation of the sensitivity of aerosolized solute clearance as an indicator of lung injury. The integrity of the radiopharmaceutical was examined prior to and following aerosol generation. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of a family of aerosolized solutes was evaluated in the beagle dog. The reproducibility of the biological response to radiopharmaceutical deposition was evaluated using dynamic functional imaging in humans and in the beagle. The sensitivity of the technique was evaluated using Tc-99m DTPA and an animal model for lung injury.

  8. Clinical efficacy of 99m-technetium mercaptoacetylglycine kit formulation in routine renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    duCret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.; Gonzalez, R.; Carpenter, R.; Tennison, J.; Kuni, C.C.

    1989-07-01

    99m-Technetium mercaptoacetylglycine is a promising new renal radiopharmaceutical undergoing phase III trials in the United States. In a preliminary investigation of the efficacy and safety of mercaptoacetylglycine in 30 adult patients with suspected renal disease we used simultaneous imaging with orthoiodohippurate as the physiological ''gold standard''. Of these patients 11 had undergone renal transplantation. Factors, such as time to peak renal activity, clearance half-life and regional functional comparison, were similar by orthoiodohippurate and mercaptoacetylglycine imaging. Visual and quantitative analysis of angiograms and renograms was markedly facilitated with the use of mercaptoacetylglycine. Several morphological abnormalities were apparent only during mercaptoacetylglycine evaluation. No adverse effects, changes in vital signs or significant changes in clinical laboratory status were encountered. Since mercaptoacetylglycine combined an excellent technetium image with the pharmacokinetics of orthoiodohippurate, mercaptoacetylglycine may supplant all other agents for routine clinical use.

  9. Detection of Superior Vena Cava Obstruction on Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA Renal Transplant Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Hashemifard, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    We present an asymptomatic patient with a history of prolonged hemodialysis through a right internal jugular vein catheter who was diagnosed with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction on 99mTechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal transplant scintigraphy. During the angiographic phase, an unusual vascular filling pattern was detected on the anterior view of the abdomen. Angioscintigraphic imaging of the chest wall was suggestive of SVC obstruction. The SVC obstruction in our patient was related to the long-term use of an indwelling catheter in the central venous system, which is a well-known complication of such a procedure. There is also evidence of a hypercoagulable state in dialyzed uremic cases; therefore, our patient may have been more susceptible to an SVC thrombosis. Acquired compensatory dilatation of the azygos vein is rather a rare finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an asymptomatic patient with SVC obstruction who was diagnosed by renal scintigraphy. PMID:27299287

  10. Rapid evaluation of acute abdominal pain by hepatobiliary scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-iprofenin (PIPIDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.; Gulati, R.M.

    1980-10-03

    One hundred eighty-six patients with suspected acute cholecystitis (AC) underwent radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with technetium Tc 99m-iprofenin to assess the ability of this tracer to detect AC. After intravenous injection of 5 to 10 mCi of this agent, 500,000 count anterior images were obtained at ten-minute intervals for 60 minutes. An abnormal hepatobiliary scan (HBS) diagnostic of AC was defined as one in which the common bile duct, but not the gallbladder, visualized within one hour of tracer administration. In this series, the sensitivity and specificity for HBS in the detection of AC were 97 and 87%, respectively. The hepatobiliary scan should be the procedure of choice for the rapid detection of AC. It is simple, rapid, and safe to perform, enabling a diagnosis to be established within one hour.

  11. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  12. Benign incidental findings of osteopoikilosis on Tc-99m MDP bone SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Szu-Ying; Wang, Shan-Ying; Shiau, Yu-Chien; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteopoikilosis is a benign but rare condition characterized by bone islands throughout the osseous tissue, which could be easily confused with bone metastasis. We present a case of a 37-year-old man presented to orthopedic outpatient clinic with right hip pain for 2 weeks. There were multiple, small punctate lesions scattered throughout the skeleton on radiograph. Subsequent Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan with pelvic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) showed multiple enostoses without abnormal focal MDP uptake. Therefore, clinical diagnosis was compatible with osteopoikilosis while bone metastasis was unlikely. The symptoms then improved by conservative treatments. Osteopoikilosis is usually an incidental finding on radiograph or CT, and a normal MDP confirmed the diagnosis by excluding bone metastasis. It is important for clinicians to recognize the specific image features to prevent further unnecessary interventions. In addition, bone SPECT/CT could also make the diagnosis in one step. PMID:27281099

  13. Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma using technetium-99m rhenium colloid: the London experience.

    PubMed

    Temple, C L; Scilley, C G; Engel, C J; Shum, D T; Lohmann, R C; Mattar, A G; Zabel, P L

    2000-11-01

    Nodal metastases in patients with melanoma identify a reduction of survival by 50%; however, elective lymph node dissection (ELND) has not been shown clearly to improve survival. Morton's technique of sentinel node biopsy, using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative blue dye, addresses elegantly the controversy regarding ELND. Sentinel node biopsy has been shown to stage the patient accurately because metastases from melanoma follow an orderly progression from the sentinel node to the remainder of the basin. Fifty-six consecutive patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 1b or 2 melanoma seen at the London Health Sciences Center between July 1998 and January 2000 were enrolled prospectively to undergo sentinel node biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was conducted in the nuclear medicine department. A total of 10 to 15 MBq (0.27-0.41 mCi) of technetium 99m (99mTc) rhenium colloid or filtered sulfur colloid was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. Images were obtained to localize all draining nodal basins. The location of the sentinel node was marked on the skin. The patient was taken to the operating room and anesthetized. Isosulfan blue dye was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. A hand-held gamma probe was used intraoperatively as a guide to the first draining node. Blue-stained lymphatic channels aided in the dissection. Sentinel node localization was successful in 55 of 56 patients, for an overall success rate of 98%. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identified a sentinel node in an unpredictable location in 32% of patients. On average, 2.3 sentinel nodes per patient were identified on the initial scan, and 2.2 sentinel nodes per patient were recovered at surgery. Both 99mTc rhenium and filtered sulfur colloid showed no substantial differences in tracer uptake and retention in the sentinel node. Twelve patients had a positive sentinel node on routine histology, and 11 patients subsequently underwent completion

  14. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts.

  15. Large abdominal photopenic area on 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Jennifer; Spaulding, John; Zack, Paul M

    2012-12-01

    (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging is frequently performed in conjunction with exercise or pharmacologic stress testing for evaluation of coronary heart disease. Interpretation of these studies includes systematic review of unprocessed rotating projectional images for evaluation of cardiac size as well as the presence of motion or attenuation artifacts. Occasionally, incidental noncardiac findings are detected on review of the projectional images. We report a case of a patient with a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who was found to have a large abdominal photopenic area on the projectional images. The photopenic area corresponded to the location of large intraabdominal cysts on abdominal CT and was consistent with hepatic cysts associated with the patient's known polycystic kidney disease. We review the differential diagnosis of large abdominal photopenic regions identified on myocardial projectional images and the importance of routinely analyzing these images for incidental noncardiac findings. PMID:22997275

  16. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis using hepatobiliary scan with technetium-99m PIPIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.

    1981-09-01

    Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate.

  17. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Berkowitz, D.; Fox, M.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy was performed in 15 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Fourteen of the 15 patients with acute disease had positive findings, indicating the presence of cystic duct or common duct obstruction. One case in which the gallbladder was visualized failed to respond to sincalide stimulation; this was classified as a suggestive finding of disease. The diagnostic accuracy of /sup 99//sup m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy was far superior to the other imaging studies used (8 sonograms, 1 intravenous cholangiogram, 3 oral cholecystograms, 1 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). The /sup 99//sup m/Tc-IDA study is recommended as the imaging procedure of choice for examining patients with suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  18. Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: in vitro characterization of receptor-mediated binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-07-01

    Hepatic binding protein (HBP) is a membrane receptor that binds and transports plasma glycoproteins from hepatic blood to hepatocellular lysosomes. The authors have characterized the in vitro binding of Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA), a synthetic HBP ligand, to liver membrane. Membrane displacement studies, using carrier ligands in contrast to previously bound Tc-NGA or I-NGA, correlated with the binding characteristics of a native HBP ligand, asialo-orosomucoid. They used computer simulation to study the detectibility of the changes in HBP concentration at different values of k/sub b/. The simulations indicated that radiopharmacokinetic sensitivity to alterations in (HBP) should be possible using a neoglycoalbumin preparation with a carbohydrate density within the range of 15 to 25 galactose units per albumin molecule.

  19. Vicarious liver visualization in solitary functioning kidney with technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 3-year-old boy who was incidentally diagnosed to have single left kidney on ultrasonography. Dynamic technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy was acquired for assessing the existing kidney function showed the tracer localization in bilateral renal fossae during the entire study. The single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography study revealed activity in the right renal fossa to be in the enlarged right lobe of the liver, which was mimicking as impaired functioning right kidney in planar images. The hybrid imaging helped in accurate delineation of tracer uptake by confirming it to be the false appearance of the right kidney in planar imaging. This case report also highlights the possible mechanism of renal tracer uptake in the liver parenchyma. PMID:26170576

  20. Evaluation of obstructed kidneys by discriminant analysis of 99mTc-MAG3 renograms.

    PubMed

    González, A; Jover, L; Mairal, L I; Martin-Comin, J; Puchal, R

    1994-12-01

    This study sought to develop a method of improving the differential diagnostic between healthy and obstructed kidneys using only parameters derived from the 99mTc-MAG3 renogram. The analysis included data from 46 healthy and 36 obstructed kidney units. The parameters calculated were: mean transit time (MTT), time at 20% of the initial height of the renal retention function (T20) and time to peak of the renogram (TP). A discriminant analysis was carried out to obtain a discriminant function in order to differentiate between the two groups. The best results were obtained using the function: (2.5629 InT20) + (2.1280 In TP) -27.1224 which correctly classified 97.56% of the cases, giving a sensitivity of 94.44% and a specificity of 99.99%. PMID:7854921

  1. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  2. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

  3. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  4. Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Retention of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, L.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Dam, M.

    1994-01-01

    {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate (ECD) was injected as a bolus into the internal carotid artery, and cerebral uptake and retention were recorded with fast-rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipment in four patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the {sup 133}Xe inhalation technique. The authors applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of {sup 99m}{Tc} d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar to that of HM-PAO, and it can be described by a triexponential function including an initial steep component representing the vascular transmitted spike, a second less steep component representing back-diffusion from brain tissue to blood, and a third, very slow component, representing the very slow loss due to incomplete retention of the deesterified hydrophilic metabolites. Computerized curve-fitting on data from three patients gave average kinetic values for the first-passage (unilateral) extraction of E = 0.60 (range, 0.59-0.61); the overall retained fraction of the tracer supplied was R = 0.44 (0.43-0.45), and the conversion/clearance ratio was {alpha} = k{sub 3}/k{sub 2} = 2.59 (2.38-2.77). This {alpha} is higher than that for HM-PAO, and therefore bicisate uptake as a function of blood flow is more linear than in HM-PAO. Less correction for backdiffusion is therefore needed. From 1 to 24 h there was an average loss of hydrophilic tracer of 3.5%/h, but the late distribution images were essentially unchanged over time, pointing to practically the same rate of loss in all regions. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Free craniotomy versus osteoplastic craniotomy, assessment of flap viability using 99mTC MDP SPECT.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony

    2016-09-01

    There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability. PMID:27068014

  7. Complicating osteomyelitis imaged with Tc-99m MDP, In-111 granulocytes, and Ga-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Kernick, C.B.; Ruoff, A.C. III; Sinn, H.J.; Wellman, H.N.; Vamc, R.L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium-67 and 3-phase bone scan (3P) studies, though very sensitive, are not very specific in evaluating suspected osteomyelitis (OM) which is superimposed upon other diseases that cause increased bone turnover (IBT). The authors compared In-111 acetylacetone labeled granulocytes (In-111) GRAN) with 3P in 57 such patients; 29 of these patients had Ga-67 studies as well. In-111 GRAN had a sensitivity of 100% in acute OM, 62% in chronic OM, and a specificity of 96%. Gallium-67 ruled out OM when the study was normal; it diagnosed OM when the relative uptake of Ga-67 exceeded the uptake of Tc-99m MDP, or when the skeletal distribution of Ga-67 was different from that of the TC-99m MDP. Unfortunately, these criteria were met in only 28% of the subjects. The simple approach of increased Ga-67 activity meant OM gave a sensitivity of 100%, but an unacceptable specificity of 38%. Chronic cellulitis or long-standing decubiti were seldom detected by IN-111 GRAN. Clinically obvious soft tissue infections or cellulitis were seen with In-111 GRAN 27% of the time, and 17% of the time with Ga-67. The authors conclude that when added to 3P, In-111 GRAN provided more useful information than did Ga-67. A combination of all 3 studies did not significantly increase the diagnostic yield. Performing In-111 GRAN without 3P in patients with IBT is not recommended since the 3P provides anatomic information that aids in the differentiation of OM from soft tissue infections.

  8. Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).

    PubMed

    Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin

    2009-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand. PMID:20025551

  9. Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Neirinckx, R.D.; Burke, J.F.; Harrison, R.C.; Forster, A.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Lassen, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs.

  10. Method for the production of {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, R.G.; Christian, J.D.; Grover, S.B.; Petti, D.A.; Terry, W.K.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1998-09-01

    An improved method is described for producing {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo compounds. {sup 100}Mo metal or {sup 100}MoO{sub 3} is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} with an optimum depth of 0.5--5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} which contains vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}, vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 3}, and vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O{sub 2(g)}) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} and vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} into a condensed {sup 99m}Tc-containing reaction product which is collected. 1 fig.

  11. Method for the production of .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Ralph G.; Christian, Jerry D.; Grover, S. Blaine; Petti, David A.; Terry, William K.; Yoon, Woo Y.

    1998-01-01

    An improved method for producing .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo compounds. .sup.100 Mo metal or .sup.100 MoO.sub.3 is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 with an optimum depth of 0.5-5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 which contains vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3, vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.3, and vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.2. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O.sub.2(g)) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 and vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 into a condensed .sup.99m Tc-containing reaction product which is collected.

  12. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: Assessment of efficacy by myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi has been used to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Improved image quality due to the higher photon energy of Tc-99m and the increased allowable doses of this radiopharmaceutical along with its lack of redistribution makes Tc-99m sestamibi an acceptable imaging agent for such studies. This imaging agent was used for serial quantitative planar and tomographic imaging to assess the initial risk area of infarction, its change over time and the relation to infarct-related artery patency in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-three of 30 patients were treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4 hours after onset of acute chest pain. Seven patients were treated in the conventional manner and did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk varied greatly both in patients treated with rt-PA and in those who received conventional therapy. Patients with successful thrombolysis and patient infarct arteries had a significantly greater reduction of Tc-99m sestamibi defect size than patients who had persistent coronary occlusion. Serial imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi could find important application in future clinical research evaluating the efficacy of new thrombolytic agents. Direct measurements of the amount of hypoperfused myocardium before and after thrombolysis could provide rapid and unequivocal results using fewer patients and avoiding the use of mortality as an end point. This approach has not yet been widely tested in the clinical arena.

  13. Comparison of 18F PET and 99mTc SPECT imaging in phantoms and in tumored mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xinrong; Pretorius, P Hendrik; Liang, Minmin; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2010-08-18

    Our objective was to compare the performance of a micro-single photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT) with that of a micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) in a Her2+ tumored mice using an anti-Her2 nanoparticle radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and (18)F. Camera performance was first compared using phantoms; then a tumored mouse administered the (99m)Tc-nanoparticle was imaged on a Bioscan NanoSPECT/CT, while another tumored mouse received the identical nanoparticle, labeled now with (18)F, and was imaged on a Philips Mosaic HP PET camera. The nanoparticle was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc via MAG(3) chelation and with (18)F via SFB as an intermediate. Phantom imaging showed that the resolution of the SPECT camera was clearly superior, but even with 4 heads and multipinhole collimators, detection sensitivity was 15-fold lower. Radiolabeling of the nanoparticle by chelation with (99m)Tc was considerably easier and safer than manual covalent attachment of (18)F. Both cameras provided accurate quantitation of radioactivity over a broad range. In conclusion, when deciding between (99m)Tc vs (18)F, an advantage rests with the chelation of (99m)Tc over covalent attachment of (18)F, achieved manually or otherwise, but with these small animal cameras, this choice also results in trading lower sensitivity for higher resolution. PMID:20681508

  14. Preparation and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc-ropinirole as a novel radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Motaleb, M A; Ibrahem, I T; Ayoub, V R; Geneidi, A S

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive brain imaging is a process that allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to formulate a novel radiopharmaceutical for the detection of brain disorders at early stages in susceptible patients. (99m) Tc-ropinirole was prepared by the direct complexation of ropinirole with technetium-99m. The results showed that the radiochemical yield (99m) Tc-ropinirole was 92 ± 2.87% and the radiochemical yield was evaluated by paper chromatography and HPLC. In vitro studies showed that the formed complex was stable for up to 6 h. In vivo uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole in the brain was 4.87 ± 0.15% injected dose/g organ at 30 min post-injection, which cleared from the brain with time till it reaches 2.3% at 2 h post-injection indicating that the brain uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole is higher than that of the commercially available (99m) Tc-HMPAO, which is 2.25% at 30 min. Pre-dosing mice with cold ropinirole reduced the brain uptake to 0.26 ± 0.01% injected dose/g organ, so this confirms the high specificity and selectivity of this radiotracer for the assessment of the dopamine receptors. PMID:26913705

  15. Radioactive technetium-99m labelling of Salmonella abortusovis for the assessment of bacterial dissemination in sheep by in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Perin, F; Laurence, D; Savary, I; Bernard, S; Le Pape, A

    1997-09-01

    We report the development and validation of a 99mTc-labelling technique of bacteria, applied to Salmonella abortusovis. The radioactive labelling is obtained using a pre-tinning step of the cells followed by direct incubation of S. abortusovis suspension with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Several procedures with different amounts of stannous tin (SnF2 or SnCl2) were evaluated. The selected method, respectful of bacterial viability, provided a 30% labelling yield. Viability of 99mTc-labelled bacteria was assessed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 and was demonstrated to be unchanged, turbidimetric measurements showing only a slight increase in the growth rate for radiolabelled cells. Incubation of 99mTc-labelled S. abortusovis with pronase, saponine and urea demonstrated labelling stability and suggested an intra-cellular localization for 99mTc. A preliminary study was also conducted in sheep to evaluate the value of the imaging of radiolabelled S. abortusovis. Spatial and temporal patterns of their in vivo dissemination in the lymphatic system after a sub-cutaneous injection were compared with control lymphoscintigraphic agents. These imaging data supported the assumption that the radioactivity detected in vivo was proportional to the number of 99mTc-labelled bacteria. PMID:9355252

  16. Labeling and evaluation of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-meloxicam as a preferential COX-2 inhibitor for inflammation imaging.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Sharifzadeh, Somayeh; Doroudi, Alireza; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2016-06-15

    Imaging of inflammation has an important role in dissolving problems in diagnosis and therapy of patients with inflammatory disorders. In this study meloxican as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been labeled with thechnetium-99m-tricarbonyl core ([(99m) Tc (CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) ) in order to evaluate its feasibility as an inflammation imaging agent for in vivo use. (99m) Tc-tricabonyl labeling of meloxicam was performed by its incubation with prepared precursor (99m) Tc-tricabonyl and heating in a boiling water bath for 30 min while various range of pH (1-9) was adjusted. The stability of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-Meloxicam was checked in human serum at 37 °C, and biodistribution was studied in mice. Labeling yield of 98.1 ± 0.4% was obtained corresponding to a specific activity of 0.14 GBq/µmol. The radioconjugate showed good stability in human serum. Our main achievement was high accumulation of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-Meloxicam in the inflammated muscle in mice (T/NT = 3.90 at 4 h post injection) which may diagnostically be beneficial for distinguish sites of inflammation. PMID:27061432

  17. Melanoma-targeting properties of (99m)technetium-labeled cyclic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Cheng, Z; Hoffman, T J; Jurisson, S S; Quinn, T P

    2000-10-15

    Preliminary reports have demonstrated that (99m)technetium (Tc)-labeled cyclic [Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(3-13) (CCMSH) exhibits high tumor uptake and retention values in a murine melanoma mouse model. In this report, the tumor targeting mechanism of 99mTc-CCMSH was studied and compared with four other radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide analogues: 125I-(Tyr2)-[Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha-MSH [125I-(Tyr2)-NDP]; 99mTc-CGCG-NDP; 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH; and 99mTc-Nle11-CCMSH. In vitro receptor binding, internalization, and cellular retention of radiolabeled alpha-MSH analogues in B16/F1 murine cell line demonstrated that >70% of the receptor-bound radiolabeled analogues were internalized together with the receptor. Ninety % of the internalized 125I-(Tyr2)-NDP, whereas only 36% of internalized 99mTc-CCMSH, was released from the cells into the medium during a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C. Two mouse models, C57 mice and severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice, inoculated s.c. with B16/F1 murine and TXM-13 human melanoma cells were used for the in vivo studies. Tumor uptake values of 11.32 and 2.39 [% injected dose (ID)/g] for 99mTc-CCMSH at 4 h after injection, resulted in an uptake ratio of tumor:blood of 39.0 and 11.5 in murine melanoma-C57 and human melanoma-Scid mouse models, respectively. Two strategies for decreasing the nonspecific kidney uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH, substitution of Lys11 in CCMSH with Gly11 or Nle11, and lysine coinjection, were evaluated. The biodistribution data for the modified peptides showed that Lys11 replacement dramatically decreased the kidney uptake, whereas the tumor uptakes of 99mTc-Nle11- and 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH were significantly lower than that of 99mTc-CCMSH. Lysine coinjection significantly decreased the kidney uptake (e.g., from 14.6% ID/g to 4.5% ID/g at 4 h after injection in murine melanoma-C57 mice) without significantly changing the value of tumor uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH. In conclusion, the compact

  18. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  19. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, J.R.; Wolfson, C.; Arzoumanian, A.; Blake, G.P.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of (99mTc)RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of (99mTc)RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal (99mTc)RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method.

  20. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  1. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J R; Wolfson, C; Arzoumanian, A; Blake, G P; Rosenthall, L

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of [99mTc]RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of [99mTc]RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal [99mTc]RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method. PMID:3411373

  2. Evaluation of Simultaneous Dual-radioisotope SPECT Imaging Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-tetrofosmin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Mochiki, Mizuki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Yamaji, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of a positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system facilitates the simultaneous acquisition of images with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium (99mTc)-tetrofosmin. However, 18F has a short half-life, and 511 keV Compton-scattered photons are detected in the 99mTc energy window. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the consequences of these facts. Methods: The crosstalk correction for images in the 99mTc energy window involved the dual energy window (DEW) subtraction method. In phantom studies, changes in the count of uniform parts in a phantom (due to attenuation from decay), signal detectability in the hot-rod part of the phantom, and the defect contrast ratio in a cardiac phantom were examined. Results: For 18F-FDG in the step-and-shoot mode, nearly a 9% difference was observed in the count of projection data between the start and end positions of acquisition in the uniform part of the phantom. Based on the findings, the detectability of 12 mm hot rods was relatively poor. In the continuous acquisition mode, the count difference was corrected, and detectability of the hot rods was improved. The crosstalk from 18F to the 99mTc energy window was approximately 13%. In the cardiac phantom, the defect contrast in 99mTc images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition was improved by approximately 9% after DEW correction; the contrast after correction was similar to acquisition with 99mTc alone. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the continuous mode is useful for 18F-FDG acquisition, and DEW crosstalk correction is necessary for 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging. PMID:27408894

  3. The effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the biodistribution of the myocardial imaging agent, Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.I.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Kloner, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    The behavior of Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) was studied in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of Tc-99m TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) was excellent (y=0.97x-1.03 (r=0.98)). In a dog model of transient hyperemia, Tc-99m TBI underestimated MBF (53 +- 10% at 3.0 +- 0.2 times normal flow and 41 +- 10% at 6.1 +- 4 times normal flow). When Tc-99m TBI was injected 3 min before reperfusion of the LAD in dogs sacrificed 10, 30 and 60 min after reperfusion, TBI and T1-201 concentrations (as a percentage of concentration in normal tissue) were 75% and 65% at 10 min after reperfusion; 79% and 73% at 30 min; and 38% and 31% at 60 min in regions where flow was reduced to 38%, 15% and 10% of normal MBF prior to reperfusion. There was no significant reduction in the rate of reperfusion when Tc-99m TBI was injected 10 min prior to reperfusion. When TBI was injected directly into the canine LAD, washout was slow (86% of maximum at 50 min and 79% at 120 min after injection. The authors conclude that Tc-99m TBI reflects regional MBF accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates MBF at high values. The rate of myocardial redistribution for Tc-99m TBI after reperfusion in the animal model is similar to that for T1-201.

  4. Improving Tumor-Targeting Capability and Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers with PEG4 Linkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Jia, Bing; Zhao, Huiyun; Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) conjugates, HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 2PEG4-dimer = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2; and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (3PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), and evaluation of their 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-2PEG4-dimer: TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) and [99mTc(HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3PEG4-dimer) as novel radiotracers for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinities of RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of 125I-c(RGDyK) on U87MG glioma cells. It was found that the two PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs in HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 nM) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.7 nM) are responsible for their higher integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than that of HYNIC-PEG4-dimer (PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2; IC50 = 7.5 ± 2.3 nM). Addition of extra PEG4 linker in HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer has little impact on integrin αvβ3 binding affinity. 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer were prepared in high yield with >95% radiochemical purity and the specific activity of > 10 Ci/μmol. Biodistribution studies clearly demonstrated that PEG4 linkers are particularly useful for improving the tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer from non-cancerous organs. It was also found that there was a linear relationship between the tumor size and radiotracer tumor uptake expressed as %ID (percentage of the injected dose) in U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor models. The blocking experiment showed that the tumor uptake of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer is integrin αvβ3-mediated. In the metabolism study, 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer had high metabolic stability during its excretion from renal and hepatobiliary routes

  5. (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5), a potential radiolabeled probe for SPECT of multidrug resistance: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Carta, Davide; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Morellato, Nicolò; Salvarese, Nicola; Cantore, Mariangela; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio

    2013-06-01

    [(99m)Tc(N)(DBODC)(PNP5)](+) [DBODC is bis(N-ethoxyethyl)dithiocarbamato; PNP5 is bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)ethoxyethylamine], abbreviated as (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5), is a lipophilic cationic mixed compound investigated as a myocardial imaging agent. The findings that this tracer accumulates in mitochondrial structures through a mechanism mediated by the negative mitochondrial membrane potential and that the rapid efflux of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) from nontarget tissues seems to be associated with the multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport function open up the possibility to extend its clinical applications to tumor imaging and noninvasive MDR studies. The rate of uptake at 4 and 37 °C of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) was evaluated in vitro in selected human cancer cell lines and in the corresponding sublines before and after P-gp and/or MDR-associated protein (MRP) modulator/inhibitor treatment using (99m)Tc-sestamibi as a reference. The results indicated that (1) the uptake of both (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) and (99m)Tc-sestamibi is correlated to metabolic activity of the cells and (2) the cellular accumulation is connected to the level of P-gp/MRP expression; in fact, an enhancement of uptake in resistant cells was observed after treatment with opportune MDR inhibitor/modulator, indicating that the selective blockade of P-gp/MRP prevented efflux of the tracers. This study provides a preliminary indication of the applicability of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) in tumor imaging and in detecting P-gp/MRP-mediated drug resistance in human cancer. In addition, the possibility to control the hydrophobicity and pharmacological activity of this heterocomplex through the variation of the substituents on the ligands backbone without affecting the P2S2 coordinating sphere makes (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) a suitable scaffold for the preparation of a molecular probe for single photon emission computed tomography of MDR. PMID:23543234

  6. Prediction of response to revascularization in patients with renal artery stenosis by Tc-99m-ethylenedicysteine captopril scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Uğur, O; Serdengeçti, M; Karacalioğlu, O; Ergün, E L; Peksoy, I; Cekirge, S

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of captopril scintigraphy with the new renal agent 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine (99mTc-EC) for post-interventional improvement in blood pressure. Twelve patients who had persistently high blood pressure with previous demonstration of various degrees of renal artery lesion on angiography were included into the study. Baseline and captopril scintigraphies were performed on the same day at 4 hour intervals after the injection of 74 and 296 MBq of 99mTc-EC, respectively. All patients had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and improvement in blood pressure was evaluated 3-6 months after the intervention. 99mTc-EC captopril scintigraphy successfully predicted a positive or negative outcome in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient with captopril induced renal function deterioration, scintigraphy failed to predict post-interventional response. Our preliminary findings showed that 99mTc-EC captopril scintigraphy can be used to determine patients who will benefit from revascularization. PMID:10355950

  7. Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1997-03-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Synthesis of 99mTcN-clinafloxacin Dithiocarbamate Complex and Comparative Radiobiological Evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) preparation and radiolabeling through [99mTc ≡ N]2+ core with the gamma (γ) emitter (99mTc) was assessed. The potentiality of the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex was investigated as perspective a Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.) in vivo infection radiotracer in terms of radiochemical stability in normal saline (n.s.), human serum (h.s.), binding efficacy with live and heat killed S.a. and biodistribution in female nude mice model (FNMD). More than 90% stability was observed in n.s. for 4 h with the highest yield of 98.70 ± 0.26% at 30 min after reconstitution. In h.s., the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex was found stable up to 16 h with 15.35% side products. Maximum in vitro binding (68.75 ± 0.80%, 90 min) with S.a. was observed after 90 min of incubation. In FNMD, (infected with live strain) approximately six-fold higher uptakes was noted in the infected to inflamed and normal muscles. The higher stability in n.s., h.s., higher S.a. (live) up take with specific and targeted in vivo distribution confirmed potentiality of the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex as perspective S.a. in vivo infection radiotracer. PMID:25538485

  9. Evaluation of Cardiac Mitochondrial Function by a Nuclear Imaging Technique using Technetium-99m-MIBI Uptake Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in energy production for the cell. The proper function of a myocardial cell largely depends on the functional capacity of the mitochondria. Therefore it is necessary to establish a novel and reliable method for a non-invasive assessment of mitochondrial function and metabolism in humans. Although originally designed for evaluating myocardial perfusion, 99mTc-MIBI can be also used to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial function. In a clinical study on ischemic heart disease, reverse redistribution of 99mTc-MIBI was evident after direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The presence of increased washout of 99mTc-MIBI was associated with the infarct-related artery and preserved left ventricular function. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, an increased washout rate of 99mTc-MIBI, which correlated inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction, was observed in patients with congestive heart failure. Increased 99mTc-MIBI washout was also observed in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac mitochondrial function could be greatly beneficial in monitoring possible cardiotoxic drug use and in the evaluation of cardiac damage in clinical medicine.

  10. Feasibility studies towards future self-sufficient supply of the 99Mo-99mTc isotopes with Japanese accelerators

    PubMed Central

    NAKAI, Kozi; TAKAHASHI, Naruto; HATAZAWA, Jun; SHINOHARA, Atsushi; HAYASHI, Yoshihiko; IKEDA, Hayato; KANAI, Yasukazu; WATABE, Tadashi; FUKUDA, Mitsuhiro; HATANAKA, Kichiji

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a self-sufficient supply of 99mTc, we studied feasibilities to produce its parent nucleus, 99Mo, using Japanese accelerators. The daughter nucleus, 99mTc, is indispensable for medical diagnosis. 99Mo has so far been imported from abroad, which is separated from fission products generated in nuclear reactors using enriched 235U fuel. We investigated 99mTc production possibilities based on the following three scenarios: (1) 99Mo production by the (n, 2n) reaction by spallation neutrons at the J-PARC injector, LINAC; (2) 99Mo production by the (p, pn) reaction at Ep = 50–80 MeV proton at the RCNP cyclotron; (3) 99mTc direct production with a 20 MeV proton beam from the PET cyclotron. Among these three scenarios, scenario (1) is for a scheme on a global scale, scenario (2) works in a local area, and both cases take a long time for negotiations. Scenario (3) is attractive because we can use nearly 50 PET cyclotrons in Japan for 99mTc production. We here consider both the advantages and disadvantages among the three scenarios by taking account of the Japanese accelerator situation. PMID:25504230

  11. In vivo kinetics of canine leukocytes labeled with technetium-99m HM-PAO and indium-111 tropolonate

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; Schauwecker, D.S.; English, D.; Young, K.A.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    Two weeks after the introduction of osteomyelitis in three dogs, autologous leukocytes were dual-labeled with both (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO and (/sup 111/In)tropolonate, and reinjected. Blood sampling and imaging were then performed. Two weeks later, the same dogs received simultaneous injections of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC and (/sup 111/In)WBC for comparison. For both studies, blood samples were drawn over 6 hr to determine the respective blood clearance half-time (TB) and % recovery (%R0) of cell-bound radioactivity. There were no significant differences in the average TB results of the /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In groups, either within or between the dual- and singly-labeled studies. The %R0 of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC was about half that of the other groups (p less than 0.01); however, this difference was attributed to the dissimilar radiochemical purity of the (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO reagents. Region of interest analysis of the 6 and 24 hr images revealed no significant differences between either cell label in the relative or absolute in vivo uptake at known sites of osteomyelitis, noninfected surgery, and normal bone marrow.

  12. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  13. Scintigraphic thyroid abnormalities after radiation. A controlled study with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Villalpando, C.; Frohman, L.A.; Bekerman, C.; Favus, M.J.; Pinsky, S.; Ryo, U.Y.; Shore-Freedman, E.; Schneider, A.B.

    1982-07-01

    We did /sup 99/mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy on 99 subjects with no history of therapeutic irradiation to the head or neck. They were compared with 198 irradiated patients selected from a group of over 1700 who were evaluated because of radiation treatment for benign head and neck conditions during childhood. The two groups were similar with respect to age and sex distribution. There were significantly more abnormal scintigrams in the irradiated group (55 of 198 patients versus one of 99 controls). Even after patients and controls with palpable nodules were excluded from the analysis there were still more abnormal scintigrams in the irradiated group (16 of 150 irradiated versus one of 97 control subjects). We conclude that thyroid nodules, including the smaller, nonpalpable nodules discovered by scintigraphy, are related to previous radiation therapy. For persons at substantial risk, such as those who received high-dose treatment (greater than 700 R) during childhood, the data support the use of screening scintigraphy, even with normal findings on palpation.

  14. Assessment of soft tissue hemangiomas in children utilizing Tc-99m labelled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemangiomas may present in infancy as soft tissue masses. Occasionally these lesions may be extensive or may not be clinically recognized as a hemangioma, often causing concern for the presence of a malignant lesion. In later childhood these lesions, which may be occult, may cause overgrowth of an extremity. Evaluation of soft tissue masses suspected of being a hemangioma utilizing Technetium 99m labelled red blood cells has been very valuable. This method allows a dynamic evaluation of first pass blood flow. Subsequent static scintiphotos allow an assessment of the lesion itself. These scintiphotos may be obtained sequentially to evaluate therapy. Twenty patients were evaluated by this method ranging in age from two months to eleven years. There were 13 females and seven males. Lesions evaluated by this method include six hemangiomas of the head and neck: parotic region (2), facial (3), and tongue (1). Extremity lesions were evaluated in six children including both upper extremity (1) and lower extremity (5). Torso lesions evaluated include chest wall (2), abdominal wall (2), and one hemangioma of the gut. This procedure is quickly performed on an outpatient basis, has high anatomic resolution, provides and assessment of these lesions in a manner not available by any other imaging procedure and usually requires no sedation. The radiation exposure for this procedure is low (approximately, a 400mR total body dose) and has been well tolerated by both patients and their parents. Scintigraphic evaluation should be the first diagnostic method utilized in the evaluation of these lesions.

  15. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Regional brain perfusion in 10 normal dogs measured using Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer spect.

    PubMed

    Peremans, K; De Bondt, P; Audenaert, K; Van Laere, K; Gielen, I; Koole, M; Versijpt, J; Van Bree, H; Verschooten, F; Dierckx, R

    2001-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using perfusion tracers allows estimation of regional brain perfusion. This allows in vivo examination of brain function in the setting of neuropsychologic and pathophysiologic changes. However functional imaging data on brain perfusion in dogs are limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the scintigraphic regional perfusion pattern of the normal canine brain. Ten healthy shepherd type dogs were injected with 925 MBq Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate (ECD) 20 minutes before the examination. Acquisition was performed using a triple head gamma camera equipped with fanbeam collimators. Uniform attenuation correction and triple energy window correction were applied. Computed tomographic images were obtained from the same dogs, reoriented along the orbito-meatal axis and SPECT perfusion data were coregistered to the CT-volume data. Based on morphological and suggested brain divisions, regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined for the bilateral frontocerebral, temporocerebral, parietocerebral, occipitocerebral, cerebellar, thalamic, and striatal area. Regional count density was normalized on total counts. All dogs had the highest uptake in the thalamic/striatal area compared to a rather homogeneous cerebral uptake. No significant left/right count differences were found, but a rostro-caudal gradient (+12-13%) was present. In this group, age and gender did not influence the perfusion pattern. PMID:11768526

  17. Analysis of the Reconstructibility and Noise Properties of Scattered Photons in Tc-99m SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Frey, Eric C; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-01-01

    Since scattered photons carry degraded spatial information, scatter is typically considered a source of contamination in SPECT. However, with the advent of scatter modeling methods and reconstruction-based scatter compensation (RBSC), it may be possible to utilize scattered data in a productive manner. In this work we analyze the reconstructibility of scattered photon projection data and investigate the potential for using scattered photons to reduce the noise levels of SPECT images. We have simulated projection data for an elliptical phantom containing three cold rods in a uniform background of Tc-99m activity. A variety of photopeak and scatter energy windows were formed, as well as corresponding RBSC transfer matrices. Each statistically weighted matrix was decomposed using SVD and analyzed in terms of reconstructibility and noise properties. Results indicate that scattered photons contain sufficient information to reconstruct the source activity, but the scatter-only matrices are very poorly conditioned. We have also evaluated several methods of utilizing scattered events via RBSC, and compared them with other, idealized methods of handling scatter. It was found that scattered photons can be used productively when photopeak and non-photopeak data are separated through the use of multiple energy windows. The RBSC methods outperformed ideal scatter subtraction, but fell short of methods which assume perfect discrimination between scattered and primary events. The knowledge gained by this study may help guide future research and lead to better approaches to handling scatter in SPECT. PMID:9434303

  18. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  19. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy for the detection of acute myocardial infarction. How useful is it

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, A.G.; Berger, B.C.; Shin, Y.W.; Park, C.H.; Madsen, M.T.

    1985-09-01

    To evaluate the contribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy (TPS) on the overall management of patients suspected of having acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hospital records of 58 consecutive patients who underwent TPS, were evaluated in depth. The results indicate that TPS was essential for the diagnosis of AMI in 16% of the patients. TPS was most rewarding in perioperative patients and in patients with borderline or uninterpretable electrocardiographic and enzyme changes. Also, in some cases, TPS was able to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of AMI prior to the confirmation by serial electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial enzyme changes. TPS was less rewarding in patients with clinically low index of suspicion for AMI. It may also be confusing in patients with high clinical likelihood of AMI and a history of prior myocardial infarction because of the possibility of persistently positive TPS in some of these patients. Considering the limitations of ECGs, the cardiac enzymes, and atypical clinical presentations in the patient population we evaluated, TPS appears to be fairly accurate when the scintigraphic findings are compared with the final diagnosis at the time of discharge from the hospital.

  20. (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzolato, G.; Dam, M.; Borsato, N.; Saitta, B.; Da Col, C.; Perlotto, N.; Zanco, P.; Ferlin, G.; Battistin, L.

    1988-12-01

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease.

  1. Role of cholecystokinetic agents in 99mTc-IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Sugarman, L.A.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1981-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its C-terminal octapeptide analog, Sincalide, have been utilized in two separate roles for the evaluation of gallbladder disease. These are: (1) prior to cholescintigraphy to evacuate the gallbladder and optimized subsequent filling with radiotracers, and (2) to study contractile function of visualizing gallbladders on cholecystography and cholescintigraphy. As a preparation for 99mTc-IDA studies, it clearly facilitates earlier gallbladder filling in patients with chronic cholecystitis, thereby ruling out complete cystic duct obstruction. The problem lies in the fact that the use of CCK as a premedication markedly decreases the sensitivity of the study to detect chronic cholecystitis, since the findings become indistinguishable from patients with normal gallbladders. For this reason, the authors prefer to obtain delayed images, since chronic cholecystitis is frequently associated with gallbladder filling beyond the first hour. The role of CCK in detecting abnormal gallbladder function in the normally visualizing gallbladder also is controversial. Other studies as well as the author's experience suggests that as much as one-forth of positive cases may be associated with normal gallbladders at surgery and often even on microscopic examination. However, most importantly, the great majority of these patients are relieved of their symptoms following surgery. It appears reasonable that CCK or Sincalide cholecystography or cholescintigraphy may be detecting functional abnormalities before anatomic changes occur and can, therefore, serve as a useful examination in selecting symptomatic patients who may benefit from cholecystectomy.

  2. A simple and efficient method of labelling RBCs with 99mTc for spleen imaging.

    PubMed

    Ercan, M T; Bernay, I

    1990-01-01

    A new method of labelling human RBCs with 99mTc by the use of Sn-alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate (GP) is presented. It was tested for spleen imaging in 16 normal volunteers. The labelling was carried out during the heating (30 min at 49.5 degrees C) to damage the cells and cooling (10 min at R.T.) steps. The labelling efficiency was 95.5 +/- 1.5% with Sn-GP and was better than Sn-PYP (61.5 +/- 25.0%). The radioactivity retention of RBCs was greater than 96% after 6 washings. The spleen was delineated very well in all the subjects. The spleen activity reached a plateau at 20 min post-injection. Spleen-to-liver and spleen-to-cardiac blood pool concentration ratios were high (10.4 +/- 2.2 and 10.1 +/- 3.2, respectively) calculated at 30 min. The method is simple, rapid and efficient. PMID:2341290

  3. Kinetic sensitivity of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical: Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Stadalnik, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic sensitivity is the ability of a physiochemical parameter to alter the time-activity curve of a radiotracer. The kinetic sensitivity of liver and blood time-activity data resulting from a single bolus injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (( Tc)NGA) into healthy pigs was examined. Three parameters, hepatic plasma flow scaled as flow per plasma volume, ligand-receptor affinity, and total receptor concentration, were tested using (Tc)NGA injections of various molar doses and affinities. Simultaneous measurements of plasma volume (iodine-125 human serum albumin dilution), and hepatic plasma flow (indocyanine green extraction) were performed during 12 (Tc)NGA studies. Paired data sets demonstrated differences (P(chi v2) less than 0.01) in liver and blood time-activity curves in response to changes in each of the tested parameters. We conclude that the (Tc)NGA radiopharmacokinetic system is therefore sensitive to hepatic plasma flow, ligand-receptor affinity, and receptor concentration. In vivo demonstration of kinetic sensitivity permits delineation of the physiologic parameters that determine the biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical. This delineation is a prerequisite to a valid analytic assessment of receptor biochemistry via kinetic modeling.

  4. Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: in vitro characterization of receptor-mediated binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-07-01

    Hepatic binding protein (HBP) is a membrane receptor that binds and transports plasma glycoproteins from hepatic blood to hepatocellular lysosomes. A characterization is made of the in vitro binding of Tc-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA), a synthetic HBP ligand, to liver membrane. Structural modifications of NGA resulted in the alteration of the equilibrium constant, KA, and the forward-binding rate constant, kb. Binding was second-order; the relative amount of membrane-bound NGA depended on the initial concentrations of ligand and membrane. Membrane displacement studies, using carrier ligands in contrast to previously bound Tc-NGA or I-NGA, correlated with the binding characteristics of a native HBP ligand, asialo-orosomucoid. Computer simulation was used to study the detectability of the changes in HBP concentration at different values of kb. The simulations indicated that radiopharmacokinetic sensitivity to alterations in (HBP) should be possible using a neoglycoalbumin preparation with a carbohydrate density within the range of 15 to 25 galactose units per albumin molecule.

  5. (99m) Tc radiolabeling and biological evaluation of nanoparticles functionalized with a versatile coating ligand.

    PubMed

    Felber, Michael; Bauwens, Matthias; Mateos, José M; Imstepf, Sebastian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Alberto, Roger

    2015-04-13

    Radiolabeling allows noninvasive imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) for assessing the biodistribution of nanostructures. Herein, the synthesis of a new coating ligand for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) is reported. This ligand is multifunctional; it combines the metal chelate with conjugating functions to biological vectors. The concept allows the coupling of any targeting function to the chelator; an example for the prostate specific membrane antigen is given. Derivatized NPs can directly be labeled in one step with [(99m) Tc(OH2 )3 (CO)3 ](+) . AuNPs in particular are highly stable, a prerequisite for in vivo studies excluding misinterpretation of the biodistribution data. AuNPs with differing sizes (7 and 14 nm core diameter) were administered intravenously into nude NMRI mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. MicroSPECT images show for both probes rapid clearance from the blood pool through the hepatobiliary pathway. The 7 nm AuNPs revealed a significantly higher bone uptake than the 14 nm AuNPs. The high affinity towards bone mineral is further confirmed in vitro with hydroxyapatite. PMID:25765900

  6. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  7. Evaluation of separate renal function by means of 99mTc-aprotinin uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, C.; Saponaro, R.; Villa, G.; Carena, M.; Chiari, G.; Salvadeo, A.; Lunghi, F.; Piazza, V.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that relative kidney uptake of technetium-99m aprotinin (TcA) might be indicative of separate renal function was investigated in 89 patients who underwent both effective renal plasma flow (ERPFs) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination. A reference group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers, studied only with TcA. The correlation with ERPFs (r = .73) was similar to that previously reported and confirmed. The correlation with GFR (r = .68) was better if a subgroup of renal units with TcA uptake lower than 16% (lower normal limit) was considered. Most likely, glomerular filtration is a limiting factor of the tubular uptake of TcA, and when GFR is reduced, both parameters decrease in the same manner, while if GFR is normal the two parameters are relatively independent. The correlation between TcA and GFR in 32 children was very similar to that found in adults. TcA uptake test seems to be a useful indicator of separate renal function, providing morphological information at, the same time.

  8. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV. PMID:25806615

  9. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  10. Radiolabelling rituximab with (99m)Tc in three steps procedure.

    PubMed

    Fontan, Charlotte; Bezombes, Christine; Salabert, Anne Sophie; Costes, Julien; Lopez, Raphael; Fournie, Jean-Jacques; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Coulais, Yvon; Payoux, Pierre; Tafani, Mathieu

    2015-06-15

    Lymphomas are the most frequent haematological malignancy. In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), more than 90% of tumor cells express the cluster of differentiation (CD) 20 antigen. At the end of frontline therapy, the evaluation of remission is based on computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography coupled with computer tomography (PET/CT) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG). Unfortunately, these techniques are not specific and cannot distinguish residual active tumor from inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a specific radiotracer of NHL CD 20+ cells for clinical applications. The radiolabelling technique presented, based on the use of tricarbonyl compound, does not include an antibody reduction because this step could damage the protein. Actually, rituximab, an anti-CD 20 chimeric antibody used for the treatment of these NHL, was radiolabelled with Isolink® (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl compound in a three-step procedure without using a specific antibody reducer. Radiolabelling yield was greater than 97%. In vitro experiments showed a conservation of antibody integrity. In vivo experiments using Single-photon emission computed tomography/CT showed significant tumor targeting 24 h after injection of the radiotracer. It was consequently possible to develop an immunoradiolabelling method to specifically detect the residual disease. As this procedure is fast, reproducible and gentle, it will be possible to comply with Good Manufacturing Practices. PMID:26017396

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. PMID:26249579

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy in lymphedema of the lower limbs using 99mTc HSA.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M K; Hamad, M M; Abdel-Dayem, H M; Sadek, S; Eklof, B G

    1992-02-01

    Edema of the lower limbs is a difficult clinical problem. Edema could be due to stasis, obstruction of the lymphatic channels, or increased production of lymph beyond the drainage capacity of the lymphatic vessels. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate among these varieties. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 164 patients complaining of swelling of the lower limbs, 2 women patients with lymphedema of the upper limbs following radical mastectomy, and 5 volunteers. All patients were injected with 1 mCi of 99mTc human serum albumin intradermally in the medial web on the dorsum of each foot. Data were acquired dynamically for both inguinal regions for forty-five minutes with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer. Static images were taken at ninety minutes for both legs and thighs and for the pelvis. Time activity curves were generated for the equal regions of inguinal nodes on both inguinal sides. The following patterns were recognized: normal pattern in 5 volunteers and in 57 patients, enhanced flow pattern in 17 patients, stasis with mild obstruction in 72 patients, and marked stasis with obstruction in 20 patients. PMID:1536476

  13. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol.

    PubMed

    Sirr, S A; Juenemann, P J; Tom, H; Boudreau, R J; Chandler, R P; Loken, M K

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using [99mTc]DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, we have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of [99mTc]DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. Use of higher concentration of ethanol to the nebulizer solution did not further improve delivery efficiency. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of [99mTc]DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution. PMID:3889235

  14. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sirr, S.A.; Juenemann, P.J.; Tom, H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Chandler, R.P.; Loken, M.K.

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, the authors have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution.

  15. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia. It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases. PMID:26313771

  16. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  17. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. PMID:10376326

  18. Synthesis, radiolabeling and In Vivo tissue distribution of an anti-oestrogen glucuronide compound, (99m)Tc-TOR-G.

    PubMed

    Muftuler, F Z Biber; Unak, P; Yolcular, S; Kilcar, A Yurt; Ichedef, C; Enginar, H; Sakarya, S

    2010-04-01

    Toremifene (TOR) has been used as an anti-oestrogen drug for the treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. The aim of this study was the addition of the hydrophilic groups diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and glucuronic acid to the starting substance TOR and to label it with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radionuclide and to investigate radiopharmaceutical potential of the new compound. The synthesis reactions are completed in four steps, including enzymatic reaction, with the following substeps; preparation of microsomal fraction from Hutu 80 cell line and subsequent purification of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), estimation of protein quantity in microsomal samples and glucuronidation reaction. The results indicate that (99m)Tc-TOR-G may be proposed as a new anti-oestrogen glucuronide imaging agent for ovarian tumours. PMID:20530435

  19. Measurement of gastric mucosal blood flow in dogs by the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone clearance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Doebroente, Z.; Lang, J.; Sagi, I.; Varro, V.

    1982-07-01

    In anesthetized dogs, correlation was found between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and aminopyrine clearance measured in the same animal after administration of the gastric secretory stimulants vasopressin or glucagon. Similar correlation was observed between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and /sup 14/C aminopyrine clearance during histamine administration. The clearance values were always corrected by the actual degree of dissociation of the radioactive molecules. The results suggest that /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone is suitable to study circulatory changes in human gastric mucosa. Advantages of this compound include a much lower dose of radiation absorbed by the patient and his surroundings, a simplified measurement technique, and considerably reduced expenses.

  20. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  1. [Marked 99mTc-PYP myocardial accumulation immediately after reperfusion in a patient with acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshihiko; Ito, Kazuki; Nishikawa, Susumu; Yuba, Tatsuya; Tsubakimoto, Yoshinori; Takata, Hiroki; Kato, Shuji; Azuma, Akihiro; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    We reported a case of a 72-year-old man with chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in I, II, III, aVL, aVF and V1-6 leads. 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT showed defect in the anterior, septal, apical and inferior walls. Coronary angiography showed 99% stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery and total occlusion of the midsegment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Therefore, direct PTCA was performed for each lesion to achieve reperfusion. We didnt's see reperfusion injury during PTCA of the left coronary artery. On the other side, we saw severe reperfusion injury, such as slow-flow, arrhythmia and falling blood pressure during PTCA of the right coronary artery. After four hours, 99mTc-PYP myocardial SPECT showed marked uptake in the apical and inferior walls, and mild uptake in the anterior and posterior walls. After three days, severely-reduced uptake of 99mTc-PYP in the apex was noted, and mild uptake in the mid-portion of the anterior wall and the mid-portion of the inferior wall. Though reperfusion injury was seen, three was mild myocardial uptake of 99mTc-PYP in the area of the right coronary artery. On the other side, despite no reperfusion injury, there showed marked uptake during the acute phase and defect during the subacute phase in the area of the left coronary artery. Wall motion of the left ventricle was normal in the area of the right coronary artery and akinesis was seen on the left. These findings suggest that 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-PYP myocardial SPECT are useful for visualization of reperfusion injury during the acute phase and for estimation of function during the chronic phase, better even than electrocardiogram or coronary angiography. PMID:12701202

  2. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  3. Separation of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and molybdate using polyethylene glycol coated C18 and C30 resins.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J D; Wilson, J S; Romaniuk, J A; McEwan, A J B; Abrams, D N; McQuarrie, S A; Gagnon, K

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic adsorbents such as C18 and C30 were coated with PEG and subsequently used for the separation of Mo/Tc. The most effective resin for adsorbing PEG was the C18-U resin, which demonstrated a coating capacity of 97.6±2.8mg PEG per g of resin. The ability to adsorb pertechnetate was proportional to the amount of PEG coated on the hydrophobic resin. The [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate recovery during the separation of cyclotron produced (99m)Tc from (100)Mo was 91.8±0.3% (n=2). The resultant product met relevant USP monograph specifications. PMID:26829618

  4. Decreased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in a sternal brown tumor indicating response to anti metabolic therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Elgin; Arslan, Nuri; Arslanoglu, Atilla; Karacalioglu, Alper Ozgur

    2007-08-01

    Brown tumors are rare but serious complications of renal osteodystrophy, and can be treated by parathyroidectomy or by pharmacological treatment of hyperparathyroidism. In addition to parathyroid lesions such as adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma, brown tumors have been detected effectively by using dual phase Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 chloride. We describe an unusual case of brown tumor at the manibrium sterni which shows marked increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake on the initial scan, with decreasing tracer activity on follow-up scan indicating a response to antimetabolic therapy. PMID:17667448

  5. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction from technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile multiple-gated radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.H.; Rezaie, B. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Weiland, F.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. A novel approach for the determination of left ventricular ejection fraction from technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile multiple-gated radionuclide angiocardiography is presented. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that ejection fractions determined using the radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast X-ray single-plane cineangiography. Data from 14 of the patients indicate favorable correlation with technetium-99m-pertechnetate gated blood pool radionuclide angiocardiography.

  6. Dual radioisotopes simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP using a semiconductor detector

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Miyagawa, Masao; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Ishimura, Hayato; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The energy resolution of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state semiconductor detector is about 5%, and is superior to the resolution of the conventional Anger type detector which is 10%. Also, the window width of the high-energy part and of the low-energy part of a photo peak window can be changed separately. In this study, we used a semiconductor detector and examined the effects of changing energy window widths for 99mTc and 123I simultaneous SPECT. Methods: The energy “centerline” for 99mTc was set at 140.5 keV and that for 123I at 159.0 keV. For 99mTc, the “low-energy-window width” was set to values that varied from 3% to 10% of 140.5 keV and the “high-energy-window width” were independently set to values that varied from 3% to 6% of 140.5 keV. For 123I, the “low energy-window-width” varied from 3% to 6% of 159.0 keV and the high-energy-window width from 3% to 10% of 159 keV. In this study we imaged the cardiac phantom, using single or dual radionuclide, changing energy window width, and comparing SPECT counts as well as crosstalk ratio. Results: The contamination to the 123I window from 99mTc (the crosstalk) was only 1% or less with cutoffs of 4% at lower part and 6% at upper part of 159KeV. On the other hand, the crosstalk from 123I photons into the 99mTc window mostly exceeded 20%. Therefore, in order to suppress the rate of contamination to 20% or less, 99mTc window cutoffs were set at 3% in upper part and 7% at lower part of 140.5 KeV. The semiconductor detector improves separation accuracy of the acquisition inherently at dual radionuclide imaging. In, this phantom study we simulated dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT by 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP. Conclusion: We suggest that dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc and 123I using a CZT semiconductor detector is possible employing the recommended windows. PMID:27408880

  7. 99mTC-Methylene diphosphonate uptake at injury site correlates with osteoblast differentiation and mineralization during bone healing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhendong A; Peck, Anderson; Li, Shihong; VanOss, Jeff; Snider, John; Droscha, Casey J; Chang, Tingtung A; Williams, Bart O

    2015-01-01

    99mTc-Methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is widely used in clinical settings to detect bone abnormalities. However, the mechanism of 99mTc-MDP uptake in bone is not well elucidated. In this study, we utilized a mouse tibia injury model, single-photon emission computed tomography (gamma scintigraphy or SPECT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and histology to monitor 99mTc-MDP uptake in injury sites during skeletal healing. In an ex vivo culture system, calvarial cells were differentiated into osteoblasts with osteogenic medium, pulsed with 99mTc-MDP at different time points, and quantitated for 99mTc-MDP uptake with a gamma counter. We demonstrated that 99mTc-MDP uptake in the injury sites corresponded to osteoblast generation in those sites throughout the healing process. The 99mTc-MDP uptake within the injury sites peaked on day 7 post-injury, while the injury sites were occupied by mature osteoblasts also starting from day 7. 99mTc-MDP uptake started to decrease 14 days post-surgery, when we observed the highest level of bony tissue in the injury sites. We also found that 99mTc-MDP uptake was associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization in vitro. This study provides direct and biological evidence for 99mTc-MDP uptake in osteoblasts during bone healing in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26273540

  8. Intestinal permeability to 99mTc-diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Casellas, F.; Aguade, S.; Soriano, B.; Accarino, A.; Molero, J.; Guarner, L.

    1986-09-01

    Intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease and its relation to periods of disease activity has been investigated by measuring the urinary excretion of DTPA labeled with 99mTc. Urine excretion in 10 control subjects was 2.7 +/- 1% of the test dose. Twelve patients with ulcerative colitis excreted 5.08 +/- 1.6% in remission, 10.61 +/- 2% during periods of mild activity, 19.41 +/- 0.9% during moderate activity, and 15.41 +/- 6.3% with severe activity. Sixteen patients with Crohn's disease excreted 5.7 +/- 1.9% in remission, 8.47 +/- 2.8% during mild activity of the disease, and 14.29 +/- 5.8% during moderate activity. No differences were observed between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, or between ileal and colonic forms of Crohn's disease. Excretion in remission was significantly greater than in control subjects and there was a correlation between excretion and disease activity. In serial determinations done in seven patients we found that urine excretion of the test substance correlated with disease activity. We also studied DTPA excretion in 10 cases with gastric or duodenal ulcer (2.28 +/- 1.4%), six cases of acute gastroenteritis (4.87 +/- 3.1%) and nine cases with other intestinal diseases (3.6 +/- 1.1%). In all these cases, DTPA excretion was lower than in inflammatory bowel disease. Our results show that the urinary excretion of DTPA is a simple test that measures accurately the degree of activity of inflammatory bowel disease. The test is useful in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, and detects intestinal permeability abnormalities even in clinical remission. Significantly lower excretions are found in other intestinal diseases. The test may be recommended as a screening test for use in clinical practice.

  9. Intrarenal blood flow distributions from first transit recordings of Tc-99m radiochelates

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, G.R.; Wesolowski, C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1985-05-01

    A computer-assisted curve stripping technique was used to derive renal transit times and flow fractions from the first transit aortic and renal recordings of Tc-99m radiochelate (DTPA, GHA, MDP) following peripheral bolus injection. Mean values +- 1 S.D. for 40 normal kidneys: first and second component transit times: T1=6.8 +- 2.4 sec., T2=12.8 +- 3.2 sec; flow fractions: fl=67 +- 9%, f2=17 +- 10%; residual fraction (slower components and filtration): Rf=16 +- 9%. A tumor population of 11 patients without known renal disease was studied prior to chemotherapy. Mean fl was diminished, and mean f2, T1, and Rf were elevated (p<.05). 18 hypertensive patients evaluated with angiography, renal vein renins, and scintigraphy were also reviewed. The mean f1 was decreased and the mean f2,T1, T2, and Rf were increased in this population (p<.01). The fl:T1 ratio proved to be a sensitive indicator asymmetric renal disease. The mean left-to-right ratio (L/R) of f1/T1 in normals was 1.02 +- 0.10 (r=.93) and 1.6 +- 1.5(r=.50) in the hypertensives. A L/R fl/T1 <.82 or >1.22 had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 80%, and positive prediction value of 92% for the presence of an arterial lesion (stenosis of >70%). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for lateralized or bilaterally elevated renins were 73%, 50%, and 73%, respectively. The authors conclude that intrarenal blood flow distributions can be derived non-invasively and simultaneously for both kidneys, that the results obtained are similar to those previously reported with the invasive xenon washout technique, and that disease tends to produce intrarenal flow shifts and prolongation of transit times.

  10. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The role of 99m Tc-RBC scintigraphy in lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Sangeethapriya; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Rockey, Don C

    2016-04-01

    Given the controversy surrounding the use of 99m Tc-RBC scintigraphy (TRBCS) in lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH), we examined how often it was performed and whether it led to specific therapy. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 565 admissions with a primary diagnosis of LGIH. We obtained detailed clinical data on all subjects, focusing in particular on outcomes after TRBCS. 199 TRBCS studies were performed during 166 patient admissions (a patient admission was defined as an incident LGIH episode in a single patient). Of the 166 patient admissions in which TRBCS was performed, the scan was positive in approximately half (84/166; 51%); if TRBCS themselves were considered, they were positive 42% (84/199) of the time. Of the 84 admissions with a positive TRBCS, angiography was performed 54 times. Among this group, angiography revealed bleeding in only 20 patients (11 patients underwent embolization and 9 had hemostatic therapy). Out of 64 patients with a positive TRBCS who underwent colonoscopy, only 3 patients underwent endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Surgery was performed in 20 patients after a positive TRBCS (including in 17/54 patients after angiogram) and hemostasis was achieved in 16. Angiography, surgery and therapeutic colonoscopy were more commonly performed after positive than after a negative TRBCS. Patients who underwent angiography within 4 h of a positive TRBCS were neither more likely to have active bleeding found nor to undergo successful embolization. Not all patients with a positive TRBCS underwent angiography, and an abnormal TRBCS did not appear to predict successful angiographic therapy; further, a positive TRBCS was not predictive of subsequent definitive therapy. Because TRBCS appears to be followed up inconsistently, the data bring into question its routine use in clinical practice, and specifically raise the possibility that it is overused in patients with LGIH. PMID:26956784

  12. Age-related change of technetium-99m-HMDP distribution in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Kigami, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Ohnishi, Hideo

    1996-05-01

    To understand age-related changes of whole-body and regional skeletal metabolism, it is important to investigate the mechanisms of age-related bone loss and to develop suitable treatments for it. Bone biopsies show metabolism of the particular site examined while biochemical markers for bone metabolism reflect total skeletal metabolis. Bone scintigraphy is a convenient and simple way to analyze whole-body and regional skeletal metabolism. We attempted to study and understand age-related changes in bone metabolism by quantifying the bone scan and correlating it with biochemical bone metabolic markers. The whole-body skeletal uptake (WBSU) and whole-body skeletal tracer distribution pattern were studied in men and women by bone scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxy-methane-diphosphonate (HMDP). Bone scans were performed using a standard protocol and quantified by setting regions of interest (ROIs) on selected regions. WBSU and the skeletal distribution pattern were compared with simultaneously obtained serum biochemical markers. WBSU showed an increase with age in both sexes, but in women, uptake in the head and legs increased more relatively than in the thoracic region, while in men no such tendency was observed. Increase of WBSU and relative increase of uptakes in the head demonstrated a weak correlation with the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen metabolites. These results show an age-related increase of skeletal turnover and sex-dependent regional skeletal metabolism. The age-related changes seen in bone scintigrams might be a sign of progressive bone loss, reflecting changes in local bone matabolism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Biodistribution of TC-99m sestamibi in rats utilizing whole-body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, M.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Arora, J.

    1994-05-01

    Current biodistribution models for Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) rely on gross imaging methods via Anger camera or at best, excision of animal tissue and counting tissue samples. These methods do not allow for detection of intra-organ inhomogeneities and small accumulations of activity are often treated as nonspecific background. The goal of this work was to examine the biodistribution of MIBI using whole-body autoradiography to obtain very detailed activity distribution information. Four anesthetized albino rats (300 g {plus_minus}10 g ) were injected into a dorsal metatarsal vein with an average of 333 MBq MIBI. One rat each was sacrificed at 5, 20, 60 and 180 minutes post-injection. Animals were embedded, frozen and slices (50-100 {mu}m thick) were obtained using a PMV-2250 macro-cryo-microtome and autoradiographs were made of slices. Cardiac uptake remained consistently high at all time points. All muscular areas exhibited uptake, including the diaphragm and GI tract wells. Significant MIBI uptake was observed in many different glands, including the submaxillary, suprarenal, thymus, lacrimal, harderian and thyroid. Pancreatic uptake was observed at each time. MIBI cleared from the liver and spleen quickly, with significant activity in the bowel at 5 minutes. High small bowel content activity was observed at all time points. The contents of the distal stomach and colon accumulated activity in all but the 5 minute studies. Clearance from the kidneys occurred between 1 and 3 hours, although kidney activity remained similar to the heart at 3 hours. Bladder activity was observed as early as 20 minutes, with the highest at the 3 hour time point. Very slight testicular uptake was observed in the epidydmis and wall of the scrotal sac. Although these autoradiographs confirm existing kinetics, they provide a unique, high-resolution record of previously unknown MIBI deposition areas such as the pancreas and GI tract lining.

  14. Use of Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) to determine hepatic blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Hutak, D.P.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-NGA is a new liver radiopharmaceutical which binds to a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. Three characteristics of Tc-NGA can be exploited in the measurement of hepatic blood flow (HBF): 1) ability to alter the affinity of Tc-NGA for its receptor by changing the galactose: albumin ratio; 2) ability to achieve a high specific activity with Tc-99m labeling; and 3) ability to administer a high molar dose of Tc-NGA without physiologic side effects. In addition, kinetic modeling of Tc-NGA dynamic data can provide estimates of hepatic receptor concentration. In experimental studies in young pigs, HBF was determined using two techniques: 1) kinetic modeling of dynamic data using moderate affinity, low specific activity Tc-NGA (Group A, n=12); and 2) clearance (CL) technique using high affinity, high specific activity Tc-NGA (Group B, n=4). In both groups, HBF was determined simultaneously by continuous infusion of indocyanine green (CI-ICG) with hepatic vein sampling. Regression analysis of HBF measurements obtained with the Tc-NGA kinetic modeling technique and the CI-ICG technique (Group A) revealed good correlation between the two techniques (r=0.802, p=0.02). Similarly, HBF determination by the clearance technique (Group B) provided highly accurate measurements when compared to the CI-ICG technique. Hepatic blood flow measurements by the clearance technique (CL-NGA) fell within one standard deviation of the error associated with each CI-ICG HBF measurement (all CI-ICG standard deviations were less than 10%).

  15. Technetium-99m Bone Scan and Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Bone Invasion by Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    John, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The correct extension of cancer in the bone usually remains undetected on static imaging which may lead to inadequate or over excision. The conventional radiography as well as other anatomical imaging modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging often fails to detect functional changes in the bone. However, bone scinitigraphy is highly sensitive in detecting earlier changes in the bone but lack anatomical definition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of combining technetium-99m bone scan and panoramic radiography (Tc scan/PR) over using single diagnostic modality in detection of jaw bone invasion by oral carcinomas. The accuracy of these imaging modalities either alone or in combination were determined by comparing with the histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven oral malignant tumors were randomly selected from Oral Medicine and Radiology department over a period of two years. All patients were investigated preoperatively by Tc scan and PR. Lewis – Jones’s designed diagnostic criterion was applied on Tc scan/PR to evaluate bone involvement by cancer. To test the accuracy of Tc scan, PR and Tc scan/PR, their results were compared with the histopathological findings of resected specimen. Results: Hybrid Tc scan/PR had higher specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (83.3%, 94.7%, 92.8%) than Tc scan alone (50%, 84.2%, 81.2%) and higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%) than PR (69.2%, 55.5%). Conclusion: Combination of Tc scan and PR was more accurate in detecting jaw bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma than Tc scan and PR alone. PMID:24995244

  16. Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in small cell lung cancer: A predictor of response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bom, H.S.; Kim, Y.C.; Song, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    Patients(pts) with small cell lung cancer(SCLC) often fail to respond to chemotherapy due to multi-drug resistance(MDR). Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) was reported to be a suitable transport substrate of P-glycoprotein, a cytoplasmic membrane protein encoded by the MDR gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the degree of MIBI uptake in SCLC or its retention on delayed imaging correlated with response to chemotherapy. 19 pts (M:F=13:6, mean age 60.2 {plus_minus} 10.9) with biopsy-proven SCLC had MIBI SPECT 3 to 7 days before starting chemotherapy. Imaging was acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of 740MBq MIBI using single head rotating gamma camera. Tumor-to-normal lung uptake ratio(T/NL) was measured. Per cent retention(%R) was measured as: %R = (T/NL at 4 hour {divided_by} T/NL at 1 hour) X 100. All patients received VAP chemotherapy (VP-16 100mg/m{sup 2}, adriamycin 40mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 25mg/m{sup 2}) every 4 weeks for at least 3 times. Response to chemotherapy was grouped as complete remission(CR), partial remission (PR), and no remission(NR) according to the change of tumor size on chest X-ray and computed tomographic images. Differences in T/NL and %R among the 3 groups were analyzed using ANOVA. These preliminary data indicate that SCLC with a higher MIBI uptake is more likely to respond to chemotherapy than that with a lower uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between the MIBI retention and the response to chemotherapy.

  17. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  18. Technetium-99m labelled LDL as a tracer for quantitative LDL scintigraphy. II. In vivo validation, LDL receptor-dependent and unspecific hepatic uptake and scintigraphic results.

    PubMed

    Leitha, T; Staudenherz, A; Gmeiner, B; Hermann, M; Hüttinger, M; Dudczak, R

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake of dialysed technetium-99m labelled low-density lipoprotein (99mTc-LDL) reflects the hepatic LDL receptor activity and to what extent the non-LDL receptor-dependent 99mTc-LDL uptake by non-parenchymal cells relates to the diagnostic utility of quantitative 99mTc-LDL scintigraphy of the liver. New Zealand White rabbits and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits, which were sacrificed 24 h after simultaneous injection of 99mTc-LDL and iodine-125 labelled LDL, were clearly discriminated by their hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake according to their genetically different hepatic LDL receptor activity. Yet the hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake exceeded the 125I-LDL uptake in all animals. The different hepatic uptake of the tracers was elucidated in the isolated perfused rat liver and was due to rapid intracellular degradation and the release of low molecular catabolites of 125I-LDL. In contrast, 99mTc activity was trapped in the liver. Analysis of biliary 99mTc activity provided evidence for the excretion of 99mTc-labelled apolipoprotein B. The amount of biliary excreted protein-bound 99mTc was linked to total hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake and presumably reflected LDL receptor-mediated apolipoprotein excretion. Collagenase liver perfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats 90 min following simultaneous injection of 99mTc- and 125I-LDL and subsequent cell separation by gradient centrifugation revealed that 99mTc-LDL and 125I-LDL had a comparably low uptake into non-parenchymal cells; thus its contribution can be neglected for scintigraphic purposes. Planar scintigraphy was performed in New Zealand White and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8404953

  19. 99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538

  20. In vitro irradiation of blood with 99mTc: evaluation of dose and chromosome aberrations in irradiated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, A; Colas-Linhart, N; Stabin, M; Petiet, A; Guiraud-Vitaux, F; Jacquet, N

    2001-05-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes in medicine represents the principal source of artificial radiation to humans. Calculation of radiation dose is essential to the analysis of risks (biological effects) and benefits in any application, including nuclear medicine. The dose assessment in many cases is not necessarily straightforward. Many radiopharmaceuticals are labelled with radionuclides that undergo not only gamma-emission but also emission of Auger and internal conversion electrons. A typical example is technetium-99m (99mTc), which is used in more than 80% of nuclear medicine applications. In this work, in vitro studies have been carried out to evaluate the dose delivered to lymphocytes by human serum albumin microspheres (HSAM) labelled with 99mTc. Experiments were performed in order to score unstable chromosomal aberrations induced by 99mTc-HSAM, using conventional cytogenetic techniques. Henceforth, the relationship between activities introduced into blood samples and induced chromosomal aberrations were evaluated. To assess the dose absorbed in lymphocytes, electron and photon transport was performed in a simple model representing the system used for irradiating the cells using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In this report, analysis of dose-effect curve demonstrates a linear quadratic response for unstable chromosome aberrations. PMID:11441962

  1. Influence of tyramine-induced neurotoxicity on kinetics of first-pass brain TC-99m-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Malveaux, E.; Schmidt, F.; Sarper, R.; Camp, V.; Faraj, B.A.

    1986-03-05

    Tyramine (T) induces coma in phenelzine-treated dogs. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the influence of T in MAO-inhibited dogs on the kinetics of Tc-99m-DTPA during its first passage through the brain by nuclear imaging. The study began with anesthetized dogs (n=10) in a supine position over the camera detector. Data acquisition was started simultaneously following the rapid intracarotid injection of Tc-99m-DTPA (30 mCi) and 60 0.5 second images of the brain were taken. T induced increased uptake with a concomittant impairment in the elimination of Tc-99m-DPTA from the brain of these treated animals as compared to controls. This was accompanied by an appreciable reduction in hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) (56 +/- 19 vs 110 +/- 16 ml/100g/min). Increased cerebrovascular permeability of Tc-99m-DTPA and decreased CBF correlated significantly with development of intracranial hypertension and elevation in CSF catecholamines in these animals. T may have implication in the development of cerebral edema of Reye's syndrome.

  2. Intense muscle uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Batte, W.G. Jr.; Yeh, S.D.; Rosenblum, M.K.; Larson, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    An unusual distribution of Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in several muscle groups is described in a 14-year-old boy with aplastic anemia and normal renal function at the time of imaging. Although the patient did not develop musculo-skeletal signs or symptoms, a subsequent autopsy revealed widespread muscle calcification.

  3. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  4. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  5. Thyroid uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc) pertechnetate during in vivo RBC labeling: incidental diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.A.; Ponto, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Increased thyroid activity was incidentally observed during an in vivo labeled Tc-99m blood pool scan and subsequent evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Alternate explanations of abnormal thyroid uptake on in vivo labeled blood pool scans were considered and are discussed briefly.

  6. A technique using {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W.; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases.

  7. Recognition-mediated cucurbit[7]uril-heptamolybdate hybrid material: a facile supramolecular strategy for (99m)Tc separation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Teena; Barooah, Nilotpal; Mallia, Madhava B; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee

    2016-06-01

    We report the construction of a novel non-covalently held cucurbit[7]uril-heptamolybdate hybrid material for the first time, and demonstrate its application as a generator bed for the facile and efficient separation of the (99m)Tc radiotracer, which is in demand for several theranostic applications. PMID:27180626

  8. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1988-07-05

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available for the reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  9. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with TC-99M

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  10. Tc-99m-labeled RGD-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides with reduced renal uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianquan; Hu, Chien-An

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the replacement of the positively-charged Lys or Arg linker with a neutral linker could reduce the renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3–13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the neutral βAla or Ahx {aminohexanoic acid} linker (replacing the Lys or Arg linker) to generate novel RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptides. The receptor binding affinity and cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting and imaging properties of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The replacement of the Lys or Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker retained nanomolar receptor binding affinities and remarkable cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH. The receptor binding affinities of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were 0.8 and 1.3 nM. Three-hour incubation with 0.1 µM of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH decreased the survival percentages of B16/F1 cells by 71 and 67% as compared to the untreated control cells five days post the treatment. The replacement of the Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker reduced the non-specific renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH by 62% and 61% at 2 h post-injection. 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed higher melanoma uptake than 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Enhanced tumor to kidney uptake ratio of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH warranted the further evaluation of 188Re-labeled RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH as a novel MC1 receptor-targeting therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment in the future. PMID:25557051

  11. Effect of diltiazem on stunned myocardium evaluated with 99mTc-pyrophosphate imaging in canine heart.

    PubMed

    Nohara, R; Kambara, H; Okuda, K; Ono, S; Tamaki, N; Konishi, J; Kawai, C

    1992-03-01

    The effect of diltiazem on stunned myocardium was evaluated by measuring the myocardial uptake of 99mTc-PYP (pyrophosphate) in open chest experiments with dogs. Myocardial stunning was induced by a 30 min ischemic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery. Regional wall motion was monitored by echocardiography of the epicardium for 2 h during reperfusion. After a 30 min occlusion of the coronary artery, it was reperfused and 99mTc-PYP was injected, followed by 201Tl 2 h later. The ischemic area was defined by Evans blue dye, and the infarct area by TTC staining. No dogs showed infarcts or 201Tl defects in this study group. Five dogs of the control-1 group (C1, ischemic area = 19.1 +/- 3.2%) showed decreased regional wall motion during occlusion (15.5 +/- 3.5% of control), and a slow recovery from depressed motion after 2 h of reperfusion (20.3 +/- 9.3%) with uptake ratio (compared to the non-ischemic area uptake) of 99mTc-PYP (4.96 +/- 2.28). In contrast, both groups with diltiazem infusion (20 micrograms/kg/min), started either 30 min before ischemia (D1 = 5 dogs) or just after reperfusion (D2 = 5 dogs), showed significantly better recovery after 2 h of reperfusion (D1:115.4 +/- 36.0%, D2:109.2 +/- 44.2%) than C1 (p less than 0.05), D1 and D2 groups also showed suppressed 99mTc-PYP uptake ratio (D1:1.06 +/- 0.33, D2:2.34 +/- 2.05, p less than 0.05 vs C1) in spite of comparable ischemic area. Four dogs with small ischemic area (C2:5.3 +/- 5.0%) did not show increased 99mTc-PYP uptake (1.15 +/- 0.35), and regional wall motion after 2 h of reperfusion was 96.1 +/- 24.1% of the control value (p less than 0.05 vs C1). Thus, diltiazem was effective in enhancing the suppression of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the stunned myocardium, and similar results were obtained for small ischemic areas. The protective effect of diltiazem appears to be strongly related to the mechanism of 99mTc-PYP uptake. PMID:1532431

  12. Personalized predictive lung dosimetry by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT for yttrium-90 radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization, the common practice of assuming a standard 1,000-g lung mass for predictive dosimetry is fundamentally incongruent with the modern philosophy of personalized medicine. We recently developed a technique of personalized predictive lung dosimetry using technetium-99m (99mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) of the lung as part of our routine dosimetric protocol for 90Y radioembolization. Its rationales are the technical superiority of SPECT/CT over planar scintigraphy, ease and convenience of lung auto-segmentation CT densitovolumetry, and dosimetric advantage of patient-specific lung parenchyma masses. Methods This is a retrospective study of our pulmonary clinical outcomes and comparison of lung dosimetric accuracy and precision by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT versus conventional planar methodology. 90Y resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres) were used for radioembolization. Diagnostic CT densitovolumetry was used as a reference for lung parenchyma mass. Pulmonary outcomes were based on follow-up diagnostic CT chest or X-ray. Results Thirty patients were analyzed. The mean lung parenchyma mass of our Southeast Asian cohort was 822 ± 103 g standard deviation (95% confidence interval 785 to 859 g). Patient-specific lung parenchyma mass estimation by CT densitovolumetry on 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT is accurate (bias −21.7 g) and moderately precise (95% limits of agreement −194.6 to +151.2 g). Lung mean radiation absorbed doses calculated by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT and planar methodology are both accurate (bias <0.5 Gy), but 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT offers better precision over planar methodology (95% limits of agreement −1.76 to +2.40 Gy versus −3.48 to +3.31 Gy, respectively). None developed radiomicrosphere pneumonitis when treated up to a lung mean radiation absorbed dose of 18 Gy at a median follow-up of 4.4 months. Conclusions Personalized predictive lung

  13. 99mTcO4−-, Auger-Mediated Thyroid Stunning: Dosimetric Requirements and Associated Molecular Events

    PubMed Central

    Cambien, Béatrice; Franken, Philippe R.; Lamit, Audrey; Mauxion, Thibault; Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Guglielmi, Julien; Crescence, Lydie; Mari, Bernard; Pourcher, Thierry; Darcourt, Jacques; Bardiès, Manuel; Vassaux, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy Auger and conversion electrons deposit their energy in a very small volume (a few nm3) around the site of emission. From a radiotoxicological point of view the effects of low-energy electrons on normal tissues are largely unknown, understudied, and generally assumed to be negligible. In this context, the discovery that the low-energy electron emitter, 99mTc, can induce stunning on primary thyrocytes in vitro, at low absorbed doses, is intriguing. Extrapolated in vivo, this observation suggests that a radioisotope as commonly used in nuclear medicine as 99mTc may significantly influence thyroid physiology. The aims of this study were to determine whether 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−) is capable of inducing thyroid stunning in vivo, to evaluate the absorbed dose of 99mTcO4− required to induce this stunning, and to analyze the biological events associated/concomitant with this effect. Our results show that 99mTcO4−–mediated thyroid stunning can be observed in vivo in mouse thyroid. The threshold of the absorbed dose in the thyroid required to obtain a significant stunning effect is in the range of 20 Gy. This effect is associated with a reduced level of functional Na/I symporter (NIS) protein, with no significant cell death. It is reversible within a few days. At the cellular and molecular levels, a decrease in NIS mRNA, the generation of double-strand DNA breaks, and the activation of the p53 pathway are observed. Low-energy electrons emitted by 99mTc can, therefore, induce thyroid stunning in vivo in mice, if it is exposed to an absorbed dose of at least 20 Gy, a level unlikely to be encountered in clinical practice. Nevertheless this report presents an unexpected effect of low-energy electrons on a normal tissue in vivo, and provides a unique experimental setup to understand the fine molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects. PMID:24663284

  14. Brain extraction and distribution of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in humans and in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, G.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Somnier, F.E.; Videbaek, C.; Hasselbalch, S.; Paulson, O.B.

    1994-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage of the flow tracer ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethylester (bicisate, ECD) was measured repeatedly in five patients by means of the intravenous (i.v.) double-indicator technique using {sup 24}Na{sup +} as an intravascular cotracer. After i.v. injection, the arterial concentration curve of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate was delayed and dispersed compared with that of the intravascular cotracer, presumably due to lung retention of the flow tracer. The corrected cerebral venous output curves were fitted using a three-compartment model with four parameters. At resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) values, the unidirectional brain extraction was 0.57 {+-} 0.05, the permeability-surface area product for passage from blood to brain (PS{sub 1}) was 0.48 {+-} 0.07 ml/g/min, and the distribution volume for bicisate was 0.74 {+-} 0.20 (mean {+-} SD). In a single patient, BBB transport after i.v. injection of bicisate was compared with that of a similar flow tracer, d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO), and similar values were found for the two tracers. In 19 rats, the brain extraction of bicisate was measured by means of the intracarotid double-indicator technique. The brain extraction was measured at resting, decreased, and increased CBF values. Low CBF values were obtained by hyperventilation and high values by hypercapnia. The degree of backflux of tracer from brain to blood was evaluated by means of the three-compartment model and was found to be negligible in these experiments. The brain extraction was 0.70 {+-} 0.1 and PS{sub 1} was 0.94 {+-} 0.27 ml/g/min. During hypercapnia, CBF increased from 0.77 to 1.09 ml/g/min, leading to a significant decrease in brain extraction, from 0.70 to 0.56. During hyperventilation, CBF decreased from 0.77 to 0.54 ml/g/min, leading to a significant increase in brain extraction, from 0.70 to 0.74. PS{sub 1} remained constant despite changes in CBF or bolus size. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.

    1988-10-01

    Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001).

  16. Hypoxia and Exercise Increase the Transpulmonary Passage of 99mTc-Labeled Albumin Particles in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Melissa L.; Farrell, Emily T.; Drezdon, Alyssa; Jacobson, Joseph E.; Perlman, Scott B.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2014-01-01

    Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVs) are large diameter connections that allow blood to bypass the lung capillaries and may provide a route for right-to-left embolus transmission. These anastomoses are recruited by exercise and catecholamines and hypoxia. Yet, whether IPAVs are recruited via direct, oxygen sensitive regulatory mechanisms or indirect effects secondary to redistribution pulmonary blood flow is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the addition of exercise to hypoxic gas breathing, which increases cardiac output, would augment IPAVs recruitment in healthy humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin particles (99mTc-MAA) in seven healthy volunteers, at rest and with exercise at 85% of volitional max, with normoxic (FIO2 = 0.21) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.10) gas breathing. We found increased 99mTc-MAA passage in both exercise conditions and resting hypoxia. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found the greatest 99mTc-MAA passage with resting hypoxia. As an additional, secondary endpoint, we also noted that the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-MAA was well-correlated with the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) during exercise. While increased cardiac output has been proposed as an important modulator of IPAVs recruitment, we provide evidence that the modulation of blood flow through these pathways is more complex and that increasing cardiac output does not necessarily increase IPAVs recruitment. As we discuss, our data suggest that the resistance downstream of IPAVs is an important determinant of their perfusion. PMID:25013985

  17. Effect of Thuya occidentalis on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, J. F.; Braga, A. C.; Avila, A. S.; Fonseca, L. M.; Gutfilen, B.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thuya occidentalis is used in popular medicine in the treatment of condyloma and has antibacterial action. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually stannous ion. Any drug which alters the labeling of the tracer could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of T. occidentalis extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with 99mTc. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with T. occidentalis (0.25; 2.5; 20.5; and 34.1 percent v/v). Stannous chloride (1.2 micrograms/ml) was added and then 99mTc was added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in radioactivity (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with 34.1 percent of the drug. In the labeling process of RBC with 99mTc, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass through the membrane, so we suggest that the T. occidentalis effect can be explained (i) by an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii) by damage in membrane, (iii) by competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv) by possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion. PMID:9436292

  18. Significance of 99mTc-Sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J.; Ashikaga, Kohei; Takano, Makoto; Izumo, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yuki; Kida, Keisuke; Yoneyama, Kihei; Suzuki, Kengo; Miyake, Fumihiko; Banach, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study was designed to clarify the significance of washout rate (WR) determined from 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphic images and the levels of cardiac enzymes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Material/Methods A total of 56 consecutive patients with AMI (mean age 65.8±8.5 years), who underwent PCI on admission, were included. Cardiac enzyme, the MB isoenzyme of creatinine kinase (CK-MB), was measured every 3 h after admission. Two weeks after the onset of AMI, 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy was performed at early (30 min) and delayed (4 h) phases after tracer injection. The heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and WR were calculated from the planar images. Results PCI was performed at 9.4±6.0 h after the onset of AMI. In 26 patients the culprit lesion was located in the right coronary artery and in 24 patients it was located in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The peak CK-MB was 274.1±169.4 IU/L (13.5±3.9 h). The early and delayed H/Ms and WR of 99mTc-sestamibi were 2.74±0.58, 3.00±0.70, and 58.8±10.0%, respectively. The delayed H/M was significantly correlated with the peak CK-MB (r=−0.37, p=0.005). The WR of 99mTc-sestamibi was also significantly correlated with the peak CK-MB (r=−0.34, p=0.012). Conclusions These results suggest that the WR determined from 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphic images reflects the extent of myocardial damage in AMI patients. PMID:21358600

  19. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir*

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro; de Lima, Carla Flavia; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. PMID:27141131

  20. The Role of 99mTc-Annexin V Apoptosis Scintigraphy in Visualizing Early Stage Glucocorticoid-Induced Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Rui; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To validate the ability of 99mTc-Annexin V to visualize early stage of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis by comparing with 99mTc-MDP bone scanning. Methods. Femoral head necrosis was induced in adult New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone. 99mTc-Annexin scintigraphy and 99mTc-MDP scans were performed before and 5, 6, and 8 weeks after methylprednisolone administration. Rabbits were sacrificed at various time points and conducted for TUNEL and H&E staining. Results. All methylprednisolone treated animals developed femoral head necrosis; at 8 weeks postinjection, destruction of bone structure was evident in H&E staining, and apoptosis was confirmed by the TUNEL assay. This was matched by 99mTc-Annexin V images, which showed a significant increase in signal over baseline. Serial 99mTc-Annexin V scans revealed that increased 99mTc-Annexin V uptake could be observed in 5 weeks. In contrast, there was no effect on 99mTc-MDP signal until 8 weeks. The TUNEL assay revealed that bone cell apoptosis occurred at 5 weeks. Conclusion. 99mTc-Annexin V is superior to 99mTc-MDP for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in the rabbit and may be a better strategy for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in patients. PMID:26989689

  1. Fast Monte Carlo based joint iterative reconstruction for simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Moore, Stephen C

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneous 99mTC/ 123I SPECT allows the assessment of two physiological functions under identical conditions. The separation of these radionuclides is difficult, however, because their energies are close. Most energy-window-based scatter correction methods do not fully model either physical factors or patient-specific activity and attenuation distributions. We have developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based multiple-radionuclide and multiple-energy joint ordered-subset expectation-maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm, MC-JOSEM. MC-JOSEM simultaneously corrects for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. We evaluated MC-JOSEM for simultaneous brain profusion (99mTc-HMPAO) and neurotransmission (123I-altropane) SPECT. MC simulations of 99mTc and 123I studies were generated separately and then combined to mimic simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT. All the details of photon transport through the brain, the collimator, and detector, including Compton and coherent scatter, septal penetration, and backscatter from components behind the crystal, were modeled. We reconstructed images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide projections in three ways. First, we reconstructed the photopeak-energy-window projections (with an asymmetric energy window for 1231) using the standard ordered-subsets expectation-maximization algorithm (NSC-OSEM). Second, we used standard OSEM to reconstruct 99mTc photopeak-energy-window projections, while including an estimate of scatter from a Compton-scatter energy window (SC-OSEM). Third, we jointly reconstructed both 99mTc and 123I images using projection data associated with two photo-peak energy windows and an intermediate-energy window using MC-JOSEM. For 15 iterations of reconstruction, the bias and standard deviation of 99mTc activity estimates in several brain structures were calculated for NSC-OSEM, SC-OSEM, and MC-JOSEM, using images reconstructed from primary

  2. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E.; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. 99mTc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n = 5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n = 9). 99mTc-duramycin (10-15 mCi) was injected intravenously at 1 hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3 hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting was used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, 99mTc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Results Intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6 ± 0.3 minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9 ± 64.7 minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76 ± 0.21, 1.66 ± 0.22, 1.50 ± 0.20 and 1.75 ± 0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88 ± 0.13, 0.80 ± 0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 and 0.88 ± 0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30 min post injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57 ± 0.74 and 3.69 ± 0.91 at 1 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89 ± 0.85 and 4.93 ± 0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05 ± 0.30 to 3.23 ± 0

  3. Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.

    1988-02-01

    Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

  4. Technetium-99m (⁹⁹mTc)-labelled sulesomab in the management of malignant external otitis: is there any role?

    PubMed

    Galletti, Francesco; Cammaroto, Giovanni; Galletti, Bruno; Quartuccio, Natale; Di Mauro, Francesca; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    We report two cases of malignant external otitis (MEO) evaluated with Technetium-99m((99m)Tc)-labelled sulesomab. Two patients affected by MEO are presented, together with a literature review. Both patients were studied with clinical examination, ear discharge culture, radiological imaging, blood exams, (99m)Tc Sulesomab, and treated with antibiotic therapy. (99m)Tc-Sulesomab would appear to be an useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up of MEO, highlighting the site and extension of the inflammatory process, and evaluating course and treatment efficacy. (99m)Tc-Sulesomab shows promise as a rapid, effective and safe imaging agent for treatment response evaluation and follow-up of patients with MEO. Further studies are warranted to validate the inclusion of (99m)Tc-Sulesomab scan in the imaging follow-up of patients with MEO. PMID:24534898

  5. [Evaluation on blood clearance and hepatic uptake of 99mTc-GSA in rats with blood flow conversion].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K

    1997-05-01

    This study was aimed to clarify a contribution of the hepatic blood flow in hepatic accumulation of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA). The experiment was performed in rats by the blood flow conversion with an external scintillation gamma camera and laser doppler flowmeter. Rats were divided into 4 groups: hepatic artery ligation (HAL, n = 10), portal vein ligation (PVL, n = 8), both hepatic artery and portal vein ligation (HAL+PVL, n = 9), and control (CONT, n = 10) groups. The scintigraphic data were obtained in each group for 10 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc-GSA (50 micrograms/100 g B.W). The regions of interest were assigned over the heart and whole liver and the time activity curves (TAC) were generated. Five parameters of HH 4, LHL 4, KH1, KH2, KL, were calculated as blood clearance and hepatic accumulation from TAC in each rat. HH4 as blood clearance index in CONT, HAL, PVL and HAL+PVL was 0.58 +/- 0.04 (mean +/- SE), 0.63 +/- 0.04, 0.85 +/- 0.04, 0.97 +/- 0.001, respectively. HH 4 between CONT vs PVL, HAL+PVL was statistically significant (p < 0.05). LHL 4 as hepatic uptake index in CONT, HAL, PVL and HAL+PVL was 0.96 +/- 0.001, 0.93 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.07, 0.41 +/- 0.04, respectively. This parameter was also statistically significant between CONT vs PVL and HAL+PVL groups. Another parameter of KH1 for blood clearance and KL for hepatic uptake were also significant between CONT vs PVL and HAL+PVL groups. All parameters obtained in 99mTc-GSA study correlated well with the hepatic flow rate which was measured with a laser doppler flowmeter and reflected the reduction rate of the hepatic tissue blood flow 4 minutes after the ligation of target vessels. These result suggest that blood clearance and hepatic uptake of 99mTc-GSA are significantly affected by hepatic blood inflow. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy may be useful in evaluating hepatic tissue blood flow. PMID:9226469

  6. Is 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy a predictor of response to pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Osteosarcoma?

    PubMed Central

    Gharehdaghi, Mohammad; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Khooei, Alireza; Novferesti, Gholamhosein; Hootkani, Alireza; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Multidrug resistance (MDR), which may be due to the over expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and/or MRP, is a major problem in neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tc-99m MIBI scan for predicting the response to pre-operative chemotherapy. Methods: Twenty-five patients (12 males and 13 females, aged between 8 and 52y) with osteosarcoma were studied. Before the chemotherapy, planar 99mTc-MIBI anterior and posterior images were obtained 10-min [tumor-to-background ratio: (T1/B1)10min] and 3-hr after tracer injection. After completion of chemotherapy, again 99mTc-MIBI scan was performed at 10-min after tracer injection. In addition to calculation of decay corrected tumor to background (T/B) ratios, using the 10-min and 3-hr images of the pre-chemotherapy scintigraphy, percent wash-out rate (WR%) of 99mTc-MIBI was calculated. Using the 10-min images of the pre- and post-chemotherapy scans, the percent reduction in uptake at the tumor site after treatment (Red%) was also calculated. Then after surgical resection, tumor response was assessed by percentage of necrosis. Results: All patients showed significant 99mTc-MIBI uptake in early images. Only 9 patients showed good response to chemotherapy (necrosis≥90%) while 16 patients were considered as non-responder (necrosis<90%). There was no statistical significant difference between non-responders and responders in (T1/B1)10min.There was a significant negative correlation between WR% and percentage of necrosis (P=0.001). On the other hand, there was a significant correlation between Red% and percentage of necrosis (P<0.001).There was also statistical significant difference in WR% and Red% between non-responders and responders (both P< 0.001). Conclusion: Washout rate of 99mTc-MIBI in pre-chemotherapy scintigraphy as well as Red% using pre- and post-chemotherapy MIBI scintigraphy are useful methods for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, R.; Wells, R. G.; Ross, C. K.; Lockwood, J.; Moore, K.; Harvey, J. T.; Isensee, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99Mo from which technetium-99m (99mTc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99mTc with those obtained using 99mTc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99mTc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99mTc from a standard reactor 99Mo generator. The efficiency of 99Mo-99mTc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99mTc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99mTc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99Mo on a national scale.

  8. Synthesis and biodistribution of neutral lipid-soluble Tc-99m complexes that cross the blood-brain barrier. [Monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Molnar, M.; Billings, J.; Wicks, R.; Blau, M.

    1984-03-01

    Three Tc-99m-labeled neutral 1,2-dithia-5,8-diazacyclodecane (BAT) chelates that are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were prepared and evaluated. Biodistribution (i.v.) in rats showed a significant brain uptake (1-3%/whole brain) at 2 min. At 15 min the uptake dropped to about a tenth of the original level, indicating free passage in both directions across the BBB. Gamma camera images of a monkey confirmed the high initial brain uptake. This group of Tc-99m BAT compounds clearly exhibited in vivo stability and the ability to cross the BBB after an i.v. injection. Derivatives containing tertiary amine groups should have prolonged brain retention and might be suitable for SPECT studies of brain perfusion.

  9. A diagnostic dilemma of atypical gallbladder appearance on Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy resolved with SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Sood, Ravi; Murguia, Jeff; Graham, Michael M; Bushnell, David; Squires, Shayne; Laroia, Sandeep T; Bansal, Anish

    2011-02-01

    Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy is the diagnostic procedure of choice for acute cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis is associated in vast majority of the cases with cystic duct obstruction. The demonstration of presence (cystic duct patency) or absence (cystic duct obstruction) of visualization of the gallbladder on cholescintigraphy is critical to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The visualization of the gallbladder rules out acute cholecystitis in most of the cases. Although, in most cases, determination of visualization or nonvisualization of gallbladder is straight forward, occasionally it can be challenging. We describe a patient with suspected acute cholecystitis, in whom an unusual appearance of the gallbladder on hepatobiliary scintigraphy was clarified with SPECT/CT, an approach that is rarely used in Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy. PMID:21220991

  10. Administered activity optimization in patients studied by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography using pyrophosphate and technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M P; Garcia, J Q; Vicente, F P; Rizo, O D

    2002-04-01

    Equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography is one of the most important fields of work in nuclear cardiology. The in vivo labelled method utilizing 99mTc and red cells labelled with pyrophosphate is one of the most widely used. In the present work determination of the optimum 99mTc activity was studied. A sample of 30 patients was divided into five groups which received various amounts of radioactivity: 303 MBq, 444 MBq, 617 MBq, 803 MBq and 1020 MBq. The image quality of each study was assessed qualitatively and by using a method based on the construction of an image quality discriminant function. The number of counts in regions of interest in the heart, liver, lung and spleen, and the background, were processed as variables. The best results for the selected variables were obtained with 803 MBq. PMID:11930188

  11. Towards (99m)Tc-based imaging agents with effective doxorubicin mimetics: a molecular and cellular study.

    PubMed

    Imstepf, S; Pierroz, V; Raposinho, P; Felber, M; Fox, T; Fernandes, C; Gasser, G; Santos, I R; Alberto, R

    2016-08-16

    Doxorubicin is a clinical benchmark drug, which is applied in the treatment of numerous cancers. Known for its accumulation in the nucleus and ability to intercalate into DNA, it targets quickly dividing i.e. hypermitotic cells. Through this mechanism, it could be an ideal structural motif for a new class of imaging agents, given that the new entity approximates the in vitro profile of the parent drug. Here we describe design, synthesis and biological activity of a small array of Doxorubicin-metalloconjugates (M = (99m)Tc, Re). We demonstrate that the conjugates preferably accumulate in the nuclear compartment, tightly bind to DNA and retain an appreciable cytotoxicity. Moreover, the Re conjugates effectively act as inhibitors of the human Topoisomerase II enzyme, which is the widely accepted mechanism of action of the parent drug. Since the conjugates effectively mimic the in vitro behavior of native Doxorubicin, the (99m)Tc compounds are prospective imaging agents. PMID:27097328

  12. Biokinetics of 99mTc-labeled gold nanoparticles conjugated to mannose for specific sentinel node detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-García, B. E.; Ferro-Flores, G.; de M. Ramírez, F.; De León-Rodríguez, L. M.; Santos-Cuevas, C. L.; Morales-Avila, E.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Pedraza-López, M.; Medina, L. A.; López-Rodríguez, V.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biological behavior in Wistar rats of a multifunctional system of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated to 99mTc-HYNIC-GGC and mannose for sentinel lymph node (SLN) specific detection. The radiolabeled nanoconjugate, characterized by TEM and UV-vis, vibrational, XPS and Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, was administered in rats (footpad) and the radioactivity levels in the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes determined at different times from 30 min to 24 h. Results showed that 21% of the injected radio-AuNP-mannose was retained in the first lymph node (popliteal) during 24 h. 99mTc-HYNIC-GGC-AuNP-Mannose is a potential target-specific tracer for SLN detection in breast cancer patients.

  13. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic manifestations of hyperparathyroidism in a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Jaiman, Ashish; Sethi, Ravinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the first differential diagnosis when a patient presents with asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be as grave as skeletal, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological changes. Skeletal manifestations are relatively common, and patient may present with generalized or focal bone pains, fragility fractures, subperiosteal bone resorption, and osteolytic lesions like brown tumors and salt and pepper appearance of the skull. However, focal osteosclerotic lesions of the skull are rare findings in hyperparathyroidism. Only a few cases of associated osteosclerosis are reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma with coexisting osteolytic and osteosclerotic skull lesions on Tc99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. PMID:26170573

  14. 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Artiko, M V; Sobić-Saranović, P D; Perisić-Savić, S M; Stojković, V M; Radoman, B I; Knezević, S J; Petrović, S N; Obradović, B V; Milović, V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging. With planar red blood cell scintigraphy, sensitivity of the method was 76%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 79%. With SPECT, sensitivity of the method was 95%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 94%. The smallest lesion detected by planar red blood cell scintigraphy was 1.2 cm, and with SPECT red blood cell scintigraphy 0.8 cm. The use of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells SPECT improved the sensitivity much more in smaller lesions (0.8 to 2 cm), than in bigger ones (2-5 cm). SPECT with radiolabeled red blood cells significantlyy improves the results of scintigraphic findings, especially in the small lesions. PMID:19245136

  15. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  16. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scan in diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Barter, S; Phillips, G W; Gibson, R N; Hodgson, H J

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scanning are all useful in diagnosis of patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In a study to determine their comparative value characteristic findings were recorded in all nine patients at ultrasonography and in seven patients at computed tomography. In contrast 99mTc liver scan showed a characteristic pattern in only one of eight patients. In our experience intrahepatic venous abnormalities were seen better at ultrasonography than at computed tomography. In addition, abnormality in the direction of blood flow could be detected by pulsed Doppler examination. Ultrasonography is relatively inexpensive, readily accessible, does not require administration of radiation or contrast agents and therefore should be the primary non-invasive investigation of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, or those at risk of developing it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3552905

  17. Preparation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with high labeling yield in boiling water bath: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A new formulation for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative, (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. Preparation of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was attained previously by a formulation in which vial has to be autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min. It is highly desirable to further improve the preparation method by developing a simplified one vial formulation which will be labeled in boiling water bath (95 °C) for 15 min and a high labeling yield will be achieved. A formulation contained 10 μg of TRODAT-1, 20 μg tricine, 40 μg SnCl2 and 20mg manitol was prepared. Labeling was performed at 95 °C for 15 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24h. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of more than 95% and specific activity of 64.3 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies of this new formulation in rats revealed similar regional brain distribution as compared with those obtained with the previous preparation in which brain uptake was high in striatum and striatum to cerebellum ratio was high. Requiring no autoclave facility for labeling, this new formulation will significantly improve the using feasibility of this radiopharmaceutical in clinic. PMID:24607434

  18. Diffusely discordant In-111 WBC/Tc-99m SC bone marrow uptake: A possible chemotherapeutic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Achong, D.M.; Oates, E.

    1995-07-01

    In-111 WBC scintigraphy in a women with relapsed acute lymphoid leukemia demonstrated normal uptake of white blood cells by the liver and spleen, but virtually absent bone marrow activity. Tc-99m Sc imaging confirmed normal marrow function and distribution. A bone marrow biopsy revealed mildly hypocellular, regenerating marrow without leukemic infiltration. The effects of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy on marrow reticuloendothelial function may have been responsible for this discordant uptake. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  20. Gastrointestinal bleeding: an accessory spleen causing a false-positive Tc-99m-sulfur colloid study

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, S.; Sunaryo, F.P.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Tc-99m-sulfur colloid abdominal scan was performed on a 12-year-old girl to localize the site of gastrointestinal bleeding. The study was normal. When bleeding recurred two weeks later, a repeat study revealed a focal abnormality in the upper abdomen. This was thought to be compatible with a small bleed. However, at surgery an accessory spleen was found, accounting for the abnormal scan.

  1. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  2. Diagnostic Performances of 99mTc-Methoxy Isobutyl Isonitrile Scan in Predicting the Malignancy of Lung Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in differentiating malignant from benign lung lesions. The PubMed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for relevant articles that evaluated lung lesions suspicious for malignancy. Two reviewers independently extracted the data on study characteristics and examination results, and assessed the quality of each selected study. The data extracted from the eligible studies were assessed by heterogeneity and threshold effect tests. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves (SROC) were also calculated. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and DOR of 99mTc-MIBI scan in detecting malignant lung lesions were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 4.22 (95% CI: 2.53, 7.04), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.31), and 25.71 (95% CI: 10.67, 61.96), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.9062. Meta-regression analysis showed that the accuracy estimates were significantly influenced by ethnic groups (P < 0.01), but not by image analysis methods, mean lesion size, or year of publication. Deek funnel plot asymmetry test for the overall analysis did not raise suspicion of publication bias (P = 0.50). Our results indicated that 99mTc-MIBI scan is a promising diagnostic modality in predicting the malignancy of lung lesions. PMID:27149482

  3. Failure of perchlorate to inhibit Tc-99m isonitrile binding by the thyroid during myocardial perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Civelek, A C; Durski, K; Shafique, I; Matsumura, K; Sostre, S; Wagner, H N; Ladenson, P W

    1991-05-01

    The thyroid gland receives an average radiation dose of 3 rads during two Tc-99m isonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion studies, if 20 mCi is administered both at rest and at peak exercise. In patients with coronary artery disease, multiple myocardial perfusion studies may be required, resulting in a high level of thyroid radiation. We attempted to reduce this radiation exposure by blocking thyroidal Tc-99m MIBI uptake with oral potassium perchlorate (KCIO4). Fourteen normal subjects received 0.6g to 0.8g KCIO4 20-25 minutes before tracer injection. Subjects who received KCIO4 at rest (n = 11) did not receive KCIO4 at their stress study, and vice versa (n = 3). Thyroid uptake values were obtained with a thyroid probe 20 minutes after injection for both rest and stress studies and were corrected for saturation effects. There was no difference between fractional thyroid uptake values with and without preceding perchlorate administration: 1.9 +/- 0.5% and 1.8 +/- 0.3% (mean +/- SD), respectively. Failure to block Tc-99m MIBI uptake after intravenous (IV) injection is probably due to high thyroidal blood flow and nonspecific tracer accumulation. The concentration of this radioisotope in adjacent muscles also contributes to the high thyroid radiation dose. In summary, administration of KCIO4 before Tc-99m MIBI studies does not reduce the thyroidal radiation dose or uptake of this tracer, suggesting that thyroidal uptake of this tracer is not mediated by the iodine trapping mechanism. PMID:1647286

  4. Mismatch between iodine-123 IMP and technetium-99m HM-PAO brain perfusion imaging in a patient with meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.

    1987-09-01

    The discrepancy between three methods for cerebral perfusion imagings in the case of a man with meningioma is presented. Imaging with N-isopropyl-P-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) showed no activity in the tumor. Imaging with Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) image with Xe-133 inhalation showed high tumor activity. IMP is a more accurate method for imaging the brain tissue blood flow.

  5. Compartmental analysis of technetium-99m-teboroxime kinetics employing fast dynamic SPECT at rest and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, P.C.; Ficaro, E.P.; Dayaniki, F.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have examined the feasibility of compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in measuring physiological changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. To evaluate the effect of tracer recirculation on {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in the myocardium, they also compared compartmental analysis with washout analysis (monoexponertial fitting), which does not account for this effect. Eight healthy male volunteers were imaged using fast dynamic SPECT protocols (5 sec per tomographic image) at rest and during adenosine infusion. A two-compartment model was used and compartmental parameters K1 and k2 (characterizing the diffusion of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime from the blood to the myocardium and from the myocardium to the blood, respectively) were fitted from myocardial time-activity curves and left ventricular input functions. Both K1 and washout estimates for the whole left ventricular myocardium changed significantly in response to coronary vasodilation. Mean stress-to-rest (S/R) ratios were almost two times higher for K1 (S/R = 2.7 {plus_minus} 1.1) than for washout estimates (S/R = 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3). Estimation of K1 for all local regions, except the septal wall, is feasible because variations in K1 estimates for all local regions, except the septum during stress, are comparable with those for the global region. The authors conclude that quantitative compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics provides a sensitive indicator for changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. 39 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Futility of bone scanning in neonatal osteomyelitis: concise communication. [/sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate or methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one neonates suspected of having acute osteomyelitis were studied by technetium-99m phosphate radiopharmaceuticals. Of the ten infants subsequently proven to have osteomyelitis involving 20 sites in all, only six sites (31.5%) were abnormal by bone imaging. Fifty-eight percent were normal and 10.5% equivocal. These poor results are contrary to the high accuracy rate achieved in slightly older infants; they negate the ability of the bone scan to diagnose neonatal osteomyelitis.

  7. 99mTc-MDP uptake in SPECT/CT by a bladder hernia simulating inguinal metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JI, TIEFENG; GAO, DAPENG; CHEN, BIN; WANG, RENJIE; GAO, SHI

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male with a history of prostate cancer and high prostate specific antigen levels underwent 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), to identify bone metastasis. The patient possessed no previous history of serious illnesses or surgical procedures and no family history of malignancies. A whole-body CT scan revealed an intense MDP uptake in the right inguinal region on the anterior view, but not in the posterior view, which was suspected to be a metastatic lesion. However, there was no evidence of bone metastasis on the CT scan. In addition, an increased 99mTc-MDP uptake was indicated on the SPECT images in the right inguinal region, which appeared to be separate from the main bladder activity. CT images of the pelvis revealed an inferior tongue-like extension of the bladder into the right inguinal region. Fused SPECT/CT axial images indicated the circular accumulation of the 99mTc-MDP in the medial right groin, with well-defined walls that connected the accumulation to the bladder. The final diagnosis was a bladder hernia (T2N0M0), which may have been responsible for the misdiagnosis of bone metastasis due to the use of radiopharmaceuticals (99mTc-MDP) that were mainly excreted through urination. Considering the comprehensive situation of the patient, radical prostatectomy was performed. The bladder hernia was subsequently monitored by follow-up examination every 3 months, and remains alive and under follow-up to date. PMID:26893749

  8. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t/sup 1///sup 2/ for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis.

  9. Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: Technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, C.M.; Dworkin, H.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  10. Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Culver, C M; Dworkin, H J

    1993-07-01

    The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient. PMID:8315504

  11. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  12. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  13. Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

    1987-03-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

  14. Potential Pitfalls on the 99mTc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in a Patient with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maestri Brittain, Jane; Borgwardt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an obliterative cholangiopathy affecting 1:10.000–14.000 of newborns. Infants with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) are a subgroup of BA patients with additional congenital anomalies. Untreated the disease will result in fatal liver failure within the first years of life. Kasai portoenterostomy restores bile flow and delay the progressive liver damage thereby postponing liver transplantation. An early diagnosis is of most importance to ensure the effectiveness of the operation. The 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of the diagnostic strategy when an infant presents jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (>20 µmol/L total bilirubin of which 20% is conjugated) with its high sensitivity of 97%–100% in refuting BA. Rapid extraction of tracer by the liver and no visible tracer in the small bowl after 24 h is indicative of BA. Laparotomy with antegrade cholangiography is then performed giving the final diagnosis when the remains of the obliterated biliary tree are revealed in the case of BA. We present a case demonstrating some of the challenges of interpreting the 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in an infant with BASM and stress the importance that the 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of a spectrum of imaging modalities in diagnosing BA. PMID:26838802

  15. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.

    1989-03-01

    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  16. Effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdülrezzak, Ümmühan; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Silov, Güler; Özdal, Ayşegül; Turhal, Özgül

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m  methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with biopsy-proven advanced NCLC who had no previous history of chemo-radiotherapy, underwent baseline dual phase planar, single photon emission computed tomography and whole body Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy performed at 20 and 120 min. After oral administration of trifluoperazine (5 mg, 2 times a day, for 5 days), dual phase Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy was repeated. For each patient, and for both studies, regions of interest were drawn over the tumor area (T) and over the normal lung area (L) on the contralateral side in transverse slices where tumor was visualized clearly. Then, early and delayed T/L ratios and washout rate (WR) were calculated. Results: Tc-99m MIBI was accumulated in the cancer tissue in all of the patients. Delayed ratio after the oral administration of trifluoperazine (DR2) was significantly higher (P = 0.039) than delayed ratio before trifluoperazine (DR1). We found no significant differences of early ratio before trifluoperazine (ER1) and early ratio after trifluoperazine (ER2), and washout rate before (WR1) and washout rate after trifluoperazine (WR2). Conclusion: In patients with advanced NCLC, trifluoperazine treatment in addition to chemotherapy might be useful. However, our results need to be confirmed in larger series of patients. PMID:27095857

  17. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    O'Morain, C.; Chervu, L.; Milstein, D.M.; Das, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ..mu..Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion.

  18. Optimization of Imaging Parameters for SPECT scans of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 Using Taguchi Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Jay; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 can image dopamine transporters and provide valuable diagnostic information of PD. In this study, we optimized the scanning parameters for [99mTc]TRODAT-1/SPECT using the Taguchi analysis to improve image quality. SPECT scans were performed on forty-five healthy volunteers according to an L9 orthogonal array. Three parameters were considered, including the injection activity, uptake duration, and acquisition time per projection. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated from the striatum/occipital activity ratio as an image quality index. Ten healthy subjects and fifteen PD patients were used to verify the optimal parameters. The estimated optimal parameters were 962 MBq for [99mTc]TRODAT-1 injection, 260 min for uptake duration, and 60 s/projection for data acquisition. The uptake duration and time per projection were the two dominant factors which had an F-value of 18.638 (38%) and 25.933 (53%), respectively. Strong cross interactions existed between the injection activity/uptake duration and injection activity/time per projection. Therefore, under the consideration of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for radiation protection, we can decrease the injection activity to 740 MBq. The image quality remains almost the same for clinical applications. PMID:25790100

  19. Global Xenon-133 Emission Inventory Caused by Medical Isotope Production and Derived from the Worldwide Technetium-99m Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Grosch, Martina; Hebel, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Emissions from medical isotope production are the most important source of background for atmospheric radioxenon measurements, which are an essential part of nuclear explosion monitoring. This article presents a new approach for estimating the global annual radioxenon emission inventory caused by medical isotope production using the amount of Tc-99m applications in hospitals as the basis. Tc-99m is the most commonly used isotope in radiology and dominates the medical isotope production. This paper presents the first estimate of the global production of Tc-99m. Depending on the production and transport scenario, global xenon emissions of 11-45 PBq/year can be derived from the global isotope demand. The lower end of this estimate is in good agreement with other estimations which are making use of reported releases and realistic process simulations. This proves the validity of the complementary assessment method proposed in this paper. It may be of relevance for future emission scenarios and for estimating the contribution to the global source term from countries and operators that do not make sufficient radioxenon release information available. It depends on sound data on medical treatments with radio-pharmaceuticals and on technical information on the production process of the supplier. This might help in understanding the apparent underestimation of the global emission inventory that has been found by atmospheric transport modelling.

  20. Brain energy metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during verbal fluency and role of astrocytes in the cellular mechanism of 99mTc-HMPAO retention.

    PubMed

    Slosman, D O; Ludwig, C; Zerarka, S; Pellerin, L; Chicherio, C; de Ribaupierre, A; Annoni, J M; Bouras, C; Herrmann, F; Michel, J P; Giacobini, E; Magistretti, P J

    2001-10-01

    photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, has been studied in vitro in purified preparations of neurons and astrocytes with the aim of investigating the contribution of different cell types to hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO) retention in vitro. Results show that 99mTc-HMPAO retention predominates in astrocytes over neurons by a factor of approximately 2.5. Diethyl maleate, ethacrynic acid and buthionine sulfoximine, three agents which significantly reduce glutathione levels, also decreased 99mTc-HMPAO retention in both astrocytes and in neurons. Decrease did not always correlate with glutathione levels however, thus suggesting that other factors could be involved. The data presented indicate that astrocytes might constitute a prominent site of 99mTc-HMPAO retention and most likely contribute significantly to the SPECT signal. In addition, they also suggest that specific alterations in glial cell metabolism could explain flow-independent changes in 99mTc-HMPAO retention in the brain as observed by SPECT in certain pathologies (including Alzheimer's disease). In particular, these observations suggest a key role of astrocytes in the signal detected with the imaging procedure, which is altered in the Alzheimer's cohort subjected to the verbal fluency activation task. PMID:11690620