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Sample records for 99m-tc dmsa scintigraphy

  1. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD. PMID:24251309

  2. Renal dysplasia in infants: appearance on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Roach, P J; Paltiel, H J; Perez-Atayde, A; Tello, R J; Davis, R T; Treves, S T

    1995-01-01

    Infantile renal dysplasias, including multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK), are reported rarely to accumulate radiopharmaceuticals on renal scintigraphy. 99mTc DMSA is a highly sensitive tracer for detecting functioning renal cortical tissue and may be more suited to studying renal dysplasia than 99mTc DTPA. We reviewed the ultrasound studies and 99mTc DMSA scintigrams of 42 infants (age range 1-12 months) with known or suspected MCDK. Overall, uptake on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy was evident in 6/41 (15%) dysplastic kidneys. Of the 18 patients who underwent nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed that uptake correlated closely with the presence of mature renal cortical tissue in the affected kidney. Our study shows that a small, but significant number of MCDK will show low-grade uptake on DMSA scintigraphy. This finding may be relevant given the reliance placed on renal scintigraphy in planning treatment for infants with suspected MCDK, particularly with the increasing trend for the non-operative management of this condition. PMID:7491206

  3. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  4. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program. PMID:24569706

  5. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  6. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  7. Follow-up (99m)Tc EC renal dynamic scintigraphy and DMSA-III SPECT/CT in unmasking a masqueraded case of Horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Jain, T K; Basher, R K; Mittal, B R; Bhatia, A; Rao, K L N

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in urinary tract outflow obstruction. Chronically obstructed hydronephrotic system may be associated with parenchymal changes. Ultrasound, intravenous urography, micturating cysto-urethrogram and scintigraphy are commonly performed to evaluate the cause of obstruction. In childhood, pelviureteric junction obstruction is a common cause of the hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis can also be present in horseshoe kidneys due to poor drainage. However, a large sized hydronephrotic cavity may obscure the finding of horseshoe kidney. A case was reported, and it was diagnosed as horseshoe kidney on follow-up renal dynamic scan and confirmed with the help of dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT/CT. PMID:26139030

  8. [Diagnosis of achalasia using 99m-Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Mikosch, P; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Lind, P

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99mTc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99mTc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99mTc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99mTc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. PMID:9395425

  9. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22–86 years). We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26–73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22–86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85). In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  10. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22-86 years).We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with T99mc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26-73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22-86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85).In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  11. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27230842

  12. False Negative (99m)Tc-Hydroxymethane Diphosphonate Three-phase Bone Scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilesomab Scan in Detecting Tibia Osteomyelitis Concomitant with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teik Hin; Lee, Boon Nang

    2014-09-01

    We described a case of 51-year-old female patient presented with a right calf necrotising fasciitis (NF) where osteomyelitis (OM) was suspected. (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate three-phase bone scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan failed to demonstrate classical features of OM. The final diagnosis was only made by isolating Acinetobacter sp. in both intra-operative bone and tissue cultures from below-knee amputation. As conclusions, the detection of lower limb OM by (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan is not easy when there is concurrence overlying NF. The unusual three-phase bone scan finding of pericortical accumulation of tracer as an early sign of OM is highlighted in this case. PMID:25538491

  13. Horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia on 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Sachin; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    The ‘horseshoe kidney’ is the most common renal fusion anomaly. In this disorder, two developed kidneys are connected to each other at the lower part and grow together. We report a case of horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia in 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy. PMID:24761069

  14. Diagnosis of pyogenic pelvic inflammatory diseases by 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Rachinsky, I; Boguslavsky, L; Goldstein, D; Golan, H; Pak, I; Katz, M; Lantsberg, S

    2000-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the major health problems of women of child-bearing age. Among the most serious complications of PID is the formation of a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Early diagnosis of this condition may prevent serious surgical complications such as peritonitis and sepsis, which may be fatal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TOA. Twenty women with high clinical suspicion of TOA underwent 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy. The labelling of leucocytes with 99mTc-HMPAO was performed according to a standard protocol. Scans were obtained at 1, 3 and 24 h following the injection of the labelled leucocytes. In eight cases the early and/or late scan was positive, in 11 cases it was negative, and in one case of ovarian cyst torsion, confirmed by laparoscopy, it showed slight uptake in the capsule of the cyst (false-positive). The sensitivity of 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 100% and overall accuracy 95%. It is concluded that leucocyte scintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, physiological and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of TOA. The 24-h scan is crucial, since in some cases the abscess was not clearly visualized on the early scan. Leucocyte scintigraphy may reduce the need for CT, diagnostic laparoscopy and unnecessary invasive surgical procedures. PMID:11189939

  15. Fortuitous findings of /sup 99m/Tc PIPIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Nusynowitz, M.L.; Hollimon, P.W.

    1982-05-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc labeled radiopharmaceuticals is employed primarily for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and for demonstration of biliary tract potency. This produce may also provide diagnostic information in the identification of unusual or atypical hepatobiliary disorders; frequently, this occurs as an incidental result of the test. Researchers present five cases in which trauma, infection, or obstructive abnormalities were diagnosed fortuitously.

  16. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  17. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Ishikawa, N; Takeda, T; Tanaka, Y; Pan, X Q; Sato, M; Todoroki, T; Hatakeyama, R; Itai, Y

    1995-11-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GAS) was evaluated. 99mTc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, and mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by compute tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6 +/- 2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9 +/- 2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9 +/- 5.2%, p < 0.0001, and 71.9 +/- 7.6%, p < 0.0001, respectively). There was a linear correlation between the hepatic volume ration and various indices of reserve hepatic function, such as LHL15 (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), HH15(r = 0.74, p < 0.0001), and ICG15 (r = 0.75, p < 0.0005). These results indicate that the hepatic volume ratio is proportional to the severity of hepatic dysfunction, and suggest that the functional hepatic volume measured with 99mTc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. PMID:8770291

  18. [Diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy; usefulness of 99mTc MDP scintigraphy and muscle MRI for determination of affected sites].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Saitoh, Y; Yatabe, K; Sueishi, M; Kawai, M

    1999-11-01

    We studied the effectiveness of 99mTc-MDP (methylendiphosphate) scintigraphy in imaging inflammatory myopathy. The three subjects including 1 male and 2 female patients had high creatine kinase (CK) levels and proximal dominant muscle weakness. In whole body muscle surveillance by 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, abnormal 99mTc-MDP accumulation was found in the extremities of all patients. The sites with high 99mTc-MDP accumulation showed high intensity on T2 weighted MR imaging, suggesting an inflammatory process. Muscle biopsy was performed on two patients from the muscles with the abnormal MRI findings, which showed the diagnostic finding of inflammatory changes. Because muscle involvement in inflammatory myopathy differs from muscle to muscle, it is sometimes difficult to choose appropriate muscle biopsy sites for diagnostic purposes. Affected muscles are more easily identified by using 99mTc-MDP muscle scintigraphy and muscle MRI, therefore, a correct diagnosis and choice of biopsy site can be made. 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy is permitted for use in myocardial infarction alone and 111In-antimyosin scintigraphy is not available in Japan. Therefore, we recommend 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy for diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy and for determination of muscle biopsy sites. PMID:10689932

  19. (99m)Tc-HMDP scintigraphy rectifies wrong diagnosis of AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Galat, Arnault; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Colombat, Magali; Attias, David; Itti, Emmanuel; Meignan, Michel; Lebras, Fabien; Molinier-Frenkel, Valérie; Benhaiem, Nicole; Guellich, Aziz; Rosso, Jean; Damy, Thibaud

    2015-08-01

    A 71-year-old African man without history of cardiac disease was referred to our center for dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram and cardiac MRI were suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis (CA). The diagnosis of the light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) was made after a first endomyocardial biopsy. Accordingly chemotherapy was started. Systematic 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy showed moderate cardiac uptake (visual score of 2), unusual for AL-CA, and permitted to rectify the diagnosis. Hereditary transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis was confirmed by a second endomyocardial biopsy with a positive Congo-red and anti-transthyretin antibody stainings, mass spectrometry and genetic analysis (Val122Ile mutation). PMID:26002815

  20. [99mTc-MAA peritoneal scintigraphy in pleuroperitoneal comunication in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martínez, A C; Marín Ferrer, M D; Coronado Poggio, M; Escabias Del Pozo, C; Coya Viña, J; Martín Curto, L

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is a fully-contrasted alternative for the treatment of end-stage renal disease although it is not exempt of complications. Peritonitis and exit-site infections are among the most frequent complications found. Pleural effusion secondary to pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is a serious and uncommon complication in these patients. We present the case of a 50-year old man diagnosed of end-stage renal disease undergoing treatment with peritoneal dialysis who presented progressive dyspnea and right pleural effusion. The peritoneal scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-MAA makes it possible to confirm communication of intraperitoneal dialysis fluid to the pleural cavity. PMID:20117860

  1. [Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renography and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity--I. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1991-04-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renography was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99mTc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27 +/- 0.92 vs 39.84 +/- 2.24%; p less than 0.01), but Ccr did not change (0.37 +/- 0.02 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; NS). On the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th day after single subcutaneous injection of 80 mg of gentamicin, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32 +/- 3.00 vs 38.91 +/- 1.95%; p less than 0.01) and microscopic examinations revealed that eosinophilic granular degenerations were evident in the renal cortex. The present study suggests that 99mTc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99mTc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:1652660

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy in maxillofacial flaps.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Reingard M; Schultes, Guenter; Sorantin, Erich

    2003-02-01

    In oro-maxillofacial malignancies, new therapeutic approaches are placing changing demands on the diverse diagnostic modalities. In contradistinction to mandibular reconstruction of former years, the transplants (microvascular anastomosed pedicled flaps, "flaps") now consist of one or more arteries feeding a soft tissue component attached to a piece of bone suitably fitted to fill the defect. We addressed the diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy in differentiating between viability and non-viability of the soft tissue portion of flaps in the immediate postoperative assessment. A total of 60 patients who had received flaps for reconstruction of the mandible after partial resection were investigated with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin 3-5 days after surgery. Scintigraphy consisted of (a) radionuclide angiography, (b) static planar imaging in four projections starting at 10 min post injection, and (c) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) performed immediately after the planar imaging. Normal perfusion associated with no defects throughout the soft tissue portion of the transplant was observed in 46/60 patients. This scintigraphic pattern was identical to viability and normal postoperative follow-up. Hypoperfusion and small defects on planar and SPET images indicated viability and uncomplicated postoperative healing in 6/60 patients, but non-viability/inadequate healing of the flap in 4/60 patients. Absence of perfusion combined with a large defect on static planar and SPET images definitively showed the non-viability of the flap (4/60 patients). It is concluded that (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the immediate postoperative assessment of the viability and the adequacy of implantation of the soft tissue portion of flaps. Therefore tetrofosmin scintigraphy is an important modality in order (a) to define the optimal therapeutic regimen in the immediate postoperative period and (b) to provide better prognosis. PMID

  3. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia. It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases. PMID:26313771

  4. 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Artiko, M V; Sobić-Saranović, P D; Perisić-Savić, S M; Stojković, V M; Radoman, B I; Knezević, S J; Petrović, S N; Obradović, B V; Milović, V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging. With planar red blood cell scintigraphy, sensitivity of the method was 76%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 79%. With SPECT, sensitivity of the method was 95%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 94%. The smallest lesion detected by planar red blood cell scintigraphy was 1.2 cm, and with SPECT red blood cell scintigraphy 0.8 cm. The use of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells SPECT improved the sensitivity much more in smaller lesions (0.8 to 2 cm), than in bigger ones (2-5 cm). SPECT with radiolabeled red blood cells significantlyy improves the results of scintigraphic findings, especially in the small lesions. PMID:19245136

  5. The role of 99m Tc-RBC scintigraphy in lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Sangeethapriya; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Rockey, Don C

    2016-04-01

    Given the controversy surrounding the use of 99m Tc-RBC scintigraphy (TRBCS) in lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH), we examined how often it was performed and whether it led to specific therapy. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 565 admissions with a primary diagnosis of LGIH. We obtained detailed clinical data on all subjects, focusing in particular on outcomes after TRBCS. 199 TRBCS studies were performed during 166 patient admissions (a patient admission was defined as an incident LGIH episode in a single patient). Of the 166 patient admissions in which TRBCS was performed, the scan was positive in approximately half (84/166; 51%); if TRBCS themselves were considered, they were positive 42% (84/199) of the time. Of the 84 admissions with a positive TRBCS, angiography was performed 54 times. Among this group, angiography revealed bleeding in only 20 patients (11 patients underwent embolization and 9 had hemostatic therapy). Out of 64 patients with a positive TRBCS who underwent colonoscopy, only 3 patients underwent endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Surgery was performed in 20 patients after a positive TRBCS (including in 17/54 patients after angiogram) and hemostasis was achieved in 16. Angiography, surgery and therapeutic colonoscopy were more commonly performed after positive than after a negative TRBCS. Patients who underwent angiography within 4 h of a positive TRBCS were neither more likely to have active bleeding found nor to undergo successful embolization. Not all patients with a positive TRBCS underwent angiography, and an abnormal TRBCS did not appear to predict successful angiographic therapy; further, a positive TRBCS was not predictive of subsequent definitive therapy. Because TRBCS appears to be followed up inconsistently, the data bring into question its routine use in clinical practice, and specifically raise the possibility that it is overused in patients with LGIH. PMID:26956784

  6. Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia: Presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 Scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Min-Woo; Kim, Young Jun; Sun, In O

    2015-10-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which both kidneys are located on the same side of the body. The present case describes a 20-year-old man who underwent the military entrance physical examination. The ultrasound showed the right kidney in normal site with slightly increased size, but the left kidney was not identified. Tc-MAG3 scan showed a single kidney with 2 ureters, and the orifices of the ureters were connected at both sides of bladder. Tc-DMSA SPECT and contrast-enhanced multidetector CT were performed and revealed crossed fused renal ectopia. PMID:26252333

  7. The Role of 99mTc-Annexin V Apoptosis Scintigraphy in Visualizing Early Stage Glucocorticoid-Induced Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Rui; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To validate the ability of 99mTc-Annexin V to visualize early stage of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis by comparing with 99mTc-MDP bone scanning. Methods. Femoral head necrosis was induced in adult New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone. 99mTc-Annexin scintigraphy and 99mTc-MDP scans were performed before and 5, 6, and 8 weeks after methylprednisolone administration. Rabbits were sacrificed at various time points and conducted for TUNEL and H&E staining. Results. All methylprednisolone treated animals developed femoral head necrosis; at 8 weeks postinjection, destruction of bone structure was evident in H&E staining, and apoptosis was confirmed by the TUNEL assay. This was matched by 99mTc-Annexin V images, which showed a significant increase in signal over baseline. Serial 99mTc-Annexin V scans revealed that increased 99mTc-Annexin V uptake could be observed in 5 weeks. In contrast, there was no effect on 99mTc-MDP signal until 8 weeks. The TUNEL assay revealed that bone cell apoptosis occurred at 5 weeks. Conclusion. 99mTc-Annexin V is superior to 99mTc-MDP for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in the rabbit and may be a better strategy for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in patients. PMID:26989689

  8. Potential Pitfalls on the 99mTc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in a Patient with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maestri Brittain, Jane; Borgwardt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an obliterative cholangiopathy affecting 1:10.000–14.000 of newborns. Infants with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) are a subgroup of BA patients with additional congenital anomalies. Untreated the disease will result in fatal liver failure within the first years of life. Kasai portoenterostomy restores bile flow and delay the progressive liver damage thereby postponing liver transplantation. An early diagnosis is of most importance to ensure the effectiveness of the operation. The 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of the diagnostic strategy when an infant presents jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (>20 µmol/L total bilirubin of which 20% is conjugated) with its high sensitivity of 97%–100% in refuting BA. Rapid extraction of tracer by the liver and no visible tracer in the small bowl after 24 h is indicative of BA. Laparotomy with antegrade cholangiography is then performed giving the final diagnosis when the remains of the obliterated biliary tree are revealed in the case of BA. We present a case demonstrating some of the challenges of interpreting the 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in an infant with BASM and stress the importance that the 99mTc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of a spectrum of imaging modalities in diagnosing BA. PMID:26838802

  9. Significance of 99mTc-Sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J.; Ashikaga, Kohei; Takano, Makoto; Izumo, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yuki; Kida, Keisuke; Yoneyama, Kihei; Suzuki, Kengo; Miyake, Fumihiko; Banach, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study was designed to clarify the significance of washout rate (WR) determined from 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphic images and the levels of cardiac enzymes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Material/Methods A total of 56 consecutive patients with AMI (mean age 65.8±8.5 years), who underwent PCI on admission, were included. Cardiac enzyme, the MB isoenzyme of creatinine kinase (CK-MB), was measured every 3 h after admission. Two weeks after the onset of AMI, 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy was performed at early (30 min) and delayed (4 h) phases after tracer injection. The heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and WR were calculated from the planar images. Results PCI was performed at 9.4±6.0 h after the onset of AMI. In 26 patients the culprit lesion was located in the right coronary artery and in 24 patients it was located in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The peak CK-MB was 274.1±169.4 IU/L (13.5±3.9 h). The early and delayed H/Ms and WR of 99mTc-sestamibi were 2.74±0.58, 3.00±0.70, and 58.8±10.0%, respectively. The delayed H/M was significantly correlated with the peak CK-MB (r=−0.37, p=0.005). The WR of 99mTc-sestamibi was also significantly correlated with the peak CK-MB (r=−0.34, p=0.012). Conclusions These results suggest that the WR determined from 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial scintigraphic images reflects the extent of myocardial damage in AMI patients. PMID:21358600

  10. Use of 99mTc-doxorubicin scintigraphy in females with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F I; Proença, F P P; Ferreira, C G; Ventilari, S C; Rosado de Castro, P H; Moreira, R D; Fonseca, L M B; Gutfilen, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Doxorubicin (Eurofarma, São Paulo, Brazil) is an antitumour agent widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and can be used for tumour tracking when labelled with a radionuclide. Here, we present the results obtained with technetium-99m (99mTc)-doxorubicin, using the direct method, to evaluate its uptake in breast cancer. Methods: Four females with confirmed breast carcinoma diagnosis and breast image reporting and data system Category 5 on mammography underwent whole-body and thorax single-photon emission CT/CT imaging 1 and 3 h after 99mTc-doxorubicin administration. Results: We observed increased uptake in breast carcinoma lesions and elimination via renal and hepatic pathways. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-doxorubicin may be a promising radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of patients with breast cancer. Further studies are ongoing. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of a directly labelled doxorubicin tracer in humans. 99mTc-doxorubicin could provide information on the response of tumours to doxorubicin. PMID:26111270

  11. Potential Usefulness of 99mTc-DMSA for Radio-Guided Surgery in Pediatric Renal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Demetrio; Di Franco, Davide; Cacciaguerra, Sebastiano; Ruggeri, Antonella; Russo, Simona; Fornito, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of an ectopic/hypoplastic kidney removed by radio-guided surgery. A 7-year-old girl, with a history of vaginal drainage of urine, underwent renal scintigraphy with Tc-DMSA. SPECT/CT revealed a focal uptake in the pelvis, corresponding to hypoplastic kidney as confirmed by MRI. Based on SPECT/CT findings, the patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, using Tc-DMSA scan to help the surgeon to detect the small ectopic kidney. Intraoperatory histological report confirmed the renal origin of the specimen. PMID:26462041

  12. Is 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy a predictor of response to pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Osteosarcoma?

    PubMed Central

    Gharehdaghi, Mohammad; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Khooei, Alireza; Novferesti, Gholamhosein; Hootkani, Alireza; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Multidrug resistance (MDR), which may be due to the over expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and/or MRP, is a major problem in neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tc-99m MIBI scan for predicting the response to pre-operative chemotherapy. Methods: Twenty-five patients (12 males and 13 females, aged between 8 and 52y) with osteosarcoma were studied. Before the chemotherapy, planar 99mTc-MIBI anterior and posterior images were obtained 10-min [tumor-to-background ratio: (T1/B1)10min] and 3-hr after tracer injection. After completion of chemotherapy, again 99mTc-MIBI scan was performed at 10-min after tracer injection. In addition to calculation of decay corrected tumor to background (T/B) ratios, using the 10-min and 3-hr images of the pre-chemotherapy scintigraphy, percent wash-out rate (WR%) of 99mTc-MIBI was calculated. Using the 10-min images of the pre- and post-chemotherapy scans, the percent reduction in uptake at the tumor site after treatment (Red%) was also calculated. Then after surgical resection, tumor response was assessed by percentage of necrosis. Results: All patients showed significant 99mTc-MIBI uptake in early images. Only 9 patients showed good response to chemotherapy (necrosis≥90%) while 16 patients were considered as non-responder (necrosis<90%). There was no statistical significant difference between non-responders and responders in (T1/B1)10min.There was a significant negative correlation between WR% and percentage of necrosis (P=0.001). On the other hand, there was a significant correlation between Red% and percentage of necrosis (P<0.001).There was also statistical significant difference in WR% and Red% between non-responders and responders (both P< 0.001). Conclusion: Washout rate of 99mTc-MIBI in pre-chemotherapy scintigraphy as well as Red% using pre- and post-chemotherapy MIBI scintigraphy are useful methods for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Utility of (99m)Tc RBC Scintigraphy in Diagnosing Parotid Venous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rosan; Saad, Hannan; Srinivasan, Ashok; Brown, Richard K J

    2015-07-01

    Venous malformations of the parotid glands are uncommon and can be difficult to confirm on routine anatomical imaging alone because of overlap of imaging features with other more common parotid lesions. (99m)Tc RBC scans combined with SPECT/CT offer a noninvasive way to diagnose parotid venous malformations without the need for biopsy. Combined with anatomical findings of phleboliths (when present), the diagnosis can be reliably determined. We present a case where MRI and biopsy were inconclusive, but the SPECT/CT was used to confirm the suspicion of a benign venous malformation. PMID:26018710

  14. 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. Two of three hepatomas had increased blood-pool activity associated with increased flow in a pattern identical to the increased blood-pool activity. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that 99mTc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  15. /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  16. [A new method for quantification of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Lima, J M P; Lima, J J P; Isidoro, J; Lapa, P

    2003-01-01

    A method based upon the application of mathematical techniques of deconvolution on the classical compartmental model for the quantitative study of liver function from hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin data is proposed. The theory in which the method is based upon is presented and a comparison with a published methodology of obtaining the hepatic extraction after scintigraphic sudies has been performed using the results on 36 rats studies obtained with the two methods. A highly significant correlation between the two techniques was verified. The characteristics of the two methodologies, the proposed one based upon a theoretical approach and the other one on an empirical approximation are discussed. Comments are made on the interest and limitations of the presented technique that may be an useful tool for the evaluation of hepatic insufficiency. PMID:12846949

  17. Thyroid Remnant Estimation by Diagnostic Dose 131I Scintigraphy or 99mTcO4− Scintigraphy after Thyroidectomy: A Comparison with Therapeutic Dose 131I Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this clinical study, we have compared routine diagnostic dose 131I scan and 99mTcO4− thyroid scintigraphy with therapeutic dose 131I imaging for accurate thyroid remnant estimation after total thyroidectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subsequently receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment to ablate remnant thyroid tissue. All patients had therapeutic dose RAI whole body scan, which was compared with that of diagnostic dose RAI, 99mTcO4− thyroid scan, and ultrasound examination. We concluded that therapeutic dose RAI scan reveals some extent thyroid remnant in all DTC patients following total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic RAI scan is much superior to ultrasound and 99mTcO4− thyroid scan for the postoperative estimation of thyroid remnant. Ultrasound and 99mTcO4− thyroid scan provide little information for thyroid remnant estimation and, therefore, would not replace diagnostic RAI scan. PMID:27034938

  18. Detection of Superior Vena Cava Obstruction on Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA Renal Transplant Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Hashemifard, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    We present an asymptomatic patient with a history of prolonged hemodialysis through a right internal jugular vein catheter who was diagnosed with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction on 99mTechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal transplant scintigraphy. During the angiographic phase, an unusual vascular filling pattern was detected on the anterior view of the abdomen. Angioscintigraphic imaging of the chest wall was suggestive of SVC obstruction. The SVC obstruction in our patient was related to the long-term use of an indwelling catheter in the central venous system, which is a well-known complication of such a procedure. There is also evidence of a hypercoagulable state in dialyzed uremic cases; therefore, our patient may have been more susceptible to an SVC thrombosis. Acquired compensatory dilatation of the azygos vein is rather a rare finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an asymptomatic patient with SVC obstruction who was diagnosed by renal scintigraphy. PMID:27299287

  19. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-08-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing.

  20. 99mTc-MAA Pulmonary Scintigraphy in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Yuan, Leilei; Ma, Daqing; Yang, Jigang

    2016-08-01

    A 5-year-old boy was admitted due to shortness of breath. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia. However, thoracic and abdominal CT, brain MRI, and MR angiography were all normal. A Tc-MAA pulmonary scintigraphy revealed right-to-left shunting of the blood. Further genetic analysis showed the mutations in the activin receptor-like kinase 1 gene, and a diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was made. PMID:27163461

  1. Comparison of bone scintigraphy and radiography in multiple myeloma. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Pitt, M.J.; Durie, B.G.M.; Moon, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    Radionuclide images and skeletal radiographs of 51 patients with multiple myeloma were compared to assess the sensitivity of scintigraphy in detecting radiographically evident disease. Comparable studies were available for 562 sites. The radionuclide image was relatively insensitive in detecting myeloma; it failed to show radiographically evident disease or underestimated its extent at 27% of the sites. On a limited number of serial images there were 7 sites at which a scintigraphic abnormality preceded the radiographic abnormality. No definite correlation was found between scintigraphic findings and hematologic parameters of myeloma activity. Although the radionuclide image may demonstrate a few sites of myeloma before the radiograph, radiography remains the primary method of evaluating skeletal involvement by myeloma.

  2. Liver Trapping of (99m)Tc Macroaggregated Albumin During Ventilation/Perfusion Scintigraphy in a Patient With Superior Vena Cava Stenosis as Demonstrated by SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Etienne; Leclerc, Yves; Prévost, Sylvain; Keu, Khun Visith

    2015-07-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 1-day history of right posterior thoracic pain and dyspnea. She had a previous history of conservative resection of a high-grade basal-like infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast 2 years before, subsequently treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A ventilation and perfusion (VQ) scintigraphy performed for suspected pulmonary embolism showed an abnormal deposition of (99m)Tc macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) in the left lobe of the liver. This unusual finding prompted additional imaging that demonstrated a superior vena cava stenosis. PMID:26018706

  3. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  4. Parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 99mTc sestamibi SPECT and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Eslamy, Hedieh K; Ziessman, Harvey A

    2008-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based largely on serum laboratory test results, as patients often are asymptomatic. Surgery, often with bilateral exploration of the neck, has been considered the definitive treatment for symptomatic disease. However, given that approximately 90% of cases are due to a single parathyroid adenoma, a better treatment may be the selective surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland after its preoperative identification and localization at radiologic imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasonography are the imaging modalities most often used for preoperative localization. Various scintigraphic protocols may be used in the clinical setting: Single-phase dual-isotope subtraction imaging, dual-phase single-isotope imaging, or a combination of the two may be used to obtain planar or tomographic views. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the use of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) sestamibi as the radiotracer, especially when combined with x-ray-based computed tomography (CT), is particularly helpful for preoperative localization: The three-dimensional functional information from SPECT is fused with the anatomic information obtained from CT. In addition, knowledge of the anatomy and embryologic development of the parathyroid glands and the pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism aid in the identification and localization of hyperfunctioning glands. PMID:18794320

  5. The effect of MRI contrast agents on hepatic and splenic uptake in the rabbit during (99m) Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Tang, Yuhui; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Cai, Liang; Wan, Qiang; Feng, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Omniscan® and Magnevist® on (99m) Tc-MDP uptake in rabbits during (99m) Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. In Experiment Group 1, 30 healthy adult rabbits were randomized into six subgroups (n = 5); each subgroup experienced a different time interval between injections (30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, 360 min, 24 h). All six subgroups were injected first with Omniscan®, then with (99m) Tc-MDP. After 7 days, the same six subgroups were injected with normal saline followed by (99m) Tc-MDP at the same time intervals. In Experiment Group 2, 20 healthy adult rabbits were allocated randomly to four subgroups (n = 5); each subgroup experienced a different time interval between injections (30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min). All four subgroups were injected first with Magnevist®, then with (99m) Tc-MDP. After 7 days, the same four subgroups were injected with normal saline followed by (99m) Tc-MDP. In all experiments, whole-body skeletal imaging was performed. Liver, spleen, and background were delineated to determine the target-to-background (T/B) ratio. Diffusely increased intake of the imaging agent was seen in the liver and spleen when the injection-time interval between Omniscan® and (99m) Tc-MDP varied from 30 min to 240 min and when the time interval between Magnevist® and (99m) Tc-MDP was 30 min-60 min. The imaging findings are consistent with the results of L/B and S/B ratios in each experiment group. Both Omniscan® and Magnevist® have an effect on (99m) Tc-MDP uptake during bone scanning; the main effect is diffusely increased hepatic and splenic activity. PMID:26036779

  6. Soft-tissue uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate and 99mTc-pyrophosphate in amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Piers, D A; van Rijswijk, M H; Meijer, S; Mandema, E

    1990-01-01

    This study describes the results of scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled methylene-diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) as a noninvasive test for the distribution of organ involvement in five different types of amyloidosis. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled phosphates appeared to be a sensitive noninvasive screening test for the extent and the distribution of organ involvement in systemic AA and systemic AL amyloidosis as well as in local bronchial amyloid, local dermal amyloid, and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Echocardiography, however, was more sensitive for demonstrating cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis than 99mTc-MDP or 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy. 99mTc-MDP images showed a better contrast than 99mTc-PYP images, although there was no difference in the extent or the intensity of soft-tissue uptake. PMID:2166666

  7. 99mTc-Pyrophosphate scintigraphy for differentiating light-chain cardiac amyloidosis from the transthyretin-related familial and senile cardiac amyloidoses

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Sabahat; Castaño, Adam; Pozniakoff, Ted; Deslisle, Susan; Latif, Farhana; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differentiating immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) from transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidoses (ATTR) is imperative given implications for prognosis, therapy, and genetic counseling. We validated the discriminatory ability of 99mTc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy (99mTc-PYP) in AL vs. TTR-related cardiac amyloidoses. Methods and Results 45 subjects (12 AL, 16 ATTR wild-type, and 17 ATTR mutants) underwent 99mTc-PYP planar and single-photon positive emission computed tomography (SPECT) cardiac imaging. Scans were performed by experienced nuclear cardiologists blinded to the subjects’ cohort assignment. Cardiac retention was assessed with both a semi-quantitative visual score (range 0, no uptake to 3, diffuse uptake) and by quantitative analysis by drawing a region of interest (ROI) over the heart corrected for contralateral counts and calculating a heart-to-contralateral ratio (H/CL). Subjects with ATTR cardiac amyloid had a significantly higher semi-quantitative cardiac visual score than the AL cohort (2.9±0.06 vs. 0.8±0.27, p<0.0001) as well as a higher quantitative score (1.80±0.04 vs.1.21±0.04, p<0.0001). Using aH/CL ratio ≥ 1.5 consistent with intensely diffuse myocardial tracer retention had a 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity with area under the curve 0.992, p<0.0001 for identifying ATTR cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion 99mTc-PYP cardiac imaging distinguishes AL from ATTR cardiac amyloidosis and may be a simple, widely available method for identifying subjects with ATTR cardiac amyloidosis which should be studied in a larger prospective manner. PMID:23400849

  8. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental models are essential tools in the development and evaluation of novel treatment options, but the preclinical model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is limited to the retrieval of (very) early functional data, leaving the pivotal long-term outcome unknown. The present study applies technetium-99m-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine [99mTc-MAG3] scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up examination of long-term kidney function after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Unilateral warm ischemia was induced in scid beige mice by vascular clamping of the kidney hilum for 40 min. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy was performed prior to injury, 8 and 14 days post ischemia. The fractional uptake rate [FUR] was calculated from scintigraphy data as a measure of renal clearance. Results FUR demonstrated a significant functional impairment of the ischemic kidney 8 and 14 days after injury (P < 0.05 vs. baseline), while contralateral non-ischemic kidneys showed no significant changes. In histological analysis, ischemic kidneys exhibited tubular dilatation and cytoplasmic degeneration as signs of hypoxia without any evidence for necrosis. Conclusions FUR enables the detection of renal dysfunction and longitudinal long-term follow-up examination in the same individual. Our model may facilitate preclinical therapy evaluation for the identification of effective renoprotective therapies. PMID:22264389

  9. [Diagnostic utility of 111In-antimyosin Fab scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction: comparison with 201Tl and 99mTc-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Naruse, H; Yamamoto, J; Itano, M; Kawamoto, H; Fukutake, N; Ohyanagi, M; Iwasaki, T; Fukuchi, M

    1991-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy, extent, and characteristics of 111In-antimyosin Fab scintigraphy (In-AM) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we studied In-AM in 17 patients with AMI and compared with In-AM, 99mTc-PYP and 201Tl scintigraphy. Intensity of In-AM uptake was classified into 3 grades. Fourteen of 17 patients (82%) showed positive uptake of In-AM. The locations of infarct area diagnosed by In-AM were in accordance with those by electrocardiography. There was a good correlation between the extent score of In-AM planar and that of SPECT (r = 0.72), In-AM SPECT and Tl SPECT (r = 0.79), In-AM planar and PYP planar (r = 0.92), In-AM SPECT and PYP SPECT (r = 0.76), respectively (p less than 0.01). Thus, In-AM is a useful method for diagnosis of AMI. PMID:1838398

  10. Renoprotective effect of erdosteine in rats against gentamicin nephrotoxicity: a comparison of 99mTc-DMSA uptake with biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Cabuk, Mehmet; Gurel, Ahmet; Sen, Feyza; Demircan, Nejat

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a mucolytic agent having antioxidant properties through its active metabolites in acute injuries induced by pharmacological drugs. This study was designed to investigate the renoprotective potential of Erdosteine against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal dysfunction by using Technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99 m DMSA) uptake and scintigraphy in rats. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: Control, Erdosteine, GM, and GM + Erdosteine groups. GM and GM + Erdosteine groups received 100 mg/kg GM intramuscularly for 6 days. In addition, Erdosteine and GM + Erdosteine groups received 50 mg/kg Erdosteine orally for 6 days. Renal function tests were assessed by serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, as well as scintigraphic and tissue radioactivity measurements with Tc-99 m DMSA. Renal oxidative damage was determined by renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, by antioxidant enzyme activities; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and activities of oxidant enzymes; xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). GM administration resulted in marked renal lipid peroxidation, increased XO and MPO activities and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. GM + Erdosteine group significantly had lower MDA levels, higher SOD and CAT activities and lower XO and MPO activities, when compared to GM. Also GM + Erdosteine had lower levels of serum BUN, creatinine and higher renal tissue Tc-99 m DMSA uptake and radioactivity with respect to GM. In conclusion, our results supported a protective role of Erdosteine in nephrotoxicity associated with GM treatment. PMID:17899318

  11. Gallbladder Activity on 99mTc-Labeled Red Cell Scintigraphy Confirmed by SPECT/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Jing, Hongli; Chen, Libo; Wang, Zhenghua; Li, Fang

    2016-09-01

    Tc-labeled red cell (Tc-RBC) scintigraphy is commonly used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding. Gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy is not common. We present a case of gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy confirmed by SPECT/CT imaging in a patient with chronic renal failure and anemia. PMID:27405034

  12. Clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia diagnosed with adenosine stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Kodama, Naotoshi; Terada, Kensuke; Urakabe, Yota; Nishikawa, Susumu; Keira, Natsuya; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) often complicates patients with cerebral infarction and that stroke patients often die of ischemic heart disease. Therefore, it is considered important to treat myocardial ischemia in stroke patients. This study investigated SMI complicating Japanese patients with fresh stroke, using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with pharmacologic stress testing to elucidate their clinical manifestations. This study included 41 patients (26 men, mean age 76.0 ± 10.7 years) with acute cerebral infarction and no history of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous administration of adenosine to diagnose SMI. Of the 41 patients, myocardial ischemia was confirmed in 17 patients (41.5%). Atherosclerotic etiology was the major cause of stroke in the ischemia(+) group and embolic origin was the major cause in the ischemia(-) group. Patients with myocardial ischemia had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs 20.8%; P = 0.0323) and more than two conventional cardiovascular risk factors (64.7 vs 25.0%; P = 0.0110) compared with the nonischemic patients. Infarction subtype of atherosclerotic origin was an independent positive predictor of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with stroke. These findings indicate that the prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia is relatively high, especially in patients with stroke of atherosclerotic origin. Therefore, it is beneficial for us to narrow the target population who are at the highest risk when screening for SMI in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:22124530

  13. Reinforcing the Ability of 99mTcO4 Scintigraphy for Identifying Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by TSH Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Although radioiodines are widely used to localize metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), TcO4 also can be used because it is a substrate for the sodium-iodide symporter protein. The use of TcO4 has advantages over radioiodine, namely, easy availability, dispensability of iodine restriction, and early imaging time. However, its low sensitivity precludes its practical application. Scintigraphic detectability of DTC using sodium-iodide symporter substrates is related to the serum TSH levels. Here, I report a case with multiple metastatic lesions of DTC that were detected upon TSH-stimulated TcO4 scintigraphy, but not with non-TSH-stimulated scintigraphy using the same tracer. PMID:27405037

  14. Differential diagnosis between secondary hyperparathyroidism and aluminum intoxication in uremic patients: Usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnaert, P.; Van Hooff, I.; Schoutens, A.; Bergmann, P.; Fuss, M.; Dratwa, M.; Vienne, A.; Pasteels, J.L.; van Geertruyden, J.; Vanherweghem, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    Forty-one patients in chronic end-stage renal failure and 4 patients with a functioning kidney transplant presented with spontaneous hypercalcemia or intolerance to vitamin D3 sterols and/or oral calcium supplements. Bone iliac crest biopsy with aluminum staining and Tc-pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy with determination of Fogelman score were performed in all cases. Two patients had aluminum-induced osteomalacia (AL O). Thirty-eight biopsies showed renal osteodystrophy (secondary hyperparathyroidism or various combinations of osteitis fibrosa and osteomalacia): 19 with positive staining for aluminum (RO + AL) and 19 without aluminum deposits (RO). The series also comprised 2 cases of pure osteomalacia (OM), 2 cases of osteoporosis (OP), and 1 case of osteoporosis with aluminum accumulation (OP + AL). Mean Fogelman score in RO patients (9.1 +/- 0.3) was significantly higher than in all other categories (5.9 +/- 0.5 for RO + AL, and scores ranging from 0 to 8 in the last 7 patients, p less than 0.01). Patients with massive aluminum accumulation in bone (greater than 75% of the total trabecular surface) showed no or very low uptake of the isotope by the skeleton. Fogelman scores of 9 or higher were always associated with histological secondary hyperparathyroidism. /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy is helpful to distinguish aluminum intoxication from secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients.

  15. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy to assess the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Menin, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Petersen, R.P.; Maier, W.P.; Fisher, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six (36) patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux were studied. Symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia were scored as to their severity and compared to quantitative tests of gastroesophageal reflux. Patients were studied with the acid reflux test, fiberoptic endoscopy, exophageal mucosal biopsy with a pinch forceps, esophageal manometry, and radioisotopic gastroesophgeal scintigraphy. Symptoms were scored according to an arbitrary grading system as mild, moderate, or severe. There were significant correlations between symptoms scores and both the degree of endoscopic esophagitis and the gastroesophageal reflux indices as measured by the radioisotopic scintiscan, but not with the degree of histologic esophagitis or lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Review of the findings suggest the following profile for patients who might require antireflux surgery: severe symptoms; presence of endoscopic esophagitis; resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure below 10 mmHg; and gastroesophageal reflux index above 10%.

  16. Use of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy to study the protective effect of a synthetic enzyme inhibitor on acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Song, B J; Seidel, J; Soh, Y; Jeong, K S; Kim, I S; Kobayashi, H; Green, M V; Carrasquillo, J A; Paik, C H

    1998-08-01

    Recent data suggest that inhibitors of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) can protect the liver from injury caused by various substrates of CYP2E1. In this study, we measured the protective effect of isopropyl-2-(1,3-dithioetane-2-ylidene)-2[N-(4-methylthiazol -2-yl)-carbamoyl]acetate (YH439), a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity by using various conventional methods and dynamic scintigraphy with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin, a recently developed scintigraphic agent. Balb/c mice were pretreated with two doses of YH439 (50 or 150 mg/kg per day) at 48 h and 24 h and one dose of CCl4 (0.25 mL/kg) at 18 h before scintigraphy. The results were compared with those of two other groups, one that received CCl4 but not YH439, and the other that received neither (control). Scintigraphic images were acquired continuously at 15-sec intervals for 30 min. Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as peak liver/heart ratio (r(max)), peak liver uptake time (t(max)), and hepatic half-clearance time (HCT), were obtained from time-activity curves derived from regions-of-interest (ROI) over the liver and the heart. Acute administration of CCl4 alone caused centrilobular necrosis and serum transaminase levels to rise more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. Pharmacokinetic parameters also changed significantly from those of the control group. Administration of YH439 prevented centrilobular necrosis and significantly improved pharmacokinetic parameters. This study demonstrates for the first time that hepatobiliary scintigraphy can be used to study in vivo biochemistry of the CYP2E1 inhibitor (YH439) against liver toxicity. PMID:9751424

  17. Assessment of Liver Function Using 99mTc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in ALPPS (Associating Liver Partition and Portal Vein Ligation for Staged Hepatectomy)

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Kasia P.; Olthof, Pim B.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Besselink, Marc G.; Busch, Olivier R.C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Bennink, Roelof J.

    2015-01-01

    ALPPS (associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy) is a new surgical technique for patients in whom conventional treatment is not feasible due to insufficient future remnant liver (FRL). During the first stage of ALPPS, accelerated hypertrophy of the FRL is induced by ligation of the portal vein and in situ split of the liver. In the second stage, the deportalized liver is removed when the FRL volume has reached ≥25% of total liver volume. However, FRL volume does not necessarily reflect FRL function. 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) with SPECT-CT is a quantitative test enabling regional assessment of parenchymal uptake function using a validated cut-off value for the prediction of postoperative liver failure (2.7%/min/m2). This paper describes the changes in FRL function and FRL volume in a 79-year-old patient diagnosed with metachronous colonic liver metastases who underwent ALPPS. We have observed a substantial difference between the increase in FRL volume and FRL function suggesting that HBS with SPECT-CT enables monitoring of the FRL function and could be a useful tool in the timing of resection in the second stage of the ALPPS procedure. PMID:26675783

  18. Pharmacokinetics of the phosphatidylserine tracers 99mTc-lactadherin and 99mTc-annexin V in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid normally located in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. PS is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during the early stages of apoptosis and in necrosis. In cell and animal studies, reversible PS externalisation to the outer membrane leaflet has been observed in viable cells. Hence, PS markers have been proposed as markers of both reversibly and irreversibly damaged cells. The purpose of this experimental study in pigs was to investigate the kinetics of the newly introduced PS marker technetium-99m-labelled lactadherin (99mTc-lactadherin) in comparison with the well-known PS tracer 99mTc-annexin V with special reference to the renal handling of the tracers. The effective dose for humans was estimated from the biodistribution in 24 mice. Methods Nine anaesthetised pigs randomly allocated into two treatment groups were administered a single injection of either 99mTc-lactadherin or 99mTc-annexin V. Renal perfusion was assessed by simultaneous injection of 51Cr-EDTA. Throughout the examinations, planar, dynamic scintigraphy of the trunk was performed, urine was collected and arterial and renal vein blood was sampled. The effective dose was estimated using the adult male phantom from the RADAR website. Results 99mTc-lactadherin was cleared four times faster from plasma than 99mTc-annexin V, 57 ± 13 ml/min (mean ± SD) versus 14 ± 2 ml/min. 99mTc-lactadherin had a predominant uptake in the liver, whereas 99mTc-annexin V was primarily taken up by the kidneys. The estimated effective human dose after single injection of 99mTc-lactadherin and 99mTc-annexin V was 5.8 and 11 μSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusions The high hepatic uptake of 99mTc-lactadherin compromises the use of 99mTc-lactadherin for imaging PS externalisation in the liver. Due to scatter from the liver, the use of in vivo visualisation of PS externalisation in the lower thorax and upper abdomen by 99mTc

  19. Tissular distributions and kinetics of two renal 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in rat.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, F; Petiet, A; Petegnief, Y; Colas-Linhart, N; Bok, B

    2001-05-01

    A digital radioimager (RI), conventional radioautography (RA), and tracks microradioautography (MRA) were used to assess the biodistributions and kinetics of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic (99mTc-DMSA) and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) in rat at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Three groups of male Wistar rats were studied. Using gamma-counting, kidney, liver, spleen and blood kinetics of both tracers were assessed in the three groups. Using RA and RI, renal slices were analyzed in group 1 the animals being sacrified from 2 to 60 min after injection of 99mTc-MAG3, and in group 2 the animals being sacrificed from 0.5 to 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA. Using MRA, renal slices were analyzed for 99mTc-DMSA (group 3). RA films and RI images displayed the variation with time of the cortical and medullary uptakes of the tracers. No regional heterogeneity within the different structures could be seen neither with RA films nor with MRA. The remaining activity in the blood 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA was evaluated. The tissular distributions of both tracer being homogenous, mean values of cortical uptake seems to be acceptable for dosimetric studies. Our results incite to use of 99mTc-MAG3 instead of 99mTc-DMSA when both tracers may be indicated. PMID:11441950

  20. (99m)Tc-labeled therapeutic inhaled amikacin loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M; Olivier, Kenneth N; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R; Paik, Chang H

    2013-12-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e. an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with (99m)Tc, nebulization properties of (99m)Tc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation ((99m)Tc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low-pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with (99m)Tc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified (99m)Tc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4 °C to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified (99m)Tc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of (99m)Tc-LAI, indicating that (99m)Tc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl₂ in 0.91 mM ascorbic acid produced (99m)Tc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  1. 99mTc-labeled Therapeutic Inhaled Amikacin Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T.; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R.; Paik, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e., an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with 99mTc, nebulization properties of 99mTc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation (99mTc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with 99mTc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified 99mTc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4oC to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified 99mTc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of 99mTc-LAI, indicating that 99mTc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl2 in 0.91mM ascorbic acid produced 99mTc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  2. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  3. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  4. Potential pitfall of DMSA scintigraphy in patients with ureteral duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Snow, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    A 5-wk-old male presented with radiographic findings of a duplicated collecting system. A (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scan was requested to evaluate cortical function. Images obtained immediately. postinjection showed activity restricted to the upper poles; in contrast, delayed images at 4 hr showed activity in the bladder and throughout both kidneys. Catheterizing the patient drained the activity from the bladder but had little effect on the refluxed renal activity. The early (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA images were critical in making the proper interpretation. Technetium-99m DMSA is excreted into the urine and this fact needs to be considered when interpreting scans of patients with possible reflux or obstruction. When DMSA scans are obtained in pediatric patients with possible reflux, catheterization prior to the study and early images prior to the appearance of DMSA in the collecting system are recommended.

  5. Reduced 123I Ioflupane Binding in Bilateral Diabetic Chorea: Findings With 18F FDG PET, 99mTc ECD SPECT, and 123I MIBG Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichiro; Hida, Ayumi; Kameyama, Masashi; Morooka, Miyako; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2016-06-01

    We report a 64-year-old man with diabetic chorea whom we investigated with dopamine transporter SPECT, F FDG PET, Tc ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT, and I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Dopamine transporter SPECT revealed reduced I ioflupane binding in the bilateral striatum. F FDG PET showed metabolic dysfunction in the bilateral striatum, as shown in earlier studies. Tc ECD SPECT revealed reduced brain perfusion in the bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen. I MIBG scintigraphy revealed no cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Our case suggests a possible nigrostriatal presynaptic dopaminergic involvement in diabetic chorea. PMID:26975011

  6. Massive Pelvic Lymphadenopathy Due to Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Incidentally Revealed on a 99mTc-MDP Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Xie, Peng

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate the cause of diffuse bone pain. The images did not identify the exact cause of his symptoms. However, a "light bulb"-shaped urinary bladder and diffused increased activity in the scrotal region and left thigh were noted, which suggest a mass effect in the pelvis. A CT scan of the pelvis revealed soft tissue compressing the urinary bladder. A diagnosis of recurrent lymphoma was made. PMID:26828142

  7. [Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin in hepatobiliary disease].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Itoh, K; Nagao, K; Katoh, H; Okushiba, T; Satoh, M; Tomiyama, M; Hiraguchi, E; Tanabe, T

    1993-02-01

    A clinical study with 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) was performed in 10 patients with hepatobiliary disease. In this study, scintigraphic data and images with 99mTc-GSA were compared with several serological liver function tests, the hepatic blood perfusion index and image quality using 99mTc-DTPA-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA). Dynamic and serial hepatic images were obtained over a 20 min period after 99mTc-GSA injection, and time activity curves from the heart and liver were generated. The blood clearance index (HH15), and the hepatic uptake index (LHL15) were calculated from each curve of the heart and liver, respectively. In addition, using two compartment fitting, the blood clearance (KH1, KH2) index was calculated, and using exponential fitting, the hepatic uptake index (KL) was calculated. The mean HH15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.81 +/- 0.05, 0.64 +/- 0.10, respectively. The mean LHL15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.79 +/- 0.04, 0.91 +/- 0.06, respectively. There were significant differences between non-LC group and LC group in HH15, and LHL15, KH1 and KL. There were also significant correlations of KH1 with HH15, and KL with LHL15. Parameters of 99mTc-GSA showed significant correlations with various liver functions. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy showed clearer liver images in hepatobiliary diseases than 99mTc-HSA. These results suggest that 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy is useful in estimating preserved liver function and hepatic morphology. PMID:8468807

  8. [Hepatic clearance of 99mTc-GSA in cases of postoperative biliary atresia--a retrospective comparison with hepatic clearance of 99mTc-PMT].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Maruoka, S; Yamada, S

    1998-11-01

    There are a few reports about usefulness of 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy (GSA imaging) for the evaluation of postoperative state of biliary atresia. However, comparison of significance for the disease between GSA imaging and 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary imaging have not been reported. Fifty-six GSA imagings for 41 postoperative biliary atresia patients were reviewed and their scintigraphic findings and the functional parameters were compared with those obtained from 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary imaging. In quantitative analysis, although the hepatic clearance of both tracers calculated by graphical analysis (Patlak plot) were well correlated in most cases, a discrepancy was observed in several cases with jaundice. The authors conclude that the hepatic clearance of 99mTc-GSA is a more accurate index of the hepatic reserve than that of 99mTc-PMT which can be influenced by hyperbilirubinemia and that the combination of both examinations is helpful to evaluate development of liver injury in postoperative biliary atresia patients. PMID:9916401

  9. A Pilot Comparison of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, Ultrasonography and 123I/99mTc-sestaMIBI Dual-Phase Dual-Isotope Scintigraphy in the Preoperative Localization of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Glands in Primary or Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Burgess, Alice; Ohnona, Jessica; Huchet, Virginie; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Lefèvre, Marine; Tassart, Marc; Montravers, Françoise; Périé, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compared 18F-fluorocholine hybrid positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) with ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism and discordant, or equivocal results of US and 123I/99mTc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. FCH-PET/CT was performed in 17 patients with primary (n = 11) lithium induced (n = 1) or secondary hyperparathyroidism (1 dialyzed, 4 renal-transplanted). The reference standard was based on results of surgical exploration and histopathological examination. The results of imaging modalities were evaluated, on site and by masked reading, on per-patient and per-lesion bases. In a first approach, equivocal images/foci were considered as negative. On a per-patient level, the sensitivity was for US 38%, for scintigraphy 69% by open and 94% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 94% by masked reading. On a per-lesion level, sensitivity was for US 42%, for scintigraphy 58% by open and 83% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 96% by masked reading. One ectopic adenoma was missed by the 3 imaging modalities. Considering equivocal images/foci as positive increased the accuracy of the open reading of scintigraphy or of FCH-PET/CT, but not of US. FCH-PET/CT was significantly superior to US in all approaches, whereas it was more sensitive than scintigraphy only for open reading considering equivocal images/foci as negative (P = 0.04). FCH uptake was more intense in adenomas than in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Thyroid lesions were suspected in 9 patients. They may induce false-positive results as in one case of oncocytic thyroid adenoma, or false-negative results as in one case of intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid cancer (4 cases) can be visualized with FCH as with 99mTc-sestaMIBI, but the intensity of uptake was moderate, similar to that of parathyroid hyperplasia. This pilot study confirmed

  10. A Pilot Comparison of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, Ultrasonography and 123I/99mTc-sestaMIBI Dual-Phase Dual-Isotope Scintigraphy in the Preoperative Localization of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Glands in Primary or Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Influence of Thyroid Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Burgess, Alice; Ohnona, Jessica; Huchet, Virginie; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Lefèvre, Marine; Tassart, Marc; Montravers, Françoise; Périé, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2015-10-01

    We compared (18)F-fluorocholine hybrid positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) with ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism and discordant, or equivocal results of US and (123)I/(99m)Tc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. FCH-PET/CT was performed in 17 patients with primary (n = 11) lithium induced (n = 1) or secondary hyperparathyroidism (1 dialyzed, 4 renal-transplanted).The reference standard was based on results of surgical exploration and histopathological examination. The results of imaging modalities were evaluated, on site and by masked reading, on per-patient and per-lesion bases.In a first approach, equivocal images/foci were considered as negative. On a per-patient level, the sensitivity was for US 38%, for scintigraphy 69% by open and 94% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 94% by masked reading. On a per-lesion level, sensitivity was for US 42%, for scintigraphy 58% by open and 83% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 96% by masked reading. One ectopic adenoma was missed by the 3 imaging modalities. Considering equivocal images/foci as positive increased the accuracy of the open reading of scintigraphy or of FCH-PET/CT, but not of US. FCH-PET/CT was significantly superior to US in all approaches, whereas it was more sensitive than scintigraphy only for open reading considering equivocal images/foci as negative (P = 0.04). FCH uptake was more intense in adenomas than in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Thyroid lesions were suspected in 9 patients. They may induce false-positive results as in one case of oncocytic thyroid adenoma, or false-negative results as in one case of intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid cancer (4 cases) can be visualized with FCH as with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI, but the intensity of uptake was moderate, similar to that of parathyroid hyperplasia.This pilot study confirmed that

  11. 99mTC-Methylene diphosphonate uptake at injury site correlates with osteoblast differentiation and mineralization during bone healing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhendong A; Peck, Anderson; Li, Shihong; VanOss, Jeff; Snider, John; Droscha, Casey J; Chang, Tingtung A; Williams, Bart O

    2015-01-01

    99mTc-Methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is widely used in clinical settings to detect bone abnormalities. However, the mechanism of 99mTc-MDP uptake in bone is not well elucidated. In this study, we utilized a mouse tibia injury model, single-photon emission computed tomography (gamma scintigraphy or SPECT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and histology to monitor 99mTc-MDP uptake in injury sites during skeletal healing. In an ex vivo culture system, calvarial cells were differentiated into osteoblasts with osteogenic medium, pulsed with 99mTc-MDP at different time points, and quantitated for 99mTc-MDP uptake with a gamma counter. We demonstrated that 99mTc-MDP uptake in the injury sites corresponded to osteoblast generation in those sites throughout the healing process. The 99mTc-MDP uptake within the injury sites peaked on day 7 post-injury, while the injury sites were occupied by mature osteoblasts also starting from day 7. 99mTc-MDP uptake started to decrease 14 days post-surgery, when we observed the highest level of bony tissue in the injury sites. We also found that 99mTc-MDP uptake was associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization in vitro. This study provides direct and biological evidence for 99mTc-MDP uptake in osteoblasts during bone healing in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26273540

  12. [A new radiopharmaceutical for bone imaging: experimental study of 99mTc-HEDTMP].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu; Deng, Houfu; Jiang, Shubin; Luo, Shunzhong; Lei, Yong

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare 99mTc-HEDTMP [N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethlenediamine-1,1,2-tri (methylene phosphonic acid), a new kind of bone seeking compound; to investigate its biological properties; and to explore the possibility of using it as a potential radiopharmaceutical for skeleton scintigraphy. HEDTMP was labeled with 99mTc by "pretinning" method, the radiochemical purity was 97.00% +/- 0.34%. 99mTc-HEDTMP was found to be stable in 5 hours in vitro with the radiochemical purity over 95% even after being diluted by physiological saline with the factor of dilution 100. The plane bone scanning of rabbits showed that 99mTc-HEDTMP was principally absorbed by skeletal system. Skull, spine and legs could be observed clearly, and were more legible than the images of 99mTc-MDP. Mice trial also indicated the high bone seeking of 99mTc-HEDTMP. The skeletal uptake was 11.92% ID/g, 13.19% ID/g, 10.14% ID/g, 10.04% ID/g, 7.71% ID/g separately at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours after the injection. Kidney seemed to be the major excretory organ. The clearance of blood was quick and the retaining amount in non-target organs was small. These results indicate that 99mTc-HEDTMP can be prepared easily, and its biological properties can be compared favorably with the commonly used bone imaging agent, and it is well worth further researching as a promising potential radiopharmaceutical in nuclide diagnosis for skeleton diseases. PMID:20842850

  13. High 99mTc-DPD myocardial uptake in a patient with apolipoprotein AI-related amyloidotic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Candida Cristina; Obici, Laura; Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pieroni, Maurizio; Longhi, Simone; Perlini, Stefano; Verga, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Amyloidotic cardiomyopathy is still a widely underdiagnosed condition that usually requires endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for a definite diagnosis. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) has proven highly sensitive for detecting amyloidotic cardiomyopathy due to transthyretin-related amyloid deposition. Herein we report the first description of the (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy profile in a patient with suspected amyloidotic cardiomyopathy and a final EMB- and genetically-proven diagnosis of familial apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis due to Leu174Ser variant. PMID:23231421

  14. 99mTc-DPD uptake reflects amyloid fibril composition in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pilebro, Björn; Suhr, Ole B.; Näslund, Ulf; Westermark, Per; Lindqvist, Per; Sundström, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Aims In transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis various principal phenotypes have been described: cardiac, neuropathic, or a mixed cardiac and neuropathic. In addition, two different types of amyloid fibrils have been identified (type A and type B). Type B fibrils have thus far only been found in predominantly early-onset V30M and in patients carrying the Y114C mutation, whereas type A is noted in all other mutations currently examined as well as in wild-type ATTR amyloidosis. The fibril type is a determinant of the ATTR V30M disease phenotype. 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosing heart involvement in ATTR amyloidosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ATTR fibril composition and 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy outcome in patients with biopsy-proven ATTR amyloidosis. Methods Altogether 55 patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and amyloid fibril composition determined were examined by 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy. The patients were grouped and compared according to their type of amyloid fibrils. Cardiovascular evaluation included ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers. The medical records were scrutinized to identify subjects with hypertension or other diseases that have an impact on cardiac dimensions. Results A total of 97% with type A and none of the patients with type B fibrils displayed 99mTc-DPD uptake at scintigraphy (p < 0.001). Findings from analyses of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, and echocardiography, though significantly different, could not differentiate between type A and B fibrils in individual patients. Conclusion In ATTR amyloidosis, the outcome of 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy is strongly related to the patients’ transthyretin amyloid fibril composition. PMID:26849806

  15. (99m)Tc-DPD uptake reflects amyloid fibril composition in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Pilebro, Björn; Suhr, Ole B; Näslund, Ulf; Westermark, Per; Lindqvist, Per; Sundström, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Aims In transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis various principal phenotypes have been described: cardiac, neuropathic, or a mixed cardiac and neuropathic. In addition, two different types of amyloid fibrils have been identified (type A and type B). Type B fibrils have thus far only been found in predominantly early-onset V30M and in patients carrying the Y114C mutation, whereas type A is noted in all other mutations currently examined as well as in wild-type ATTR amyloidosis. The fibril type is a determinant of the ATTR V30M disease phenotype. (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosing heart involvement in ATTR amyloidosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ATTR fibril composition and (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy outcome in patients with biopsy-proven ATTR amyloidosis. Methods Altogether 55 patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and amyloid fibril composition determined were examined by (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy. The patients were grouped and compared according to their type of amyloid fibrils. Cardiovascular evaluation included ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers. The medical records were scrutinized to identify subjects with hypertension or other diseases that have an impact on cardiac dimensions. Results A total of 97% with type A and none of the patients with type B fibrils displayed (99m)Tc-DPD uptake at scintigraphy (p < 0.001). Findings from analyses of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, and echocardiography, though significantly different, could not differentiate between type A and B fibrils in individual patients. Conclusion In ATTR amyloidosis, the outcome of (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is strongly related to the patients' transthyretin amyloid fibril composition. PMID:26849806

  16. Relative biological effectiveness of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Narra, V R; Sastry, K S; Goddu, S M; Howell, R W; Strand, S E; Rao, D V

    1994-12-01

    The radiotoxicity of three 99mTc-labeled compounds is investigated using spermatogenesis in mouse testis as the experimental model, and spermatogonial cell survival as the biological end point. The radiopharmaceuticals studied are pertechnetate (99mTcO4-), pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), and hydroxyethylene diphosphate (99mTc-HDP). The mean lethal doses at 37% survival (D37) are 0.70 +/- 0.06, 0.84 +/- 0.13, and 0.59 +/- 0.08 Gy for 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-PYP, and 99mTc-HDP, respectively. When these results are compared with the D37 value obtained with external x rays or internal gamma rays, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of these compounds are 0.94 +/- 0.09, 0.79 +/- 0.13, and 1.1 +/- 0.16, respectively. These results show that the radiotoxicity of 99mTc in mouse testis is essentially similar to that of low-LET radiations (i.e., RBE approximately 1). To understand these results, the distribution of these radiocompounds in the testis is determined and correlated with the observed RBE values. The expected range of RBE values for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals in organs is 0.95 to 1.5, depending on the fraction of organ activity that is bound to DNA. This suggests that the Auger electrons emitted in the decay of 99mTc are not capable of causing extreme toxicity in vivo. These results provide further support for 99mTc as the radionuclide of choice for imaging in nuclear medicine. PMID:7700199

  17. (99m)Tc-labeled porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Shao, Shuai; Cheng, Kenneth T; Lovell, Jonathan F; Paik, Chang H

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles (PLN) have been developed with intrinsic capabilities as activatable multimodal photonic contrast agents. Radiolabeling of PLN encapsulating drugs could eventually be able to provide quantitative in vivo information for diagnosing and treating diseases. In this study, we developed (99m)Tc-labeled porphyrin-lipid nanovesicles ((99m)Tc-PLN) as a cargo-encapsulated formulation without significant impact on liposome integrity and encapsulation stability. 50 mM calcein was encapsulated into PLN by probe sonication. The size of the PLN was about 150 nm. The PLN were then reacted with (99m)Tc using SnCl2 dissolved in 1 mM HCl as a reducing agent and incubated for 10 min at 22 °C. The radiolabeling efficiency and stability of (99m)Tc-PLN were evaluated by instant thin-layer chromatography and low-pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). (99m)Tc labeling was successful with a >92% labeling efficiency. LPLC showed that the liposomal elution peaks of the porphyrin-lipid and the calcein overlapped with the radioactivity elution peak of (99m)Tc-labeled PLN. The (99m)Tc-labeling procedure did not change the size of PLN. Encapsulated calcein remained inert inside PLN. Thus, this work lays out a simple and effective radiolabeling method using SnCl2 in HCl in the preparation of (99m)Tc-PLN. PMID:24963601

  18. Preparation, biodistribution, and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-clindamycin: an infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Hina, Saira; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Roohi, Samina; Haque, Asma; Qasim, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial infection is found to be the cause of death throughout the world. Nuclear medicine imaging with the help of radiopharmaceuticals has great potential for treating infections. In the present work, clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, was labeled with technetium-99 m (~380 MBq). Clindamycin has been proven to be efficient for treating serious infections caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Quality control, characterization, biodistribution, and scintigraphy of radiolabeled clindamycin were done, and labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. More than 95 % labeling efficiency with technetium-99 m ((99m)Tc) was achieved at pH 6-7 while using 2.5-3 μg SnCl2 · H2O as a reducing agent and 100 μg of ligand at room temperature. The characterization of the compound was performed by using electrophoresis, HPLC and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates the neutral behavior of (99m)Tc-clindamycin. HPLC analysis confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-clindamycin were performed Sprague Dawley rats bearing bacterial infection. Scintigraphy and biodistribution studies showed a high uptake of (99m)Tc-clindamycin in the liver, heart, lung, and stomach as well as at S. aureus-infected sites in rabbits. PMID:25113549

  19. [A case of stunned myocardium with marked 99mTc-PYP accumulation].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Nishikawa, H; Motoyasu, M; Shimizu, Y; Fukui, A; Ono, N; Kakuta, Y; Konishi, T; Nakano, T

    1993-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with unstable angina was admitted to our department. Upon admission, electrocardiography revealed a QS pattern in Leads V1-V3. Left ventriculography disclosed akinesis of the anterior wall and the septum. Myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) revealed marked accumulation (Parkey's grade III) in the anterior wall, septum and apical region. Coronary arteriography revealed stenosis (99% with delay) in the LAD #6. Based on these findings, we performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on this patient. About 3 months later, the patient underwent PTCA again because stenosis had recurred. The resting 201Tl myocardial scintigram, taken immediately after the first PTCA, demonstrated complete defects in the anterior wall, septum and apical region. After the second PTCA, no stenosis was observed. About 1 year later, the wall motion returned to normal (except in part of the apical region), suggesting that this was a case of stunned myocardium. On the same occasion, the 201Tl uptake was normal except in the apical region. The present case was regarded as stunned myocardium which demonstrated marked radioactivity accumulation when examined by 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigraphy. In the past, 99mTc-PYP has been thought to be incorporated into irreversibly impaired myocardium (e.g., in cases of acute myocardial infarction). The uptake of 99mTc-PYP into stunned myocardium has not been reported before. Thus, this case is rare and noteworthy. PMID:8455342

  20. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  1. Nano Liposomes Labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, a Novel Agent for Blood Pool Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Kayvan; Momenypoor, Salimeh; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin; Aryana, Kamran; Johari Daha, Fariba; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    In-vitro labeling of RBC with 99mTc is an intricate procedure and there is always a need for an alternate blood pool imaging agent. The aim of this study was to prepare an effective nano sized liposome (NLs) similar to human RBC for blood pool scintigraphy. This study formulates PEG-NLs and non-PEG-NLs using film method plus high pressure homogenization technique. Biodistribution studies were performed on BALB/C mice 1, 4 and 24 h after tail vein injection of labeled NLs with 99mTc hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Planar images were acquired using a 256 × 256 matrix following99m Tc-HMPAO-NLs injection into ear vein of rabbits 1, 2 and 24 h later. SPECT images were obtained 15 minutes after the injection (64 slices, 30 second/projection). The mean diameter, zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI) of the PEG-NLs and the NLs were (80.88 ± 0.594 nm, -12.5 ± 0.56 mv, 0.158 ± 0.025) and (94.14 ± 0.114 nm, -35.5 ± 0.67 mv and 0.198 ± 0.007), respectively. 99mTc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs showed a significant circulation tracer activity (7.74 ± 1.63%ID/g at 1 h and 4.9 ± 0.77 %ID/g at 4 h), with low liver accumulation (12.07 ± 3.66 %ID/g at 1 h and 14.85 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 4 h). Heart to liver, spleen and background ROIs (region of interests) for 99m Tc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs were 1.25, 4 and 4.28 respectively at 2 h which changed to 1.06, 1.75 and 2.51 respectively at 24 h. The 99mTc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs with a prolonged blood circulation time could be an excellent RBC alternative for scintigraphy and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26664365

  2. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  3. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  4. Imaging Thromboembolism with Fibrin-Avid 99mTc-Peptide: Evaluation in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Aruva, Mohan R.; Daviau, Judy; Sharma, Shubh S.; Thakur, Mathew L.

    2006-01-01

    A pentapeptide, Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-Pro, with high affinity for α-chain-fibrin was labeled with 99mTc (99mTc-TP850) and evaluated in swine to image experimental venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Scatchard analysis was performed to determine fibrin affinity for TP850 and the number of binding sites (receptors) per milligram of fibrin. DVT was induced in the left jugular vein and PE was induced by introducing a preformed autologous blood clot into the right atrium using a 7-French introducer sheath inserted into the right jugular vein. 99mTc-TP850 was injected at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 h later. Animals were imaged for up to 4 h after injection, heparinized, and sacrificed. Lungs were extirpated, radiographed, and imaged, and the PE was removed. Other tissues, including blood and normal lungs, were harvested and, concomitantly, 99mTc was counted for determination of target-to-tissue ratios and the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue. Results The affinity for human fibrin was 10−9 mol/L and there were >1015 receptors per milligram of fibrin. DVT and PE were visualized for up to 4 h after injection with high DVT/blood (7.9–22.6), DVT/muscle (31.1–89.4), PE/blood (1–155), and PE/lung (0.8–245) ratios. Thereafter, the PEs fragmented spontaneously below the spatial resolution of the γ-camera and, despite the high associated radioactivity, could not be localized in vivo. The fragmented clots were detectable by scintigraphy on excised lungs and provided excellent concordance with radiograms. Conclusion 99mTc-TP850 with its modest affinity (10−9 mol/L), rapid blood clearance, and high DVT and PE uptake is a promising agent for imaging vascular thrombosis. PMID:16391200

  5. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. ); Thakur, M.L. ); Marcus, C.S. ); Ballou, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  6. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors. PMID:26910106

  7. [Complementary scintigraphic examinations (99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-MIBI and Octreoscan) in breast neoplasm assessment].

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, C; Chossiere, L; Rusu, V; Meignan, M

    1996-01-01

    Scintigraphic imagery was used in breast carcinoma mostly for the bone metastases screening, using 99mTc-MDP. Others radiopharmaceuticals can be used to visualize either the primary tumour or the soft tissues metastases. It's mainly the case of 99mTc-MIBI, and also of some somatostatin analogues, like Octreoscan. This case report of a patient with a T3N1M+ breast adenocarcinoma having different secondary sites represent also a prove of the complementarity of these explorations, which give the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation and, in the same time, the possibility of a better understood of the metastasizing mechanism. PMID:9455458

  8. Immediate renal imaging and renography with /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate to assess renal blood flow, excretory function, and anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; DeNardo, G.L.; Hines, H.H.

    1980-04-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc MDP) was evaluated as a clinical renal imaging agent in 20 patients referred for bone scintigraphy. Sequential scintigraphy, which was started immediately after injection, yielded blood flow studies of high quality, and subsequent images accurately delineated renal anatomy and excretion in nonazotemic patients. In comparison with delayed images, early images were vastly superior in quality and demonstrated improved target-to-nontarget activity ratios (p < 0.001) and improved lesion detectability (p < 0.01). Renal imaging performed incidental to bone scintigraphy with MDP can be greatly enhanced by initiating sequential scintigraphy immediately after injection.

  9. Synthesis and application of lactosylated, 99mTc chelating albumin for measurement of liver function.

    PubMed

    Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Martinez-Duncker, Ivan; Marty, Anne-Laure; Richard, Cyrille; Prigent, Alain; Moati, Frederic; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Mignet, Nathalie

    2010-04-21

    Neogalactosylated and neolactosylated albumins are currently used as radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging the liver asialoglycoprotein receptors, which allows the quantification of hepatic liver function in various diseases and also in healthy liver transplant donors. We developed an original process for synthesizing a chelating neolactosylated human albumin using maleimidopropyl-lactose and maleimidopropyl-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives. The lactosylated protein (LACTAL) conjugate showed excellent liver uptake compared to nonlactosylated protein and a very high signal-to-noise ratio, based on functional assessment of biodistribution in mice using (99m)Tc-scintigraphy. PMID:20201600

  10. [A new lymph node imaging agent--99mTc-polyphase liposome oleatis (99mTc-plo)].

    PubMed

    Yu, B F

    1988-07-01

    A new lymph node radio-imaging agent, technetium-99m polyphase liposome oleatis (99mTc-plo), has recently been developed. Polyphase liposome oleatis was labelled with radionuclide by stannous chloride method. The labelled rate was 90% or more as technically identified by thin layer chromatography, external gamma-camera imaging and radioautography. In animal experiment, 0.2-0.3 ml (0.2 mci) of the 99mTc-plo was injected subcutaneously into the toes web of rats. After half an hour, the regional lymph nodes of popliteal fossa were visualized very clearly. The imaging figures may keep their distinct shadow up to 24 hours. The tested rabbits were sacrificed 10 hours after 99mTc-plo injection for detecting various kinds of tissue and organ with a scintillation counter. The regional lymph nodes revealed the highest uptake rate of the new agent, 12,116; 1,303; 1,615 times higher than that of the adjacent muscles, liver and spleen, respectively. In clinical experiment, 0.2-0.3 ml (0.5-0.8 mci) of the 99mTc-plo was injected subcutaneously into the toes web of patients. Half an hour later, the lymph nodes of inguinal, external iliac and common iliac regions appeared in sequence. If the new agent is injected perianally, the internal iliac lymph nodes will be seen. No side effect was observed in both types of experiment. This new agent has been tried in rats, rabbits and dogs with similar positive results. The new lymph node imaging technique is simple, safe, reliable and reproducible. This agent, being directed toward the lymph nodes and possessing affinity to cancer cells, is expected to be supplementary method to CT and B-ultrasonography for detecting lymphoid malignancy and lymph node metastasis. PMID:3248482

  11. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  12. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  13. [Evaluation on blood clearance and hepatic uptake of 99mTc-GSA in rats with blood flow conversion].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K

    1997-05-01

    This study was aimed to clarify a contribution of the hepatic blood flow in hepatic accumulation of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA). The experiment was performed in rats by the blood flow conversion with an external scintillation gamma camera and laser doppler flowmeter. Rats were divided into 4 groups: hepatic artery ligation (HAL, n = 10), portal vein ligation (PVL, n = 8), both hepatic artery and portal vein ligation (HAL+PVL, n = 9), and control (CONT, n = 10) groups. The scintigraphic data were obtained in each group for 10 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc-GSA (50 micrograms/100 g B.W). The regions of interest were assigned over the heart and whole liver and the time activity curves (TAC) were generated. Five parameters of HH 4, LHL 4, KH1, KH2, KL, were calculated as blood clearance and hepatic accumulation from TAC in each rat. HH4 as blood clearance index in CONT, HAL, PVL and HAL+PVL was 0.58 +/- 0.04 (mean +/- SE), 0.63 +/- 0.04, 0.85 +/- 0.04, 0.97 +/- 0.001, respectively. HH 4 between CONT vs PVL, HAL+PVL was statistically significant (p < 0.05). LHL 4 as hepatic uptake index in CONT, HAL, PVL and HAL+PVL was 0.96 +/- 0.001, 0.93 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.07, 0.41 +/- 0.04, respectively. This parameter was also statistically significant between CONT vs PVL and HAL+PVL groups. Another parameter of KH1 for blood clearance and KL for hepatic uptake were also significant between CONT vs PVL and HAL+PVL groups. All parameters obtained in 99mTc-GSA study correlated well with the hepatic flow rate which was measured with a laser doppler flowmeter and reflected the reduction rate of the hepatic tissue blood flow 4 minutes after the ligation of target vessels. These result suggest that blood clearance and hepatic uptake of 99mTc-GSA are significantly affected by hepatic blood inflow. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy may be useful in evaluating hepatic tissue blood flow. PMID:9226469

  14. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  15. Scintigraphic thyroid abnormalities after radiation. A controlled study with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Villalpando, C.; Frohman, L.A.; Bekerman, C.; Favus, M.J.; Pinsky, S.; Ryo, U.Y.; Shore-Freedman, E.; Schneider, A.B.

    1982-07-01

    We did /sup 99/mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy on 99 subjects with no history of therapeutic irradiation to the head or neck. They were compared with 198 irradiated patients selected from a group of over 1700 who were evaluated because of radiation treatment for benign head and neck conditions during childhood. The two groups were similar with respect to age and sex distribution. There were significantly more abnormal scintigrams in the irradiated group (55 of 198 patients versus one of 99 controls). Even after patients and controls with palpable nodules were excluded from the analysis there were still more abnormal scintigrams in the irradiated group (16 of 150 irradiated versus one of 97 control subjects). We conclude that thyroid nodules, including the smaller, nonpalpable nodules discovered by scintigraphy, are related to previous radiation therapy. For persons at substantial risk, such as those who received high-dose treatment (greater than 700 R) during childhood, the data support the use of screening scintigraphy, even with normal findings on palpation.

  16. Feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi protocol.

    PubMed

    Rubello, Domenico; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Mariani, Giuliano; Gross, Milton D; Rampin, Lucia; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol compared to conventional "high 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol" in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The data of focused radioguided surgery obtained in a group of 320 consecutive PHPT patients with high probability of the presence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) were studied. All patients underwent preoperative imaging work-up of double-tracer 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (Sestamibi scintigraphy) and high resolution neck ultrasound (US). In 301/320 patients (96.6%) focused minimally invasive radioguided surgery was successfully performed by administering a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose in the operating room 10 minutes before operation. No major intraoperative complications were recorded. Focused radioguided surgery required a mean time of 32 min and a mean hospital stay of 1.2 days. Local anesthesia was applied in 75 patients, 66 of whom (88%) were patients older than 65 years with comorbidities contraindicating general anesthesia. No case of persistent or recurrent PHPT was observed during post-surgical follow-up (range = 18-70 months; mean +/- SD = 15.3 +/- 9.1 months). Radiation exposure dose to the operating surgeon was 1.2 microSi/hour with the "low 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose", and less than 1.0 microSi/hour for the other operating-room personnel. Focused low dose radioguided parathyroidectomy is a safe and effective means to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients affected by solitary PA thus reducing by 20 fold the radiation exposure dose to the patients and operating room personnel. PMID:16978398

  17. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  18. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    PubMed

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. PMID:27015650

  19. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine Radiopharmaceuticals using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pirdamooie, Shokufeh; Shanei, Ahmad; Moslehi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of absorbed dose to the kidneys, spleen, and liver during technetium-99 m ethylene dicysteine and technetium-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan, were divided into two groups (Groups 1 and 2). The first group (Group 1) and the second group (Group 2) received intravenous injection of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTP, respectively. A certain amount of radiopharmaceuticals was injected into each patient and was immediately imaged with dual-head gamma camera to calculate the activity through the conjugated view method. Then, the doses of kidney, liver, and spleen were measured using medical internal radiation dosimetry method. Finally, absorbed dose of these organs was compared. Based on these different results (P < 0.05), organs absorbed dose was significantly less with radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC as compared with 99mTc-DTPA. PMID:26284173

  20. 99mTc-Labeled HYNIC-DAPI Causes Plasmid DNA Damage with High Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, 99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by 99mTcO4− (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the 99mTcO4− treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the 99mTcO4– treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the 99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, 99mTcO4− induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately 10-fold in terms of

  1. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  2. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  3. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent (99m)Tc-Hydroxamamide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported (99m)Tc-hydroxamamide ((99m)Tc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for (99m)Tc-Ham complexes, and all (99m)Tc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent (99m)Tc-Ham complexes ([(99m)Tc]SB2A and [(99m)Tc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the (99m)Tc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  4. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  5. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  6. Hypoxia-induced redox alterations and their correlation with 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-HL-91 uptake in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Serra, Maria Elisa Silva; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Rio, Joana; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Laranjo, Mafalda; Rocha-Gonsalves, António Manuel; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2010-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and is an example of a solid tumour in which hypoxia is a common feature and develops because of the inability of the vascular system to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to growing tumours. Hypoxia effects on tumour cell biology can be detected and characterized using different methods. The use of imaging with gamma-emitting radionuclides to detect hypoxic tissue was first suggested by Chapman in 1979 [N Engl J Med 301 (1979) 1429-1432]. (99m)Tc-4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2,11-dione dioxime, also known as (99m)Tc-HL-91, has been among the most studied hypoxia markers. The objective of this study was to correlate the uptake of (99m)Tc-HL-91 and (99m)Tc-MIBI in colon cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to compare this information with some parameters such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the in vitro (99m)Tc-HL-91 uptake is higher in hypoxic conditions, which is confirmed by the decreased uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI. Flow cytometry results demonstrate that hypoxic conditions used are not enough to induce cellular death, but are responsible for the alterations in the intracellular redox environment, namely, increase of ROS production, proteic pimonidazol-derived adduct formation and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Therefore, these results confirm that (99m)Tc-HL-91 is a radiopharmaceutical with favourable characteristics for detecting hypoxia. PMID:20152711

  7. The key role of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Pan, Jiemin; Luo, Quanyong; Wang, Yan; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    The concomitant occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is not common. The co-occurrence of parathyroid tumors and thyroid diseases can lead to misdiagnosis owing to mutual interference of imaging in the early period of disease. The most commonly used imaging techniques for the preoperative localization of parathyroid and thyroid adenomas are technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy and ultrasonography of the neck. Recently, 99mTc-MIBI single-photon emission computed tomography associated with computed tomography scintigraphy (SPECT/CT) has been used to detect PHPT, and its diagnostic value is being evaluated. Herein, we report a patient with an unusual co-occurrence of parathyroid adenoma and multiple thyroid diseases, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and lymphocytic thyroiditis, which were localized with 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT and confirmed surgically. We suggest that 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT can play an important role in the diagnosis of parathyroid and thyroid lesions. PMID:26154096

  8. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using 99mTc-HMPAO

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with 99mTc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free 99mTc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs. 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of new biotinylated (99m) Tc/Re-tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of three new biotinylated fac-[(99m)Tc/Re(CO)3](+) complexes with the tridentate ligands L1, L2, and L3 are reported. L1-L3 contain the chelators 2-((5-aminopentyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)acetic acid, 2-(2-aminoethylthio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-amino-3-(1-carboxy-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylthio)propanoic acid, respectively, which are conjugated to biotin's carboxylate via their amine group. The fac-[Re(CO)3(L1-L3)] complexes were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR, where the (N,N,O) coordination for ReL1 and the (N,S,O) coordination for ReL2 and ReL3 were confirmed. The tracer complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)3(L1-L3)] were synthesized in high yield and were found highly stable in 10(-3) M L-histidine and L-cysteine over 24 h. Furthermore, they exhibited high binding affinity (>90%) for avidin. Rat plasma studies showed complete cleavage of biotin from (99m)TcL1 after 1 h and a low percentage of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 with no biotin cleavage metabolites present, over 24 h. Similarly, rat urine analysis showed the presence of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3, while (99m)TcL1 was cleaved. Biodistribution studies of (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 revealed fast blood and tissue clearance. PMID:26817576

  10. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  11. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo. PMID:25537991

  12. Lassen's equation is a good approximation of permeability-surface model: new α values for 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Brain perfusion tracers like [99mTc] d,l-hexamethyl-propyeneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) and [99mTc] ethyl-cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) underestimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at high flow values. To improve linearity between tracer accumulation and rCBF, two different models have been proposed. One is Lassen's correction algorithm for back-diffusion of tracer, and the other is based on the permeability-surface (PS) model for correction of low first-pass extraction. Although both these models have the same goal, they have completely different forms of equation. It was demonstrated that mathematical approximation of the PS model equation leads to Lassen's equation. In this process, the relationship between PS, CBF values and Lassen's parameter was acquired, and how to correct both the back-diffusion and low first-pass extraction was also demonstrated. A computer simulation confirmed that the two models provided similar consequences when the parameter value is chosen according to the relationship found. Lassen's equation can be used to correct not only back-diffusion but also low first-pass extraction. To perform overall correction, the parameter value we have been using for decades may be too weak. I estimated that the parameter value for overall correction of HMPAO would be around 0.5, and that of ECD would be around 0.65. PMID:24736892

  13. Impact of boronate capping groups on biological characteristics of novel (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zheng, Yumin; Tomaselli, Elena; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2015-02-18

    This study sought to explore the impact of boronate groups on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of novel (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-ISboroxime: R = isoxazol-4-yl (IS); (99m)Tc-MPboroxime: R = N-methylpyridinium (MP); (99m)Tc-PAboroxime: R = pyrazol-3-yl (PA); (99m)Tc-PYboroxime: R = pyridin-3-yl (PY); and (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime: R = uracil-5-yl (5U)). All five new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers were prepared in high yield and high radiochemical purity (RCP = 90-98%), and they remained stable in the kit mixture for >6 h. Biodistribution and imaging (planar and SPECT) studies were carried out using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Planar image quantification was performed to compare their myocardial retention and liver clearance kinetics. It was found that their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the biexponential decay function. The initial heart uptake at 0-1 min after injection followed the general ranking order of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (4.98 ± 1.05%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (4.56 ± 0.91%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (4.03 ± 1.23%ID) ∼ (99m)Tc-PYboroxime (4.07 ± 0.80%ID) > (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime (3.24 ± 0.67%ID) > (99m)Tc-MPboroxime (2.53 ± 0.65%ID). The fast-phase myocardial retention time followed the general order of (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (3.21 ± 0.29 min) > (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (1.63 ± 0.40 min) ∼ (99m)Tc-PYboroxime (1.57 ± 0.29 min) ∼ (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (1.55 ± 0.32 min) > (99m)Tc-MPboroxime (0.68 ± 0.16 min) > (99m)Tc-5Uboroxime (0.33 ± 0.11 min). (99m)Tc-PAboroxime (3.05 ± 1.10%ID/g) and (99m)Tc-ISboroxime (3.75 ± 0.68%ID/g) had the 2 min initial heart uptake very close to that of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (3.30 ± 0.50%ID/g). However, the myocardial retention time of (99m)Tc-PAboroxime was significantly longer than that of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime and (99m)Tc-Teboroxime. Even though the best time window is 0-5 min for SPECT image acquisition, high quality SPECT images could be obtained during the first 30 min

  14. Cholecystitis: prospective evaluation of sonography and /sup 99m/ Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Worthen, N.J.; Uszler, J.M.; Funamura, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Major and minor criteria are determined for sonographic diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis. A prospective study of 113 cases was performed on patients with suspected acute cholecystitis who were evaluated by cholesonography and /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy. Data support the use of sonography as the intial imaging procedure for the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA is useful in those cases without stones which exhibit minor criteria for gallbladder abnormality.

  15. Problems in the scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis in children. [/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.C.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Ogden, J.; Gottschalk, A.

    1980-06-01

    /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate studies in 21 children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis were compared with radiographic, clinical and surgical findings. Eleven /sup 99m/Tc studies revealed obvious abnormalities, four showed subtle abnormalities, two were misleading, and four were normal. No consistent explanation for the lack of positive radionuclide findings was found. We concluded that pediatric osteomyelitis presents a spectrum of scintigraphic appearances and interpretation is often difficult.

  16. [ECG-gated myocardial SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI in patients with right ventricular infarction].

    PubMed

    Kumita, S; Mizumura, S; Cho, K; Kijima, T; Kumazaki, T; Tetsuou, Y; Sakai, S; Sano, J; Kusama, Y; Munakata, K

    1996-06-01

    Although 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) myocardial scintigraphy has so far been widely used for the diagnosis of right ventricular infarction, PYP accumulation disappears within one week or so. To evaluate the myocardial condition of the right ventricle alternatively, myocardial SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI was performed in 16 patients with acute inferior left ventricular infarction, and ECG-gated myocardial SPECT data acquisition was accompanied in 14 of 16 patients. Right ventricular perfusion defect was observed in 4 of 16 patients (RVI (+) group), and the remains were negative (RVI (-) group). Then, right ventricular count increase rate (RV %WT) of MIBI from end-diastole to end-systole was calculated using an automated method which was developed for quantification of wall thickening in our laboratory. The RV %WT was conceived to be an objective index representing right ventricular contractility. RVI (+) group (n = 3) as compared with RVI (-) group (n = 11) had significant lower RV %WT (26.7 +/- 3.2 vs. 49.6 +/- 14.2; p < 0.01). In conclusion, ECG-gated myocardial SPECT with MIBI was considered to be useful for assessment of myocardial perfusion and contractility of right ventricle. PMID:8741508

  17. Systematic evaluation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin versus 99mTc-sestamibi to study murine myocardial perfusion in small animal SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The “back-translation” of clinically available protocols to measure myocardial perfusion to preclinical imaging in mouse models of human disease is attractive for basic biomedical research. With respect to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) approaches, clinical myocardial perfusion imaging protocols are established with different 99mTc-labeled perfusion tracers; however, studies evaluating and optimizing protocols for these tracers in high-resolution pinhole SPECT in mice are lacking. This study aims at evaluating two clinically available 99mTc-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers (99mTc-sestamibi vs. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin) in mice using four different imaging protocols. Methods Adult C57BL/6 male mice were injected with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) or 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (TETRO) (4 MBq/g body weight) either intravenously through the tail vein (n = 5) or retroorbitally (n = 5) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) under anesthesia (n = 3) or i.p. in an awake state (n = 3) at rest. Immediately after injection, a multi-frame single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) acquisition was initiated with six subsequent time frames of 10 min each. Reconstructed images of the different protocols were assessed and compared by visual analysis by experts and by time-activity-curves generated from regions-of-interest for various organs (normalized uptake values). Results Visually assessing overall image quality, the best image quality was found for MIBI for both intravenous injection protocols, whereas TETRO only had comparable image quality after retroorbital injections. These results were confirmed by quantitative analysis where left ventricular (LV) uptake of MIBI after tail vein injections was found significantly higher for all time points accompanied with a significantly slower washout of 16% for MIBI vs. 33% for TETRO (p = 0.009) from 10 to 60 min post injection (PI). Interestingly, LV washout from 10 to 60 min PI

  18. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  19. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  20. Ibogaine labeling with 99mTc-tricarbonyl: synthesis and transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; André, Pascal; Blondeel, Sandy; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie; du Moulinet d'Hardemarre, Amaury; Declèves, Xavier; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2009-12-01

    The (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl core may be used as an ideal tool for gamma-labeling ligands in noninvasive SPECT imaging. However, most (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl-labeled agents have difficulty crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We radiolabeled the neuroactive indole ibogaine with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl and measured its transport into the mouse brain by in situ brain perfusion. We measured the interactions of [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) and (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl with the main BBB efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP in vitro and in vivo. Ibogaine was radiolabeled (yield: over 95%). [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) entered the brain (K(in)) poorly (0.18 microL/g/s), at about the same rate as (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl (0.16 microL/g/s) and [(99m)Tc-sestamibi](+) (0.10 microL/g/s). The CNS tracer [(99m)Tc-HMPAO](0) entered the brain approximately 70-times higher than [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+). In vitro studies revealed that neither [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) nor (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl ion were substrates for P-gp or BCRP. But lowering the membrane dipole potential barrier with phloretin enhanced the brain transport of [(99m)Tc(OH(2))(3)(CO)(3)](+) approximately 3-fold. Thus, ibogaine directly labeled with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl is not suitable for CNS imaging because of its poor uptake. Brain transport is not restricted by efflux transporters but is reduced by its lipophilicity and interaction with the membrane-positive dipole potential. PMID:19492342

  1. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation. PMID:26948953

  2. Tumor targeting with a (99m)Tc-labeled AS1411 aptamer in prostate tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Noaparast, Zohreh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Piramoon, Majid; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    AS1411, a 26-base guanine-rich oligonucleotide aptamer, has high affinity to nucleolin, mainly on tumor cell surfaces. In this study, a modified AS1411 was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated as a potential tumor-targeting agent for imaging. The AS1411 aptamer was conjugated with HYNIC and labeled with (99m)Tc in the presence a co-ligand. Radiochemical purity and stability testing of the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-AS1411 aptamer were carried out with thin layer chromatography and a size-exclusion column in normal saline and human serum. Cellular nucleolin-specific binding, cellular internalization in DU-145 cells, as high levels of nucleolin expression, were performed. Additionally, biodistribution in normal mice and DU-145 tumour-bearing mice was assessed. Radiolabeling of the aptamer resulted in a reasonable yield and radiochemical purity after purification. The aptamer was stable in normal saline and human serum, and cellular experiments demonstrated specific binding of the AS1411 aptamer to the nucleolin protein. Based on biodistribution assessment of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-AS1411, rapid blood clearance was seen after injection and it appears that the excretion route was via the urinary system at 1 h post-injection. Tumours also showed a higher accumulation of radioactivity with this labeled aptamer. (99m)Tc-AS1411 can be a potential tool for the molecular imaging of nucleolin-overexpressing cancers. PMID:25673264

  3. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  4. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  5. Imaging human atherosclerosis with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Schoen, F.J.; Isaacsohn, J.L.; Fischman, A.J.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1988-09-01

    The feasibility of localizing human atherosclerotic plaques by gamma scintillation camera external imaging with technetium-99m-labeled low density lipoproteins (99mTc-LDL) was tested in 17 patients who had atherosclerosis. Imaging demonstrated focal accumulation of radiolabel consistent with 99mTc-LDL sequestration by plaques in the carotid, iliac, or femoral vessels of four patients 8 to 21 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Focal accumulation of 99mTc-LDL also appeared in the location of coronary lesions in four patients, but this accumulation could not be distinguished with certainty from residual blood pool radioactivity. When carotid endarterectomy specimens from six patients who received 99mTc-LDL 1 day before endarterectomy were examined, the specimens had focal accumulations of radiolabel, with two to four times greater radioactivity in some regions of each specimen than in others; this occurred whether or not the lesions were detected on the gamma camera images. Lesion composition may have determined whether accumulation was quantitatively sufficient to produce an external image. Histologically, the imaged carotid specimen had abundant foam cells and macrophages and poorly organized intramural blood consistent with a plaque hemorrhage; in contrast, nonimaged endarterectomy specimens were mature, fibrocalcific plaques. We conclude that: 1) 99mTc-LDL did accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques; 2) in some patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-LDL was sufficient for detection by gamma camera imaging; 3) the amount of LDL that accumulated appeared to depend on lesion composition; and 4) the design of new radiopharmaceuticals with reduced residual blood pool activity relative to plaque accumulation should lead to improved external imaging of atherosclerosis.

  6. Permeability of the bronchial mucosa to /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowite, J.S.; Bennett, W.D.; Sheetz, M.S.; Groth, M.L.; Nierman, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    Previous investigators, using 99mTc-DTPA aerosol as a marker to assess epithelial permeability in asthma, did not find an increased permeability in this group. However, they either failed to deliver the aerosol to the optimal site (bronchial mucosa, not alveoli) or failed to account for mucociliary clearance in analyzing their results. We studied 10 asthmatics and eight age-matched control subjects using a dosimeter (Spira-Elektra 2) and a carefully controlled breathing pattern to deliver aerosol to the subjects' airways. Two aerosols were delivered on separate days in each patient; 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and 99mTc-HSA (human serum albumin), using similar breathing patterns to ensure reproducibility of the deposition pattern with the two aerosols. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, rate constants Ktot and Km were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modelling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. There was no significant difference between Ktot in normal subjects and asthmatics; however, because of the slower mucociliary clearance in the asthmatic group, and the relative importance of mucociliary clearance in determining the washout of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, there was a significant difference in airway permeability between the normal subjects and the asthmatics (t1/2 = 296 min +/- 141 SD and 126 min +/- 58, p less than 0.01, in normal subjects and asthmatics, respectively).

  7. Quantitative simultaneous 111In/99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment—where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). Methods: The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired

  8. Anti-CD20 Immunoglobulin G Radiolabeling with a 99mTc-Tricarbonyl Core: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Carpenet, Hélène; Cuvillier, Armelle; Monteil, Jacques; Quelven, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes have shown significant progress. Immunoglobulin (Ig) appears to be a promising tracer, particularly due to its ability to target selected antigens. The main objective of this study is to optimize and assess an Ig radiolabeling method with Technetium 99m (99mTc), an attractive radioelement used widely for diagnostic imaging. Monoclonal anti-CD20 IgG was retained to study in vitro and in vivo radiolabeling impact. After IgG derivatization with 2-iminothiolane, IgG-SH was radiolabeled by an indirect method, using a 99mTc-tricarbonyl core. Radiolabeling stability was evaluated over 24h by thin-layer chromatography. IgG integrity was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate—polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with Western blot and autoradiography. The radiolabeled Ig’s immunoaffinity was assessed in vitro by a radioimmunoassay method and binding experiments with cells (EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT). Biodistribution studies were performed in normal BALB/c mice. Tumor uptake was assessed in mice bearing EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT subcutaneous xenografts. With optimized method, high radiolabeling yields were obtained (95.9 ± 3.5%). 99mTc-IgG-SH was stable in phosphate-buffered saline (4°C and 25°C) and in serum (37°C), even if important sensitivity to transchelation was observed. IgG was not degraded by derivatization and radiolabeling, as shown by Western blot and autoradiography results. 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH immunoaffinity was estimated with Kd = 35 nM by both methods. In vivo biodistribution studies for 48h showed significant accumulation of radioactivity in plasma, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Planar scintigraphy of mice bearing tumors showed a significant uptake of 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH in CD20+ tumor versus CD20- tumor. Radiolabeling of derivatized IgG with 99mTc-tricarbonyl was effective, stable and required few antibody amounts. This attractive radiolabeling method is “antibody safe” and

  9. Anti-CD20 Immunoglobulin G Radiolabeling with a 99mTc-Tricarbonyl Core: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Carpenet, Hélène; Cuvillier, Armelle; Monteil, Jacques; Quelven, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes have shown significant progress. Immunoglobulin (Ig) appears to be a promising tracer, particularly due to its ability to target selected antigens. The main objective of this study is to optimize and assess an Ig radiolabeling method with Technetium 99m (99mTc), an attractive radioelement used widely for diagnostic imaging. Monoclonal anti-CD20 IgG was retained to study in vitro and in vivo radiolabeling impact. After IgG derivatization with 2-iminothiolane, IgG-SH was radiolabeled by an indirect method, using a 99mTc-tricarbonyl core. Radiolabeling stability was evaluated over 24h by thin-layer chromatography. IgG integrity was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with Western blot and autoradiography. The radiolabeled Ig's immunoaffinity was assessed in vitro by a radioimmunoassay method and binding experiments with cells (EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT). Biodistribution studies were performed in normal BALB/c mice. Tumor uptake was assessed in mice bearing EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT subcutaneous xenografts. With optimized method, high radiolabeling yields were obtained (95.9 ± 3.5%). 99mTc-IgG-SH was stable in phosphate-buffered saline (4°C and 25°C) and in serum (37°C), even if important sensitivity to transchelation was observed. IgG was not degraded by derivatization and radiolabeling, as shown by Western blot and autoradiography results. 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH immunoaffinity was estimated with Kd = 35 nM by both methods. In vivo biodistribution studies for 48h showed significant accumulation of radioactivity in plasma, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Planar scintigraphy of mice bearing tumors showed a significant uptake of 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH in CD20+ tumor versus CD20- tumor. Radiolabeling of derivatized IgG with 99mTc-tricarbonyl was effective, stable and required few antibody amounts. This attractive radiolabeling method is "antibody safe" and preserves

  10. Exploring the Potential of (99m)Tc(CO)3-Labeled Triazolyl Peptides for Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ganguly, Soumya; Baishya, Rinku; Dewanjee, Saikat; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the authors have reported on (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled peptides that serve as carriers for biomolecules or radiopharmaceuticals to the tumors. In continuation of that work they report the synthesis of a pentapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Gly-His; pep-1), a hexapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Asp-Gly-His; pep-2), and a tetrapeptide (Asp-Gly-Arg-His; pep-3) and the attachment of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole to the β carboxylic function of the aspartic acid unit of pep-2 and pep-3. The pharmacophores were radiolabeled in high yields with [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) metal aqua ion, characterized for their stability in serum and saline, as well as in His solution, and found to be substantially stable. B16F10 cell line binding studies showed favorable uptake and internalization. In vivo behavior of the radiolabeled triazolyl peptides was assessed in mice bearing induced tumor. The (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3 demonstrated rapid urinary clearance and comparatively better tumor uptake. Imaging studies showed visualization of the tumor using (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3, but due to high abdominal background, low delineation occurred. Based on the results further experiments will be carried out for targeting tumor with triazolyl peptides. PMID:27093344

  11. Frostbite with rhabdomyolysis and renal failure: radionuclide study. [/sup 99m/Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.; Kloiber, R.; Gagnon, R.; Damtew, B.; Lough, J.

    1981-08-01

    There is a growing list of muscle lesions exhibiting concentration of bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate complexes; however, rhabdomyolysis due to cold injury has not been included. We performed a multiradiopharmaceutical study that yielded interesting results on a patient who sustained frostbite injury of the legs that led to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

  12. [The pathophysiologic basis for the incorporation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate into myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Duska, F; Hadas, L; Volenec, K; Palicka, V; Mazurová, Y; Vizd'a, J; Kafka, P; Urbanová, E; Kuba, M; Veverková, O

    1989-08-01

    The investigation studied the relation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate incorporation (99mTc-PYP) into experimental, 48-hours old myocardial infarction in dogs to tissue vascular supply and to the extent of necrotic tissue. The experimental myocardial infarction was induced in five animals during an operation by the ligation RIVA. The myocardial blood supply was measured in tissue samples, taken from transverse sections of the infarction by means of 86Rb captation. The extent of myocytolysis was measured by depletion of tissue creatine kinase (CK). In the subendocardial layer of the infarction it became obvious that 99mTc-PYP incorporation was proportional to the decrease of tissue blood supply. No relation between the extent of necrosis and the incorporation of the radioactive chemical was demonstrated. The accumulation of 99mTc-PYP requires the necrosis to be present, but its extent apparently does not influence the intensity of incorporation. In the subepicardial infarction layer there was neither a relation of the radioactive chemical cumulation to the blood flow, nor to the extent of the necrosis proved. PMID:2551518

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of (99m)Tc-Labeled Dimeric Folic Acid for FR-Targeting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Song, Manli; Shi, Changrong; Zhang, Pu; Xu, Duo; You, Linyi; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Liu, Ting; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. In our study, the multimeric concept was used to synthesize a dimeric folate derivative via a click reaction. The novel folate derivative (HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) and its in vitro physicochemical properties, ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging as a potential FR targeted agent were evaluated. It is a hydrophilic compound (log P = -2.52 ± 0.13) with high binding affinity (IC50 = 19.06 nM). Biodistribution in KB tumor-bearing mice showed that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ had high uptake in FR overexpressed tumor and kidney at all time-points, and both of them could obviously be inhibited when blocking with free FA in the blocking studies. From the in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging results, good tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ was observed in KB tumor-bearing mice and it could be blocked obviously. Based on the results, this new radiolabeled dimeric FA tracer might be a promising candidate for FR-targeting imaging with high affinity and selectivity. PMID:27338334

  14. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-02-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported.

  15. (99m)Tc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging.

    PubMed

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a (99m)Tc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with (99m)Tc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. (99m)Tc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs. PMID:26875936

  16. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  17. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  18. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  19. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced 99Mo supply, direct production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with 99mTc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical 99mTc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  20. Mechanism of localization of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, M K; Kahn, P C

    1976-07-01

    The gross and subcellular localizations of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in myocardial infarcts were studied in a rabbit model. Experiments utilizing double-nuclide labeling were carried out using a useful mapping technique. Concentration of the various chelates decreases in an expected manner from the center of the infarcted area toward its periphery, but it is higher near the epicardial surface than toward the endocardium. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate is concentrated in the same infarcted areas as 45Ca ion or 32P-pyrophosphate, but to a much greater degree. The uptake is dependent on both the degree of necrosis and residual blood flow. Gel filtration experiments with rabbit serum indicate that 99mTc-tagged pyrophosphate, tetracycline, and diphosphonate are mainly protein-bound, whereas 32P-pyrophosphate is not. Subcellular localization studies show that 99mTc-tetracycline and 99mTc-pyrophosphate are bound primarily to soluble protein, and only a small fraction is associated with nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes. The uptake of technetium chelates in myocardial infarcts may be due to the formation of polynuclear complexes with denatured macromolecules rather than to the deposition of calcium in mitochrondria. PMID:178842

  1. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1986-10-01

    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references.

  2. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with (99m)Tc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with (99m)Tc-marked diphosphonates ((99m)Tc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of (99m)Tc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  3. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  4. Size Control of (99m)Tc-tin Colloid Using PVP and Buffer Solution for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particle size is an important characteristic that allows mapping sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy. This investigation aimed to introduce different ways of making a (99m)Tc-tin colloid with a size of tens of nanometers. All agents, tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, poloxamer-188, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were mixed and labeled with (99m)Tc. Either phosphate or sodium bicarbonate buffers were used to adjust the pH levels. When the buffers were added, the size of the colloids increased. However, as the PVP continued to increase, the size of the colloids was controlled to within tens of nanometers. In all samples, phosphate buffer added PVP (30 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-PPTC-30) and sodium bicarbonate solution added PVP (50 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-BPTC-50) were chosen for in vitro and in vivo studies. (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 (<20 nm) was primarily located in bone marrow and was then secreted through the kidneys, and (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 (>100 nm) mainly accumulated in the liver. When a rabbit was given a toe injection, the node uptake of (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 decreased over time, while (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 increased. Therefore, (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 could be a good candidate radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection. The significance of this study is that nano-sized tin colloid can be made very easily and quickly by PVP. PMID:26028937

  5. Physical phantom evaluation of simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Jan, Meei-Ling; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope imaging from two different energy gamma rays such as 99mTc and 123I is a promising technology in nuclear medicine. Its advantages are to abbreviate the acquisition procedure with an identical geometrical registration of the different isotope images, the same physiological condition without motion artifacts, and help patient throughput and comfort. However, the energy photopeaks of 99mTc and 123I radionuclides are very close. We had developed a new approach for accurate cross-talk and scatter corrections in simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I based on independent components analysis (ICA). Nevertheless, a large number of input energy windows are required as ICA input components, which is not useful in clinical application because commercial cameras have only 3-8 energy windows. The aim of this work was to design a new method through wavelet transformation followed by ICA with multiple energy windows (W_eICA) for cross-talk and scatter correction using a smaller number of energy windows in clinical use. There were three cylinders (A-C) with identical volume of 20 ml. Cylinder A was filled with 99mTc solution of 18.5 MBq, cylinder B with 123I solution of 18.5 MBq, and cylinder C with 99mTc solution of 55.5 MBq. The Image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. Three kinds of images were acquired by energy window setting. (1) For single-isotope imaging only, energy windows of 20% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc and at 159 keV for 123I were used. (2) In the asymmetric energy window method (AEW), energy window of 15% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc in conjunction with 10% asymmetric energy window in an upper bound at 159 keV for 123I was acquired. (3) Then we set six energy windows with 15 keV width ranging from 83 to 173 keV to form six images as input components of ICA. After the W_eICA method derived 99mTc/ 123I images alone, we compared the images from the W_eICA approach and the AEW method. In the results, the recovery rate of 99mTc was 1

  6. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99mTc-DTPA in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G; Piraccini, R; D'Andrea, G

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the practical reliability of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination with 99mTc-DTPA and plasma sampling, the authors compared the results obtained with 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA in 50 patients using five easily applied methods (two double-plasma-sample methods and three single-plasma-sample methods), and two kits with different compositions. It was observed that: 1) there is no difference between the results obtained with the two different kits. 2) Compared with 51Cr-EDTA the 99mTc-DTPA overestimates the result by about 2 mL/min: precision is slightly lower with 99mTc-DTPA than with 51Cr-EDTA but is sufficient for practical use. 3) The method recommended by the authors on the basis of this experience is the Russell's method with two samples. 4) The simplified methods with one sample give comparable results to the Russell's method for GFR levels between 50 and 115 mL/min, while the results are unsatisfactory below 50 mL/min. 5) Among the single-sample methods, the authors suggest that of Christensen and Groth. 6) A preliminary estimate of GFR (from the serum creatinine level, for instance) is useful for the choice between double-plasma-sample methods and simplified methods. In conclusion, the authors consider that the estimation of GFR with 99mTc-DTPA can be performed efficiently in clinical practice even when operating in absolutely routine conditions. PMID:7786917

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl quinolone complexes.

    PubMed

    Kydonaki, Theocharis E; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Mendes, Filipa; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Paulo, António; Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Psomas, George

    2016-07-01

    New rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid (Hoxo) and enrofloxacin (Herx) and containing methanol, triphenylphosphine (PPh3) or imidazole (im) as unidentate co-ligands, were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of complex [Re(CO)3(oxo)(PPh3)]∙0.5MeOH was determined by X-ray crystallography. The deprotonated quinolone ligands are bound bidentately to rhenium(I) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The binding of the rhenium complexes to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) was monitored by UV spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and competitive studies with ethidium bromide; intercalation was suggested as the most possible mode and the DNA-binding constants of the complexes were calculated. The rhenium complex [Re(CO)3(erx)(im)] was assayed for its topoisomerase IIα inhibition activity and was found to be active at 100μM concentration. The interaction of the rhenium complexes with human or bovine serum albumin was investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy (through the tryptophan quenching) and the corresponding binding constants were determined. The tracer complex [(99m)Tc(CO)3(erx)(im)] was synthesized and identified by comparative HPLC analysis with the rhenium analog. The (99m)Tc complex was found to be stable in solution. Upon injection in healthy mice, fast tissue clearance of the (99m)Tc complex was observed, while both renal and hepatobiliary excretion took place. Preliminary studies in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells showed cellular uptake of the (99m)Tc tracer with distribution primarily in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and less in the nucleus. These preliminary results indicate that the quinolone (99m)Tc/Re complexes show promise to be further evaluated as imaging or therapeutic agents. PMID:26795497

  8. Polymer embedded nanocrystalline titania sorbent for 99Mo-99mTc generator.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Gandhi, Shyamla; Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, A K

    2008-09-01

    A new sorbent material, polymer embedded nano crystalline titania (Titanium Polymer-TiP) has been developed, from titanium (IV) chloride and isopropyl alcohol, for the adsorption of 99Mo, which is a precursor to 99mTc, a workhorse in radio-pharmaceuticals. The infrared absorption spectra of the TiP showed peaks corresponding to Ti-O groups. X-ray diffraction pattern of the adsorbent corresponded to rutile TiO2. The surface area of this polymer was 30 m2/g with an average pore size of 40 nm. The average crystallite size of TiO2, embedded in polymer, was found to be 5 nm. TEM micrograph of the adsorbent revealed the network of polymer with dispersed titania phase. Potential of this adsorbent for the preparation of 99Mo-99mTc generator has been explored. 99Mo could be adsorbed on to the adsorbent column containing TiP at pH 1 from which 99mTC could be eluted with normal (0.9%) saline solution with an elution yield of approximately 80%. The quality of the 99mTcO4 obtained was in accordance with the international specifications applicable for radiopharmaceutical use. A process demonstration run was carried out with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) 99Mo activity level making use of the above adsorbent and consistent results were obtained over a period of one week, which is generally the shelf life of 99MO-99mTC generator. PMID:19049039

  9. Evaluation of 99mTcN-MPO as a New Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Agent in Normal Dogs and in an Acute Myocardial Infarction Canine Model: Comparison with 99mTc-Sestamibi

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Li, Renfei; Jin, Zhongnan; Wen, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Baofeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose 99mTcN-MPO ([99mTcN(mpo)(PNP5)]+: mpo=2-mercaptopyridine oxide and PNP5=N-ethoxyethyl-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine) is a cationic 99mTc-nitrido complex, which has favorable biodistribution and myocardial uptake with rapid liver clearance in Sprague Dawley rats. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi in normal dogs, and to evaluate the potential of 99mTcN-MPO as a myocardial perfusion agent in canines with acute myocardial infarction. Methods Five normal mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 99mTcN-MPO. Venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min post-injection (p.i.). Anterior-posterior planar images were acquired by γ-camera at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min p.i. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the heart, liver, and lungs. The heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were calculated by dividing the mean counts in heart ROI by the mean counts in the liver and lung ROI, respectively. For comparison, 99mTc-sestamibi was also evaluated in the same five dogs. The interval period between the two examinations was 1 week to eliminate possible interference between these two radiotracers. In addition, single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in the canine infarct model were collected 24 h after myocardial infarction at 30 and 60 min after the administration of 99mTcN-MPO (n=4) or 99mTc-Sestamibi (n=4). Results It was found that 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi displayed very similar blood clearance characteristics during the first 90 min p.i. Both 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi had a rapid blood clearance with less than 50% of initial radioactivity remaining at 1 min and less than 5% at 30 min p.i. 99mTcN-MPO and 99mTc-Sestamibi both showed good heart/lung contrast. The heart/liver ratio of 99mTcN-MPO increased with time (0.53±0.06 at 10 min, 0.90±0.062 at

  10. Radionuclide venography: two stage--flow and equilibrium technique using 99mTc pertechnetate, and 99mTc RBC labelled "in vivo".

    PubMed

    Snarski, A M

    1989-01-01

    A new method involves 2 stages: 1st, injection of three 10 ml boluses of 99mTc-pertechnetate through a dorsal vein of the foot with recording of 3 separate dynamic studies of venous flow in the calf, thigh and pelvis; and 2nd, static equilibrium venography (EV), which can be completed 15 min later after 99mTc-RBC labelling in vivo. The method was performed in 100 patients with suspected DVT. Due to the large pertechnetate bolus followed with 20-40 ml flush of normal saline, the flow study provides a significant improvement in filling of major calf veins, which makes this technique more similar to contrast phlebography. The flow study was found much more sensitive than EV, especially for calf DVT. However, EV, providing information about the unaffected leg, plays an important complementary role when the study is negative for DVT. In conclusion, both stages are recommended for routine examination of patients referred with suspected DVT. PMID:2540983

  11. Reexamination of cross sections of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Aikawa, M.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear medicine community has been expressing concerns world wide regarding shortages of 99mTc supply based on fission production of 99Mo from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to prepare 99Mo/99mTc generators. As an alternative to reactor produced 99Mo/99mTc generator technology, the direct production of 99mTc on accelerators is considered. There are a number of methods of using accelerators to produce 99mTc and/or 99Mo. Direct production of 99mTc on highly enriched 100Mo target using cyclotrons is interesting for energies up to 20 MeV, so as to minimize the impurities from additional open reaction channels. To estimate the quality of the accelerator produced 99mTc all the possible reaction routes should be mapped which could be potentially involved in this technology. However, a well defined excitation function for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc primary reaction is needed, in order to achieve acceptable good results in assessing the quality of the accelerator-produced 99mTc by theoretical calculations. Most of the available experimental cross section data series for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. A large difference more than a factor of two may, indeed, be observed between the lowest and the highest datasets values. The aim of this study was therefore to get a new evaluation for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc cross section, through three independent experiments, aiming at a more confident estimation about the amplitude of the excitation function.

  12. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p <0,05). In all study point average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualize in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reaches a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) for 2 hour study and then its accumulation remains practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% at 24 hours. In the case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node visualized in all animals for 15 minutes when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred at 2 hour of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) to 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic radiopharmaceutical showed

  13. Uptake Difference by Somatostatin Receptors in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Tumor: 99mTc-Octreotide Uptake in the Lung without Uptake in Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic value of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in detecting tumors has been assessed in a number of studies. We present a 30-year-old female with a history of eight months cough and left shoulder pain. Radiologic evaluation showed pulmonary mass and hepatic lesions, which were pathologically diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma. 99mTc-octreotide scan demonstrated that the pulmonary lesion was positive for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), while the liver metastases were SSTR negative. The present case highlights the significance of a differential uptake pattern by somatostatin receptors in SRS in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27529888

  14. Development of (99m)Tc-Labeled Pyridyl Benzofuran Derivatives To Detect Pancreatic Amylin in Islet Amyloid Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Masashi; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Saji, Hideo

    2016-06-15

    While islet amyloid deposition comprising amylin is one of pathological hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), no useful amylin-imaging probe has been reported. In this study, we evaluated two (99m)Tc-labeled pyridyl benzofuran derivatives as novel amylin-imaging probes using the newly established islet amyloid model mouse. Binding experiments in vitro demonstrated that [(99m)Tc]1 displayed a higher affinity for amylin aggregates than [(99m)Tc]2. Autoradiographic studies using human pancreas sections with T2DM revealed that [(99m)Tc]1 clearly labeled islet amyloid in T2DM pancreatic sections, while [(99m)Tc]2 did not. Although the initial uptake of [(99m)Tc]1 by the normal mouse pancreas was low (0.74%ID/g at 2 min post-injection), [(99m)Tc]1 showed higher retention in the model mouse pancreas than that of the normal mouse, and exhibited strong binding to amylin aggregates in the living pancreas of the model mice. These results suggest that [(99m)Tc]1 is a potential imaging probe targeting islet amyloids in the T2DM pancreas. PMID:27219875

  15. Role of 99mTc-Sulesomab Immunoscintigraphy in the Management of Infection following Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Real, Raquel; Linhares, Paulo; Fernandes, Hélder; Rosas, Maria José; Gago, Miguel F.; Pereira, Jorge; Vaz, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Infection constitutes a serious adverse event in patients submitted to deep brain stimulation, often leading to removal of the device. We set to evaluate the potential role of immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody fragments (99mTc-sulesomab) in the management of infection following DBS. 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy seems to correlate well with the presence and extent of infection, thus contributing to differentiate between patients who should remove the hardware entirely at presentation and those who could undergo a more conservative approach. Also, 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy has a role in determining the most appropriate timing for reimplantation. Finally, we propose an algorithm for the management of infection following DBS surgery, based on the results of the 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy. PMID:22028965

  16. Hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Melmed, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-five patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis underwent hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA. A positive scan (nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct and gut) was found in 29 patients; 25 of them (86%) had surgically proven acute cholecystitis and 4 (14%) had chronic cholecystitis. Five of the 25 with acute cholecystitis had acalculous disease. A negative examination (gallbladder visualization) occurred in 63 patients; 18 (29%) had chronic cholecystitis and 45 (71%) were subsequently found to have nonbiliary disease. Three indeterminate studies (nonvisualization of both the gallbladder and gut) were obtained in patients with choledocholithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. In the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, the 99mTc-PIPIDA hepatobiliary scan was 100% sensitive and 94% specific.

  17. Preparation, biodistribution and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Rizvi, Faheem Askari; Roohi, Samina; Hina, Saira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khalid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar

    2015-11-01

    A complex of lincomycin was synthesized with technetium-99m. The synthesis was carried out by using SnCl2.2H2O as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as stabilizer. The effect of various parameters such as amount of ligand/reducing agent, pH value and reaction time on radio labeling process was studied. The characterization of the (99m)Tc-Lincomycin was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis Biodistribution studies were carried out by analyzing the model of bacterial infectious rats (Sprague-Dawley). The uptake of infectious lesions at different time interval was also studied by using scintigraphic technique. The complex showed effective target to non-target ratio for various inflammatory or infectious lesions. The (99m)Tc-Lincomycin effective binding to living bacteria and could be used successfully as an infection imaging agent. PMID:26639473

  18. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  19. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  20. Imaging necrotic myocardium: Detection with 99mTc-pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E. )

    1989-08-01

    The major value of hot-spot imaging of the myocardium is its ability to define areas of necrosis rather than areas of diminished blood flow or cellular function. Applications of hot-spot imaging include the diagnosis and quantitation of myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and cardiac transplant rejection. The two agents in clinical use, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin, are discussed. 52 references.

  1. 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin SPECT/CT Perfusion Imaging of Omental Extrahepatic Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ba D; Yang, Ming; Roarke, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of omental perfusion by an extrahepatic branch of the right hepatic artery depicted during pre-embolization planning with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT imaging. This omental scintigraphic finding corresponds to an extrahepatic branch of the right hepatic artery demonstrated by selective angiography and related CT angiography. The authors would like to add the omentum to the previously reported sites of extrahepatic vascularization encountered during the hepatic pre-embolization imaging. PMID:26650883

  2. /sup 99m/Tc dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cardiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with /sup 99m/Tc (Tc) after Sn2+ reduction. Stannous dextran (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding /sup 99m/Tc. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. /sup 99m/Tc dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights (4 X 10(4) . Dx-40; 5 X 10(5) . Dx-500; 2 X 10(6) . Dx-2000) and with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man.

  3. Deep vein thrombosis detection by 99m TC-MDP scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Moallem, A.; Lichsztral, R.

    1984-08-01

    A new observation is reported wherein 99m Tc-MDP is incorporated into recanalizing thrombophlebitis. In one patient with subacute disease, inflammatory vascularity is appreciated during the first one to two minutes after injection. Both patients showed evidence of late phosphate uptake in their greater saphenous veins two hours later. Intravenous isotope injections may be given in an arm vein: foot injections are not required.

  4. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP (k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)) and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure.

  5. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  6. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  7. Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Guzman, Fabiola; Jimenez Martinez, Thania Susana; Arriola, Humberto; Longoria Gandara, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions' influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1.

  8. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  9. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  10. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  11. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  12. Successful Labeling of \\text{99mTc-MDP Using \\text{99mTc Separated from 99Mo Produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Kin, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Sato, Yuichi; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Sato, Norihito; Ohta, Akio; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Teranaka, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    We have for the first time succeeded in separating \\text{99mTc from a MoO3 sample irradiated with accelerator neutrons free from any radioactive impurities and in formulating \\text{99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (\\text{99mTc-MDP). 99Mo, the mother nuclide of \\text{99mTc, was produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction using about 14 MeV neutrons provided by the 3H(d,n)4He reaction at the Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The \\text{99mTc was separated from 99Mo by sublimation and its radionuclide purity was confirmed to be higher than 99.99% by γ-spectroscopy. The labeling efficiency of \\text{99mTc-MDP was shown to be higher than 99% by thin-layer chromatography. These values exceed the United States Pharmacopeia requirements for a fission product, 99Mo. Consequently, a \\text{99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation formed by using the mentioned 99Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99Mo, which is currently produced using a highly enriched uranium target in aging research reactors. A longstanding problem to ensure a reliable and constant supply of 99Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated.

  13. Optimized preparation of a (99m)Tc-radiolabeled probe for tracing microRNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Xu, Xiao-jie; Ma, Chao; Wang, Rong-fu; Yan, Ping; Zhang, Chun-li; Sun, Hong-wei; Li, Ding

    2015-03-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have been used for a variety of purposes in microRNA (miRNA) research including functional evaluation, target recognition, and gene studies. Although several (99m)Tc-radiolabeled oligonucleotides have been reported in antisense imaging, none of those were related to miRNA tracing. Moreover, separation after labeling was always required to achieve acceptable radiochemical purity. In this study, we prepared a (99m)Tc-radiolabeled oligonucleotide under optimized conditions for the purpose of tracing miRNA. A 22mer anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO) was designed completely complementary to the sequence of mature miR-21. AMO probe modified with 2'-O-Methyl and phosphorothioate backbone was designed and synthesized. This probe was conjugated with a bifunctional chelator S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (NHS-MAG3) via a primary amine on 5'-end. Furthermore, it was radiolabeled and its optimization labeling conditions were performed by varying the amount of stannous ion, (99m)Tc-pertecnetate, and reaction time, respectively. Finally, the labeled product was identified by gel electrophoresis and evaluated for its serum stability. The AMO was synthesized with partial 2'-OMe and phosphorothioate modification to improve its stability. Excess of MAG3 impurity was removed by precipitation of tin and MAG3 after the conjugation. The labeling efficiency reached 97 % under the optimal reaction conditions of 2 μg/μL SnCl2·2H2O addition, (99m)Tc solution with high specific activity, and 90-min reaction at room temperature. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the peak of radioactivity located the same position of oligomer, which identified the successful radiolabeling. After incubated with human fresh serum for 12 h, labeled AMO showed good stability with high radiochemical purity and no significant degradation. A (99m)Tc-labeled AMO targeting miR-21 can be prepared with high labeling efficiency under optimized conditions, which provides a good support for

  14. Use of 99mTc-DISIDA biliary scanning with morphine provocation for the detection of elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P; Turner, J; Dobbs, B; Burt, M; Chapman, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Endoscopic biliary manometry is useful in the assessment of patients with types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, but it is time consuming and invasive.
AIM—To investigate the role of 99mTc-DISIDA scanning, with and without morphine provocation, as a non-invasive investigation in these patients compared with endoscopic biliary manometry.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—A total of 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II (n=21) or III (n=13) sphincter of Oddi dysfunction were studied. Biliary scintigraphy with 100 MBq of 99mTc-DISIDA was carried out with and without morphine provocation (0.04 mg/kg intravenously) and time/activity curves were compared with the results of subsequent endoscopic biliary manometry.
RESULTS—Eighteen (nine type II, nine type III) of the 34 (53%) patients had sphincter of Oddi basal pressures above the upper limit of normal (40 mm Hg). In the standard DISIDA scan without morphine, no significant differences were observed in time to maximal activity (Tmax) or percentage excretion at 45 or 60 minutes between those with normal and those with abnormal biliary manometry. However, following morphine provocation, median percentage excretion at 60 minutes was 4.9% in those with abnormal manometry and 28.2% in the normal manometry group (p=0.002). Using a cut off value of 15% excretion at 60 minutes, the sensitivity for detecting elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure by the morphine augmented DISIDA scan was 83% and specificity was 81%. Also, 14 of the 18 patients with abnormal manometry complained of biliary-type pain after morphine infusion compared with only two of 16 patients in the normal manometry group (p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—99mTc-DISIDA with morphine provocation is a useful non-invasive investigation for types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction to detect those with elevated sphincter basal pressures who may respond to endoscopic sphincterotomy.


Keywords: sphincter of Oddi

  15. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  16. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  17. Kit for the rapid preparation of .sup.99m Tc red blood cells

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Powell; Smith, Terry D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and sample kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc-labeled red blood cells in a closed, sterile system. A partially evacuated tube, containing a freeze-dried stannous citrate formulation with heparin as an anticoagulant, allows whole blood to be automatically drawn from the patient. The radioisotope is added at the end of the labeling sequence to minimize operator exposure. Consistent 97% yields in 20 minutes are obtained with small blood samples. Freeze-dried kits have remained stable after five months.

  18. Spectrum of 99m-Tc-IDA cholescintigraphic patterns in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Badia, J.; Sugarman, L.A.; Kluger, L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with 99m-Tc labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives has proved to be extremely reliable in the evaluation of suspected acute cholecystitis. The major diagnostic feature of the study is the presence (cystic dust patency) or absence (cystic duct obstruction) of gallbladder visualization. Secondary findings include degree and rate of liver uptake, visualization and caliber of the intrahepatic and common bile ducts, and the presence of intestinal activity as well as rapidity of biliary tract-to-bowel transit of the radiotracer. Various combinations of these secondary parameters result in a spectrum of cholescintigraphic patterns which can assist in determining the cause of the patient's acute clinical problem.

  19. Clinical experience with 99mTc-disofenin as a cholescintigraphic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.; Jansholt, A.L.; Vera, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    99mTc-disofenin, a derivative of iminodiacetic acid, was used for cholescintigraphy in 6 volunteers (in addition to assessment of blood and urine clearance) and in 82 patients referred for evaluation of hepatobiliary tract disease. This radionuclide was cleared rapidly from the blood by the hepatocytes, which permitted satisfactory to excellent images of the hepatobiliary system; interference by renal activity was seen in only 9/82 patients (11%). Acute cholecystitis was correctly diagnosed in 20 patients, although 9 (45%) had jaundice; bilirubin levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.6 mg/dl. The biliary tract was normal in 16 of the 27 patients with jaundice (60%).

  20. Two year experience with /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy in teaching hospital practice

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, N.V.; Friend, P.J.; Wraight, E.P.

    1986-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four sequential patients who underwent /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy have been studied. Patients were investigated for suspected acute cholecystitis, chronic cholelithiasis, enterogastric reflux or jaundice, and in the assessment of biliary tract drainage after transplantation of the liver and other operations of the biliary tract. The technique is most valuable in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis when its accuracy rate is 96 per cent; it is also useful in the assessment of postoperative biliary drainage. It is least helpful in the investigation of jaundice and suspected chronic cholelithiasis.

  1. CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrate functional differences between the liver lobes

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Tokorodani, Ryoutarou; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Hata, Yasuhiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Murata, Yoriko; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the functional differences between the 2 liver lobes in non-cirrhotic patients by using computed tomography/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (CT/99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion images. METHODS: Between December 2008 and March 2012, 264 non-cirrhotic patients underwent preoperative liver function assessment using CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. Of these, 30 patients, in whom the influence of a tumor on the liver parenchyma was estimated to be negligible, were selected. Specifically, the selected patients were required to meet either of the following criteria: (1) the presence of an extrahepatic tumor; or (2) presence of a single small intrahepatic tumor. These 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the percentage volume (%Volume) and the percentage function (%Function) of each lobe. The ratio between the %Function and %Volume (function-to-volume ratio) of each lobe was also calculated, and the ratios were compared between the 2 lobes. Furthermore, the correlations between the function-to-volume ratio and each of 2 liver parameters [lobe volume and diameter ratio of the left portal vein to the right portal vein (LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio)] were investigated. RESULTS: The median values of %Volume and %Function were 62.6% and 67.1% in the right lobe, with %Function being significantly higher than %Volume (P < 0.01). The median values of %Volume and %Function were 31.0% and 28.7% in the left lobe, with %Function being significantly lower than %Volume (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratios of the right lobe (1.04-1.14) were significantly higher than those of the left lobe (0.74-0.99) (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratio showed no significant correlation between the lobe volume in either lobe. In contrast, the function-to-volume ratio showed significant correlations with the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio in both lobes (right lobe: negative correlation, rs = -0.37, P = 0.048; left lobe: positive

  2. Spatially resolved assessment of hepatic function using 99mTc-IDA SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 99mTc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) hepatobiliary imaging is usually quantified for hepatic function on the entire liver or regions of interest (ROIs) in the liver. The authors presented a method to estimate the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) voxel-by-voxel from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with a 99mTc-labeled IDA agent of mebrofenin and evaluated the spatially resolved HEF measurements with an independent physiological measurement.Methods: Fourteen patients with intrahepatic cancers were treated with radiation therapy (RT) and imaged by 99mTc-mebrofenin SPECT before and 1 month after RT. The dynamic SPECT volumes were with a resolution of 3.9 × 3.9 × 2.5 mm{sup 3}. Throughout the whole liver with approximate 50 000 voxels, voxelwise HEF quantifications were estimated and compared between using arterial input function (AIF) from the heart and using vascular input function (VIF) from the spleen. The correlation between mean of the HEFs over the nontumor liver tissue and the overall liver function measured by Indocyanine green clearance half-time (T1/2) was assessed. Variation of the voxelwise estimation was evaluated in ROIs drawn in relatively homogeneous regions of the livers. The authors also examined effects of the time range parameter on the voxelwise HEF quantification.Results: Mean of the HEFs over the liver estimated using AIF significantly correlated with the physiological measurement T1/2 (r= 0.52, p= 0.0004), and the correlation was greatly improved by using VIF (r= 0.79, p < 0.0001). The parameter of time range for the retention phase did not lead to a significant difference in the means of the HEFs in the ROIs. Using VIF and a retention phase time range of 7–30 min, the relative variation of the voxelwise HEF in the ROIs was 10%± 6% of respective mean HEF.Conclusions: The voxelwise HEF derived from 99mTc-IDA SPECT by the deconvolution analysis is feasible to assess the spatial distribution of hepatic function in the

  3. Survey of /sup 99m/Tc contamination of laboratory personnel: hand decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Van Tuinen, R.J.; Lukes, S.J.; Feller, P.A.

    1980-11-01

    Decontamination after exposure to various /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals was tested with serial hand washings both with and without soap. All radiopharmaceuticals were removed more effectively with soap and the degree of decontamination related closely to the number of washings. The affinity of the radiopharmaceuticals for the skin varied, depending upon the labeled material, and only macroaggregated albumin was effectively removed to less than 1% of its original activity with soap. Activity transfer to the opposite hand could be substantial with macroaggregated albumin and sulfur colloid if soap is not used.

  4. Indirect evidence of intravesical ureterocele on 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepa; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Misra, Ritu; Ali, Md Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Ureterocele is a common ureteric anomaly detected in pediatric population. Ureterocele diagnosis and evaluation need a variety of radiological methods. We report a case of 5-year-old female child sent for 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and excretory function of kidneys in view of right-sided hydroureteronephrosis and pyonephrosis with percutaneous tube in situ. Incidental photopenia was noted in the urinary bladder. On ultrasonography of abdomen cause of this photopenia was found to be an intravesical ureterocele. PMID:27095867

  5. (99m)Tc-amitrole as a novel selective imaging probe for solid tumor: In silico and preclinical pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Essa, B M; Sakr, T M; Khedr, Mohammed A; El-Essawy, F A; El-Mohty, A A

    2015-08-30

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) inhibitors are very selective for solid tumor due to their high binding affinity to the LPO enzyme. A computational study was used to select top-ranked LPO inhibitor (alone and in complex with (99m)Tc) with high in silico affinity. The novel prepared (99m)Tc-amitrole complex demonstrated both in silico and in vivo high affinity toward solid tumors.(99m)Tc-amitrole was radio-synthesized with a high radiochemical yield (89.7±3.25). It showed in vitro stability for up to 6h. Its preclinical evaluation in solid tumor-bearing mice showed high retention and biological accumulation in solid tumor cells with a high Target/Non-Target (T/NT) ratio equal to 4.9 at 60min post-injection. The data described previously could recommend (99m)Tc-amitrole as potential targeting scintigraphic probe for solid tumor imaging. PMID:25956074

  6. 99mTc-N4amG: Synthesis Biodistribution and Imaging in Breast Tumor-bearing Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Ning; Chanda, Mithu; Yu, Dong-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Zhang, Yin-Han; Mendez, Richard; Yang, David J.

    2013-01-01

    99mTc-N4-guanine (99mTc-N4amG) was synthesized and evaluated in this study. Cellular uptake and cellular fraction studies were performed to evaluate the cell penetrating ability. Biodistribution and planar imaging were conducted in breast tumor-bearing rats. Up to 17%ID uptake was observed in cellular uptake study with 40% of 99mTc-N4amG was accumulated in the nucleus. Biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies showed increased tumor/muscle count density ratios as a function of time. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using 99mTc-N4amG in tumor specific imaging. PMID:23208240

  7. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average

  8. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the

  9. Development of kit formulations for (99m) TcN-MPO: a cationic radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Liu, Shuang

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a kit formulation for [(99m) TcN(mpo)(PNP5)](+) (MPO = 2-mercaptopyridine oxide), ((99m) TcN-MPO) to support its clinical evaluations as a SPECT radiotracer. Radiolabeling studies were performed using three different formulations (two-vial formulation and single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2 ) to explore the factors influencing radiochemical purity (RCP) of (99m) TcN-MPO. We found that the most important factor affecting the RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO was the purity of PNP5. (99m) TcN-MPO was prepared >98% RCP (n = 20) using the two-vial formulation. For single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2 , β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is particularly useful as a stabilizer for PNP5. The RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO was 95-98% using β-CD, but its RCP was only 90-93% with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). It seems that PNP5 fits better into the inner cavity of β-CD, which forms more stable inclusion complex than γ-CD in the single-vial formulations. The results from biodistribution and imaging studies in Sprague-Dawley rats clearly demonstrated biological equivalence of three different formulations. Single photon-emission computed tomography data suggested that high quality images could be obtained at 0-30-min post-injection without significant interference from the liver radioactivity. Considering the ease for (99m) Tc-labeling and high RCP of (99m) TcN-MPO, the non-SnCl2 single-vial formulation is an attractive choice for future clinical studies. PMID:25070025

  10. Simultaneous administration of 111In-human immunoglobulin and 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mairal, L; de Lima, P A; Martin-Comin, J; Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Roca, M; Ricart, Y; Ramos, M

    1995-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn's disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. These results confirm that 111In-human polyclonal scintigraphy is less sensitive than 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy both for the diagnosis of IBD and in the evaluation of disease extension. Nevertheless, if leucocyte labelling is not available, labelled IgG can be used only for diagnostic purposes. PMID:7498228

  11. Method for the production of {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, R.G.; Christian, J.D.; Grover, S.B.; Petti, D.A.; Terry, W.K.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1998-09-01

    An improved method is described for producing {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo compounds. {sup 100}Mo metal or {sup 100}MoO{sub 3} is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} with an optimum depth of 0.5--5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} which contains vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}, vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 3}, and vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O{sub 2(g)}) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} and vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} into a condensed {sup 99m}Tc-containing reaction product which is collected. 1 fig.

  12. Method for the production of .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Ralph G.; Christian, Jerry D.; Grover, S. Blaine; Petti, David A.; Terry, William K.; Yoon, Woo Y.

    1998-01-01

    An improved method for producing .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo compounds. .sup.100 Mo metal or .sup.100 MoO.sub.3 is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 with an optimum depth of 0.5-5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 which contains vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3, vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.3, and vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.2. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O.sub.2(g)) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 and vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 into a condensed .sup.99m Tc-containing reaction product which is collected.

  13. Comparison of 18F PET and 99mTc SPECT imaging in phantoms and in tumored mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xinrong; Pretorius, P Hendrik; Liang, Minmin; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2010-08-18

    Our objective was to compare the performance of a micro-single photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT) with that of a micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) in a Her2+ tumored mice using an anti-Her2 nanoparticle radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and (18)F. Camera performance was first compared using phantoms; then a tumored mouse administered the (99m)Tc-nanoparticle was imaged on a Bioscan NanoSPECT/CT, while another tumored mouse received the identical nanoparticle, labeled now with (18)F, and was imaged on a Philips Mosaic HP PET camera. The nanoparticle was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc via MAG(3) chelation and with (18)F via SFB as an intermediate. Phantom imaging showed that the resolution of the SPECT camera was clearly superior, but even with 4 heads and multipinhole collimators, detection sensitivity was 15-fold lower. Radiolabeling of the nanoparticle by chelation with (99m)Tc was considerably easier and safer than manual covalent attachment of (18)F. Both cameras provided accurate quantitation of radioactivity over a broad range. In conclusion, when deciding between (99m)Tc vs (18)F, an advantage rests with the chelation of (99m)Tc over covalent attachment of (18)F, achieved manually or otherwise, but with these small animal cameras, this choice also results in trading lower sensitivity for higher resolution. PMID:20681508

  14. (99m)Tc-human serum albumin nanocolloids: particle sizing and radioactivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Persico, Marco G; Lodola, Lorenzo; Buroni, Federica E; Morandotti, Marco; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Aprile, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Several parameters affect the biodistribution of administered nanocolloids (NC) for Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) detection: particle size distribution, number of Tc atoms per particle and specific activity (SA). Relatively few data are available with frequently conflicting results. (99m)Tc-NC-human serum albumin (HSA) Nanocoll®, Nanoalbumon® and Nanotop® were analysed for particles' dimensional and radioactivity distribution, and a mathematical model was elaborated to estimate the number of particles involved. Commercially available kits were reconstituted at maximal SA of 11 MBq/µg HSA. Particles size distribution was evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering. These data were related to the radioactivity distribution analysis passing labelled NC through three polycarbonate filters (15-30-50-nm pore size) under vacuum. Highest radioactivity was carried by 30-50 nm particles. The smallest ones, even though most numerous, carried only the 10% of (99m)Tc atoms. Nanocoll and Nanotop are not significantly different, while Nanoalbumon is characterized by largest particles (>30 nm) that carried the most of radioactivity (80%). Smallest particles could saturate the clearing capacity of macrophages; therefore, if the tracer is used for SLN detection, more node tiers could be visualized, reducing accuracy of SLN mapping. Manufacturers could implement technical leaflets with particle size distribution and could improve the labelling protocol to provide clinicians useful information. PMID:26198778

  15. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  16. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH/sub 2/O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH/sub 2/O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation.

  17. Demonstration of 99mTc-labelled plasmin on the surface of ex vivo thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Tengborn, L.; Hedner, U.; Rohlin, M.; Stahlberg, F.

    1982-12-15

    In an vitro system using the Chandler model for the preparation of in vitro thrombi trace amounts of porcine or human 99mTc-labelled plasmin was found to adsorb to the surface of a preformed thrombus. A radioactive lining of the thrombus could be demonstrated using autoradiography after addition of 99mTc-labelled plasmin in concentrations of 0.04 - 0.07 or 0.4 - 0.7 CTA u/thrombus made from 2 ml whole blood (0.035 - 0.35 microM). The same pattern was found for porcine as for human plasmin. The presence of tranexamic acid in concentrations of 3 to 12 mM did not affect the binding of plasmin indicating that the plasmin binding to fibrin was independent of the lysine binding sites. Furthermore alpha 2-antiplasmin was demonstrated on/in the thrombus also when no plasmin was present indicating a binding of alpha 2-antiplasmin to the thrombus. The plasmin bound to the thrombus was proteolytically inactive. In order to obtain thrombolysis most of the alpha 2-antiplasmin in the surrounding medium had to be neutralized.

  18. ( sup 99m Tc)diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in arthritis of the immature dog knee

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Soballe, K.; Henriksen, T.B.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Buenger, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between (99mTc)diphosphonate uptake and bone hemodynamics was studied in canine carrageenan-induced juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood flow was determined with microspheres, plasma and red cell volumes were measured by labeled fibrinogen and red cells, and the microvascular volume and mean transit time of blood were calculated. Normal femoral epiphyses had lower central and higher subchondral blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values. Epiphyseal vascular volume was uniform, resulting in a greater transit time of blood centrally. In arthritis, blood flow and diphosphonate uptake were increased subchondrally and unaffected centrally, while epiphyseal vascular volume was increased throughout, leading to prolonged transit time centrally. The normal metaphyses had low blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values in cancellous bone and very high values in growth plates, but a large vascular volume throughout. The mean transit time therefore was low in growth plates and high in adjacent cancellous bone. Arthritis caused decreased blood flow and diphosphonate uptake in growth plates but increased vascular volume and transit time of blood. Diphosphonate uptake correlated positively with blood flow and plasma volume and negatively with red cell volume in a nonlinear fashion. Thus, changes in diphosphonate uptake and microvascular hemodynamics occur in both epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone in chronic synovitis of the immature knee. The (99mTc)diphosphonate bone scan seems to reflect blood flow, plasma volume, and red cell volume of bone.

  19. Incidental finding of sacral hemiagenesis on the (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan as a casual regression syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, A Ozgur; Soylu, Kenan; Emer, Ozdeş; Ayan, Asli; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    A 69 years old woman with chronic low back pain referred to our Department for bone scintigraphy. Patient did not have any other complaint and his physical examination of the patient was normal. Whole-body scan was acquired 3 h after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). Distal sacrococcygeal region could not be observed during the visual analysis of the whole-body scan. Pelvic X-rays radiography and pelvic computed tomography of the patient, demonstrated hemiagenesis of the sacrum, which was consistent with type-2 sacral agenesis. Other structural abnormalities were not detected on the pelvic CT scan of the patient. This case is presented to demonstrate the rare congenital anomaly of sacral hemiagenesis causing empty pelvis appearance in the posterior projection of (99m)Tc-MDP whole body bone scan. This congenital anomaly could be associated with extensive abnormalities of the lower vertebrae, pelvis, and spine. PMID:19081863

  20. Evaluation of Simultaneous Dual-radioisotope SPECT Imaging Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-tetrofosmin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Mochiki, Mizuki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Yamaji, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of a positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system facilitates the simultaneous acquisition of images with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium (99mTc)-tetrofosmin. However, 18F has a short half-life, and 511 keV Compton-scattered photons are detected in the 99mTc energy window. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the consequences of these facts. Methods: The crosstalk correction for images in the 99mTc energy window involved the dual energy window (DEW) subtraction method. In phantom studies, changes in the count of uniform parts in a phantom (due to attenuation from decay), signal detectability in the hot-rod part of the phantom, and the defect contrast ratio in a cardiac phantom were examined. Results: For 18F-FDG in the step-and-shoot mode, nearly a 9% difference was observed in the count of projection data between the start and end positions of acquisition in the uniform part of the phantom. Based on the findings, the detectability of 12 mm hot rods was relatively poor. In the continuous acquisition mode, the count difference was corrected, and detectability of the hot rods was improved. The crosstalk from 18F to the 99mTc energy window was approximately 13%. In the cardiac phantom, the defect contrast in 99mTc images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition was improved by approximately 9% after DEW correction; the contrast after correction was similar to acquisition with 99mTc alone. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the continuous mode is useful for 18F-FDG acquisition, and DEW crosstalk correction is necessary for 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging. PMID:27408894

  1. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  2. Large abdominal photopenic area on 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Jennifer; Spaulding, John; Zack, Paul M

    2012-12-01

    (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging is frequently performed in conjunction with exercise or pharmacologic stress testing for evaluation of coronary heart disease. Interpretation of these studies includes systematic review of unprocessed rotating projectional images for evaluation of cardiac size as well as the presence of motion or attenuation artifacts. Occasionally, incidental noncardiac findings are detected on review of the projectional images. We report a case of a patient with a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who was found to have a large abdominal photopenic area on the projectional images. The photopenic area corresponded to the location of large intraabdominal cysts on abdominal CT and was consistent with hepatic cysts associated with the patient's known polycystic kidney disease. We review the differential diagnosis of large abdominal photopenic regions identified on myocardial projectional images and the importance of routinely analyzing these images for incidental noncardiac findings. PMID:22997275

  3. Evaluation of obstructed kidneys by discriminant analysis of 99mTc-MAG3 renograms.

    PubMed

    González, A; Jover, L; Mairal, L I; Martin-Comin, J; Puchal, R

    1994-12-01

    This study sought to develop a method of improving the differential diagnostic between healthy and obstructed kidneys using only parameters derived from the 99mTc-MAG3 renogram. The analysis included data from 46 healthy and 36 obstructed kidney units. The parameters calculated were: mean transit time (MTT), time at 20% of the initial height of the renal retention function (T20) and time to peak of the renogram (TP). A discriminant analysis was carried out to obtain a discriminant function in order to differentiate between the two groups. The best results were obtained using the function: (2.5629 InT20) + (2.1280 In TP) -27.1224 which correctly classified 97.56% of the cases, giving a sensitivity of 94.44% and a specificity of 99.99%. PMID:7854921

  4. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

  5. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  6. Retention of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, L.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Dam, M.

    1994-01-01

    {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate (ECD) was injected as a bolus into the internal carotid artery, and cerebral uptake and retention were recorded with fast-rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipment in four patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the {sup 133}Xe inhalation technique. The authors applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of {sup 99m}{Tc} d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar to that of HM-PAO, and it can be described by a triexponential function including an initial steep component representing the vascular transmitted spike, a second less steep component representing back-diffusion from brain tissue to blood, and a third, very slow component, representing the very slow loss due to incomplete retention of the deesterified hydrophilic metabolites. Computerized curve-fitting on data from three patients gave average kinetic values for the first-passage (unilateral) extraction of E = 0.60 (range, 0.59-0.61); the overall retained fraction of the tracer supplied was R = 0.44 (0.43-0.45), and the conversion/clearance ratio was {alpha} = k{sub 3}/k{sub 2} = 2.59 (2.38-2.77). This {alpha} is higher than that for HM-PAO, and therefore bicisate uptake as a function of blood flow is more linear than in HM-PAO. Less correction for backdiffusion is therefore needed. From 1 to 24 h there was an average loss of hydrophilic tracer of 3.5%/h, but the late distribution images were essentially unchanged over time, pointing to practically the same rate of loss in all regions. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Improving Tumor-Targeting Capability and Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers with PEG4 Linkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Jia, Bing; Zhao, Huiyun; Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) conjugates, HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 2PEG4-dimer = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2; and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (3PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), and evaluation of their 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-2PEG4-dimer: TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) and [99mTc(HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3PEG4-dimer) as novel radiotracers for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinities of RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of 125I-c(RGDyK) on U87MG glioma cells. It was found that the two PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs in HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 nM) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.7 nM) are responsible for their higher integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than that of HYNIC-PEG4-dimer (PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2; IC50 = 7.5 ± 2.3 nM). Addition of extra PEG4 linker in HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer has little impact on integrin αvβ3 binding affinity. 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer were prepared in high yield with >95% radiochemical purity and the specific activity of > 10 Ci/μmol. Biodistribution studies clearly demonstrated that PEG4 linkers are particularly useful for improving the tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer from non-cancerous organs. It was also found that there was a linear relationship between the tumor size and radiotracer tumor uptake expressed as %ID (percentage of the injected dose) in U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor models. The blocking experiment showed that the tumor uptake of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer is integrin αvβ3-mediated. In the metabolism study, 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer had high metabolic stability during its excretion from renal and hepatobiliary routes

  8. In Vivo Detection of Hyperoxia-Induced Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Death Using 99mTc-Duramycin

    PubMed Central

    Audi, Said H.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Zhao, Ming; Roerig, David L.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: 99mTc-duramycin, DU, is a SPECT biomarker of tissue injury identifying cell death. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of DU imaging to quantify capillary endothelial cell death in rat lung injury resulting from hyperoxia exposure as a model of acute lung injury. Methods: Rats were exposed to room air (normoxic) or >98% O2 for 48 or 60 hours. DU was injected i.v. in anesthetized rats, scintigraphy images were acquired at steady-state, and lung DU uptake was quantified from the images. Post-mortem, the lungs were removed for histological studies. Sequential lung sections were immunostained for caspase activation and endothelial and epithelial cells. Results: Lung DU uptake increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 39% and 146% in 48-hr and 60-hr exposed rats, respectively, compared to normoxic rats. There was strong correlation (r2 = 0.82, p = 0.005) between lung DU uptake and the number of cleaved caspase 3 (CC3) positive cells, and endothelial cells accounted for more than 50% of CC3 positive cells in the hyperoxic lungs. Histology revealed preserved lung morphology through 48 hours. By 60 hours there was evidence of edema, and modest neutrophilic infiltrate. Conclusions: Rat lung DU uptake in vivo increased after just 48 hours of >98% O2 exposure, prior to the onset of any substantial evidence of lung injury. These results suggest that apoptotic endothelial cells are the primary contributors to the enhanced DU lung uptake, and support the utility of DU imaging for detecting early endothelial cell death in vivo. PMID:25218023

  9. (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5), a potential radiolabeled probe for SPECT of multidrug resistance: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Carta, Davide; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Morellato, Nicolò; Salvarese, Nicola; Cantore, Mariangela; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio

    2013-06-01

    [(99m)Tc(N)(DBODC)(PNP5)](+) [DBODC is bis(N-ethoxyethyl)dithiocarbamato; PNP5 is bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)ethoxyethylamine], abbreviated as (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5), is a lipophilic cationic mixed compound investigated as a myocardial imaging agent. The findings that this tracer accumulates in mitochondrial structures through a mechanism mediated by the negative mitochondrial membrane potential and that the rapid efflux of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) from nontarget tissues seems to be associated with the multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport function open up the possibility to extend its clinical applications to tumor imaging and noninvasive MDR studies. The rate of uptake at 4 and 37 °C of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) was evaluated in vitro in selected human cancer cell lines and in the corresponding sublines before and after P-gp and/or MDR-associated protein (MRP) modulator/inhibitor treatment using (99m)Tc-sestamibi as a reference. The results indicated that (1) the uptake of both (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) and (99m)Tc-sestamibi is correlated to metabolic activity of the cells and (2) the cellular accumulation is connected to the level of P-gp/MRP expression; in fact, an enhancement of uptake in resistant cells was observed after treatment with opportune MDR inhibitor/modulator, indicating that the selective blockade of P-gp/MRP prevented efflux of the tracers. This study provides a preliminary indication of the applicability of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) in tumor imaging and in detecting P-gp/MRP-mediated drug resistance in human cancer. In addition, the possibility to control the hydrophobicity and pharmacological activity of this heterocomplex through the variation of the substituents on the ligands backbone without affecting the P2S2 coordinating sphere makes (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) a suitable scaffold for the preparation of a molecular probe for single photon emission computed tomography of MDR. PMID:23543234

  10. Synthesis of 99mTcN-clinafloxacin Dithiocarbamate Complex and Comparative Radiobiological Evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) preparation and radiolabeling through [99mTc ≡ N]2+ core with the gamma (γ) emitter (99mTc) was assessed. The potentiality of the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex was investigated as perspective a Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.) in vivo infection radiotracer in terms of radiochemical stability in normal saline (n.s.), human serum (h.s.), binding efficacy with live and heat killed S.a. and biodistribution in female nude mice model (FNMD). More than 90% stability was observed in n.s. for 4 h with the highest yield of 98.70 ± 0.26% at 30 min after reconstitution. In h.s., the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex was found stable up to 16 h with 15.35% side products. Maximum in vitro binding (68.75 ± 0.80%, 90 min) with S.a. was observed after 90 min of incubation. In FNMD, (infected with live strain) approximately six-fold higher uptakes was noted in the infected to inflamed and normal muscles. The higher stability in n.s., h.s., higher S.a. (live) up take with specific and targeted in vivo distribution confirmed potentiality of the 99mTcV ≡ N-CNND complex as perspective S.a. in vivo infection radiotracer. PMID:25538485

  11. Feasibility studies towards future self-sufficient supply of the 99Mo-99mTc isotopes with Japanese accelerators

    PubMed Central

    NAKAI, Kozi; TAKAHASHI, Naruto; HATAZAWA, Jun; SHINOHARA, Atsushi; HAYASHI, Yoshihiko; IKEDA, Hayato; KANAI, Yasukazu; WATABE, Tadashi; FUKUDA, Mitsuhiro; HATANAKA, Kichiji

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a self-sufficient supply of 99mTc, we studied feasibilities to produce its parent nucleus, 99Mo, using Japanese accelerators. The daughter nucleus, 99mTc, is indispensable for medical diagnosis. 99Mo has so far been imported from abroad, which is separated from fission products generated in nuclear reactors using enriched 235U fuel. We investigated 99mTc production possibilities based on the following three scenarios: (1) 99Mo production by the (n, 2n) reaction by spallation neutrons at the J-PARC injector, LINAC; (2) 99Mo production by the (p, pn) reaction at Ep = 50–80 MeV proton at the RCNP cyclotron; (3) 99mTc direct production with a 20 MeV proton beam from the PET cyclotron. Among these three scenarios, scenario (1) is for a scheme on a global scale, scenario (2) works in a local area, and both cases take a long time for negotiations. Scenario (3) is attractive because we can use nearly 50 PET cyclotrons in Japan for 99mTc production. We here consider both the advantages and disadvantages among the three scenarios by taking account of the Japanese accelerator situation. PMID:25504230

  12. Preparation and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc-ropinirole as a novel radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Motaleb, M A; Ibrahem, I T; Ayoub, V R; Geneidi, A S

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive brain imaging is a process that allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to formulate a novel radiopharmaceutical for the detection of brain disorders at early stages in susceptible patients. (99m) Tc-ropinirole was prepared by the direct complexation of ropinirole with technetium-99m. The results showed that the radiochemical yield (99m) Tc-ropinirole was 92 ± 2.87% and the radiochemical yield was evaluated by paper chromatography and HPLC. In vitro studies showed that the formed complex was stable for up to 6 h. In vivo uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole in the brain was 4.87 ± 0.15% injected dose/g organ at 30 min post-injection, which cleared from the brain with time till it reaches 2.3% at 2 h post-injection indicating that the brain uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole is higher than that of the commercially available (99m) Tc-HMPAO, which is 2.25% at 30 min. Pre-dosing mice with cold ropinirole reduced the brain uptake to 0.26 ± 0.01% injected dose/g organ, so this confirms the high specificity and selectivity of this radiotracer for the assessment of the dopamine receptors. PMID:26913705

  13. Labeling and evaluation of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-meloxicam as a preferential COX-2 inhibitor for inflammation imaging.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Sharifzadeh, Somayeh; Doroudi, Alireza; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2016-06-15

    Imaging of inflammation has an important role in dissolving problems in diagnosis and therapy of patients with inflammatory disorders. In this study meloxican as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been labeled with thechnetium-99m-tricarbonyl core ([(99m) Tc (CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) ) in order to evaluate its feasibility as an inflammation imaging agent for in vivo use. (99m) Tc-tricabonyl labeling of meloxicam was performed by its incubation with prepared precursor (99m) Tc-tricabonyl and heating in a boiling water bath for 30 min while various range of pH (1-9) was adjusted. The stability of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-Meloxicam was checked in human serum at 37 °C, and biodistribution was studied in mice. Labeling yield of 98.1 ± 0.4% was obtained corresponding to a specific activity of 0.14 GBq/µmol. The radioconjugate showed good stability in human serum. Our main achievement was high accumulation of (99m) Tc-tricarbonyl-Meloxicam in the inflammated muscle in mice (T/NT = 3.90 at 4 h post injection) which may diagnostically be beneficial for distinguish sites of inflammation. PMID:27061432

  14. Measurement of gastric mucosal blood flow in dogs by the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone clearance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Doebroente, Z.; Lang, J.; Sagi, I.; Varro, V.

    1982-07-01

    In anesthetized dogs, correlation was found between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and aminopyrine clearance measured in the same animal after administration of the gastric secretory stimulants vasopressin or glucagon. Similar correlation was observed between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and /sup 14/C aminopyrine clearance during histamine administration. The clearance values were always corrected by the actual degree of dissociation of the radioactive molecules. The results suggest that /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone is suitable to study circulatory changes in human gastric mucosa. Advantages of this compound include a much lower dose of radiation absorbed by the patient and his surroundings, a simplified measurement technique, and considerably reduced expenses.

  15. [Marked 99mTc-PYP myocardial accumulation immediately after reperfusion in a patient with acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshihiko; Ito, Kazuki; Nishikawa, Susumu; Yuba, Tatsuya; Tsubakimoto, Yoshinori; Takata, Hiroki; Kato, Shuji; Azuma, Akihiro; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    We reported a case of a 72-year-old man with chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in I, II, III, aVL, aVF and V1-6 leads. 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT showed defect in the anterior, septal, apical and inferior walls. Coronary angiography showed 99% stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery and total occlusion of the midsegment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Therefore, direct PTCA was performed for each lesion to achieve reperfusion. We didnt's see reperfusion injury during PTCA of the left coronary artery. On the other side, we saw severe reperfusion injury, such as slow-flow, arrhythmia and falling blood pressure during PTCA of the right coronary artery. After four hours, 99mTc-PYP myocardial SPECT showed marked uptake in the apical and inferior walls, and mild uptake in the anterior and posterior walls. After three days, severely-reduced uptake of 99mTc-PYP in the apex was noted, and mild uptake in the mid-portion of the anterior wall and the mid-portion of the inferior wall. Though reperfusion injury was seen, three was mild myocardial uptake of 99mTc-PYP in the area of the right coronary artery. On the other side, despite no reperfusion injury, there showed marked uptake during the acute phase and defect during the subacute phase in the area of the left coronary artery. Wall motion of the left ventricle was normal in the area of the right coronary artery and akinesis was seen on the left. These findings suggest that 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-PYP myocardial SPECT are useful for visualization of reperfusion injury during the acute phase and for estimation of function during the chronic phase, better even than electrocardiogram or coronary angiography. PMID:12701202

  16. Separation of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and molybdate using polyethylene glycol coated C18 and C30 resins.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J D; Wilson, J S; Romaniuk, J A; McEwan, A J B; Abrams, D N; McQuarrie, S A; Gagnon, K

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic adsorbents such as C18 and C30 were coated with PEG and subsequently used for the separation of Mo/Tc. The most effective resin for adsorbing PEG was the C18-U resin, which demonstrated a coating capacity of 97.6±2.8mg PEG per g of resin. The ability to adsorb pertechnetate was proportional to the amount of PEG coated on the hydrophobic resin. The [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate recovery during the separation of cyclotron produced (99m)Tc from (100)Mo was 91.8±0.3% (n=2). The resultant product met relevant USP monograph specifications. PMID:26829618

  17. Dual radioisotopes simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP using a semiconductor detector

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Miyagawa, Masao; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Ishimura, Hayato; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The energy resolution of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state semiconductor detector is about 5%, and is superior to the resolution of the conventional Anger type detector which is 10%. Also, the window width of the high-energy part and of the low-energy part of a photo peak window can be changed separately. In this study, we used a semiconductor detector and examined the effects of changing energy window widths for 99mTc and 123I simultaneous SPECT. Methods: The energy “centerline” for 99mTc was set at 140.5 keV and that for 123I at 159.0 keV. For 99mTc, the “low-energy-window width” was set to values that varied from 3% to 10% of 140.5 keV and the “high-energy-window width” were independently set to values that varied from 3% to 6% of 140.5 keV. For 123I, the “low energy-window-width” varied from 3% to 6% of 159.0 keV and the high-energy-window width from 3% to 10% of 159 keV. In this study we imaged the cardiac phantom, using single or dual radionuclide, changing energy window width, and comparing SPECT counts as well as crosstalk ratio. Results: The contamination to the 123I window from 99mTc (the crosstalk) was only 1% or less with cutoffs of 4% at lower part and 6% at upper part of 159KeV. On the other hand, the crosstalk from 123I photons into the 99mTc window mostly exceeded 20%. Therefore, in order to suppress the rate of contamination to 20% or less, 99mTc window cutoffs were set at 3% in upper part and 7% at lower part of 140.5 KeV. The semiconductor detector improves separation accuracy of the acquisition inherently at dual radionuclide imaging. In, this phantom study we simulated dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT by 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP. Conclusion: We suggest that dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc and 123I using a CZT semiconductor detector is possible employing the recommended windows. PMID:27408880

  18. [Clinical usefulness of 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual myocardial quantitative gated SPECT program using low-dose dobutamine loading in assessment of myocardial viability in patient with acute myocardial infarction--a case report].

    PubMed

    Irie, Hidekazu; Ito, Kazuki; Koide, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Yokoi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Reo; Kinoshita, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Tamaki, Shunichi; Sawada, Takahisa; Azuma, Akihiro; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    An 86-year-old man with chest pain was admitted to our hospital. Coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis of the mid segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery, therefore, a coronary stent was implanted. Immediately after the stent implantation, 99% stenosis occurred at the proximal site of the 1st diagonal artery because of stent jeal. On the 4th hospital day, ECG-gated 201TL/99mTc-PYP dual myocardial quantitative gated SPECT was performed at rest and during low-dose dobutamine loading. The 201Tl scintigraphy revealed moderately reduced uptake in the anterior, septal and apical walls, and 99mTc-PYP uptake was observed in the mid-anterior wall. A three-dimensional surface display of gated 201Tl SPECT images showed severe hypokinesis in the anterior, septal and apical walls at rest. On the other hand, during low-dose dobutamine loading, improved wall motion was observed in the basal anterior and septal walls, while no change was observed in the midanterior and apical wall movements. Three-dimensional surface display of gated 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual SPECT images revealed similar patterns of wall motion as those of gated 201Tl SPECT images at rest. During low-dose dobutamine loading, on the other hand, a three-dimensional surface display of gated 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual SPECT images revealed improved wall motion in the basal anterior, septal and apical walls, but worsened wall motion of the mid-anterior wall. After 6 months, a follow-up coronary angiography revealed no re-stenosis of the stent, but 99% stenosis at the proximal aspect of the 1st diagonal artery. Left ventriculography revealed improved wall motion in the apex and akinesis of the mid-anterior wall. These wall motion findings were similar to those visualized in the three-dimensional surface display of gated 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual SPECT images during low-dose dobutamine loading in the acute phase. These results suggest that 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual myocardial quantitative gated SPECT using low

  19. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  20. (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzolato, G.; Dam, M.; Borsato, N.; Saitta, B.; Da Col, C.; Perlotto, N.; Zanco, P.; Ferlin, G.; Battistin, L.

    1988-12-01

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease.

  1. Role of cholecystokinetic agents in 99mTc-IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Sugarman, L.A.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1981-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its C-terminal octapeptide analog, Sincalide, have been utilized in two separate roles for the evaluation of gallbladder disease. These are: (1) prior to cholescintigraphy to evacuate the gallbladder and optimized subsequent filling with radiotracers, and (2) to study contractile function of visualizing gallbladders on cholecystography and cholescintigraphy. As a preparation for 99mTc-IDA studies, it clearly facilitates earlier gallbladder filling in patients with chronic cholecystitis, thereby ruling out complete cystic duct obstruction. The problem lies in the fact that the use of CCK as a premedication markedly decreases the sensitivity of the study to detect chronic cholecystitis, since the findings become indistinguishable from patients with normal gallbladders. For this reason, the authors prefer to obtain delayed images, since chronic cholecystitis is frequently associated with gallbladder filling beyond the first hour. The role of CCK in detecting abnormal gallbladder function in the normally visualizing gallbladder also is controversial. Other studies as well as the author's experience suggests that as much as one-forth of positive cases may be associated with normal gallbladders at surgery and often even on microscopic examination. However, most importantly, the great majority of these patients are relieved of their symptoms following surgery. It appears reasonable that CCK or Sincalide cholecystography or cholescintigraphy may be detecting functional abnormalities before anatomic changes occur and can, therefore, serve as a useful examination in selecting symptomatic patients who may benefit from cholecystectomy.

  2. A simple and efficient method of labelling RBCs with 99mTc for spleen imaging.

    PubMed

    Ercan, M T; Bernay, I

    1990-01-01

    A new method of labelling human RBCs with 99mTc by the use of Sn-alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate (GP) is presented. It was tested for spleen imaging in 16 normal volunteers. The labelling was carried out during the heating (30 min at 49.5 degrees C) to damage the cells and cooling (10 min at R.T.) steps. The labelling efficiency was 95.5 +/- 1.5% with Sn-GP and was better than Sn-PYP (61.5 +/- 25.0%). The radioactivity retention of RBCs was greater than 96% after 6 washings. The spleen was delineated very well in all the subjects. The spleen activity reached a plateau at 20 min post-injection. Spleen-to-liver and spleen-to-cardiac blood pool concentration ratios were high (10.4 +/- 2.2 and 10.1 +/- 3.2, respectively) calculated at 30 min. The method is simple, rapid and efficient. PMID:2341290

  3. (99m) Tc radiolabeling and biological evaluation of nanoparticles functionalized with a versatile coating ligand.

    PubMed

    Felber, Michael; Bauwens, Matthias; Mateos, José M; Imstepf, Sebastian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Alberto, Roger

    2015-04-13

    Radiolabeling allows noninvasive imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) for assessing the biodistribution of nanostructures. Herein, the synthesis of a new coating ligand for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) is reported. This ligand is multifunctional; it combines the metal chelate with conjugating functions to biological vectors. The concept allows the coupling of any targeting function to the chelator; an example for the prostate specific membrane antigen is given. Derivatized NPs can directly be labeled in one step with [(99m) Tc(OH2 )3 (CO)3 ](+) . AuNPs in particular are highly stable, a prerequisite for in vivo studies excluding misinterpretation of the biodistribution data. AuNPs with differing sizes (7 and 14 nm core diameter) were administered intravenously into nude NMRI mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. MicroSPECT images show for both probes rapid clearance from the blood pool through the hepatobiliary pathway. The 7 nm AuNPs revealed a significantly higher bone uptake than the 14 nm AuNPs. The high affinity towards bone mineral is further confirmed in vitro with hydroxyapatite. PMID:25765900

  4. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  5. Radiolabelling rituximab with (99m)Tc in three steps procedure.

    PubMed

    Fontan, Charlotte; Bezombes, Christine; Salabert, Anne Sophie; Costes, Julien; Lopez, Raphael; Fournie, Jean-Jacques; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Coulais, Yvon; Payoux, Pierre; Tafani, Mathieu

    2015-06-15

    Lymphomas are the most frequent haematological malignancy. In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), more than 90% of tumor cells express the cluster of differentiation (CD) 20 antigen. At the end of frontline therapy, the evaluation of remission is based on computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography coupled with computer tomography (PET/CT) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG). Unfortunately, these techniques are not specific and cannot distinguish residual active tumor from inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a specific radiotracer of NHL CD 20+ cells for clinical applications. The radiolabelling technique presented, based on the use of tricarbonyl compound, does not include an antibody reduction because this step could damage the protein. Actually, rituximab, an anti-CD 20 chimeric antibody used for the treatment of these NHL, was radiolabelled with Isolink® (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl compound in a three-step procedure without using a specific antibody reducer. Radiolabelling yield was greater than 97%. In vitro experiments showed a conservation of antibody integrity. In vivo experiments using Single-photon emission computed tomography/CT showed significant tumor targeting 24 h after injection of the radiotracer. It was consequently possible to develop an immunoradiolabelling method to specifically detect the residual disease. As this procedure is fast, reproducible and gentle, it will be possible to comply with Good Manufacturing Practices. PMID:26017396

  6. Lymphoscintigraphy in lymphedema of the lower limbs using 99mTc HSA.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M K; Hamad, M M; Abdel-Dayem, H M; Sadek, S; Eklof, B G

    1992-02-01

    Edema of the lower limbs is a difficult clinical problem. Edema could be due to stasis, obstruction of the lymphatic channels, or increased production of lymph beyond the drainage capacity of the lymphatic vessels. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate among these varieties. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 164 patients complaining of swelling of the lower limbs, 2 women patients with lymphedema of the upper limbs following radical mastectomy, and 5 volunteers. All patients were injected with 1 mCi of 99mTc human serum albumin intradermally in the medial web on the dorsum of each foot. Data were acquired dynamically for both inguinal regions for forty-five minutes with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer. Static images were taken at ninety minutes for both legs and thighs and for the pelvis. Time activity curves were generated for the equal regions of inguinal nodes on both inguinal sides. The following patterns were recognized: normal pattern in 5 volunteers and in 57 patients, enhanced flow pattern in 17 patients, stasis with mild obstruction in 72 patients, and marked stasis with obstruction in 20 patients. PMID:1536476

  7. Significance of functional hepatic resection rate calculated using 3D CT/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin single-photon emission computed tomography fusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Orimo, Tatsuya; Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Yokoo, Hideki; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of the functional hepatic resection rate (FHRR) calculated using 3D computed tomography (CT)/99mTc-galactosyl-human serum albumin (GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion imaging for surgical decision making. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients who underwent bi- or trisectionectomy at our institution between October 2013 and March 2015. Of these, 26 patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, six with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, four with liver metastasis, and nine with other diseases. All patients preoperatively underwent three-phase dynamic multidetector CT and 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy. We compared the parenchymal hepatic resection rate (PHRR) with the FHRR, which was defined as the resection volume counts per total liver volume counts on 3D CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. RESULTS: In total, 50 patients underwent bisectionectomy and seven underwent trisectionectomy. Biliary reconstruction was performed in 15 patients, including hepatopancreatoduodenectomy in two. FHRR and PHRR were 38.6 ± 19.9 and 44.5 ± 16.0, respectively; FHRR was strongly correlated with PHRR. The regression coefficient for FHRR on PHRR was 1.16 (P < 0.0001). The ratio of FHRR to PHRR for patients with preoperative therapies (transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiation, radiofrequency ablation, etc.), large tumors with a volume of > 1000 mL, and/or macroscopic vascular invasion was significantly smaller than that for patients without these factors (0.73 ± 0.19 vs 0.82 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was observed in six patients. Major morbidities (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3) occurred in 17 patients (29.8%). There was no case of surgery-related death. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that FHRR is an important deciding factor for major hepatectomy, because FHRR and PHRR may be discrepant owing to insufficient hepatic inflow and congestion in patients with preoperative

  8. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    to discuss the opportunities and the drawbacks of these current diagnostic tests in a scenario where planar scintigraphy and/or SPECT with phosphonates, is the only metabolic imaging recommended by the most important Guidelines of the Scientific Societies dealing with prostate cancer. Other nuclear medicine modalities are in very few cases just cited, never recommended except in rare situations. Is there space for agents other than 99mTc-phosphonates to image bone lesions from prostate cancer? PMID:26337240

  9. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  10. A technique using {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W.; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases.

  11. Recognition-mediated cucurbit[7]uril-heptamolybdate hybrid material: a facile supramolecular strategy for (99m)Tc separation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Teena; Barooah, Nilotpal; Mallia, Madhava B; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee

    2016-06-01

    We report the construction of a novel non-covalently held cucurbit[7]uril-heptamolybdate hybrid material for the first time, and demonstrate its application as a generator bed for the facile and efficient separation of the (99m)Tc radiotracer, which is in demand for several theranostic applications. PMID:27180626

  12. Effect of diltiazem on stunned myocardium evaluated with 99mTc-pyrophosphate imaging in canine heart.

    PubMed

    Nohara, R; Kambara, H; Okuda, K; Ono, S; Tamaki, N; Konishi, J; Kawai, C

    1992-03-01

    The effect of diltiazem on stunned myocardium was evaluated by measuring the myocardial uptake of 99mTc-PYP (pyrophosphate) in open chest experiments with dogs. Myocardial stunning was induced by a 30 min ischemic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery. Regional wall motion was monitored by echocardiography of the epicardium for 2 h during reperfusion. After a 30 min occlusion of the coronary artery, it was reperfused and 99mTc-PYP was injected, followed by 201Tl 2 h later. The ischemic area was defined by Evans blue dye, and the infarct area by TTC staining. No dogs showed infarcts or 201Tl defects in this study group. Five dogs of the control-1 group (C1, ischemic area = 19.1 +/- 3.2%) showed decreased regional wall motion during occlusion (15.5 +/- 3.5% of control), and a slow recovery from depressed motion after 2 h of reperfusion (20.3 +/- 9.3%) with uptake ratio (compared to the non-ischemic area uptake) of 99mTc-PYP (4.96 +/- 2.28). In contrast, both groups with diltiazem infusion (20 micrograms/kg/min), started either 30 min before ischemia (D1 = 5 dogs) or just after reperfusion (D2 = 5 dogs), showed significantly better recovery after 2 h of reperfusion (D1:115.4 +/- 36.0%, D2:109.2 +/- 44.2%) than C1 (p less than 0.05), D1 and D2 groups also showed suppressed 99mTc-PYP uptake ratio (D1:1.06 +/- 0.33, D2:2.34 +/- 2.05, p less than 0.05 vs C1) in spite of comparable ischemic area. Four dogs with small ischemic area (C2:5.3 +/- 5.0%) did not show increased 99mTc-PYP uptake (1.15 +/- 0.35), and regional wall motion after 2 h of reperfusion was 96.1 +/- 24.1% of the control value (p less than 0.05 vs C1). Thus, diltiazem was effective in enhancing the suppression of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the stunned myocardium, and similar results were obtained for small ischemic areas. The protective effect of diltiazem appears to be strongly related to the mechanism of 99mTc-PYP uptake. PMID:1532431

  13. 99mTcO4−-, Auger-Mediated Thyroid Stunning: Dosimetric Requirements and Associated Molecular Events

    PubMed Central

    Cambien, Béatrice; Franken, Philippe R.; Lamit, Audrey; Mauxion, Thibault; Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Guglielmi, Julien; Crescence, Lydie; Mari, Bernard; Pourcher, Thierry; Darcourt, Jacques; Bardiès, Manuel; Vassaux, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy Auger and conversion electrons deposit their energy in a very small volume (a few nm3) around the site of emission. From a radiotoxicological point of view the effects of low-energy electrons on normal tissues are largely unknown, understudied, and generally assumed to be negligible. In this context, the discovery that the low-energy electron emitter, 99mTc, can induce stunning on primary thyrocytes in vitro, at low absorbed doses, is intriguing. Extrapolated in vivo, this observation suggests that a radioisotope as commonly used in nuclear medicine as 99mTc may significantly influence thyroid physiology. The aims of this study were to determine whether 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−) is capable of inducing thyroid stunning in vivo, to evaluate the absorbed dose of 99mTcO4− required to induce this stunning, and to analyze the biological events associated/concomitant with this effect. Our results show that 99mTcO4−–mediated thyroid stunning can be observed in vivo in mouse thyroid. The threshold of the absorbed dose in the thyroid required to obtain a significant stunning effect is in the range of 20 Gy. This effect is associated with a reduced level of functional Na/I symporter (NIS) protein, with no significant cell death. It is reversible within a few days. At the cellular and molecular levels, a decrease in NIS mRNA, the generation of double-strand DNA breaks, and the activation of the p53 pathway are observed. Low-energy electrons emitted by 99mTc can, therefore, induce thyroid stunning in vivo in mice, if it is exposed to an absorbed dose of at least 20 Gy, a level unlikely to be encountered in clinical practice. Nevertheless this report presents an unexpected effect of low-energy electrons on a normal tissue in vivo, and provides a unique experimental setup to understand the fine molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects. PMID:24663284

  14. Binding of ciprofloxacin labelled with technetium Tc 99m versus 99mTc-pertechnetate to a live and killed equine isolate of Escherichia coil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kate; Drost, W Tod; Mattoon, John S; Kowalski, Joseph J; Funk, Julie A; Crabtree, Amanda C

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes a simple methodology for evaluating the bacterial binding of ciprofloxacin labelled with technetium Tc 99m. Using this methodology, the binding of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by live Escherichia coli was compared with the binding of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin by killed E. coli and the binding of 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) by live E. coli. The antimicrobial effect of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin on E. coli was evaluated. Four groups were defined: live E. coli with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, live E. coli with 99mTcO4 , killed E. coli with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, and killed E. coli with 99mTcO4-. After 0, 2, and 4 h of incubation of 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units of E. coli suspended in 5 mL of sterile distilled water with 1.85 MBq of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin or 99mTcO4, 1 mL from each sample was centrifuged. The radioactivity of the bacterial pellet and that of the supernatant were measured separately, and the percentage of sample radioactivity attributable to bacterial binding was calculated. Of the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, 3.6% to 5.9% was bound to live or killed E. coli; only 0.1% to 0.2% of the 99mTcO4- was bound to live E. coli (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in 99mTc-ciprofloxacin binding was found between live and killed E. coli (P = 0.887). An antimicrobial effect on E. coli was seen with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin: colony counts were reduced after 4 h. The small amount of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin binding and the lack of difference in binding between live and killed E. coli may limit the utility of this methodology in evaluating the presence of E. coli infection. PMID:16479725

  15. Breast-specific gamma-imaging: molecular imaging of the breast using 99mTc-sestamibi and a small-field-of-view gamma-camera.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Phan, Trinh D; Blanchard, Deborah A; Miley, Abbe

    2009-12-01

    Breast-specific gamma-imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging, is breast scintigraphy using a small-field-of-view gamma-camera and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. There are many different types of breast cancer, and many have characteristics making them challenging to detect by mammography and ultrasound. BSGI is a cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific technique that complements other imaging modalities currently being used to identify malignant lesions in the breast. Using the current Society of Nuclear Medicine guidelines for breast scintigraphy, Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital began conducting BSGI, breast scintigraphy with a breast-optimized gamma-camera. In our experience, optimal imaging has been conducted in the Breast Center by a nuclear medicine technologist. In addition, the breast radiologists read the BSGI images in correlation with the mammograms, ultrasounds, and other imaging studies performed. By modifying the current Society of Nuclear Medicine protocol to adapt it to the practice of breast scintigraphy with these new systems and by providing image interpretation in conjunction with the other breast imaging studies, our center has found BSGI to be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The development of a small-field-of-view gamma-camera, designed to optimize breast imaging, has resulted in improved detection capabilities, particularly for lesions less than 1 cm. Our experience with this procedure has proven to aid in the clinical work-up of many of our breast patients. After reading this article, the reader should understand the history of breast scintigraphy, the pharmaceutical used, patient preparation and positioning, imaging protocol guidelines, clinical indications, and the role of breast scintigraphy in breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:19914975

  16. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  17. Hypoxia and Exercise Increase the Transpulmonary Passage of 99mTc-Labeled Albumin Particles in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Melissa L.; Farrell, Emily T.; Drezdon, Alyssa; Jacobson, Joseph E.; Perlman, Scott B.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2014-01-01

    Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVs) are large diameter connections that allow blood to bypass the lung capillaries and may provide a route for right-to-left embolus transmission. These anastomoses are recruited by exercise and catecholamines and hypoxia. Yet, whether IPAVs are recruited via direct, oxygen sensitive regulatory mechanisms or indirect effects secondary to redistribution pulmonary blood flow is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the addition of exercise to hypoxic gas breathing, which increases cardiac output, would augment IPAVs recruitment in healthy humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin particles (99mTc-MAA) in seven healthy volunteers, at rest and with exercise at 85% of volitional max, with normoxic (FIO2 = 0.21) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.10) gas breathing. We found increased 99mTc-MAA passage in both exercise conditions and resting hypoxia. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found the greatest 99mTc-MAA passage with resting hypoxia. As an additional, secondary endpoint, we also noted that the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-MAA was well-correlated with the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) during exercise. While increased cardiac output has been proposed as an important modulator of IPAVs recruitment, we provide evidence that the modulation of blood flow through these pathways is more complex and that increasing cardiac output does not necessarily increase IPAVs recruitment. As we discuss, our data suggest that the resistance downstream of IPAVs is an important determinant of their perfusion. PMID:25013985

  18. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir*

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro; de Lima, Carla Flavia; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. PMID:27141131

  19. Intestinal permeability to 99mTc-diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Casellas, F.; Aguade, S.; Soriano, B.; Accarino, A.; Molero, J.; Guarner, L.

    1986-09-01

    Intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease and its relation to periods of disease activity has been investigated by measuring the urinary excretion of DTPA labeled with 99mTc. Urine excretion in 10 control subjects was 2.7 +/- 1% of the test dose. Twelve patients with ulcerative colitis excreted 5.08 +/- 1.6% in remission, 10.61 +/- 2% during periods of mild activity, 19.41 +/- 0.9% during moderate activity, and 15.41 +/- 6.3% with severe activity. Sixteen patients with Crohn's disease excreted 5.7 +/- 1.9% in remission, 8.47 +/- 2.8% during mild activity of the disease, and 14.29 +/- 5.8% during moderate activity. No differences were observed between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, or between ileal and colonic forms of Crohn's disease. Excretion in remission was significantly greater than in control subjects and there was a correlation between excretion and disease activity. In serial determinations done in seven patients we found that urine excretion of the test substance correlated with disease activity. We also studied DTPA excretion in 10 cases with gastric or duodenal ulcer (2.28 +/- 1.4%), six cases of acute gastroenteritis (4.87 +/- 3.1%) and nine cases with other intestinal diseases (3.6 +/- 1.1%). In all these cases, DTPA excretion was lower than in inflammatory bowel disease. Our results show that the urinary excretion of DTPA is a simple test that measures accurately the degree of activity of inflammatory bowel disease. The test is useful in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, and detects intestinal permeability abnormalities even in clinical remission. Significantly lower excretions are found in other intestinal diseases. The test may be recommended as a screening test for use in clinical practice.

  20. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Free craniotomy versus osteoplastic craniotomy, assessment of flap viability using 99mTC MDP SPECT.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony

    2016-09-01

    There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability. PMID:27068014

  2. Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).

    PubMed

    Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin

    2009-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand. PMID:20025551

  3. Fast Monte Carlo based joint iterative reconstruction for simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Moore, Stephen C

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneous 99mTC/ 123I SPECT allows the assessment of two physiological functions under identical conditions. The separation of these radionuclides is difficult, however, because their energies are close. Most energy-window-based scatter correction methods do not fully model either physical factors or patient-specific activity and attenuation distributions. We have developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based multiple-radionuclide and multiple-energy joint ordered-subset expectation-maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm, MC-JOSEM. MC-JOSEM simultaneously corrects for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. We evaluated MC-JOSEM for simultaneous brain profusion (99mTc-HMPAO) and neurotransmission (123I-altropane) SPECT. MC simulations of 99mTc and 123I studies were generated separately and then combined to mimic simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT. All the details of photon transport through the brain, the collimator, and detector, including Compton and coherent scatter, septal penetration, and backscatter from components behind the crystal, were modeled. We reconstructed images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide projections in three ways. First, we reconstructed the photopeak-energy-window projections (with an asymmetric energy window for 1231) using the standard ordered-subsets expectation-maximization algorithm (NSC-OSEM). Second, we used standard OSEM to reconstruct 99mTc photopeak-energy-window projections, while including an estimate of scatter from a Compton-scatter energy window (SC-OSEM). Third, we jointly reconstructed both 99mTc and 123I images using projection data associated with two photo-peak energy windows and an intermediate-energy window using MC-JOSEM. For 15 iterations of reconstruction, the bias and standard deviation of 99mTc activity estimates in several brain structures were calculated for NSC-OSEM, SC-OSEM, and MC-JOSEM, using images reconstructed from primary

  4. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E.; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. 99mTc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n = 5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n = 9). 99mTc-duramycin (10-15 mCi) was injected intravenously at 1 hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3 hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting was used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, 99mTc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Results Intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6 ± 0.3 minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9 ± 64.7 minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76 ± 0.21, 1.66 ± 0.22, 1.50 ± 0.20 and 1.75 ± 0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88 ± 0.13, 0.80 ± 0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 and 0.88 ± 0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30 min post injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57 ± 0.74 and 3.69 ± 0.91 at 1 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89 ± 0.85 and 4.93 ± 0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05 ± 0.30 to 3.23 ± 0

  5. Dystrophic calcification in muscles of legs in calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia syndrome: Accurate evaluation of the extent with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Kunal; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia variant scleroderma who presented with dysphagia, Raynaud's phenomenon and calf pain. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed to identify the extent of the calcification. It revealed extensive dystrophic calcification in the left thigh and bilateral legs which was involving the muscles and was well-delineated on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Calcinosis in scleroderma usually involves the skin but can be found in deeper periarticular tissues. Myopathy is associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:26430328

  6. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, R.; Wells, R. G.; Ross, C. K.; Lockwood, J.; Moore, K.; Harvey, J. T.; Isensee, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99Mo from which technetium-99m (99mTc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99mTc with those obtained using 99mTc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99mTc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99mTc from a standard reactor 99Mo generator. The efficiency of 99Mo-99mTc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99mTc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99mTc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99Mo on a national scale.

  7. [Myocardial scintigraphic studies with 123I-MIBG, 201Tl and 99mTc-PYP in patients with cardiac amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Tanaka, M; Yazaki, Y; Kitabayashi, H; Koizumi, T; Hongo, M; Sekiguchi, M; Itoh, A; Gomi, T; Yano, K

    1997-11-01

    Myocardial scintigraphic studies, using 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) and 201Tl were performed in 4 patients with cardiac amyloidosis. In MIBG myocardial images, 2 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) showed complete or partial defect and the other 2 with primary amyloidosis had normal myocardial uptake of MIBG. In PYP myocardial images, diffuse myocardial uptake of PYP was mild in 2 patients with FAP and moderate in the other 2. 201Tl myocardial images revealed normal myocardial uptake of 201Tl in 2 patients with FAP and 1 with primary amyloidosis, and intense myocardial uptake in the other one with primary amyloidosis. These results suggest that myocardial scintigraphies with PYP and 201Tl may be useful for the detection of cardiac amyloidosis and estimation of its pathophysiology. And MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may provide useful information about sympathetic nerve abnormalities which vary with type of the fibril protein, clinical syndromes and disease process of cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:9455044

  8. Brain extraction and distribution of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in humans and in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, G.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Somnier, F.E.; Videbaek, C.; Hasselbalch, S.; Paulson, O.B.

    1994-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage of the flow tracer ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethylester (bicisate, ECD) was measured repeatedly in five patients by means of the intravenous (i.v.) double-indicator technique using {sup 24}Na{sup +} as an intravascular cotracer. After i.v. injection, the arterial concentration curve of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate was delayed and dispersed compared with that of the intravascular cotracer, presumably due to lung retention of the flow tracer. The corrected cerebral venous output curves were fitted using a three-compartment model with four parameters. At resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) values, the unidirectional brain extraction was 0.57 {+-} 0.05, the permeability-surface area product for passage from blood to brain (PS{sub 1}) was 0.48 {+-} 0.07 ml/g/min, and the distribution volume for bicisate was 0.74 {+-} 0.20 (mean {+-} SD). In a single patient, BBB transport after i.v. injection of bicisate was compared with that of a similar flow tracer, d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO), and similar values were found for the two tracers. In 19 rats, the brain extraction of bicisate was measured by means of the intracarotid double-indicator technique. The brain extraction was measured at resting, decreased, and increased CBF values. Low CBF values were obtained by hyperventilation and high values by hypercapnia. The degree of backflux of tracer from brain to blood was evaluated by means of the three-compartment model and was found to be negligible in these experiments. The brain extraction was 0.70 {+-} 0.1 and PS{sub 1} was 0.94 {+-} 0.27 ml/g/min. During hypercapnia, CBF increased from 0.77 to 1.09 ml/g/min, leading to a significant decrease in brain extraction, from 0.70 to 0.56. During hyperventilation, CBF decreased from 0.77 to 0.54 ml/g/min, leading to a significant increase in brain extraction, from 0.70 to 0.74. PS{sub 1} remained constant despite changes in CBF or bolus size. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  10. Towards (99m)Tc-based imaging agents with effective doxorubicin mimetics: a molecular and cellular study.

    PubMed

    Imstepf, S; Pierroz, V; Raposinho, P; Felber, M; Fox, T; Fernandes, C; Gasser, G; Santos, I R; Alberto, R

    2016-08-16

    Doxorubicin is a clinical benchmark drug, which is applied in the treatment of numerous cancers. Known for its accumulation in the nucleus and ability to intercalate into DNA, it targets quickly dividing i.e. hypermitotic cells. Through this mechanism, it could be an ideal structural motif for a new class of imaging agents, given that the new entity approximates the in vitro profile of the parent drug. Here we describe design, synthesis and biological activity of a small array of Doxorubicin-metalloconjugates (M = (99m)Tc, Re). We demonstrate that the conjugates preferably accumulate in the nuclear compartment, tightly bind to DNA and retain an appreciable cytotoxicity. Moreover, the Re conjugates effectively act as inhibitors of the human Topoisomerase II enzyme, which is the widely accepted mechanism of action of the parent drug. Since the conjugates effectively mimic the in vitro behavior of native Doxorubicin, the (99m)Tc compounds are prospective imaging agents. PMID:27097328

  11. Biokinetics of 99mTc-labeled gold nanoparticles conjugated to mannose for specific sentinel node detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-García, B. E.; Ferro-Flores, G.; de M. Ramírez, F.; De León-Rodríguez, L. M.; Santos-Cuevas, C. L.; Morales-Avila, E.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Pedraza-López, M.; Medina, L. A.; López-Rodríguez, V.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biological behavior in Wistar rats of a multifunctional system of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated to 99mTc-HYNIC-GGC and mannose for sentinel lymph node (SLN) specific detection. The radiolabeled nanoconjugate, characterized by TEM and UV-vis, vibrational, XPS and Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, was administered in rats (footpad) and the radioactivity levels in the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes determined at different times from 30 min to 24 h. Results showed that 21% of the injected radio-AuNP-mannose was retained in the first lymph node (popliteal) during 24 h. 99mTc-HYNIC-GGC-AuNP-Mannose is a potential target-specific tracer for SLN detection in breast cancer patients.

  12. Synthesis, radiolabeling and In Vivo tissue distribution of an anti-oestrogen glucuronide compound, (99m)Tc-TOR-G.

    PubMed

    Muftuler, F Z Biber; Unak, P; Yolcular, S; Kilcar, A Yurt; Ichedef, C; Enginar, H; Sakarya, S

    2010-04-01

    Toremifene (TOR) has been used as an anti-oestrogen drug for the treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. The aim of this study was the addition of the hydrophilic groups diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and glucuronic acid to the starting substance TOR and to label it with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radionuclide and to investigate radiopharmaceutical potential of the new compound. The synthesis reactions are completed in four steps, including enzymatic reaction, with the following substeps; preparation of microsomal fraction from Hutu 80 cell line and subsequent purification of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), estimation of protein quantity in microsomal samples and glucuronidation reaction. The results indicate that (99m)Tc-TOR-G may be proposed as a new anti-oestrogen glucuronide imaging agent for ovarian tumours. PMID:20530435

  13. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scan in diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Barter, S; Phillips, G W; Gibson, R N; Hodgson, H J

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scanning are all useful in diagnosis of patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In a study to determine their comparative value characteristic findings were recorded in all nine patients at ultrasonography and in seven patients at computed tomography. In contrast 99mTc liver scan showed a characteristic pattern in only one of eight patients. In our experience intrahepatic venous abnormalities were seen better at ultrasonography than at computed tomography. In addition, abnormality in the direction of blood flow could be detected by pulsed Doppler examination. Ultrasonography is relatively inexpensive, readily accessible, does not require administration of radiation or contrast agents and therefore should be the primary non-invasive investigation of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, or those at risk of developing it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3552905

  14. Preparation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with high labeling yield in boiling water bath: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A new formulation for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative, (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. Preparation of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was attained previously by a formulation in which vial has to be autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min. It is highly desirable to further improve the preparation method by developing a simplified one vial formulation which will be labeled in boiling water bath (95 °C) for 15 min and a high labeling yield will be achieved. A formulation contained 10 μg of TRODAT-1, 20 μg tricine, 40 μg SnCl2 and 20mg manitol was prepared. Labeling was performed at 95 °C for 15 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24h. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of more than 95% and specific activity of 64.3 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies of this new formulation in rats revealed similar regional brain distribution as compared with those obtained with the previous preparation in which brain uptake was high in striatum and striatum to cerebellum ratio was high. Requiring no autoclave facility for labeling, this new formulation will significantly improve the using feasibility of this radiopharmaceutical in clinic. PMID:24607434

  15. 99mTc-MDP uptake in SPECT/CT by a bladder hernia simulating inguinal metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JI, TIEFENG; GAO, DAPENG; CHEN, BIN; WANG, RENJIE; GAO, SHI

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male with a history of prostate cancer and high prostate specific antigen levels underwent 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), to identify bone metastasis. The patient possessed no previous history of serious illnesses or surgical procedures and no family history of malignancies. A whole-body CT scan revealed an intense MDP uptake in the right inguinal region on the anterior view, but not in the posterior view, which was suspected to be a metastatic lesion. However, there was no evidence of bone metastasis on the CT scan. In addition, an increased 99mTc-MDP uptake was indicated on the SPECT images in the right inguinal region, which appeared to be separate from the main bladder activity. CT images of the pelvis revealed an inferior tongue-like extension of the bladder into the right inguinal region. Fused SPECT/CT axial images indicated the circular accumulation of the 99mTc-MDP in the medial right groin, with well-defined walls that connected the accumulation to the bladder. The final diagnosis was a bladder hernia (T2N0M0), which may have been responsible for the misdiagnosis of bone metastasis due to the use of radiopharmaceuticals (99mTc-MDP) that were mainly excreted through urination. Considering the comprehensive situation of the patient, radical prostatectomy was performed. The bladder hernia was subsequently monitored by follow-up examination every 3 months, and remains alive and under follow-up to date. PMID:26893749

  16. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA aerosol clearances in humans. Effects of smoking, hyperinflation, and in vitro oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolop, K.B.; Maxwell, D.L.; Fleming, J.S.; Braude, S.; Hughes, J.M.; Royston, D.

    1987-11-01

    As an index of permeability of the alveolar epithelium, the clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is increased in several disease states. However, the usefulness of the test to assess the severity of disease is limited because healthy smokers also have abnormally rapid rates of clearance. Because the stability of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA bond might be a contributory factor, we tested the affinity of /sup 99m/Tc for DTPA in vitro, and in groups of healthy smokers (n = 13) and nonsmokers (n = 7) we measured the clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA, which have a similar molecular shape and charge. In vitro, sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide released as much as 98% of free /sup 99m/Tc from the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA complex. When incubated with human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, between 4 and 7% of free /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was released after 30 min, and 12% was released after 60 min. In vivo, the clearances of both /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA in the smokers (n = 13) were faster than in the nonsmokers (n = 7) (p less than 0.05). Within the smokers, the mean /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance (T1/2 25 +/- 4 min) was faster than the mean /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance (34 +/- 6 min), (p less than 0.05). For nonsmokers, the difference was smaller (T1/2 /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 56 +/- 6; T1/2 /sup 113m/In-DTPA, 62 +/- 6) and not significant. During hyperinflation, smokers (n = 8) and nonsmokers (n = 8) both demonstrated an increase in /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance.

  17. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t/sup 1///sup 2/ for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis.

  18. In vitro irradiation of blood with 99mTc: evaluation of dose and chromosome aberrations in irradiated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, A; Colas-Linhart, N; Stabin, M; Petiet, A; Guiraud-Vitaux, F; Jacquet, N

    2001-05-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes in medicine represents the principal source of artificial radiation to humans. Calculation of radiation dose is essential to the analysis of risks (biological effects) and benefits in any application, including nuclear medicine. The dose assessment in many cases is not necessarily straightforward. Many radiopharmaceuticals are labelled with radionuclides that undergo not only gamma-emission but also emission of Auger and internal conversion electrons. A typical example is technetium-99m (99mTc), which is used in more than 80% of nuclear medicine applications. In this work, in vitro studies have been carried out to evaluate the dose delivered to lymphocytes by human serum albumin microspheres (HSAM) labelled with 99mTc. Experiments were performed in order to score unstable chromosomal aberrations induced by 99mTc-HSAM, using conventional cytogenetic techniques. Henceforth, the relationship between activities introduced into blood samples and induced chromosomal aberrations were evaluated. To assess the dose absorbed in lymphocytes, electron and photon transport was performed in a simple model representing the system used for irradiating the cells using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In this report, analysis of dose-effect curve demonstrates a linear quadratic response for unstable chromosome aberrations. PMID:11441962

  19. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.

    1989-03-01

    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  20. Optimization of Imaging Parameters for SPECT scans of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 Using Taguchi Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Jay; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 can image dopamine transporters and provide valuable diagnostic information of PD. In this study, we optimized the scanning parameters for [99mTc]TRODAT-1/SPECT using the Taguchi analysis to improve image quality. SPECT scans were performed on forty-five healthy volunteers according to an L9 orthogonal array. Three parameters were considered, including the injection activity, uptake duration, and acquisition time per projection. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated from the striatum/occipital activity ratio as an image quality index. Ten healthy subjects and fifteen PD patients were used to verify the optimal parameters. The estimated optimal parameters were 962 MBq for [99mTc]TRODAT-1 injection, 260 min for uptake duration, and 60 s/projection for data acquisition. The uptake duration and time per projection were the two dominant factors which had an F-value of 18.638 (38%) and 25.933 (53%), respectively. Strong cross interactions existed between the injection activity/uptake duration and injection activity/time per projection. Therefore, under the consideration of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for radiation protection, we can decrease the injection activity to 740 MBq. The image quality remains almost the same for clinical applications. PMID:25790100

  1. Growth Arrest Line Mimicking Lymphoma Involvement: The Findings of (99m)Tc-MDP Bone SPECT/CT and Serial Bone Scan in a Child with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanwoo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth. PMID:27275365

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preclinical Evaluation of (99m) Tc-Labeled Macrobicyclic and Tricyclic Chelators as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Tracer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelam; Chuttani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil K; Singh, Bachcha

    2016-05-01

    The novel tetraaza macrobicyclic chelator 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-2,10-dione (TBPD) and pentaaza macrotricyclic chelator 9-oxa-3,6,12,15,21-pentaazatricyclo[15,3,2,1]trieicos-1(21),17,19-triene-2,7,11,16-tetradione (OPTT) were synthesized, characterized, and radiolabeled with (99m) Tc to produce (99m) Tc-TBPD and (99m) Tc-OPTT. These radiolabeled complexes were prepared with high radiolabeling yield, radiochemical purity, and good in vitro stability up to 24 h. The labeling efficiency of (99m) Tc-TBPD and (99m) Tc-OPTT was found 98% and 97%. In vitro serum stability of (99m) Tc-TBPD was found to be 95.2%, while that of (99m) Tc-OPTT 94.2% up to 24 h. Blood kinetics experiments of (99m) Tc-labeled complexes showed biphasic pattern of blood clearance. About 99.57 ± 0.89% activity of (99m) Tc-TBPD and 99.42 ± 0.88% activity of (9m) Tc-OPTT were cleared off blood stream at 24 h postadministration. The biological half-life of (99m) Tc-TBPD was observed: t1/2 (F) 1 h 5 min and t1/2 (S) 12 h and biological half-life of (99m) Tc-OPTT was observed: t1/2 (F) 1 h 10 min and t1/2 (S) 9 h 50 min, respectively. The biodistribution studies revealed that maximum uptake of (99m) Tc-TBPD was found in liver, concluded that excretory pathway is hepatobiliary, while that of (99m) Tc-OPTT was renal as well as hepatobiliary. The negligible activity observed in stomach confirming the stability of radiolabeled complex in biological milieu. In vitro cytotoxicity study of TBPD and OPTT did not show any considerable antiproliferative activity against cancer cells of human cervical SW756, HeLa, and glioblastoma U-87, U373 cell lines. PMID:26684343

  3. 99mTc radiolabelling of Fe3O4-Au core-shell and Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, M.; Alberto, R.

    2015-04-01

    The development of nanoparticle-based dual-modality probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is increasingly growing in importance. One of the most commonly used radionuclides for clinical SPECT imaging is 99mTc and the labelling of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 99mTc was shown to be a successful strategy to obtain dual-modality imaging agents. In this work, we focus on gold containing magnetic nanomaterials. The radiolabelling of magnetic Fe3O4-Au core-shell and Fe3O4-Au dumbbell-like nanoparticles with the [99mTc(CO)3]+ fragment is described. The key elements for this 99mTc labelling approach are novel coating ligands, consisting of an anchor for the Au surface, a polyethylene glycol linker and a strong chelator for the [99mTc(CO)3]+ moiety.The development of nanoparticle-based dual-modality probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is increasingly growing in importance. One of the most commonly used radionuclides for clinical SPECT imaging is 99mTc and the labelling of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 99mTc was shown to be a successful strategy to obtain dual-modality imaging agents. In this work, we focus on gold containing magnetic nanomaterials. The radiolabelling of magnetic Fe3O4-Au core-shell and Fe3O4-Au dumbbell-like nanoparticles with the [99mTc(CO)3]+ fragment is described. The key elements for this 99mTc labelling approach are novel coating ligands, consisting of an anchor for the Au surface, a polyethylene glycol linker and a strong chelator for the [99mTc(CO)3]+ moiety. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Analyses of Fe3O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles; analyses of Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles; 99mTc labelling of Fe3O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles; 99mTc complexes; 99mTc labelling of Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles; syntheses coating ligands. See

  4. Method for generating a crystalline {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} product and the isolation {sup 99m}Tc compositions therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, R.G.; Christian, J.D.; Kirkham, R.J.; Tranter, T.J.

    1998-09-01

    An improved method is described for producing {sup 99m}Tc compositions. {sup 100}Mo metal is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to produce {sup 99}Mo metal which is dissolved in a solvent. A solvated {sup 99}Mo product is then dried to generate a supply of {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} crystals. The crystals are thereafter heated at a temperature which will sublimate the crystals and form a gaseous mixture containing vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 3} and vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} but will not cause the production of vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. The mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled to a temperature sufficient to convert the vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} into a condensed {sup 99m}Tc-containing product. The product has high purity levels resulting from the use of reduced temperature conditions and ultrafine crystalline {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} starting materials with segregated {sup 99m}Tc compositions therein which avoid the production of vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} contaminants. 1 fig.

  5. Benchmark experiment for the cross section of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Aikawa, M.; Haba, H.; Otuka, N.

    2016-05-01

    As nuclear medicine community has shown an increasing interest in accelerator produced 99mTc radionuclide, the possible alternative direct production routes for producing 99mTc were investigated intensively. One of these accelerator production routes is based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. The cross section of this nuclear reaction was studied by several laboratories earlier but the available data-sets are not in good agreement. For large scale accelerator production of 99mTc based on the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, a well-defined excitation function is required to optimise the production process effectively. One of our recent publications pointed out that most of the available experimental excitation functions for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. To confirm the proper amplitude of the excitation function, results of three independent experiments were presented (Takács et al., 2015). In this work we present results of a thick target count rate measurement of the Eγ = 140.5 keV gamma-line from molybdenum irradiated by Ep = 17.9 MeV proton beam, as an integral benchmark experiment, to prove the cross section data reported for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo reactions in Takács et al. (2015).

  6. Dosimetry at the sub-cellular scale of Auger-electron emitter 99mTc in a mouse single thyroid follicle.

    PubMed

    Taborda, A; Benabdallah, N; Desbrée, A

    2016-02-01

    The Auger-electrons emitted by (99m)Tc have been recently associated with the induction of thyroid stunning in in vivo experiments in mice, making the dosimetry at the sub-cellular level of (99m)Tc a pertinent and pressing subject. The S-values for (99m)Tc were calculated using MCNP6, which was first validated for studies at the sub-cellular scale and for low energies electrons. The calculation was then performed for (99m)Tc within different cellular compartments in a single mouse thyroid follicle model, considering the radiative and non-radiative transitions of the (99m)Tc radiation spectrum. It was shown that the contribution of the (99m)Tc Auger and low energy electrons to the absorbed dose to the follicular cells' nucleus is important, being at least of the same order of magnitude compared to the emitted photons' contribution and cannot be neglected. The results suggest that Auger-electrons emitted by (99m)Tc play a significant role in the occurrence of the thyroid stunning effect in mice. PMID:26704702

  7. Method for generating a crystalline .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 product and the isolation .sup.99m Tc compositions therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Ralph G.; Christian, Jerry D.; Kirkham, Robert J.; Tranter, Troy J.

    1998-01-01

    An improved method for producing .sup.99m Tc compositions. .sup.100 Mo metal is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to produce .sup.99 Mo metal which is dissolved in a solvent. A solvated .sup.99 Mo product is then dried to generate a supply of .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 crystals. The crystals are thereafter heated at a temperature which will sublimate the crystals and form a gaseous mixture containing vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.3 and vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.2 but will not cause the production of vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. The mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled to a temperature sufficient to convert the vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 into a condensed .sup.99m Tc-containing product. The product has high purity levels resulting from the use of reduced temperature conditions and ultrafine crystalline .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 starting materials with segregated .sup.99m Tc compositions therein which avoid the production of vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 contaminants.

  8. Model-based correction for scatter and tailing effects in simultaneous 99mTc and 123I imaging for a CdZnTe cardiac SPECT camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstensson, M.; Erlandsson, K.; Poludniowski, G.; Ben-Haim, S.; Hutton, B. F.

    2015-04-01

    An advantage of semiconductor-based dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras when compared to conventional Anger cameras is superior energy resolution. This provides the potential for improved separation of the photopeaks in dual radionuclide imaging, such as combined use of 99mTc and 123I . There is, however, the added complexity of tailing effects in the detectors that must be accounted for. In this paper we present a model-based correction algorithm which extracts the useful primary counts of 99mTc and 123I from projection data. Equations describing the in-patient scatter and tailing effects in the detectors are iteratively solved for both radionuclides simultaneously using a maximum a posteriori probability algorithm with one-step-late evaluation. Energy window-dependent parameters for the equations describing in-patient scatter are estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Parameters for the equations describing tailing effects are estimated using virtually scatter-free experimental measurements on a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera with CdZnTe-detectors. When applied to a phantom study with both 99mTc and 123I, results show that the estimated spatial distribution of events from 99mTc in the 99mTc photopeak energy window is very similar to that measured in a single 99mTc phantom study. The extracted images of primary events display increased cold lesion contrasts for both 99mTc and 123I.

  9. Effect of Chelators on the Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Imaging Agents for the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Foss, Catherine A.; Falk, Alexander; Byun, Youngjoo; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99m, the most commonly used radionuclide in nuclear medicine, can be attached to biologically important molecules through a variety of chelating agents, the choice of which depends upon the imaging application. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly recognized as an important target for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). Three different 99mTc-labeling methods were employed to investigate the effect of the chelator on the biodistribution and PCa tumor uptake profiles of 12 new urea based PSMA-targeted radiotracers. This series includes hydrophilic ligands for radiolabeling with the [99mTc(CO)3]+ core (L8-10), traditional NxSy-based chelating agents with varying charge and polarity for the 99mTc-oxo core (L11-18), and a 99mTc-organohydrazine-labeled radioligand (L19). 99mTc(I)-Tricarbonyl-labeled [99mTc]L8 produced the highest PSMA+ PC3 PIP to PSMA− PC3 flu tumor ratios, and demonstrated the lowest retention in normal tissues including kidney after 2 h. These results suggest that choice of chelator is an important pharmacokinetic consideration in the development of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals targeting PSMA. PMID:23799782

  10. Dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renography: images for quality control obtained by combining pharmacokinetic modelling, an anthropomorphic computer phantom and Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina; Ljungberg, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In dynamic renal scintigraphy, the main interest is the radiopharmaceutical redistribution as a function of time. Quality control (QC) of renal procedures often relies on phantom experiments to compare image-based results with the measurement setup. A phantom with a realistic anatomy and time-varying activity distribution is therefore desirable. This work describes a pharmacokinetic (PK) compartment model for 99mTc-MAG3, used for defining a dynamic whole-body activity distribution within a digital phantom (XCAT) for accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based images for QC. Each phantom structure is assigned a time-activity curve provided by the PK model, employing parameter values consistent with MAG3 pharmacokinetics. This approach ensures that the total amount of tracer in the phantom is preserved between time points, and it allows for modifications of the pharmacokinetics in a controlled fashion. By adjusting parameter values in the PK model, different clinically realistic scenarios can be mimicked, regarding, e.g., the relative renal uptake and renal transit time. Using the MC code SIMIND, a complete set of renography images including effects of photon attenuation, scattering, limited spatial resolution and noise, are simulated. The obtained image data can be used to evaluate quantitative techniques and computer software in clinical renography.

  11. Radioimaging of melanoma using sup 99m Tc-labeled Fab fragment reactive with a high molecular weight melanoma antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Zukiwski, A.A.; Shanken, L.J.; Legha, S.S.; Benjamin, R.S.; Plager, C.E.; Salk, D.F.; Schroff, R.W.; Murray, J.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Twenty patients with metastatic malignant melanoma were studied with 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Fab fragment (NR-Ml-05) reactive with a high molecular weight (Mr 240,000) melanoma associated antigen. Patients received 40 mg unlabeled irrelevant MoAb (NR-2AD-IgG) and 7.5 mg unlabeled NR-Ml-05 (whole IgG) prior to infusion of 10 mg 99mTc-labeled (10-25 mCi) NR-Ml-05 Fab. Unlabeled MoAb were given to block nonspecific and specific binding sites. Gamma camera scans and single photon emission computed tomography were performed at 8 and 24 h postadministration. Of 172 preexisting lesions, 136 were imaged for a sensitivity of detection of 79%. Imaging was site and size dependent with the greatest sensitivity for liver lesions (100%) and the least for bowel (0%). Six sites (2 skin, 1 lung, 3 liver) were detected by single photon emission computed tomography that were missed on routine planar images. Forty-one additional unconfirmed sites were seen. Of these, 7 (17%) have been confirmed as tumor after a median follow-up time of 6 months. False positive scans included scar tissue, areas of chronic inflammation, an infected femoral aneurysm, and septic emboli. Nonspecific uptake of radioactivity occurred in kidney, gallbladder, bowel, thyroid, and myocardium. Human anti-mouse antibodies were detected in up to 69% of patients. In summary, radioimaging with {sup 99m}Tc-NR-Ml-05 is a sensitive test, especially for detecting liver lesions. It is safe, simple to administer, and convenient for the patient. Biodistribution and imaging sensitivity differ significantly from studies in which {sup 111}In-labeled anti-melanoma MoAb have been used.

  12. GPER-targeted, 99mTc-labeled, nonsteroidal ligands demonstrate selective tumor imaging and in vivo estrogen binding

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Hathaway, Helen J.; Norenberg, Jeffrey P.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of estrogen (E2) receptor biology has evolved in recent years with the discovery and characterization of a 7-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1/GPER/GPR30) and the development of GPER-selective functional chemical probes. GPER is highly expressed in certain breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers, establishing the importance of non-invasive methods to evaluate GPER expression in vivo. Herein, we developed 99mTc-labeled GPER ligands to demonstrate the in vivo status of GPER as an estrogen receptor and for GPER visualization in whole animals. A series of 99mTc(I)-labeled non-steroidal tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolone derivatives was synthesized utilizing pyridin-2-yl hydrazine and picolylamine chelates. Radioligand receptor binding studies revealed binding affinities in the 10–30 nM range. Cell signaling assays previously demonstrated that derivatives retaining a ketone functionality displayed agonist properties whereas those lacking such a hydrogen bond acceptor were antagonists. In vivo biodistribution and imaging studies performed on mice bearing human endometrial and breast cancer cell xenografts yielded significant tumor uptake (0.4–1.1 %ID/g). Blocking studies revealed specific uptake in multiple organs (adrenals, uterus, mammary tissue) as well as tumor uptake with similar levels of competition by E2 and G-1, a GPER-selective agonist. In conclusion, we synthesized and evaluated a series of first generation 99mTc-labeled GPER-specific radioligands, demonstrating GPER as an estrogen-binding receptor for the first time in vivo using competitive binding principles, and establishing the utility of such ligands as tumor imaging agents. These results warrant further investigation into the role of GPER in estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis and as a target for diagnostic/therapeutic/ image-guided drug delivery. PMID:25030373

  13. Diagnostic Performances of 99mTc-Methoxy Isobutyl Isonitrile Scan in Predicting the Malignancy of Lung Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in differentiating malignant from benign lung lesions. The PubMed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for relevant articles that evaluated lung lesions suspicious for malignancy. Two reviewers independently extracted the data on study characteristics and examination results, and assessed the quality of each selected study. The data extracted from the eligible studies were assessed by heterogeneity and threshold effect tests. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves (SROC) were also calculated. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and DOR of 99mTc-MIBI scan in detecting malignant lung lesions were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 4.22 (95% CI: 2.53, 7.04), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.31), and 25.71 (95% CI: 10.67, 61.96), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.9062. Meta-regression analysis showed that the accuracy estimates were significantly influenced by ethnic groups (P < 0.01), but not by image analysis methods, mean lesion size, or year of publication. Deek funnel plot asymmetry test for the overall analysis did not raise suspicion of publication bias (P = 0.50). Our results indicated that 99mTc-MIBI scan is a promising diagnostic modality in predicting the malignancy of lung lesions. PMID:27149482

  14. Imaging of CAIX-expressing xenografts in vivo using 99mTc-HEHEHE-ZCAIX:1 Affibody molecule

    PubMed Central

    HONARVAR, HADIS; GAROUSI, JAVAD; GUNNERIUSSON, ELIN; HÖIDÉN-GUTHENBERG, INGMARIE; ALTAI, MOHAMED; WIDSTRÖM, CHARLES; TOLMACHEV, VLADIMIR; FREJD, FREDRIK Y.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme involved in regulation of tissue pH balance. In cancer, CAIX expression is associated with tumor hypoxia. CAIX is also overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma and is a molecular target for the therapeutic antibody cG250 (girentuximab). Radionuclide imaging of CAIX expression might be used for identification of patients who may benefit from cG250 therapy and from treatment strategies for hypoxic tumors. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) scaffold proteins having a high potential as probes for radionuclide molecular imaging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate feasibility of in vivo imaging of CAIX-expression using radiolabeled Affibody molecules. A histidine-glutamate-histidine-glutamate-histidine-glutamate (HE)3-tag-containing CAIX-binding Affibody molecule (HE)3-ZCAIX:1 was labeled with [99mTc(CO)3]+. Its binding properties were evaluated in vitro using CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 renal carcinoma cells. 99mTc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:1 was evaluated in NMRI nu/nu mice bearing SK-RC-52 xenografts. The in vivo specificity test confirmed CAIX-mediated tumor targeting. 99mTc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:1 cleared rapidly from blood and normal tissues except for kidneys. At optimal time-point (4 h p.i.), the tumor uptake was 9.7±0.7% ID/g, and tumor-to-blood ratio was 53±10. Experimental imaging of CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 xenografts at 4 h p.i. provided high contrast images. The use of radioiodine label for ZCAIX:1 enabled the reduction of renal uptake, but resulted in significantly lower tumor uptake and tumor-to-blood ratio. Results of the present study suggest that radiolabeled Affibody molecules are promising probes for imaging of CAIX-expression in vivo. PMID:25434612

  15. Effect of "co-ligand" on the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled hydrazino nicotinic acid derivatized chemotactic peptides.

    PubMed

    Babich, J W; Fischman, A J

    1995-01-01

    Hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) derivatized chemotactic peptides radiolabeled with 99mTc- (via 99mTc-glucoheptonate) have been demonstrated to be useful for infection imaging [J. Nucl. Med. 34, 1964-1974 (1993)]. Since HYNIC can occupy only two sites of the technetium co-ordination sphere, the labeled product most probably contains additional ligands. Thus we hypothesized that glucoheptonate serves this role by acting as a "'co-ligand'". Due to the low molecular weight of the chemotactic peptides, the "co-ligand" used for technetium labeling could have profound effects on biodistribution. To evaluate this possibility, we measured the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled For-MLFK-HYNIC radiolabeled using four different "co-ligand"s: glucarate, glucoheptonate, mannitol and glucamine, providing a small series of hydroxyl-backbone ligands which differ in the number and type of ionizable functional groups present. Each preparation was injected into groups of 6 rats (approximately 10 microCi/rat) and biodistribution was determined at 5, 30, 60 and 120 min. Although small differences in biodistribution were detected in most tissues, the most prominent differences (P < 0.01) were observed in lung (glucoheptonate, glucarate > mannitol > glucamine), liver (glucarate, glucoheptonate, mannitol > glucamine), kidney (mannitol > glucarate, glucoheptonate, glucamine), spleen (glucarate > glucoheptonate, mannitol > glucamine) and GI-tract (glucarate, glucamine > gluco-heptonate > mannitol). These results provide support for the "co-ligand" hypothesis and indicate that the nature of the "co-ligand" can have profound effects on biodistribution. Although radiolabeling using glucamine as the "co-ligand" results in the lowest concentrations of radioactivity in most organs, the extremely low concentration of mannitol-labeled peptide in the GI-tract suggests that this may be the "co-ligand" of choice for most applications. PMID:7735166

  16. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  17. SPECT imaging of Moyamoya disease using /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO. Comparison with computed tomography findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mountz, J.M.; Foster, N.L.; Ackermann, R.J.; Bluemlein, L.; Petry, N.A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1988-10-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO was used to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in a 26-year-old woman with Moyamoya disease. This patient had an 18-month history of recurrent neurologic deficits and had angiographic evidence of Moyamoya disease. She had used oral contraceptives and cigarettes, but had no other risk factors for stroke. Single photon emission computed tomographic images showed bilateral and asymmetric reductions in blood flow to anterior and lateral brain regions. These findings correlated better with clinical symptomatology and suggested more extensive brain involvement than did computed tomography.

  18. Quantitation of brain perfusion with {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate and single SPECT scan: Comparison with microsphere measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pupi, A.; De Cristofaro, T.R.; Passeri, A.; Castagnoli, A.; Bacciottini, L.; Bottoncetti, A.; Dal Pozzo, G.; Santoro, G.M.; Antoniucci, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes and validates in a preliminary manner a method to measure the steady-state influx constant (K{sub 1}) of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate with one single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. The method is based on the analysis of the arterial concentration of the radioactivity. The results of this quantitation procedure were compared with regional CBF (rCBF) measurements made using {sup 99m}{Tc}-microspheres (MI). Two quantitative indexes of perfusion, fractional brain uptake (FBU) and normalized (with cerebellum) brain uptake (NBU), were also evaluated. Two SPECT studies were performed on seven cardiovascular patients who had no signs of neurological disease. In the first of these, {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate was used, while in the other, which was performed 2 days later, MI were injected into the left heart ventricle. The values of the FBU, NBU, and K{sub 1} of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate were calculated in several gray and white matter brain regions of interest (ROIs) and compared with the rCBF values measured with MI in coupled ROIs. Mean FBU values were 0.00008 {+-} 0.00002 and 0.00004 {+-} 0.00001 in the gray and the white matter, respectively. Mean NBU values were 0.99 {+-} 0.04 and 0.54 {+-} 0.05, mean K{sub 1} values were 0.36 {+-} 0.06 and 0.19 {+-} 0.03 ml g{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} and mean rCBF values were 0.51 {+-} 0.04 and 0.27 {+-} 0.04 ml g{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} in gray and white matter, respectively. Analysis of variance of the regression gave different F values for the regressions with rCBF of FBU (F = 19, n = 126), NBU (F = 289, n = 112), and K{sub 1}(F = 117, n = 112), and K{sub 1}(F = 117, n = 126). The regression of K{sub 1} versus rCBF was K{sub 1} = 0.08 {+-} 0.55 rCBF. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)-d,l-HM-PAO in rat brain: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, T.J.; Corlija, M.; Chaplin, S.B.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    The regional cerebral distribution pattern of (/sup 99m/Tc)-d,l-HM-PAO in rat brain was studied by autoradiography. The regional cerebral uptake of this tracer is related to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); however, the ratio of retained radioactivity (determined by digital imaging techniques) in gray matter compared to white matter is lower than that reported for the blood flow ratio. Considerable inhomogeneity is observed in cortical gray matter for at least 60 min postinjection, demonstrating that minimal, if any, cerebral redistribution of this agent occurs.

  20. Liver function in acute viral hepatitis as determined by a hepatocyte-specific ligand: 99mTc-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin.

    PubMed

    Virgolini, I; Müller, C; Höbart, J; Scheithauer, W; Angelberger, P; Bergmann, H; O'Grady, J; Sinzinger, H

    1992-04-01

    Twelve patients with recently diagnosed acute viral hepatitis underwent serial 99mTc-galactosyl neoglycoalbumin scanning of the liver (for up to 8 mo). Injection of 99mTc-galactosyl neoglycoalbumin (150 mBq) at a rate of 3.5 mg (50 nmol; 1 ml) revealed that the liver is the exclusive site of tracer uptake. Simulation of 99mTc-galactosyl neoglycoalbumin kinetics allowed quantification of galactosyl neoglycoalbumin binding to human hepatic binding protein. Return of liver function test scores to normal values was associated in two patients with hepatitis A, in four patients with hepatitis B and in two patients with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus infection, with increases in hepatic binding protein concentration (up to three times the initial concentration), binding rate constant and hepatic blood flow. In the other four patients (three patients with hepatitis B and one patient with cytomegalovirus infection) a prolonged course of disease was monitored. In the mean, hepatic binding protein increased from 0.41 +/- 0.11 mumol/L after onset of acute hepatitis (n = 12) to 0.78 +/- 0.21 mumol/L after 6 mo of follow-up (n = 10) (p less than 0.001). During this period, binding rate constant (72.4 +/- 12.6 vs. 82 +/- 11.5 mumol/L/sec; p less than 0.05) and hepatic blood flow (0.027 +/- 0.0051 vs. 0.031 +/- 0.0083 L/sec; p less than 0.05) increased. Hepatic binding protein concentration correlated highly with actual laboratory test results for liver function (r = 0.98; p = 0.0001). We conclude that scintigraphic evaluation of functional liver cell mass using the new receptor-tracer 99mTc-galactosyl neoglycoalbumin could provide an in vivo diagnostic means of quantifying liver function and assessing liver morphology. In addition, our findings suggest that changes in hepatic binding protein-receptor concentration are likely to occur in vivo. PMID:1551636

  1. Fast Monte Carlo based joint iterative reconstruction for simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-08-15

    Simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I SPECT allows the assessment of two physiological functions under identical conditions. The separation of these radionuclides is difficult, however, because their energies are close. Most energy-window-based scatter correction methods do not fully model either physical factors or patient-specific activity and attenuation distributions. We have developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based multiple-radionuclide and multiple-energy joint ordered-subset expectation-maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm, MC-JOSEM. MC-JOSEM simultaneously corrects for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. We evaluated MC-JOSEM for simultaneous brain profusion ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) and neurotransmission ({sup 123}I-altropane) SPECT. MC simulations of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I studies were generated separately and then combined to mimic simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I SPECT. All the details of photon transport through the brain, the collimator, and detector, including Compton and coherent scatter, septal penetration, and backscatter from components behind the crystal, were modeled. We reconstructed images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide projections in three ways. First, we reconstructed the photopeak-energy-window projections (with an asymmetric energy window for {sup 123}I) using the standard ordered-subsets expectation-maximization algorithm (NSC-OSEM). Second, we used standard OSEM to reconstruct {sup 99m}Tc photopeak-energy-window projections, while including an estimate of scatter from a Compton-scatter energy window (SC-OSEM). Third, we jointly reconstructed both {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I images using projection data associated with two photopeak energy windows and an intermediate-energy window using MC-JOSEM. For 15 iterations of reconstruction, the bias and standard deviation of {sup 99m}Tc activity estimates in several brain structures were calculated for NSC

  2. Sestamibi (99mTc) scan as a single localization modality in primary hyperparathyroidism and factors impacting its accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Alabdulkarim, Yousof; Nassif, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    Background The proper localization of a hypersecreting parathyroid gland is of vital importance for successful unilateral neck exploration (UNE) and parathyroidectomy. Aim: In this study we aim to evaluate the (99mTc) sestamibi parathyroid scan as a single localizing modality, and we also assess its relation to the weight of the gland and to the preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 170 patients from our hospital (Notre-Dame hospital) from 2005 to 2008, with a mean age of 56.6 years and a female to male ratio of 3.3:1. With primary hyperparathyroidism, all of them had (99mTc) sestamibi parathyroid scan for the localization of the parathyroid adenoma. Preoperative and postoperative PTH levels were recorded. The histopathology reports confirmed the diagnosis and weight of the diseased gland, which were recorded every time. The results were analyzed and correlated with the sestamibi results, to evaluate its accuracy. Results: Seventy-eight patients (41%) of the 170 had an exact match (EM) sestamibi results, 81 (51.6%) had a partial match, and only 11 patients were reported as mismatch. Analyzing the mean weight of the gland in each group between matching (EM, PM) versus mismatch resulted in a mean difference of 0.823 g (1.05 and 0.247 g, respectively) P = 0.045. Hyperplasia to adenoma ratio was more in the partial matching group (18.5%) versus the exact matching group (7.6%). Finally the mean PTH level was higher in the EM group (28.8 pmol/L) compared to the mismatch group (10.1 pmol/L) P = 0.02. Overall sensitivity and specificity for the (99 mTc) sestamibi in our data was 98.1 and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: (99mTc) sestamibi is a highly accurate test that can be employed as a single localizing modality for identifying a hypersecreting parathyroid, a UNE, or a parathyroidectomy. The weight of the gland plays an important role in the accuracy of the test, as also the preoperative PTH levels. PMID:20844661

  3. Direct Production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n) on Small Medical Cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Bernstein, A.; Buckley, K.; Celler, A.; Cockburn, N.; Corsaut, J.; Dodd, M.; Economou, C.; Eriksson, T.; Frontera, M.; Hanemaayer, V.; Hook, B.; Klug, J.; Kovacs, M.; Prato, F. S.; McDiarmid, S.; Ruth, T. J.; Shanks, C.; Valliant, J. F.; Zeisler, S.; Zetterberg, U.; Zavodszky, P. A.

    From the efforts of a number of Canadian institutions and private industry collaborations, direct production of 99mTc using medical cyclotrons has recently been advanced from a 1970's academic exercise to a commercial, economically viable solution for regional production. Using GE PETtrace 880 machines our team has established preliminary saturated yields of 2.7 GBq/μA, translating to approximately 174 GBq after a 6 hour irradiation. The team is in the process of assessing the accuracy and reliability of this production value with a goal of optimizing yields by up to 50%.

  4. Radiolabeled red cell viability. II. /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of heterologous red cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The authors developed a double in vivo crossmatch method using 2 to 3 ml of potential donor blood labeled with either 400 microCi of /sup 99m/Tc or 30 microCi of /sup 111/In-oxine. Data are presented for 19 crossmatches on nine patients, using one blood specimen labeled with /sup 99m/Tc or two specimens, one labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and the other with /sup 111/In. Normal values are given for standardization purposes. This method appears to have advantages over earlier in vivo crossmatch techniques using 51Cr-labeled RBCs. These advantages include the rapidity with which the in vivo crossmatch may be repeated, the ready availability of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In-oxine, and the lower radiation absorbed doses with the shorter-lived radionuclides.

  5. Impact of Multiple Negative Charges on Blood Clearance and Biodistribution Characteristics of 99mTc-Labeled Dimeric Cyclic RGD Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of multiple negative charges on blood clearance kinetics and biodistribution properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD peptide dimers. Bioconjugates HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 were prepared by reacting P6G-RGD2 and P6D-RGD2, respectively, with excess HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Their IC50 values were determined to be 31 ± 5 and 41 ± 6 nM, respectively, against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells in a whole-cell displacement assay. Complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-P6G-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6G-RGD2) and [99mTc(HYNIC-P6D-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6D-RGD2) were prepared in high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%) and specific activity (37–110 GBq/μmol). They were evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts for their biodistribution. The most significant difference between 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 and 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 was their blood radioactivity levels and tumor uptake. The initial blood radioactivity level for 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 (4.71 ± 1.00%ID/g) was ∼5× higher than that of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (0.88 ± 0.05%ID/g), but this difference disappeared at 60 min p.i. 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 had much lower tumor uptake (2.20–3.11%ID/g) than 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (7.82–9.27%ID/g) over a 2 h period. Since HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 shared a similar integrin αvβ3 binding affinity (41 ± 6 nM versus 31 ± 5 nM), the difference in their blood activity and tumor uptake is most likely related to the nine negative charges and high protein binding of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2. Despite its low uptake in U87MG tumors, the tumor uptake of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 was integrin αvβ3-specific. SPECT/CT studies were performed using 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. The SPECT/CT data demonstrated the tumor-targeting capability of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2, and its tumor uptake depends on the integrin αvβ3 expression levels on tumor cells and neovasculature. It was concluded that

  6. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  7. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1: A novel radioligand for apoptosis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Quanyong . E-mail: lqyn@sh163.net; Zhang Zhiyong; Wang Fang; Lu Hankui; Guo Yuzhi; Zhu Ruisen

    2005-10-07

    To develop a radiopharmaceutical for apoptosis imaging, Annexin B1, a new Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding protein, was directly radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc. This procedure yields up to 96% of radiochemical purity and higher radiolabeling efficiency. The preparation has been found to be sufficiently stable in vitro. Binding assay with human activated platelets indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 retained its PS binding activity. Biodistribution in mice revealed that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidney. The increase in hepatic uptake in anti-Fas antibody treated mice correlated to histologic evidence of fulminant hepatic apoptosis. These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 can be used as a novel radiotracer to detect apoptosis in vivo.

  8. Brain energy metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during verbal fluency and role of astrocytes in the cellular mechanism of 99mTc-HMPAO retention.

    PubMed

    Slosman, D O; Ludwig, C; Zerarka, S; Pellerin, L; Chicherio, C; de Ribaupierre, A; Annoni, J M; Bouras, C; Herrmann, F; Michel, J P; Giacobini, E; Magistretti, P J

    2001-10-01

    photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, has been studied in vitro in purified preparations of neurons and astrocytes with the aim of investigating the contribution of different cell types to hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO) retention in vitro. Results show that 99mTc-HMPAO retention predominates in astrocytes over neurons by a factor of approximately 2.5. Diethyl maleate, ethacrynic acid and buthionine sulfoximine, three agents which significantly reduce glutathione levels, also decreased 99mTc-HMPAO retention in both astrocytes and in neurons. Decrease did not always correlate with glutathione levels however, thus suggesting that other factors could be involved. The data presented indicate that astrocytes might constitute a prominent site of 99mTc-HMPAO retention and most likely contribute significantly to the SPECT signal. In addition, they also suggest that specific alterations in glial cell metabolism could explain flow-independent changes in 99mTc-HMPAO retention in the brain as observed by SPECT in certain pathologies (including Alzheimer's disease). In particular, these observations suggest a key role of astrocytes in the signal detected with the imaging procedure, which is altered in the Alzheimer's cohort subjected to the verbal fluency activation task. PMID:11690620

  9. Imaging of human pancreatic cancer xenografts by single-photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIN; TIAN, YE; SUN, FANGFANG; FENG, HONGBO; YANG, CHUN; GONG, XIAOYAN; TAN, GUANG

    2015-01-01

    The elevated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Thus, uPAR is a promising candidate as a molecular target for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic cancer. The present study aimed to develop a technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled uPAR-binding peptide for non-invasive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) assessment of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. A linear high-affinity uPAR peptide antagonist, Hynic-PEG-AE105, was labeled with 99mTc. Human uPAR-positive pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells were inoculated into nude mice. SPECT was performed in the pancreatic cancer xenograft mice models. The results showed that the rate of the 99mTc labeling of Hynic-PEG-AE105 was 97.72±1.73%. The tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 was higher than the control inactive peptide 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105mut at 4 h (3.37±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.18; P<0.001) and 6 h (3.64±0.25 vs. 1.28±0.20; P<0.001) (n=10). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 and uPAR expression (r=0.791, P=0.006). In conclusion, in the present study, a peptide-based SPECT tracer, 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105, with a high purity and specific radioactivity was synthesized. 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 is a promising agent for the non-invasive determination of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26622829

  10. Development of (99m)Tc-labeled asymmetric urea derivatives that target prostate-specific membrane antigen for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sampei, Sotaro; Matsuoka, Daiko; Harada, Naoya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Arimitsu, Kenji; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed strongly in prostate cancers and is, therefore, an attractive diagnostic and radioimmunotherapeutic target. In contrast to previous reports of PMSA-targeting (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes that are cationic or lack a charge, no anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes have been reported. Notably, the hydrophilicity conferred by both cationic and anionic charges leads to rapid hepatobiliary clearance, whereas an anionic charge might better enhance renal clearance relative to a cationic charge. Therefore, an improvement in rapid clearance would be expected with either cationic or anionic charges, particularly anionic charges. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complex ([(99m)Tc]TMCE) and evaluated its use as a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probe for PSMA detection. Direct synthesis of [(99m)Tc]TMCE from dimethyl iminodiacetate, which contains both the asymmetric urea and succinimidyl moiety important for PSMA binding, was performed using our microwave-assisted one-pot procedure. The chelate formation was successfully achieved even though the precursor included a complicated bioactive moiety. The radiochemical yield of [(99m)Tc]TMCE was 12-17%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% after HPLC purification. [(99m)Tc]TMCE showed high affinity in vitro, with high accumulation in LNCaP tumors and low hepatic retention in biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies. These findings warrant further evaluation of [(99m)Tc]TMCE as an imaging agent and support the benefit of this strategy for the design of other PSMA imaging probes. PMID:27073053

  11. Production of Multimeric Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Small Molecule Radiotracers using a Solid-Phase 99mTc Pre-Loading Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Preeti; Humblet, Valerie; Pannier, Nadine; Maison, Wolfgang; Frangioni, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Small molecule ligands specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have the potential to improve prostate cancer imaging. However, highly charged ligands are difficult to label with 99mTc and to purify. In this study, we present an adamantane-trimerized small molecule that has nanomolar binding to PSMA, but that also has 12 negative charges. Methods To convert this molecule into a clinically viable SPECT diagnostic, we have developed a simple, cartridge-based, solid-phase pre-labeling strategy that, within 25 minutes, converts readily available and inexpensive 99mTc-pertechnetate into a chemically pure complex, with a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, in neat organic solvent. This stable intermediate can label any amine-containing small molecule or peptide with 99mTc in one step, with high specific activity, and without the need for HPLC. Results Solid-phase conversion of 99mTc-pertechnetate to 99mTc-MAS3-NHS could be completed in 25 minutes, with >99% radiochemical purity and with no co-ligands present. This intermediate was then conjugated to adamantane-trimerized GPI in one step with >95% yield, and no need for HPLC purification. The final molecule bound specifically to living human tumor cells expressing PSMA on their surface. Quantitative comparison was made among GPI monomer, GPI trimer, and their 99mTc derivatives. Conclusion Our study describes a simple cartridge-based conversion of 99mTc pertechnetate to a useful, pre-loaded NHS ester intermediate that takes only 25 minutes to prepare and results in >99% radiochemical purity. Using this chemistry, we produce a high specific activity, 99mTc-labeled, PSMA-targeted small molecule, and demonstrate gamma ray radioscintigraphic imaging of living human prostate cancer cells. PMID:17631555

  12. (99m) Tc-labeled tetramer and pentamer of single-domain antibody for targeting epidermal growth factor receptor in xenografted tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chongjiao; Feng, Hongyan; Xia, Xiaotian; Wang, Lifei; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Yongxue; Lan, Xiaoli

    2016-06-30

    The single-domain antibody EG2 can be fused with right-handed coiled-coil (RHCC) and human cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), to form the multivalent antibodies EG2-RHCC and EG2-COMP. We labeled these two antibodies with (99m) Tc and assessed their targeting efficiency for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cell binding, uptake, efflux, and blocking studies were performed with EGFR high- and/or low-expressing cells with (99m) Tc-labeled EG2-RHCC or EG2-COMP. Single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and biodistribution studies were further carried out. Both (99m) Tc-EG2-RHCC and (99m) Tc-EG2-COMP can specially bind to EGFR in vitro. SPECT imaging showed that A431, which expresses high levels of EGFR, was clearly visible 6 h after (99m) Tc-EG2-COMP injection; however, it was not detectable after administration of (99m) Tc-EG2-RHCC. Uptake of both antibodies by the non-EGFR-secreting OCM-1 tumors was low. EG2-COMP shows promise in identifying EGFR over-expression in tumors; however, EG2-RHCC may not be suitable for targeting EGFR in vivo. PMID:27123559

  13. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  14. (99m)Tc-Cyclopentadienyl Tricarbonyl Chelate-Labeled Compounds as Selective Sigma-2 Receptor Ligands for Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Chen, Xin; Jia, Bing; Dong, Chengyan; Steinbach, Jörg; Brust, Peter; Liu, Boli; Jia, Hongmei

    2016-02-11

    We have designed and synthesized a series of cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium complexes containing a 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline or a 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline pharmacophore as σ2 receptor ligands. Rhenium compound 20a possessed low nanomolar σ2 receptor affinity (K(i) = 2.97 nM) and moderate subtype selectivity (10-fold). Moreover, it showed high selectivity toward vesicular acetylcholine transporter (2374-fold), dopamine D2L receptor, NMDA receptor, opiate receptor, dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and serotonin transporter. Its corresponding radiotracer [(99m)Tc]20b showed high uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in DU145 prostate cells and C6 glioma cells. In addition, this tracer exhibited high tumor uptake (5.92% ID/g at 240 min) and high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios (21 and 16 at 240 min, respectively) as well as specific binding to σ receptors in nude mice bearing C6 glioma xenografts. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging of [(99m)Tc]20b in the C6 glioma xenograft model demonstrated a clear visualization of the tumor at 180 min after injection. PMID:26741785

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a 99mTc labeled hybrid nanoparticle bearing a cobalt ferrite core: in vivo biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Psimadas, Dimitrios; Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Bouziotis, Penelope; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Loudos, George

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become important tools for imaging a wide range of diseases, improving drug delivery and applying hyperthermic treatment. Iron oxide based nanoparticles have been widely examined, unlike cobalt ferrite based ones. Herein, monodisperse and stable CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been produced, coated and further stabilized using ethyl 12-(hydroxyamino)-12-oxododecanoate, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and bovine serum albumin. The final product, NBRh1, was fully characterized and has been directly radiolabeled with 99mTc using SnCl1 as the reducing agent in high yields. In vitro stability and hyperthermic properties of 99mTC-NBRh1 were encouraging for further application in low frequencies hyperthermia and biomagnetic applications. In vivo evaluation followed after injection in healthy mice. The planar and SPECT imaging data as well as the biodistribution results were in accordance, showing high liver and spleen uptake as expected starting almost immediately after administration. In conclusion the preliminary results for nanoparticles bearing a cobalt ferrite core justify further investigations towards potential hyperthermic applications, drug transportation and liver or spleen imaging. PMID:22852467

  16. Detection of breast cancer microcalcification using 99mTc-MDP SPECT or Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Dayo D.; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barnes, Stephanie; Whisenant, Jennifer; Weis, Jared; Shoukouhi, Sepideh; Virostko, John; Nickels, Michael; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Sanders, Melinda; Abramson, Vandana; Tantawy, Mohammed N.

    2015-01-01

    Background In previous work, we demonstrated the presence of hydroxyapetite (type II microcalcification), HAP, in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We used 18F-NaF to detect these types of cancers in mouse models as the free fluorine, 18F−, binds to HAP similar to bone uptake. In this work, we investigate other bone targeting agents and techniques including 99mTc-MDP SPECT and Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging as alternatives for breast cancer diagnosis via targeting HAP within the tumor microenvironment. Methods Thirteen mice were injected subcutaneously in the right flank with 106 MDA-MB-231 cells. When the tumor size reached ~0.6 cm3, mice (n = 9) were injected with ~37 MBq of 99mTc-MDP intravenously and then imaged one hour later in a NanoSPECT/CT or injected intravenously with 4 nmol/g of Osetosense 750EX and imaged 24 hours later in an FMT (n = 4). The imaging probe concentration in the tumor was compared to that of muscle. Following SPECT imaging, the tumors were harvested, sectioned into 10 µm slices, and underwent autoradiography or von Kossa staining to correlate 99mTc-MDP binding with HAP distribution within the tumor. The SPECT images were normalized to the injected dose and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were drawn around bone, tumor, and muscle to obtain the radiotracer concentration in these regions in units of percent injected dose per unit volume. ROIs were drawn around bone and tumor in the FMT images as no FMT signal was observed in normal muscle. Results Uptake of 99mTc-MDP was observed in the bone and tumor with little or no uptake in the muscle with concentrations of 11.34 ± 1.46 (mean ± SD), 2.22 ± 0.95, and 0.05 ± 0.04 %ID/cc, respectively. Uptake of Osteosense 750EX was also observed in the bone and tumor with concentrations of 0.35 ± 0.07 (mean ± SD) and 0.04 ± 0.01 picomoles, respectively. No FMT signal was observed in the normal muscle. There was no significant difference in the bone-to-tumor ratio between the two

  17. 99mTechnetium Sestamibi-123Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than 99mTechnetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ryhänen, Eeva M.; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with 123I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive 99mTc-sestamibi/123I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I scintigraphy is more accurate than 99mTc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone. PMID:25722888

  18. Increased Background Activity in DMSA Scintigraphy of a Nonazotemic Patient With β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Paschali, Anna; Tsiouris, Spyridon

    2016-09-01

    Renal DMSA uptake provides an index for evaluation of the functional tubular mass, which depends on the renal blood flow, proximal tubular cell membrane function, and urinary acid-base balance. We present a case of a nonazotemic 48-year-old adult with β-thalassemia major under regular blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy that underwent DMSA scan showing minor cortical abnormalities and high background activity, featuring prominent cardiac blood pool and liver uptake. This case highlights the pitfall of high background activity during DMSA study in patients with β-thalassemia major due to tubular disorders. PMID:27280908

  19. Model-based correction for scatter and tailing effects in simultaneous 99mTc and 123I imaging for a CdZnTe cardiac SPECT camera.

    PubMed

    Holstensson, M; Erlandsson, K; Poludniowski, G; Ben-Haim, S; Hutton, B F

    2015-04-21

    An advantage of semiconductor-based dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras when compared to conventional Anger cameras is superior energy resolution. This provides the potential for improved separation of the photopeaks in dual radionuclide imaging, such as combined use of (99m)Tc and (123)I . There is, however, the added complexity of tailing effects in the detectors that must be accounted for. In this paper we present a model-based correction algorithm which extracts the useful primary counts of (99m)Tc and (123)I from projection data. Equations describing the in-patient scatter and tailing effects in the detectors are iteratively solved for both radionuclides simultaneously using a maximum a posteriori probability algorithm with one-step-late evaluation. Energy window-dependent parameters for the equations describing in-patient scatter are estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Parameters for the equations describing tailing effects are estimated using virtually scatter-free experimental measurements on a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera with CdZnTe-detectors. When applied to a phantom study with both (99m)Tc and (123)I, results show that the estimated spatial distribution of events from (99m)Tc in the (99m)Tc photopeak energy window is very similar to that measured in a single (99m)Tc phantom study. The extracted images of primary events display increased cold lesion contrasts for both (99m)Tc and (123)I. PMID:25803643

  20. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  1. Studying the General Toxicity and Cumulative Properties of a Radiopharmaceutical Nanocolloid, (99m)Tc-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Varlamova, N V; Churin, A A; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vetoshkina, T V; Dubskaya, T Yu; Lamzina, T Yu; Fedorova, E P; Neupokoeva, O V; Skuridin, V S; Nesterov, E A; Larionova, L A; Chernov, V I

    2016-07-01

    We studied toxicity of a new Russian radiopharmaceutical Nanocolloid, (99m)Tc-Al2O3. Tests for acute toxicity showed that this agent belongs to a class of moderate-toxicity substances and does not have cumulative properties. The evaluation of subchronic toxicity after subcutaneous injection of this product to rats (0.04, 0.2, and 0.4 ml/kg) and rabbits (0.02 and 0.2 ml/kg) for 7 days did not reveal changes in the general state, temperature, body weight, indices of the peripheral blood and bone marrow, functions of the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system, and morphological characteristics of the internal organs in animals. The drug does not produce a local irritant effect. PMID:27502539

  2. The Effect of Morphine on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by 99mTc-ECD SPECT in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Adriaens, Antita; Peremans, Kathelijne; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Croubels, Siska; Duchateau, Luc; Dobbeleir, André; Audenaert, Kurt; Eersels, Jos; Vermeire, Simon; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights into the working mechanism of morphine, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns after morphine administration were assessed in dogs. In a randomized cross-over experimental study, rCBF was estimated with 99mTc-Ethylcysteinate Dimer single photon emission computed tomography in 8 dogs at baseline, at 30 minutes and at 120 minutes after a single bolus of morphine. Perfusion indices (PI) in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and in the subcortical and cerebellar region were calculated. PI was significantly decreased 30 min after morphine compared to baseline in the right frontal cortex. The left parietal cortex and subcortical region showed a significantly increased PI 30 min after morphine compared to baseline. No significant differences were noted for the other regions or at other time points. In conclusion, a single bolus of morphine generated a changing rCBF pattern at different time points. PMID:25295733

  3. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, S.R.; Proffit, W.R.; Terry, B.C.; Staab, E.V.; Burkes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected.

  4. Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide in the treatment of primitive biliary dyskinesia: 99mTc-P-IDA scintigraphic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, A; Costa, R; Frontespezi, S

    1987-09-01

    The 99mTc-P-IDA (technetium-p-iminodiacetic acid) hepatocholangiocholecystoscintigraphy is a diagnostic technique which allows information on the liver biligenetic and excretory capabilities to be obtained. It is, moreover, a test that mirrors closely the anatomic and functional conditions of the cholecyst and choledochus. In this study the authors wanted to verify whether pinaverium bromide, a drug with a documented musculotropic-spasmolytic activity, was able to induce changes in some abnormal instrumental parameters observed in 24 subjects with primitive biliary dyskinesia. The results revealed that the ti values, characteristically longer in those subjects, were significantly reduced in the group of patients treated with pinaverium bromide. On the contrary, in the group of patients treated with placebo, there was no change with respect to this parameter. PMID:3316061

  5. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  6. 99mTc-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most cases still express thyrotropin (TSH) receptors (TSHR). Therefore, the aim of this study was to radiolabel a superagonist recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) analogue for imaging poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The TSHR superagonist, TR1401, was labeled with 99mTc using an indirect method via succinimidyl-6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride conjugation. In vitro quality controls included SDS-PAGE, cysteine challenge, and cell-binding assay on TSHR positive cell lines (JP09 and ML-1). In vivo studies included tumor targeting experiments in athymic nude CD-1 mice xenografted with several different TSHR positive cells (JP09, K1, and ML-1) and TSHR negative cells (JP02) as control. Results: The superagonist rhTSH analogue TR1401 was labeled with high labeling efficiency (>95%) and high specific activity (9250 MBq/mg). The labeled molecule retained its biologic activity and structural integrity. In tumor targeting experiments, a focal uptake of radiolabeled TR1401 was observed in TSHR positive cells but not in TSHR negative cells. The same observation was made in a dog with spontaneous intraglandular thyroid cancer. Conclusions: We were able to radiolabel the rhTSH superagonist analogue TR1401 with 99mTc efficiently with retention of in vitro and in vivo binding capacity to TSHR. The relative role of such novel radiopharmaceutical versus 131I scanning of thyroid cancer will require future histopathologic and clinical studies, but it may open new perspectives for presurgical staging of thyroid cancer, and diagnosis of radioiodine negative local relapses and/or distant metastases. PMID:24801227

  7. (99m)Tc SPECT imaging agent based on cFLFLFK for the detection of FPR1 in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Holloway, Paul M; Rivas, Charlotte; Trigg, William; Luthra, Sajinder Kaur; Morisson Iveson, Veronique; Gavins, Felicity N E; Long, Nicholas J

    2015-03-21

    Non-invasive imaging of the inflammatory process can provide great insight into a wide variety of disease states, aiding diagnosis, evaluation and effective targeted treatment. During inflammation, blood borne leukocytes are recruited, through a series of activation and adhesion steps, to the site of injury or infection where they migrate across the blood vessel wall into the tissue. Thus, tracking leukocyte recruitment and accumulation provides a dynamic and localised read out of inflammatory events. Current leukocyte imaging techniques require ex vivo labelling of patient blood, involving laborious processing and potential risks to both patient and laboratory staff. Utilising high affinity ligands for leukocyte specific receptors may allow for injectable tracers that label leukocytes in situ, omitting potentially hazardous ex vivo handling. Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors involved in the chemotaxis and inflammatory functioning of leukocytes. Highly expressed on leukocytes, and up-regulated during inflammation, these receptors provide a potential target for imaging inflammatory events. Herein we present the synthesis and initial in vitro testing of a potential Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) leukocyte tracer. The FPR1 antagonist cFLFLFK-NH2, which displays high affinity with little physiological effect, has been linked via a PEG motif to a (99m)Tc chelate. This tracer shows in vitro binding to human embryonic kidney cells expressing the FPR1 receptor, and functional in vitro tests reveal cFLFLFK-NH2 compounds to have no effect on inflammatory cell functioning. Overall, these data show that (99m)Tc.cFLFLFK-NH2 may be a useful tool for non-invasive imaging of leukocyte accumulation in inflammatory disease states. PMID:25603955

  8. Diagnostic Performance of an Expert System for Interpretation of 99mTc MAG3 Scans in Suspected Renal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Garcia, Ernest V.; Binongo, Jose Nilo G.; Manatunga, Amita; Halkar, Raghuveer; Folks, Russell D.; Dubovsky, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare diuresis renography scan interpretation generated by a renal expert system with the consensus interpretation of 3 expert readers. Methods The expert system was evaluated in 95 randomly selected furosemide-augmented patient studies (185 kidneys) obtained for suspected obstruction; there were 55 males and 40 females with a mean age ± SD of 58.6 ± 16.5 y. Each subject had a baseline 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) scan followed by furosemide administration and a separate 20-min acquisition. Quantitative parameters were automatically extracted from baseline and furosemide acquisitions and forwarded to the expert system for analysis. Three experts, unaware of clinical information, independently graded each kidney as obstructed/probably obstructed, equivocal, and probably nonobstructed/nonobstructed; experts resolved differences by a consensus reading. These 3 expert categories were compared with the obstructed, equivocal, and nonobstructed interpretations provided by the expert system. Agreement was assessed using weighted κ, and the predictive accuracy of the expert system compared with expert readers was assessed by the area under receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve) curves. Results The expert system agreed with the consensus reading in 84% (101/120) of nonobstructed kidneys, in 92% (33/36) of obstructed kidneys, and in 45% (13/29) of equivocal kidneys. The weighted κ between the expert system and the consensus reading was 0.72 and was comparable with the weighted κ between experts. There was no significant difference in the areas under the ROC curves when the expert system was compared with each expert using the other 2 experts as the gold standard. Conclusion The renal expert system showed good agreement with the expert interpretation and could be a useful educational and decision support tool to assist physicians in the diagnosis of renal obstruction. To better mirror the clinical setting, algorithms

  9. Dose Calibrator Linearity Testing: Radioisotope 99mTc or 18F? An Alternative for Reducing Costs in Nuclear Medicine Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre T.; Alves, Carlos E.; Cardona, Marissa R.; Gutterres, Ricardo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Dose calibrator linearity testing is indispensable for evaluating the capacity of this equipment in measuring radioisotope activities at different magnitudes, a fundamental aspect of the daily routine of a nuclear medicine department, and with an impact on patient exposure. The main aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the radioisotope Fluorine-18 (18F) with Technetium-99m (99mTc) in this test, and to indicate it with the lowest operational cost. The test was applied with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq), the activities of which were measured at different times, with the equipment preadjusted to measuring sources of 99mTc, 18F, Gallium-67 (67Ga), and Iodine-131 (131I). Over time, the average deviation between measured and expected activities from 99mTc and 18F were, respectively, 0.56 (±1.79)% and 0.92 (±1.19)%. The average ratios for 99mTc source experimental activity, when measured with the equipment adjusted for measuring 18F, 67Ga, and 131I sources, in real values, were, respectively, 3.42 (±0.06), 1.45 (±0.03), and 1.13 (±0.02), and those for the 18F source experimental activity, measured through adjustments of 99mTc, 67Ga, and 131I, were, respectively, 0.295 (±0.004), 0.335 (±0.007), and 0.426 (±0.006). The adjustment of a simple exponential function for describing 99mTc and 18F experimental activities facilitated the calculation of the physical half-lives of the radioisotopes, with a difference of about 1% in relation to the values described in the literature. Linearity test results, when using 99mTc, through being compatible with those acquired with 18F, imply the possibility of using both radioisotopes during linearity testing. Nevertheless, this information, along with the high potential of exposure and the high cost of 18F, implies that 99mTc should preferably be employed for linearity testing in clinics that normally use 18F, without the risk of prejudicing either the procedure itself or the guarantee of

  10. Inflammation imaging of atherosclerosis in Apo-E-deficient mice using a 99mTc-labeled dual-domain cytokine ligand

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhonglin; Lerman, Lilach O.; Tang, Hui; Barber, Christy; Wan, Li; Hui, Mizhou M.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Woolfenden, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) play a critical role in initiating and accelerating atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the imaging properties of 99mTc-TNFR2-Fc-IL-1RA (99mTc-TFI), a dual-domain cytokine radioligand that targets TNF-α and IL-1β pathways, in assessing atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Methods The feasibility and specificity of detecting atherosclerosis with 99mTc-TFI SPECT imaging were investigated in ApoE−/− and ApoE+/+ mice. Fifty-four ApoE−/− mice were fed either an atherogenic diet (AGD) or a normal diet (ND) beginning at 5 weeks of age. Eighteen Apo-E wild-type (ApoE+/+) mice were fed a ND. Two groups of ApoE−/− mice (n=12 each group) on AGD and ND were imaged three times with 99mTc-TFI and a high-resolution SPECT system at 20–25, 30–40, and 48–52 weeks to study the evolution of atherosclerotic plaque. Results Focal radioactive accumulations in the aortic arch region were observed in the ApoE−/− mice (n=12) on AGD but not in the ApoE+/+ mice on ND (n=10). Apo-E−/− mice on ND (n=11) exhibited lower radioactive uptake than ApoE−/− mice on AGD (P<0.05). Co-injection of an excess of cold ligand with 99mTc-TFI resulted in significant reduction of 99mTc-TFI uptake in the ApoE−/− mice on AGD. Longitudinal studies showed that 99mTc-TFI uptake in the aortas of ApoE−/− mice progressively increased from 20 to 48 weeks. Real-time PCR assays demonstrated that atherosclerotic aortas expressed significantly higher IL-1β and TNF-α than the aortas from wild-type controls. Conclusions Atherosclerotic plaques were detected by 99mTc-TFI imaging in ApoE−/− mice. 99mTc-TFI is promising for specific detection of inflammatory response in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25195016

  11. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities. PMID:26449791

  12. A risk index for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic imaging with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid that accounts for body habitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’Reilly, Shannon E.; Plyku, Donika; Sgouros, George; Fahey, Frederic H.; Treves, S. Ted; Frey, Eric C.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-03-01

    Published guidelines for administered activity to pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging are currently obtained through expert consensus of the minimum values as a function of body weight as required to yield diagnostic quality images. We have previously shown that consideration of body habitus is also important in obtaining diagnostic quality images at the lowest administered activity. The objective of this study was to create a series of computational phantoms that realistically portray the anatomy of the pediatric patient population which can be used to develop and validate techniques to minimize radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality. To achieve this objective, we have defined an imaging risk index that may be used in future studies to develop pediatric patient dosing guidelines. A population of 48 hybrid phantoms consisting of non-uniform B-spline surfaces and polygon meshes was generated. The representative ages included the newborn, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year and 15 year male and female. For each age, the phantoms were modeled at their 10th, 50th, and 90th height percentile each at a constant 50th weight percentile. To test the impact of kidney size, the newborn phantoms were modeled with the following three kidney volumes:  ‑15%, average, and  +15%. To illustrate the impact of different morphologies on dose optimization, we calculated the effective dose for each phantom using weight-based 99mTc-DMSA activity administration. For a given patient weight, body habitus had a considerable effect on effective dose. Substantial variations were observed in the risk index between the 10th and 90th percentile height phantoms from the 50th percentile phantoms for a given age, with the greatest difference being 18%. There was a dependence found between kidney size and risk of radiation induced kidney cancer, with the highest risk indices observed in newborns with the smallest kidneys. Overall, the phantoms and

  13. Post meningitis subdural hygroma: Anatomical and functional evaluation with (99m)Tc-ehylene cysteine dimer single photon emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punit; Mishra, Ajiv; Arora, Geetanjali; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Subdural hygroma is the collection of cerebrospinal fluid in the subdural space. Most often these resolve spontaneously. However, in cases with neurological complications surgical drainage may be needed. We here, present the case of an 8-year-old boy with post meningitis subdural hygroma. (99m)Tc-ehylene cysteine dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) hybrid single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) carried out in this patient, demonstrated the subdural hygroma as well as the associated cerebral hypoperfusion. If (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT/CT is integrated into management of these patients, it can help in decision making with respect to conservative versus surgical management. PMID:24019670

  14. Studies on batch formulation of a kit for the preparation of the 99mTc-Ubiquicidin (29-41): An infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Arjun, Chanda; Mukherjee, Archana; Bhatt, Jyotsna; Chaudhari, Pradip; Repaka, Krishna Mohan; Venkatesh, Meera; Samuel, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an indigenous cold kit of Ubiquicidin, UBI (29-41), for easy preparation of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41) to be used as an infection imaging agent. A two component kit with the peptide and SnCl2 as vial 1 and optimum amount of NaOH as vial 2 was successfully formulated as seen from the consistent radiochemical and pharmaceutical purity of the product over six consecutive batches of kits. The utility of the kit could be demonstrated through in-vitro and in vivo specificity of (99m)Tc-UBI (29-41). PMID:26405838

  15. Cigarette smoke induced changes in rat pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/TcDTPA. A comparison of particulate and gas phases

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.

    1985-12-01

    The rat model was developed to study the effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary clearance of 99mTcDTPA. The method developed was sufficiently noninvasive to allow frequent repeat measurements to be made with a high degree of reproducibility. Animals exposed twice daily to 90 puffs of dilute whole cigarette smoke for 7 days showed an increase in /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance from the lung which returned to normal within 3 wk of stopping exposure. Filtration of the smoke to remove all the particulate matter abolished the changes.

  16. Implications of CT noise and artifacts for quantitative {sup 99m}Tc SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, K. W.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This paper evaluates the effects of computed tomography (CT) image noise and artifacts on quantitative single-photon emission computed-tomography (SPECT) imaging, with the aim of establishing an appropriate range of CT acquisition parameters for low-dose protocols with respect to accurate SPECT attenuation correction (AC). Methods: SPECT images of two geometric and one anthropomorphic phantom were reconstructed iteratively using CT scans acquired at a range of dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 0.4 to 46 mGy). Resultant SPECT image quality was evaluated by comparing mean signal, background noise, and artifacts to SPECT images reconstructed using the highest dose CT for AC. Noise injection was performed on linear-attenuation (μ) maps to determine the CT noise threshold for accurate AC. Results: High levels of CT noise (σ ∼ 200–400 HU) resulted in low μ-maps noise (σ ∼ 1%–3%). Noise levels greater than ∼10% in 140 keV μ-maps were required to produce visibly perceptible increases of ∼15% in {sup 99m}Tc SPECT images. These noise levels would be achieved at low CT dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 4 μGy) that are over 2 orders of magnitude lower than the minimum dose for diagnostic CT scanners. CT noise could also lower (bias) the expected μ values. The relative error in reconstructed SPECT signal trended linearly with the relative shift in μ. SPECT signal was, on average, underestimated in regions corresponding with beam-hardening artifacts in CT images. Any process that has the potential to change the CT number of a region by ∼100 HU (e.g., misregistration between CT images and SPECT images due to motion, the presence of contrast in CT images) could introduce errors in μ{sub 140} {sub keV} on the order of 10%, that in turn, could introduce errors on the order of ∼10% into the reconstructed {sup 99m}Tc SPECT image. Conclusions: The impact of CT noise on SPECT noise was demonstrated to be negligible for clinically achievable CT parameters. Because

  17. Skin Uptake of 99mTc-HDP in a Case of Annular Elastolytic Giant Cell Granuloma.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Maria Del Val; Theillac, Bernard; Rizkallal Monzon, Sebastian; Lorente Castro, Berta Covadonga; Castro-Beiras, Jose Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Sometimes unexpected extraosseous uptakes appear in a bone scintigraphy as a consequence of a wide spectrum of nonosseous disorders. Recognition of these findings is important to enhance the diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy. We report a case of intense bone scintigraphy cutaneous uptake due to elastolytic actinic giant cell granuloma (EAGCG). We present the case of a patient with intense extraosseous uptakes of Tc-HDP that appeared in a bone scintigraphy that was performed for lumbar pain. PMID:26975009

  18. 99mTc-MIBI Washout Rate to Evaluate the Effects of Steroid Therapy in Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sarai, Masayoshi; Motoyama, Sadako; Kato, Yasuchika; Kawai, Hideki; Ito, Hajime; Takada, Kayoko; Yoda, Ryuji; Toyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shin-ichiro; Ozaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the usefulness of the 99mTc-MIBI (MIBI) washout rate for the evaluation of steroid therapy in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Methods: Eleven CS patients underwent MIBI myocardial SPECT both before and 6 months after initiating steroid therapy. The washout rate (WOR) of MIBI was calculated using early and delayed polar map images. The washout score (WOS) of MIBI was derived from the difference between the early and delayed total defect scores (TDS). Results: Serum ACE and BNP exhibited significant improvement after the therapy (p = 0.004, p = 0.045). In the LV function, EDV and E/A ratio exhibited significant improvement after the therapy (p = 0.041, p = 0.007), while there were no significant differences between before and after therapy in EF or ESV. Early and delayed TDS showed no significant differences between before and after the therapy. In contrast, WOR differed significantly (p <. 0001), while WOS did not differ significantly between before and after the therapy. Conclusion: The washout rate of MIBI is suitable for assessment of cardiac function in CS with steroid therapy, being especially better than the washout score of MIBI for assessment of disease activity of mild myocardial damage in CS with steroid therapy.

  19. 99mTc-DTPA and /sup 131/I-hippuran findings in liver transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin A

    SciTech Connect

    Klintmalm, G.B.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Iwatsuki, S.; Schroeter, G.P.; Starzl, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CyA), an immunosuppressive agent that is potentially nephrotoxic, on the kidneys of 9 liver transplant recipients were studied with serial 99mTc-DTPA and 131I-hippuran scans. In addition, renal function was determined by measuring serum creatinine levels during the second postoperative week in the 9 unselected CyA-treated patients and, retrospectively, in a control group of 29 liver transplant recipients who had not been treated with CyA and who were selected because they had survived for at least 3 months postoperatively. The early postoperative creatinine level was significantly greater in the CyA group. Eight of the 9 CyA patients showed imaging abnormalities in all preoperative and postoperative studies. Five of the 8 patients showed a pattern similar to that of acute tubular necrosis (relatively preserved perfusion) in at least one study. Lowering the dosage of CyA permitted the continuation of therapy, and all 9 patients are alive after 8 to 14 months.

  20. Assessment of cardiac function using myocardial perfusion imaging technique on SPECT with 99mTc sestamibi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, M. R. A.; Nazir, F.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Suspicion on coronary heart disease can be confirmed by observing the function of left ventricle cardiac muscle with Myocardial Perfusion Imaging techniques. The function perfusion itself is indicated by the uptake of radiopharmaceutical tracer. The 31 patients were studied undergoing the MPI examination on Gatot Soebroto Hospital using 99mTc-sestamibi radiopharmaceutical with stress and rest conditions. Stress was stimulated by physical exercise or pharmacological agent. After two hours, the patient did rest condition on the same day. The difference of uptake percentage between stress and rest conditions will be used to determine the malfunction of perfusion due to ischemic or infarct. Degradation of cardiac function was determined based on the image-based assessment of five segments of left ventricle cardiac. As a result, 8 (25.8%) patients had normal myocardial perfusion and 11 (35.5%) patients suspected for having partial ischemia. Total ischemia occurred to 8 (25.8%) patients with reversible and irreversible ischemia and the remaining 4 (12.9%) patients for partial infarct with characteristic the percentage of perfusion ≤50%. It is concluded that MPI technique of image-based assessment on uptake percentage difference between stress and rest conditions can be employed to predict abnormal perfusion as complementary information to diagnose the cardiac function.

  1. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: experience with patients with normal thyroids and nodular goiters.

    PubMed

    Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Cauzzo, Cristina; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The surgical approach to primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is changing. In patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA), a unilateral neck exploration (UNE) or a minimally invasive radio-guided surgery (MIRS) using the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) technique have recently been proposed. We investigated the role of IGP in a group of 84 patients with primary HPT who were homogeneously evaluated before surgery by a single-day imaging protocol including 99mTcO4/MIBI subtraction scan and neck ultrasound (US) and then operated on by the same surgical team. Quick parathyroid hormone (QPTH) was intraoperatively measured in all cases to confirm successful parathyroidectomy. In 70 patients with scan/US evidence of a single enlarged parathyroid gland (EPG) and with a normal thyroid gland, MIRS was planned. In the other 14 patients, the IGP technique was utilized during a standard bilateral neck exploration (BNE) because of the presence of concomitant nodular goiter (11 cases) or multiglandular disease (MGD) (3 cases). The IGP technique consisted of the following: (1) in the operating room, a low 99mTc-MIBI dose (37 MBq) was injected intravenously during anesthesia induction; (2) subsequently, the patient's neck was scanned with the probe by the surgeon to localize the cutaneous projection of the EPG; (3) in patients who underwent MIRS, the EPG was detected intraoperatively with the probe and removed through a small, 2 to 2.5 cm skin incision; (4) radioactivity was measured on the EPG both in vivo and ex vivo, the thyroid, the background and the parathyroid bed after EPG removal. In patients with concomitant nodular goiter, the radioactivity was also measured on the thyroid nodules. Surgical and pathologic findings were consistent with a single PA in 78 patients, parathyroid carcinoma in 2, and MGD in 4. MIRS was successfully performed in 67 of the 70 patients (97.7%) in whom this approach was planned. It must be pointed out that

  2. Anticardiolipin antibodies in HIV infection: association with cerebral perfusion defects as detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Rubbert, A; Bock, E; Schwab, J; Marienhagen, J; Nüsslein, H; Wolf, F; Kalden, J R

    1994-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) belong to a heterogeneous group of antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. In patients with rheumatic disorders, their presence has been correlated to the occurrence of thromboembolic complications, thrombocytopenia, abortions and other disease manifestations. Several studies have revealed the detection of mostly high-titre ACA in a significant proportion of HIV-infected patients without any known clinical relationship. In our study, ACA were detected in 17/34 HIV-infected patients, and their presence was significantly associated with the detection of cerebral perfusion abnormalities by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. SPECT scans were classified as normal or as focal or diffuse defects in uptake. Most patients (13/16) with cerebral perfusion defects had elevated ACA titres in contrast to 4/18 patients with normal SPECT findings (P = 0.002). Focal uptake defects were always associated with the presence of ACA. No correlation to clinical features or other laboratory parameters was evident. Our results suggest a possible implication of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cerebral perfusion abnormalities detected by SPECT scanning in HIV-infected patients. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance and to develop possible therapeutic consequences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7994900

  3. [Preliminary clinical application of new bone marrow imaging agent 99mTc-polyphase liposome in malignant lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Yu, B F

    1990-07-01

    Bone marrow (BM) imaging with 99mTc-polyphase liposome in 30 malignant lymphoma patients demonstrated that central BM hypoplasia accounted for 90% (28/30) and peripheral BM hypoplasia 20% (6/30) with peripheral BM expansion of 80% (23/30). Focal BM lesion was shown in 7 patients which conformed with the results of bone imaging and X-ray film. The uptake index of BM in patients treated with chemotherapy was low as compared to that in patients treated with radiotherapy (P less than 0.05). Although BM suppression by chemotherapy was more severe than by radiotherapy, BM function essentially recovered 1 month after cessation of chemotherapy, on the other hand, while central BM suppression by radiotherapy was mild, it lasted for longer periods of time. Peripheral BM suppression by radiotherapy was both shorter in duration and milder in severity in comparison with central BM suppression. BM imaging is valuable for the understanding of BM function, ascertainment of the appropriate interval between treatments and early detection of local BM involvement. PMID:2272267

  4. [Clinical trial of 111In-antimyosin antibody imaging: (3) Comparison with 99mTc-pyrophosphate imaging].

    PubMed

    Tamaki, N; Yamada, T; Matsumori, A; Fujita, T; Ohtani, H; Watanabe, Y; Yonekura, Y; Endo, K; Konishi, J; Kawai, C

    1989-09-01

    Clinical value of 111In-antimyosin monoclonal antibody F ab (AM) was compared with 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) in 13 patients with myocardial infarction and 3 patients with myocarditis. Following PYP injection, PYP imaging was performed 3 hours later. Immediately after PYP imaging, AM was administrated and AM images were obtained 48 hours later. Abnormal accumulation in the infarcted myocardium was observed in 11 patients (85%) on AM images but only in 3 patients (23%) on PYP images. All patients within 8 days after the onset of infarction showed abnormal uptake on both images. Of 5 patients with 1 to 2 weeks after the onset of infarction, abnormal uptake was observed in all of them on AM images but only in one of them on PYP imaging. Furthermore, of 6 patients with more than 2 weeks after the onset, AM imaging showed abnormal uptake in 4 (67%) but PYP imaging did not show abnormal uptake in any of them. Similarly. Of 3 patients with myocarditis, diffuse uptake in the myocardium ws observed in 2 of them on AM images but none of them showed abnormal uptake on PYP images. We conclude that AM imaging is a useful means for identifying not only acute stages but also subacute stages of myocardial necrosis where PYP imaging did not show any abnormality. PMID:2554037

  5. Artificial neural network classifier for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Paul D.; Newberg, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    Imaging the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have indicated that human observers have a diagnostic accuracy similar to conventional ROI analysis of SPECT imaging data. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that an artificial neural network (ANN), which can mimic the pattern recognition skills of human observers, may provide similar results. A set of patients with PD, and normal healthy control subjects, were studied using the dopamine transporter tracer [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and SPECT. The sample was comprised of 81 patients (mean age ± SD: 63.4 ± 10.4 years; age range: 39.0-84.2 years) and 94 healthy controls (mean age ± SD: 61.8 ± 11.0 years; age range: 40.9-83.3 years). The images were processed to extract the striatum and the striatal pixel values were used as inputs to a three-layer ANN. The same set of data was used to both train and test the ANN, in a 'leave one out' procedure. The diagnostic accuracy of the ANN was higher than any previous analysis method applied to the same data (94.4% total accuracy, 97.5% specificity and 91.4% sensitivity). However, it should be stressed that, as with all applications of an ANN, it was difficult to interpret precisely what triggers in the images were being detected by the network.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray fluorescence analysis of gold in kidney using 99mTc radiopharmaceutical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Naser; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Shafaei, Mostafa; Rabiei, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to design a system in order to analyze gold and other heavy elements in internal organs using in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Monte Carlo N Particle code MCNP was used to simulate phantoms and sources. A source of 99mTc was simulated in kidney to excite the gold x-rays. Changes in K XRF response due to variations in tissue thickness overlying the kidney at the measurement site were investigated. Different simulations having tissue thicknesses of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mm were performed. Kα1 and Kα2 for all depths were measured. The linearity of the XRF system was also studied by increasing the gold concentration in the kidney phantom from 0 to 500 µg g-1 kidney tissue. The results show that gold concentration between 3 and 10 µg g-1 kidney tissue can be detected for distance between the skin and the kidney surface of 20-60 mm. The study also made a comparison between the skin doses for the source outside and inside the phantom.

  7. Biological in vitro and in vivo studies of a series of new asymmetrical cationic [99mTc(N)(DTC-Ln)(PNP)]+ complex (DTC-Ln = alicyclic dithiocarbamate and PNP = diphosphinoamine).

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Cavazza-Ceccato, Mario; Agostini, Stefania; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Yamamichi, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Shinji; Carta, Davide; Salvarese, Nicola; Bernardini, Daniele; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2010-05-19

    (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 is a cationic mixed compound under clinical investigation as potential myocardial imaging agent. In spite of this, analogously to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents, presents a relatively low first-pass extraction. Thus, modification of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) direct to increase its first-pass extraction keeping unaltered the favorable imaging properties would be desirable. This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel cationic (99m)Tc-nitrido complexes, of general formula [(99m)TcN(DTC-Ln)(PNP)](+) (DTC-Ln= alicyclic dithiocarbamates; PNP = diphosphinoamine), as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-(N)-complexes were accomplished in two steps. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats and compared with the distribution profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. The metabolisms of the most promising compounds were evaluated by HPLC methods. Biological studies revealed that most of the complexes have a high initial and persistent heart uptake with rapid clearance from nontarget tissues. Among tested compounds, 2 and 12 showed improved heart uptake with respect to the gold standard (99m)Tc-complexes with favorable heart-to-liver and slightly lower heart-to-lung ratios. Chromatographic profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-radioactivity extracted from tissues and fluids were coincident with the native compound evidencing remarkable in vivo stability of these agents. This study shows that the incorporation of alicyclic dithiocarbamate in the [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)](+) building block yields to a significant increase of the heart uptake at early injection point suggesting that the first-pass extraction fraction of these novel complexes may be increased with respect to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents keeping almost unaltered the favorable target/nontarget ratios. PMID:20402465

  8. Isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelates and fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) complexes for targeting uPAR in prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing strategies to rapidly incorporate the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into biological targeting vectors is a growing realm in radiopharmaceutical development. This work presents the preparation of a novel isothiocyanate-functionalized bifunctional chelate based on 2,2´-dipicolylamine ...

  9. Influence of Functionalized Pyridine Ligands on the Radio/Chemical Behavior of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re and 99mTc) 2 + 1 Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While a number of chelate strategies have been developed for the organometallic precursor fac-[M (OH2)3(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc), a unique challenge has been to improve the overall function and performance of these complexes for in vivo and in vitro applications. Since its synthesis, the fac-[M (CO)3]...

  10. Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Syn and Anti Diastereomers of [99mTc]Technetium Depreotide: a Somatostatin Receptor Binding Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, John E.; Pearson, Daniel A.; Nelson, Carol A.; Lyons, Barbara A.; Zheng, Yongyong; Bartis, Judit; He, Jiafang; Cantorias, Melchor V.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    The early and later eluting [99mTcO]depreotide products on RP-HPLC were confirmed to be the anti and syn diastereomers, respectively, based on proton NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy. NMR provided evidence of a folded, conformationally constrained structure for the syn diastereomer. The syn diastereomer is predominant (anti/syn ~ 10:90) in the [99mTcO]depreotide preparation and shows a slightly higher affinity (IC50 = 0.15 nM) for the somatostatin receptor than the anti diastereomer (IC50 = 0.89 nM). Both diastereomers showed higher binding affinities than the free peptide (IC50 = 7.4 nM). Biodistribution studies in AR42J tumor xenograft nude mice also showed higher tumor uptake for syn [99mTcO]depreotide (6.58% ID/g) than for the anti [99mTcO]depreotide (3.38% ID/g). Despite the differences in biological efficacy, the favorable binding affinity, tumor uptake, and tumor-to-background ratio results for both diastereomeric species predict that both are effective for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in vivo. PMID:17691760

  11. The accuracy of quantitative parameters in (99m) Tc-MAG3 dynamic renography: a national audit based on virtual image data.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Edenbrandt, Lars; Granerus, Göran; Olsson, Anna; Afzelius, David; Gustafsson, Agneta; Jonsson, Cathrine; Hagerman, Jessica; Johansson, Lena; Riklund, Katrine; Ljungberg, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of image analysis methods and computer software used in (99m) Tc-MAG3 dynamic renography is important to ensure reliable study results and ultimately the best possible care for patients. In this work, we present a national multicentre study of the quantification accuracy in (99m) Tc-MAG3 renography, utilizing virtual dynamic scintigraphic data obtained by Monte Carlo-simulated scintillation camera imaging of digital phantoms with time-varying activity distributions. Three digital phantom studies were distributed to the participating departments, and quantitative evaluation was performed with standard clinical software according to local routines. The differential renal function (DRF) and time to maximum renal activity (Tmax ) were reported by 21 of the 28 Swedish departments performing (99m) Tc-MAG3 studies as of 2012. The reported DRF estimates showed a significantly lower precision for the phantom with impaired renal uptake than for the phantom with normal uptake. The Tmax estimates showed a similar trend, but the difference was only significant for the right kidney. There was a significant bias in the measured DRF for all phantoms caused by different positions of the left and right kidney in the anterior-posterior direction. In conclusion, this study shows that virtual scintigraphic studies are applicable for quality assurance and that there is a considerable uncertainty associated with standard quantitative parameters in dynamic (99m) Tc-MAG3 renography, especially for patients with impaired renal function. PMID:25348641

  12. Development of a single vial kit formulation of [99mTc]-labeled doxorubicin for tumor imaging and treatment response assessment-preclinical evaluation and preliminary human results.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Singh, Baljinder; Ghai, Anchal; Hazari, Puja P; Mittal, B R; Mishra, Anil K

    2015-05-30

    The present study describes the successful radiolabeling of [99mTcO(-) 4 ] with doxorubicin, and the resultant product was formulated in to a ready-to-label lyophilized single vial kit preparation for convenient use in a routine clinical setting. The radiolabeled preparation of [99mTc]-doxorubicin exhibited a high radiolabeling efficiency of more than 95.0%, serum stability for up to 24 h, and shelf-life of lyophilized cold kits was more than 6 months. Animal imaging data in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that [99mTc]-doxorubicin accumulated in the tumor site with high target (tumor) to non-target (contra-lateral thigh) ratio (3.2 ± 0.5). The ratio decreased to 1.2 ± 0.6 indicating a good response on follow up imaging performed after 2 weeks of doxorubicin treatment. [99mTc]-doxorubicin scintigraphic data in human volunteers supported the hepato-renal excretion of the radiotracer as reflected by the increased accumulation of the radiotracer as a function of time in intestine, kidneys, and urinary bladder. Further, imaging in patients (very limited number) indicated that the technique may be useful in the detection of active sarcoma and post treatment (surgery/chemotherapy) remission or absence of the disease. The technique, however, needs validation through further preclinical evaluation and imaging in a larger number of patients. PMID:25968484

  13. Does the Clearance of Inhaled (99m)Tc-Sestamibi Correlate with Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 Expression in the Human Lung?

    PubMed

    Mohan, Hosahalli K; Routledge, Thomas; Cane, Paul; Livieratos, Lefteris; Ballinger, James R; Peters, Adrien M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To examine the relation between the lung elimination rate of inhaled technetium 99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi and immunohistochemical expression of bronchopulmonary multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and assess the repeatability of the inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi clearance technique. Materials and Methods (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a known substrate for P-gp and MRP1, which are established cellular drug efflux transporters. The elimination rate of (99m)Tc-sestamibi from the lungs after inhalation as an aerosol has been hypothesized to be regulated by expression of these transporters. Institutional ethics committee approval was received for this prospective study. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The clearance of inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi from the lungs of 13 patients due to undergo surgery for primary lung cancer (five of 13) or spontaneous pneumothorax (eight of 13) was estimated after dynamic imaging of the lungs during a period of 40 minutes. The time taken to clear 50% of inhaled sestamibi (T1/2) was compared with a semiquantitative immunohistochemical assessment (grade 0-3) of MRP1 and P-gp expression in the lung by using parametric and nonparametric tests. The study was repeated in five participants to assess the repeatability of the technique by using a Bland Altman analysis method. Results MRP1 expression was seen in 12 of 13 patients, while P-gp expression was seen in only two. The mean (99m)Tc-sestamibi elimination rate was faster in patients (n = 6) with low levels of MRP1 expression (grade 0-1) and mean T1/2 of 105 minutes ± 20 (standard deviation), compared with those with higher levels of MRP1 expression (grade 2-3, n = 7) and mean T1/2 of 149 minutes ± 28 (P = .008). Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent agreement between test and retest values. Conclusion Inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi clearance study is a repeatable technique demonstrating significant correlation with MRP1 expression in

  14. 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT to monitor early response to bevacizumab therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Zhao, Guoqing; Ma, Qingjie; Ji, Bin; Ji, Tiefeng; Xin, Hua; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the predictive value of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol), PEG) 4-arginine-glycine-aspartic (99mTc-3P-RGD2) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the early identification of response to antiangiogenic treatment with bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with bevacizumab were prospectively studied with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT before and after 2 weeks from start of treatment. The tumor response was evaluated with RECIST criteria and related to observed change in the tumor to non-tumor (T/N) ratio for the largest known lesion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine T/N ratio changes with regard to predicting response to bevacizumab therapy. Change in T/N ratio was also related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Twenty-six patients were included, and 23 were finally assessable for metabolic response evaluation with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT. The cut-off value of T/N ratio change defined by ROC analysis was 24.4%. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT for predicting tumor response were 81.8%, 91.7%, and 84.6%, respectively. Using the cut-off value defined by ROC analysis on 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT, metabolic non-progressive disease patients (mNP) showed prolonged PFS (5.6 months versus 3.4 months; P < 0.001) and OS (17.1 months versus 8.6 months; P < 0.001) than metabolic progressive disease patients (mP). 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT scan is a promising test to predict tumor response in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer early in the course of bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26884883

  15. The first experience of using of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, A.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.; Sinilkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n=34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al203, and Group II patients (n=30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. Results. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. At 18 hours after 99mTc-Al203 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II patients, SLNs were detected in 27 patients. At 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. Conclusion. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc - Al203 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc - Al203 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  16. Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. )

    1992-07-01

    The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

  17. Quantitative assessment of myocardial 99mTc-sestamibi uptake during exercise: usefulness of response rate for assessing severity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Takeishi, Y; Atsumi, H; Chiba, J; Takahashi, K; Tomoike, H

    1998-08-01

    An increase of 99mTc-sestamibi uptake in the myocardium during exercise was defined as a response rate, and the feasibility of a response rate for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) was tested. Eighty-seven patients with suspected CAD had myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi during exercise and at rest. A dose of 370 MBq of 99mTc-sestamibi was injected at the maximal level of exercise, and a myocardial image was obtained 90 min later (exercise image). Then, 740 MBq of 99mTc-sestamibi was administered at rest, and myocardial imaging was repeated (rest image). The exercise and rest images were corrected for physical decay and injected doses, and the exercise image was subtracted from the rest image to obtain the corrected rest image. A response rate was calculated as follows: (exercise image-corrected rest image)x100/corrected rest image (%). The global response rates of 20 patients without significant coronary stenosis (< or =50%) were higher than those of 67 patients with significant coronary stenosis (81+/-33% and 50+/-28%, p<0.01). Global response rates were correlated with the maximal rate pressure products during exercise (r=0.56, p<0.01) and delta rate pressure products (r=0.53, p<0.01). Regional response rates in myocardial areas perfused by stenotic coronary arteries of < or =50%, 75%, 90% and 99-100% were 60+/-24%,* 56+/-33%,* 40+/-23%* and 30+/-23%,* respectively, (*p<0.01 vs without significant coronary stenosis). The response rates decreased as the severity of coronary artery stenosis advanced, and distinguished between coronary stenoses of graded severity. Accordingly, the response rate from myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi may provide complementary information to the conventional inspection with myocardial tomography regarding the severity of CAD. PMID:9741737

  18. Comparison of facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT with facet joint signal change on MRI with fat suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Vance T.; Murphy, Robert C.; Schenck, Louis A.; Carter, Rickey E.; Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Kotsenas, Amy L.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Nathan, Mark A.; Wald, John T.; Maus, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We compared signal change on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fat suppression and bone scan activity of lumbar facet joints to determine if these two imaging findings are correlated. METHODS We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent imaging of the lumbar spine for pain evaluation using both technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT) and MRI with at least one fat-suppressed T2- or T1-weighted sequence with gadolinium enhancement within a 180-day interval, at our institution between 1 January 2008 and 19 February 2013. Facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and peri-facet signal change on MRI were rated as normal or increased. Agreement between the two examination types were determined with the κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) statistics. RESULTS This study included 60 patients (28 male, 47%), with a mean age of 49±19.7 years (range, 12–93 years). The κ value indicated no agreement between 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI (κ=−0.026; 95% confidence interval: −0.051, 0.000). The PABAK values were fair to high at each spinal level, which suggests that relatively low disease prevalence lowered the κ values. Together, the κ and PABAK values indicate that there is some degree of intermodality agreement, but that it is not consistent. CONCLUSION Overall, facet joint signal change on fat-suppressed MRI did not always correlate with increased 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT activity. MRI and 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for facet joint evaluation should not be considered interchangeable examinations in clinical practice or research. PMID:27035592

  19. Technetium-99m labelled LDL as a tracer for quantitative LDL scintigraphy. II. In vivo validation, LDL receptor-dependent and unspecific hepatic uptake and scintigraphic results.

    PubMed

    Leitha, T; Staudenherz, A; Gmeiner, B; Hermann, M; Hüttinger, M; Dudczak, R

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake of dialysed technetium-99m labelled low-density lipoprotein (99mTc-LDL) reflects the hepatic LDL receptor activity and to what extent the non-LDL receptor-dependent 99mTc-LDL uptake by non-parenchymal cells relates to the diagnostic utility of quantitative 99mTc-LDL scintigraphy of the liver. New Zealand White rabbits and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits, which were sacrificed 24 h after simultaneous injection of 99mTc-LDL and iodine-125 labelled LDL, were clearly discriminated by their hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake according to their genetically different hepatic LDL receptor activity. Yet the hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake exceeded the 125I-LDL uptake in all animals. The different hepatic uptake of the tracers was elucidated in the isolated perfused rat liver and was due to rapid intracellular degradation and the release of low molecular catabolites of 125I-LDL. In contrast, 99mTc activity was trapped in the liver. Analysis of biliary 99mTc activity provided evidence for the excretion of 99mTc-labelled apolipoprotein B. The amount of biliary excreted protein-bound 99mTc was linked to total hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake and presumably reflected LDL receptor-mediated apolipoprotein excretion. Collagenase liver perfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats 90 min following simultaneous injection of 99mTc- and 125I-LDL and subsequent cell separation by gradient centrifugation revealed that 99mTc-LDL and 125I-LDL had a comparably low uptake into non-parenchymal cells; thus its contribution can be neglected for scintigraphic purposes. Planar scintigraphy was performed in New Zealand White and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8404953

  20. Kinetic modeling of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: A novel compound for imaging the dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, S.A.; McElgin, W.T.; Kung, M.P.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vivo binding potential and kinetic rate constants in baboons. A series of three SPECT scans were performed in each of two baboons with a mean bolus injection of 717 {+-} 78 Mbq (19.38 {+-} 2.12 mCi). Dynamic images of the brain were acquired over four hours using a triple-headed camera equipped with fan-beam collimators. Arterial and venous blood compartments were frequently sampled using a peristaltic pump throughout the duration of the study. SPECT images were reconstructed and corrected for attenuation. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the corresponding MRI reference scan to which each functional image was coregistered. Arterial and venous blood samples were corrected for metabolism and converted to units of concentration in the reconstruction domain using experimentally measured calibration factors for the camera. Using analytical solutions to the three-compartment model with the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization technique, each study was individually fit to a kinetic parameter vector. Additionally within each subject the three corresponding studies were fit to a single parameter vector by constraining the binding potential, distribution volume, and dissociation rate constant to improve the identifiability of the convergent solutions. A Monte Carlo simulator provided covariance matrix estimates for parameter vectors. The results showed that [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 localized in the basal ganglia. SPECT image analysis of the caudate yielded binding potential values of 2.16 and 2.91 in the first baboon and 3.30, 2.70, and 2.89 in the second baboon. The respective binding potential values for these subjects using the simultaneous fitting technique yielded values of 2.30 and 1.95. Similar values were obtained for the putamen.

  1. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    PubMed Central

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 versus 8 h time samplings from 412 99mTc-DTPA studies in 142 patients, mostly paediatric patients, with suspected fluid disturbances. Results CL (Tk-GV) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h, both accurately and precisely agreed with the standard, which was taken to be nine samples/8 h CL from (noncompartmental) numerical integration [CL (NI)]. The E2 method, four samples/4 h, and nine samples/8 h median CL values significantly overestimated the CL (NI) values by 4.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusion Compared with the standard, CL (E2) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h proved to be the most inaccurate and imprecise method examined, and can be replaced by better methods for calculating CL. The CL (Tk-GV) can be used to reduce sampling time in half from 8 to 4 h and from nine to four samples for a precise and accurate, yet more easily tolerated and simplified test. PMID:26465802

  2. Evaluation of simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc dual-isotope cardiac SPECT imaging with model-based crosstalk compensation using canine studies

    PubMed Central

    Du, Y.; Links, J. M.; Becker, L.; DiPaula, A. F.; Frank, T.; Schuleri, K. H.; Lardo, A. C.; Frey, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc-Sestamibi dual-isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can reduce imaging time and produce perfectly registered rest/stress images. However, crosstalk from 99mTc into 201Tl images can significantly reduce 201Tl image quality. We have developed a model-based compensation (MBC) method to compensate for this crosstalk. The method has previously been validated with phantom and simulation studies. In this study, we evaluated the MBC method using a canine model. Methods Left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery stenoses were created in 50 adult mongrel dogs weighing 20–30 kg. The dogs were injected with 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 201Tl at rest, and a SPECT study acquired. Stress was induced by administering adenosine to the dog, followed by injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of 99mTc-Sestamibi at peak stress. A second SPECT study was performed with data acquired in both 201Tl and 99mTc energy windows to provide simultaneous dual-isotope projection data. The images were reconstructed using the ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm with compensation for attenuation, scatter and detector response. For simultaneously acquired 201Tl data, we also applied the MBC method to compensate for crosstalk contamination from 99mTc. Results Without compensation, 99mTc crosstalk increased the estimated 201Tl activity concentration in the rest images and reduced defect contrast. After MBC, the 201Tl images were in good agreement with the registered single isotope images and ex vivo count data. The ischemic (IS) to non-ischemic (NIS) region 201Tl activity concentration ratios were computed for single isotope and dual isotope studies. The correlation with ex vivo IS-NIS ratios was 0.815 after MBC, compared to the 0.495 from data without compensation. In addition, the regression line for the IS-NIS ratios with MBC was almost parallel to the line of identity with a slope of 0.93, compared to a slope of 0

  3. Correlative 99mTc-Labeled Tropane Derivative Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography and Clinical Assessment in the Staging of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Antony, Joppy; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai; Vijayan, Krishnan; Selvan, Arul; Korde, Aruna; Kameshwaran, Mythili; Samuel, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum. Problems remain in the accurate diagnosis of PD. The diagnosis of idiopathic PD is based on the interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms could be incorrect at the time of initial presentation. In vivo imaging of the dopaminergic system has the potential to improve the diagnosis of PD in its early stages. The imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) with 99mTc-labeled tropane derivative (TRODAT-1) single photon emission computer tomography/computer tomography (SPECT/CT) has been proposed to be a valuable and feasible means of assessment of the integrity of dopamine neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential usefulness of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 imaging in the evaluation of patients with PD and classify into different stages of the disease. SPECT imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was conducted in 16 consecutive PD patients (9 men; 7 women) and in 6 age matched healthy volunteers (4 men; 2 women). The images were obtained 3 h after the intra-venous injection of the tracer. Specific uptake in the striatum and its sub-regions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus was calculated and the ratios of specific striatal binding to nonspecific occipital binding were calculated. ANOVA with Dunnett C post-hoc analysis was conducted using SPSS 20. A stepwise reduction in specific striatal uptake of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with increasing disease severity between healthy control versus Stage I versus Stage II versus Stage III was found in PD patients (i.e., 3.77 vs. 2.56 vs. 1.57 vs. 0.63, P < 0.05). The changes were magnified by measurement of specific putaminal uptake (1.43 vs. 0.79 vs. 0.54 vs. 0.19, P < 0.05) and specific caudate uptake (1.90 vs. 1.47 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.27, P < 0.05). No remarkable adverse reactions were found in either healthy volunteers or PD patients during or after imaging. 99mTc-TRODAT-1 is accurate and widely available

  4. Distribution of pancreatic B cell imaging agent 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 in the body and animal experimental research on pancreatic B cell functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Ying; Tang, Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of the application of 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide as a nuclear medicine imaging agent for evaluating pancreatic B cell function. Methods: (1) Distribution of the experiment: Forty-two mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each mice was injected with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and was sacrificed by bloodletting at five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours, respectively. Then, their tissues and organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, brain, kidneys, bones, small bowels, stomach and pancreas,and blood were collected, weighted, and their radioactivity was tested. Subsequently, the percentage injection dose rate (%ID/g) per gram of tissue was calculated. (2) Imaging experiment: Thirty-five mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each was injected with 18.5 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and imaging were conducted at the same time as above. (3) Forty-eight Wistar rats were attained and randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as the healthy control group, while the second, third and fourth groups were diabetic model groups induced by intraperitoneally injecting STZ at different doses. Each group was injected with 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide from the vena caudalis, and radiological evaluations were conducted at 30 minutes, one hour, 1.5 hours and two hours, respectively. The data obtained were estimated using a correlation comparison with the levels of insulin and immunohistochemical count of beta cells. Results: The 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide demonstrated good imaging in the pancreases of mice and rats, and was positively correlated to the level of insulin and the number of pancreatic beta cells. Conclusion: Pancreatic beta cell imaging using 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide may be a method to evaluate pancreatic beta cell function. PMID:27186309

  5. SPECT Imaging of Mice with 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals Obtained from 99Mo Produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo and Fission of 235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Ohta, Masayuki; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Ashino, Hiroki; Nakahara, Yuto

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical in mouse was determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the first time using 99mTc, which was separated by thermochromatography from 99Mo produced via the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction with accelerator neutrons. The SPECT image was comparable to that obtained using the fission product 99Mo. Radionuclidic and radiochemical purities of the separated 99mTc and its aluminum concentration met the United States Pharmacopeia regulatory requirements for 99mTc from the fission product 99Mo. These results provide important evidence that the 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical formulated using the (n,2n) 99Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99Mo. The current and forthcoming problem of ensuring a reliable and constant supply of 99Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated.

  6. 99mTc-MDP bone SPECT for the evaluation of sternal ischaemia following internal mammary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lorberboym, M; Medalion, B; Bder, O; Lockman, J; Cohen, N; Schachner, A; Cohen, A J

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the most frequently performed operations in the United States. The use of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting has been identified as increasing the risk of sternal wound infections and mediastinitis. The purpose of our study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of different techniques of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) harvesting on sternal vascularity. Thirty-three patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting were studied. The patients were divided into groups that received a skeletonized IMA (group I, n=11), a pedicled IMA (group II, n=12), or a semiskeletonized IMA (group III, n=10) graft. Each patient underwent a preoperative 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The ratio of the mean counts/pixel for each side of the sternum was obtained. Post-operatively, all patients had a repeat bone SPECT. Ratios of unilateral sternal uptakes were compared to the preoperative study. A univariable analysis of post-operative to pre-operative ratios revealed statistically significant reduction in vascularity to the left side of the sternum post-operatively in group II compared with groups I and III (0.68 0.12 vs 0.99 0.24 and 0.93 0.09; P<0.01). There was no difference between groups I and III (P=1). Multivariable analysis revealed only the type of harvesting to be associated with post-operative reduction in left to right sternal activity ratio (P<0.02). Pairwise comparisons revealed that differences are due to pedicled type of harvesting (group II vs group I, P=0.03; II vs III, P=0.001; and I vs III, P=0.115). A pedicled IMA graft causes acute post-operative sternal ischaemia. This does not occur when the IMA is skeletonized or semiskeletonized. Hence, it may be prudent to minimize dissection during mobilization of the IMA to decrease the likelihood of post-operative sternal complications. PMID:11748437

  7. Simultaneous 99mTc-MDP/123I-MIBG tumor imaging using SPECT-CT: Phantom and constructed patient studies

    PubMed Central

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; Fakhri, Georges El; Lim, Ruth; Bonab, Ali A.; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Authors’ goal is to evaluate the performance of simultaneous 99mTc-MDP/123I-MIBG tumor imaging with fast Monte-Carlo (MC) based joint iterative reconstruction as compared to sequential 99mTc-MDP and 123I-MIBG tumor imaging. Methods: Noise-free 99mTc and 123I SPECT projections were acquired separately using an anthropomorphic torso phantom modified to include a fillable tube around the lungs to mimic ribs. Additionally, 99mTc and 123I projections were acquired separately using a 1-cm spherical “tumor” placed at various distances from one detector. Tumor-present data were generated by adding tumor projections to the torso phantom data, which were scaled to the total counts in typical clinical studies. Twenty-five noise realizations were generated by adding Poisson noise to the projection data for each radionuclide. Dual-radionuclide data were synthesized by summing the 99mTc and 123I projections. Image reconstruction was performed using: (1) SR-OSEM, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without scatter correction (SC) using single-radionuclide (SR) data; (2) SR-MC-OSEM, OSEM with a fast MC-based SC using SR data; (3) DR-OSEM, OSEM without SC using dual-radionuclide (DR) data; and (4) DR-MC-JOSEM, joint OSEM with a fast MC-based SC using DR data. Ten 99mTc-MDP and ten 123I-MIBG data sets, which had tumors mathematically inserted, were also used to evaluate the performance of authors’ approach. For the phantom study, relative bias and relative standard deviation of tumor uptake were computed for each tumor using the tumor uptake in the noise-free single-radionuclide images, which were reconstructed by SR-MC-OSEM, as the gold standard. For both the phantom and constructed patient studies, mean contrast and standard deviation of contrast were computed for each tumor for both the single- and dual-radionuclide images. Additionally, contrast recovery was computed as the ratio between mean contrast and the mean contrast for SR-MC-OSEM. Results: For

  8. On the dose calculation at the cellular level and its implications for the RBE of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, R. Runge, R.; Maucksch, U.; Berger, V.; Kotzerke, J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Based on the authors’ previous findings concerning the radiotoxicity of{sup 99m}Tc, the authors compared the cellular survival under the influence of this nuclide with that following exposure to the Auger electron emitter {sup 123}I. To evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both radionuclides, knowledge of the absorbed dose is essential. Thus, the authors present the dose calculations and discuss the results based on different models of the radionuclide distribution. Both different target volumes and the influence of the uptake kinetics were considered. Methods: Rat thyroid PC Cl3 cells in culture were incubated with either{sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I or were irradiated using 200 kV x-rays in the presence or absence of perchlorate. The clonogenic cell survival was measured via colony formation. In addition, the intracellular radionuclide uptake was quantified. Single-cell dose calculations were based on Monte Carlo simulations performed using Geant4. Results: Compared with external radiation using x-rays (D{sub 37} = 2.6 Gy), the radionuclides {sup 99m}Tc (D{sub 37} = 3.5 Gy), and {sup 123}I (D{sub 37} = 3.8 Gy) were less toxic in the presence of perchlorate. In the absence of perchlorate, the amount of activity a{sub 37} that was necessary to reduce the surviving fraction (SF) to 0.37 was 22.8 times lower for {sup 99m}Tc and 12.4 times lower for {sup 123}I because of the dose increase caused by intracellular radionuclide accumulation. When the cell nucleus was considered as the target for the dose calculation, the authors found a RBE of 2.18 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 3.43 for {sup 123}I. Meanwhile, regarding the dose to the entire cell, RBE = 0.75 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 1.87 for {sup 123}I. The dose to the entire cell was chosen as the dose criterion because of the intracellular radionuclide accumulation, which was found to occur solely in the cytoplasm. The calculated number of intracellular decays per cell was (975 ± 109) decays

  9. Technegas: A medical application of {sup 99m}Tc for the study of buckyballs, blood clots, lung disease and AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, G.D.; Dance, I.G.; Fisher, K.J.; Burch, W.M.; Dasaklis, C.; Mackey, D.W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Radionuclide studies of lung disease have been greatly enhanced by the introduction of an Australian invention; the Technegas generator. The properties of the {open_quotes}dry radio-aerosols{close_quotes} produced by this device ensure lung images superior to those from true radio-gases such as {sup 133}Xe with the additional advantage of employing {sup 99m}Tc, the most widespread radionuclide agent. A Technegas lung scan can enable identification of pulmonary mebolism (an immediately life threatening condition) emphysema and chronic obstructive lung disease. A simple modification to the generator gas mixture produces Pertechnegas an agent useful in studies of the integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane in immunosuppressed patients such as transplants and AIDS. Although these agents are now common in Australia and Europe, little has been proven of their chemical composites. Technegas is formed by the initial evaporation of ({sup 99m}Tc) sodium pertechnetate with the subsequent sublimation of carbon from a disposable graphite crucible at {approximately}2500{degrees}C in an atmosphere of 100% argon. {sup 99m}Tc atoms are lifted off with the crystalline layers of graphite during the vaporization. Technegas then possibly consists of {sup 99m}Tc based metallo-fullerenes and fullerenes. Technegas has an effective half life in the lung very similar to the physical half life of Technetium (6 hours) regardless of clinical condition; a result which suggests that Technegas contains endohedral fullerenes. Pertechnegas is created in an atmosphere of 97% Ar 3% O{sub 2} and has an effective half life in the lung of less than 15 minutes.

  10. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  11. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a (99m)Tc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm(3) by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm(3) ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm(3) ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10. PMID:26912069

  12. Superfluorinated PEI Derivative Coupled with (99m) Tc for ASGPR Targeted (19) F MRI/SPECT/PA Tri-Modality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Song, Manli; Li, Yesen; Zhang, Deliang; Xu, Duo; You, Linyi; Wang, Liangliang; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Liu, Ting; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-07-01

    Fluorinated polyethylenimine derivative labeled with radionuclide (99m) Tc is developed as a (19) F MRI/SPECT/PA multifunctional imaging agent with good asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR)-targeting ability. This multifunctional agent is safe and suitable for (19) F MRI/SPECT/PA imaging and has the potential to detect hepatic diseases and to assess liver function, which provide powerful support for the development of personalized and precision medicine. PMID:27159903

  13. Biological evaluation of new potential anticancer agent for tumour imaging and radiotherapy by two methods: 99mTc-radiolabelling and EPR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karamalakova, Yanka; Chuttani, Krishna; Sharma, Rakesh; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Gadjeva, Veselina; Mishra, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a new class of in vitro and ex vivo radiotracers/radioprotectors, the nitroxyl-labelled agent 1-ethyl-1-nitroso–3-[4-(2,2,6,6–tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)]-urea (SLENU), has been discovered. Our previous investigations demonstrated that SLENU is a low-molecular-weight stable free radical which is freely membrane permeable, easily crosses the blood brain barrier and exhibited in/ex vivo the lowest general toxicity and higher anticancer activity against some experimental tumour models. Further investigation was aimed to develop a 99mTc-labelled SLENU (97%) as a chelator and evaluate its labelling efficiency and potential use as a tumour seeking agent and for early diagnosis. Tissue biodistribution of 99mTc-SLENU was determined in normal mice at 1, 2 and 24 h (n = 4/time interval, route of administration i.v.). The distribution data were compared using male albino non-inbred mice and electron paramagnetic resonance investigation. The imaging characteristics of 99mTc-SLENU conjugate examined in BALB/c mice grafted with Ehrlich Ascitis tumour in the thigh of hind leg demonstrated major accumulation of the radiotracer in the organs and tumour. Planar images and auto-radiograms confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-SLENU. Blood kinetic study of radio-conjugate showed a bi-exponential pattern, as well as quick reduced duration in the blood circulation. This study establishes nitroxyls as a general class of new spin-labelled diagnostic markers that reduce the negative lateral effects of radiotherapy and drug damages, and are appropriate for tumour-localization. PMID:26019604

  14. Radiation exposure of the investigator's hand during fusion imaging of the thyroid with 99mTcO4-free-hand SPECT and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Winkens, Thomas; Opfermann, Thomas; Kühnel, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the investigators' hand during free-hand single photon emission tomography/ultrasound ((99m)TcO4-fhSPECT/US) of the thyroid. Conventional dosimetry by rings with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) was performed in 32 patients (Group A), followed by TLD-chipstrate dosimetry in further 20 patients (Group B). In both the groups, the ambient dose rate was measured by dose rate meter (DRM). The applied activity was in the range of 60-80 MBq (99m)TcO4. In Group A, the exposure per investigation was 7.53 µSv (calculated average) by ring dosimetry and 9.02±5.64 µSv by DRM; in Group B, 10.93 and 9.51 ± 1.76 µSv, respectively. Based on estimated 1224 yearly thyroid investigations per nuclear medicine specialist in Germany, the estimated cumulative yearly exposure of the hand was 11.32 mSv. The hand exposure during a thyroid (99m)TcO4-fhSPECT/US of 20-min duration proved modest and comparable with different methods. Yearly examinations in excess of 1000 per investigator are not expected to add a relevant cumulative risk. PMID:26231559

  15. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    SciTech Connect

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  16. Use of (99m)Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-01

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80-85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing (99m)Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using (99m)Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS. PMID:26229609

  17. Radiolabeled red cell viability. I. Comparison of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of autologous stored red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 99m/Tc red cell (RBC) and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in additive media (Nutracel) for 42 or 49 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 99m/Tc value was 1.23. In this experiment we also calculated /sup 51/Cr RBC viability by both the single-isotope method (extrapolation) and the double-isotope method (using /sup 125/I human serum albumin for an independent plasma volume) in the same volunteers. The corresponding viability values were not significantly different. The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 111/In-oxine RBC and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 other normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) for 1 or 15 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 111/In value was 1.1. Use of these 24-hour viability ratios as conversion factors permits direct comparison of /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 111/In RBC viability with a /sup 51/Cr standard, and therefore expands the application of these newer RBC radiolabels.

  18. Use of 99mTc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-01-01

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing 99mTc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using 99mTc MIBI for assistance in MIRS. PMID:26229609

  19. Influence of functionalized pyridine ligands on the radio/chemical behavior of [M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re and (99m)Tc) 2 + 1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Thomas R; Lyon, Patrice A; Barnes, Charles L; Trabue, Steven; Benny, Paul D

    2015-02-16

    While a number of chelate strategies have been developed for the organometallic precursor fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc), a unique challenge has been to improve the overall function and performance of these complexes for in vivo and in vitro applications. Since its discovery, fac-[M(I)(OH2)3(CO)3](+) has served as an essential scaffold for the development of new targeted (99m)Tc based radiopharmaceuticals due to its labile aquo ligands. However, the lipophilic nature of the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core can influence the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the complexes. In an effort to understand and improve this behavior, monosubstituted pyridine ligands were used to assess the impact of donor nitrogen basicity on binding strength and stability of fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) in a 2 + 1 labeling strategy. A series of Re and (99m)Tc complexes were synthesized with picolinic acid as a bidentate ligand and 4-substituted pyridine ligands. These complexes were designed to probe the effect of pKa from the monodentate pyridine ligand both at the macro scale and radiochemical concentrations. Comparison of X-ray structural data and radiochemical solution experiments clearly indicate an increase in overall yield and stability as pyridine basicity increased. PMID:25590985

  20. Evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlesso, F.N.; Fuscaldi, L.L.; Araújo, R.S.; Teixeira, C.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Fernandes, S.O.A.; Cassali, G.D.; Reis, D.C.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26445336

  1. Elevated 99mTc-MDP and 18F-NaF Uptake in a Bladder Stone.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuting; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Cai, Liang; Shao, Fuqiang

    2016-09-01

    An 82-year-old man with known Eddison disease, osteoporosis, and a right buttock soft tissue mass underwent Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT and F-NaF PET/CT, both of which showed elevated uptake in a bladder stone. PMID:27355851

  2. Accessory spleen mimicking pancreatic tumour: evaluation by 99mTc-labelled colloid SPECT/CT study. Report of two cases and a review of nuclear medicine methods utility.

    PubMed

    Pachowicz, M; Mocarska, A; Starosławska, E; Pietrzyk, Ł; Chrapko, B

    2015-01-01

    The accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly, typically asymptomatic and harmless to the patient. However, in some clinical cases, this anomaly beco-mes significant as it can be mistaken for a tumour or lymph node and be missed during a therapeutic splenectomy. There are nuclear medicine modalities which can be applied in the identification and localisation of an accessory spleen. They include scintigraphy with radiolabelled colloids or heat damaged red blood cells, which are trapped in the splenic tissue. Modern techniques, including hybrid imaging, enable simultaneous structure and tracer distribution evaluations. Additionally, radiation-guided surgery can be used in cases where the accessory spleen, which is usually small (not exceeding 1 cm) and difficult to find among other tissues, has to be removed. In the study, we would like to present 2 cases of patients in which the malignancy had to be excluded for the reason that the multiple accessory spleens were very closely related to the pancreas. There was a lack of certainty in the multi-phase computed tomography (CT) evaluation; however, this situation was clearly resolved by using the 99mTc-stannous colloid single photon emission computed tomography/ CT study. We would also like to briefly analyse the clinical applications of nuclear medicine in case of an accessory spleen. PMID:26620518

  3. Simultaneous pancreatic-renal transplant scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Shulkin, B.L.; Dafoe, D.C.; Wahl, R.L.

    1986-12-01

    99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy was evaluated in seven patients as a technique to assess perfusion of the transplanted pancreas and kidney. Such scans provide high-quality images of both organs in both the flow phase and later phases. The radionuclide is readily available and its brief effective half-life allows repeated evaluations at short intervals. /sup 131/I-hippuran, the major radiopharmaceutical for renal transplant scintigraphy, does not allow visualization of the transplanted pancreas or evaluation of its blood supply. Although the blood glucose is a gross indicator of the function of the pancreatic allograft, pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA in one case was capable of detecting graft dysfunction before elevation of the blood glucose occurred. While additional studies will be necessary to determine the predictive value of this test, 99mTc-DTPA is valuable for pancreatic-renal transplant evaluation.

  4. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  5. [Effects of treatment with OKT3 on brain perfusion in a heart transplant patient with SPET with 99mTc-HMPAO].

    PubMed

    Quirce, R; Carril, J; Vallina, N; Montero, A; Uriarte, I

    1999-10-01

    A heart transplant patient treated with OKT3 developed a severe headache which worsened and was accompanied by a sudden decrease in the patient's consciousness level and aphasia when the treatment course was completed. CT was performed and was normal. SPET imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO of cerebral blood flow done 16 hours later revealed multiple and clear focal defects in the blood flow. Analysis of cerebral spinal fluid revealed aseptic pleocytosis. Five days after the completion of treatment, the symptoms remitted and a new control SPET 3 weeks later was completely normal. A diagnosis of neurotoxicity secondary to OKT3 administration was established. PMID:10562666

  6. Preparation and radiochemical control of 99mTc labeled blood pool agent for in vivo labelling of the red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Israr; Amir, Noshad; Durr-E-Sabih; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Rahim, Muhammad Kashif; Hussain, Muhammad Shahzad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussaian

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to prepare cheap blood pool imaging kits by simplified method to overcome the burden on purchase department of MINAR, Nishtar Hospital, Multan, Pakistan. Secondarily, prompt supply of kits should save the time of patient during transportation. A total of 24 subjects selected for this study were equally divided into two groups. Mixture of stannous chloride and sodium pyrophosphate solution at pH 7 was injected to these subjects. Various concentrations (ranging from 200 to 800 microg) of stannous chloride dihydrate were injected to group one, followed by intravenous administration of technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate at 30 min interval in 12 subjects. Labeling percentage of each sample was calculated afterwards followed by imaging under gamma camera. Each parameter was tested on three different patients and average of these three was calculated. In second set of experiments done on group two the same procedure was repeated in another 12 subjects, while keeping the concentration of Sn PYP constant at 400 microg. In this case, 99mTc was administered at different time intervals in different subjects ranging from 15 to 120 min (15, 30, 60 and 120 min) followed by calculation of labeling percentage and imaging under gamma camera. In group one, average percentage values of binding of red blood cells with 99mTc were 23.24, 84.88, 83.78 and 60.33% for concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 microg, respectively. In group two, average percentage binging values of 22.26, 84.36. 55.54 and 28.67% were calculated at time intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. It is concluded from the results that the best blood pool imaging under gamma camera was observed for the concentration of 400 microg and the time interval of 30 min. The maximum percentage binding of red blood cells with 99mTc was calculated at concentration of 400 microg after 30 min interval that also correlated with imaging results. PMID:25272643

  7. Accurate Characterization of Skeletal Lesions in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Using 99mTc MDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Parida, Girish Kumar; Dhull, Varun Singh; Karunanithi, Sellam; Arora, Saurabh; Sharma, Anshul; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    We report a 15-year-old patient with tuberous sclerosis complex or Bourneville's disease with history of generalized tonic-clonic seizure for last 2 years and was currently on antiepileptic medication. He also had a history of left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma clear cell type. The patient had multiple adenoma sebaceum over the nasolabial region, ash leaf spots over the lower limbs, a Shagreen patch over the back, and multiple calcified tubers in the subependymal region. He was then referred for the skeletal scintigraphy to look for skeletal lesions, which revealed involvement of bilateral humeri, tibiae, and iliac bones accurately characterized on SPECT/CT. PMID:26098284

  8. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  9. Role of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of the viability of the bone flap in mandibular reconstruction in patients with oromaxillofacial malignancies.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Penumadu, Prasanth; Kumar, Dinesh; Pandit, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Osteo-cutaneous flap are commonly used for reconstruction of bone defect after oncology surgery. The success of surgery depends on the viability of the bone flap. Bone scan is a known, but less performed method, to look for viability of bone flaps. We describe a case of 50-year-old lady, presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of left buccal mucosa (cT4N1M0) involving the skin and mandible. She underwent left segmental mandibulectomy and upper alveolectomy with neck dissection, followed by reconstruction using a fibular osteo-cutaneous flap and anterolateral thigh free flap. On postoperative day 10, the intraoral flap showed signs of nonviability. The patient was sent to nuclear medicine for assessment of viability of the free fibula flap. The patient underwent three phase (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan and single-photon emission computerized tomography. Computerized tomography showing good tracer uptake in fibula confirming viability. The case reflects the use of (99m)Tc-MDP in viability assessment of the bone flap. PMID:26170579

  10. The first experience of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (T1aNxMx-T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. In the 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the 99mTc-Al2O3 in peritumoral injected, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3 (the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac (14%), obturator (14%), presacral and retrosacral regions (14%), and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  11. External radiation exposure of personnel in nuclear medicine from 18F, 99mTC and 131I with special reference to fingers, eyes and thyroid.

    PubMed

    Leide-Svegborn, S

    2012-04-01

    The radiation exposure of fingers, thyroid and eyes of workers handling radiopharmaceuticals during various nuclear medicine procedures was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Dosemeters were placed on the finger tips of 19 workers on several different occasions for various procedures. Additionally, the routinely determined whole-body doses to various groups of workers were analysed. The finger dose measurements demonstrated clear differences between the various tasks, from 0.0012 µGy MBq(-1) (unpacking and installing (99)Mo/(99m)Tc-generator) to 3.0 µGy MBq(-1) (syringe withdrawal, injection and waste handling of (18)F-FDG). As long as the worker was handling (99m)Tc, the dose to the fingers was well below the ICRP dose limits, even when the activity was high. Special concern should, however, be devoted to the handling of (18)F, since the dose to the fingers could easily reach the dose limits. The estimated dose to eyes and thyroid was well below the dose limits. Since the introduction of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography facility, the annual whole-body dose has increased for those directly involved in the handling of (18)F. The annual whole-body dose of 0.2-2.5 mGy was, however, well below the dose limits. PMID:21571739

  12. Using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique for crosstalk correction in simultaneous 99mTc/201Tl SPECT imaging: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidary, Saeed; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a simulation based study by Monte Carlo which uses two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for cross talk compensation of simultaneous 99mTc/201Tl dual-radioisotope SPECT imaging. We have compared two neuro-fuzzy systems based on fuzzy c-means (FCM) and subtractive (SUB) clustering. Our approach incorporates eight energy-windows image acquisition from 28 keV to 156 keV and two main photo peaks of 201Tl (77±10% keV) and 99mTc (140±10% keV). The Geant4 application in emission tomography (GATE) is used as a Monte Carlo simulator for three cylindrical and a NURBS Based Cardiac Torso (NCAT) phantom study. Three separate acquisitions including two single-isotopes and one dual isotope were performed in this study. Cross talk and scatter corrected projections are reconstructed by an iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm which models the non-uniform attenuation in the projection/back-projection. ANFIS-FCM/SUB structures are tuned to create three to sixteen fuzzy rules for modeling the photon cross-talk of the two radioisotopes. Applying seven to nine fuzzy rules leads to a total improvement of the contrast and the bias comparatively. It is found that there is an out performance for the ANFIS-FCM due to its acceleration and accurate results.

  13. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-Al2O3- based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (TlaNxMx- T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. At 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the 99mTc-Al2O3 were injected peritumorally, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3(the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac, obturator, presacral and retrosacral regions (they amounted to 14%, respectively),and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  14. (99m)Tc-Labeled Multifunctional Low-Generation Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles for Targeted SPECT/CT Dual-Mode Imaging of Tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Xiong, Zuogang; Xu, Xiaoying; Luo, Yu; Peng, Chen; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2016-08-10

    Development of cost-effective and highly efficient nanoprobes for targeted tumor single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) dual-mode imaging remains a challenging task. Here, multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) modified with folic acid (FA) and labeled with (99m)Tc were synthesized for targeted dual-mode SPECT/CT imaging of tumors. Generation 2 (G2) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (G2-NH2) conjugated with cyclic diethylenetriamine pentaacetic anhydride (cDTPAA) via an amide linkage and FA via a spacer of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used for templated synthesis of Au core NPs, followed by labeling of (99m)Tc via chelation. The thus created multifunctional Au DENPs were well-characterized. It is shown that particles with an average Au core diameter of 1.6 nm can be dispersed in water, display stability under different conditions, and are cytocompatible in the studied concentration range. Further results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoprobe is able to be utilized for targeted SPECT/CT dual-mode imaging of cancer cells having FA receptor (FAR)-overexpression in vitro and the established subcutaneous tumor model in vivo within a time frame up to 4 h. The formed multifunctional Au DENPs synthesized using dendrimers of low-generation may be employed as an effective and economic nanoprobe for SPECT/CT imaging of different types of FAR-expressing tumors. PMID:27434031

  15. In vivo biodistribution of a radiolabeled blood substitute: sup 99m Tc-labeled liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in an anesthetized rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, A.S.; Goins, B. ); Klipper, R.W.; Phillips, W.T. )

    1991-12-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is an erythrocyte substitute that is a potential resuscitative fluid for the in vivo delivery of oxygen. The authors had noninvasively imaged radiolabeled LEH in vivo with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) to study the biodistribution in an anesthetized rabbit. Rabbits were infused with 30 ml of LEH and imaged with a {gamma} camera continuously for 2 hr. At 20 hr postinfusion, the animals were imaged again and sacrificed; the organs were weighed and their radioactivity was determined for autopsy organ distribution. Organ uptake from the images was corrected for organ-associated blood pool, which was determined by infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled rabbit erythrocytes. Blood pool and decay-corrected biodistribution data reveal the kinetics of LEH distribution. Image biodistribution data was also validated at 20 hr by tissue sampling. At 20 hr postinfusion, autopsy biodistribution data reveals approximately 42.6% of the total counts remaining in the blood, 15.4% in the liver, 18.1% in spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, 2.4% in muscle, 1.6% in urine, and trace levels in the kidney, brain, and heart (<1%). There is no evidence of hemoglobin release from LEH or kidney dysfunction at any time over the course of the study.

  16. Development of a technique for using 99mTc as an adsorbable tracer for hydrodynamic studies of fine sediments in suspension.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, J V; Sabino, C S; Aun, P E; Mendes, V L; Agudo, E Garcia

    2002-07-01

    Labelling of fine sediment (phi < 62.5 microm) with 99mTc was achieved through laboratory experiments described in a previous work (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management. IAEA-SM-361/13, Vienna, Proceedings of the XIIIth Brazilian Symposium on Water Resources. Brazilian Association for Water Resources (ABRH), Belo Horizonte, paper 176, CD-rom (in Portuguese)). Comparative studies of the hydrodynamic behaviour of the labelled and unlabelled sediment, in order to validate the application of the labelled sediment in field studies, were further performed by means of sedimentation tests using the Andreasen pipette technique, and are presented here. Labelling without flocculation, which promotes the same sedimentation behaviour of the labelled and the natural sediment was only achieved using small quantities of SnCl2 dissolved in proportionately small volumes of HCI (0.3%), in the reduction of a 99mTcO4- eluted from a 99Mo generator. PMID:12137032

  17. Tricarbonyl (99m)Tc(i) and Re(i)-thiosemicarbazone complexes: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation for targeting bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Rinku; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Sen, Tuhinadri; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee

    2015-09-28

    Methyl, ethyl and phenyl nitrofuryl thiosemicarbazone ligands (, and respectively) were radiolabeled with freshly prepared aqueous solution of a fac[(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) precursor. The radiochemical yield was around 98% as determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. The complexes exhibited substantial stability. The corresponding Re(i) complexes were prepared from a Re(CO)5Br precursor to understand the coordination behavior of the ligands against a tricarbonyl rhenium(i) precursor. The rhenium(i) complexes were characterized by means of IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic studies as well as by X-ray crystallography, and correlated with the technetium complexes by means of HPLC studies. Electrochemical reduction of monomeric Re(CO)3-complexes of nitrofuryl ethyl thiosemicarbazone was also studied using cyclic voltammetry. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled thiosemicarbazones in rats intramuscularly infected with S. aureus exhibited substantial in vivo stability of the complex and moderate accumulation at the site of focal infection. PMID:26289802

  18. Permeability of gloves used in nuclear medicine departments to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose: radiation protection considerations.

    PubMed

    Ridone, S; Matheoud, R; Valzano, S; Di Martino, R; Vigna, L; Brambilla, M

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of the individual protection devices, the permeability of four different types of disposable gloves, commonly used in hospitals, was tested in relation to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG). From these radiopharmaceutical solutions, a drop was deposited on the external surface of the glove which was opened and stretched with the external surface placed upward. The smear test technique permitted to evaluate the activity onto the inner surface of the glove at different times. The smear tests were measured in a well sodium iodide detector calibrated in efficiency for (99m)Tc and (18)F. The permeability was tested on ten samples of each type of gloves and was expressed as the ratio of the activity onto the inner surface at each time interval to the activity deposited on the external surface of the glove. For each type of gloves and for each sampling time, mean value, standard deviation and percentage coefficient of variation of permeability were evaluated. One type of gloves showed a low resistance to permeation of both radiopharmaceuticals, while another one only to pertechnetate. The other gloves were good performers. The results of this study suggest to test permeability for gloves used for handling radiopharmaceuticals, before their adoption in the clinical routine. This practice will provide a more careful service of radiation protection for nuclear medicine department staff. PMID:23419926

  19. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered sup 153 Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and sup 99m Tc(DTPA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeking, P.; Eaton, S.; Covell, D.G.; Nair, S.; Tweedle, M.F.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) and {sup 153}Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments.

  20. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and 99mTc(DTPA) in rats.

    PubMed

    Wedeking, P; Eaton, S; Covell, D G; Nair, S; Tweedle, M F; Eckelman, W C

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of 99mTc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of 99mTc(DTPA) and 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments. PMID:2082126

  1. Clickable, Hydrophilic Ligand for fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re/99mTc) Applied in an S-Functionalized α-MSH Peptide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction was used to incorporate alkyne-functionalized dipicolylamine (DPA) ligands (1 and 3) for fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re/99mTc) complexation into an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analogue. A novel DPA ligand with carboxylate substitutions on the pyridyl rings (3) was designed to increase the hydrophilicity and to decrease in vivo hepatobiliary retention of fac-[99mTcI(CO)3]+ complexes used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging studies with targeting biomolecules. The fac-[ReI(CO)3(3)] complex (4) was used for chemical characterization and X-ray crystal analysis prior to radiolabeling studies between 3 and fac-[99mTcI(OH2)3(CO)3]+. The corresponding 99mTc complex (4a) was obtained in high radiochemical yields, was stable in vitro for 24 h during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays, and showed increased hydrophilicity by log P analysis compared to an analogous complex with nonfunctionalized pyridine rings (2a). An α-MSH peptide functionalized with an azide was labeled with fac-[MI(CO)3]+ using both click, then chelate (CuAAC reaction with 1 or 3 followed by metal complexation) and chelate, then click (metal complexation of 1 and 3 followed by CuAAC with the peptide) strategies to assess the effects of CuAAC conditions on fac-[MI(CO)3]+ complexation within a peptide framework. The peptides from the click, then chelate strategy had different HPLC tR’s and in vitro stabilities compared to those from the chelate, then click strategy, suggesting nonspecific coordination of fac-[MI(CO)3]+ using this synthetic route. The fac-[MI(CO)3]+-complexed peptides from the chelate, then click strategy showed >90% stability during in vitro challenge conditions for 6 h, demonstrated high affinity and specificity for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in IC50 analyses, and led to moderately high uptake in B16F10 melanoma cells. Log P analysis of the 99mTc

  2. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4-, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4- was prevented by incubating with DMSO. PMID:27583677

  3. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  4. (99m)Tc-HisoDGR as a Potential SPECT Probe for Orthotopic Glioma Detection via Targeting of Integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Gao, Hannan; Zhai, Luoping; Liu, Xujie; Jia, Bing; Shi, Jiyun; Wang, Fan

    2016-05-18

    Integrins, a large family of cell adhesion receptors, have been shown to play an important role for glioma proliferation and invasion. Several integrin receptors, including αvβ3, αvβ5, and α5β1, have generated clinical interest for glioma diagnosis and antitumor therapy. Integrin α5β1 has been highlighted as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in glioma, and its expression is correlated with a worse prognosis in high-grade glioma. However, unlike extensively studied integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, very few integrin α5β1-specific radiotracers have been reported. Developing α5β1-specific radiotracers may provide alternative diagnosis and evaluation options in addition to well-studied αvβ3/αvβ5-specific tracers, and they may add new documents for profiling tumor progression. Here, a novel integrin α5β1-specific probe (99m)Tc-HisoDGR was fabricated for SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) imaging of glioma. To confirm its selective targeting of integrin α5β1 in vivo, the mouse models of α5β1-positive U87MG human glioma were subjected to SPECT/CT scans, and biodistribution experiments and blocking studies were performed. Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging experiments demonstrated that the tumors were clearly visualized in both subcutaneous and orthotopic glioma tumor models with clear background at 0.5, 1, and 2 h p.i. The tumor accumulation of (99m)Tc-HisoDGR showed significant reduction when excess cold isoDGR peptide was coinjected, suggesting that the tumor uptake was specifically mediated. Our work revealed that (99m)Tc-HisoDGR represented a powerful molecular probe for integrin α5β1-positive cancer imaging; moreover, it might be a promising tool for evaluating malignancy, predicting prognosis, selecting subpopulations of patients who might be sensitive to integrin α5β1-targeted drugs, and assessing and monitoring the response to integrin α5β1-targeted drugs in clinical trials. PMID:27098436

  5. SPECT brain imaging of the dopaminergic system in Parkinsonism using {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc labeled agents

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yong

    2004-12-01

    SPECT brain imaging of the dopaminergic system using {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc labeled agents, especially the simultaneous imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons, promises to provide accurate diagnosis and differentiation of Parkinsonism. However, there are many degrading factors that affect the quality and quantitative accuracy of the SPECT images. These degrading factors limit the potential clinical applications of brain SPECT imaging. In this work, we studied these degrading factors by developing and validating a Monte Carlo (MC) method that provides accurate SPECT simulation with detailed modeling of the photon interactions inside the collimator detector system. To compensate for the partial volume effect (PVE) in the SPECT images caused by finite spatial resolution, we developed a new PVE compensation method that takes into account the effects of nonlinearity in iterative reconstruction-based compensation for image degrading factors, including attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response. Compensation using the new method greatly improved the quantitative accuracy of brain SPECT images. We have also developed model-based method that can accurately estimate the downscatter and crosstalk contamination in the {sup 123}I imaging and the simultaneous {sup 123}I/{sup 99m}Tc dual-isotope imaging. Based on the model-based method, two different approaches to model-based downscatter and crosstalk contamination compensation were proposed. Both methods are based on iterative reconstruction and include compensation for other imaging degrading factors. The model-based downscatter and crosstalk compensation method provided greatly improved accuracy of activity estimates with little effect on the precision. Finally, optimization of energy windows for simultaneous {sup 123}I/{sup 99m}Tc acquisition was performed to find the energy windows with the best trade-off between minimizing the crosstalk and maximizing the detection efficiency for simultaneous

  6. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based upon 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiological Adaptive RT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Feng, Mary; Frey, Kirk A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed prior to and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled immindodiacetic acid (IDA) SPECT could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans prior to RT, during, and one month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests (a measure of overall liver function) were performed within 1 day of each scan. 3D volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After co-registration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose-response functions during and post-RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, Dose, Priori and Adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function post-RT. Results The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r = −0.80, p<0.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs one month post-RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF post-RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed prior to RT (R=0.71, p<0.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF post-RT was predicted by regional HEF re-assessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, p<0.0001). Conclusions 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of

  7. Diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma intracerebral mass lesions. Usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and /sup 67/Ga citrate brain scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zidar, B.L.; Adatepe, M.; Hryschko, F.; Hartsock, R.J.; Kessler, L.; Lyons, T.A.

    1982-11-01

    This paper summarizes the clinical and diagnostic features of five reports of patients with intracerebral, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In three patients the brain lesion was the only evidence of lymphoma, while two patients also had concomitant systemic involvement. Four patients had diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and one had a mixed type of malignant lymphoma. In all patients, /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 67/Ga brain scans disclosed discrete areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with a mass. In each case, brain blood perfusion studies were normal and brain computerized tomographic (CT) scans and cerebral angiograms produced variable nondiagnostic patterns. Craniotomies in four patients provided histologic confirmation of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the areas of abnormality. The remaining patient had systemic histiocytic lymphoma with concomitant brain lesions that responded to irradiation. The combined use of the above noninvasive modalities in correlation with clinical findings may result in more accurate prebiopsy diagnoses of intracerebral lymphoma.

  8. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Peng; Hutton, Brian F.; Holstensson, Maria; Ljungberg, Michael; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were

  9. A Novel Method for the Synthesis of 99mTc-Ofloxacin Kits Using D-Penicillamine as Coligand and Their Application as Infection Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Qadir, Muhammad; Rasheed, Rashid; Ahmed, Mahmood; Anwar, Shahzad; Kiran Shahzadi, Syeda

    2015-01-01

    The employment of radiopharmaceuticals is increasing nowadays for infection imaging and early execution of patients having infectious or inflammatory complaints. The main aim of this study was to discover a novel method for the labeling of ofloxacin with 99mTc, optimization of labelling conditions to get higher percent yield, to assess kits radiochemical purity, in vitro stability, partition coefficient, protein binding, and intracellular accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli in infected rabbits. Maximum labeling efficiency was achieved when 1.5 mg ofloxacin was labeled with 10–20 mCi sodium pertechnetate in the presence of 3 mg D-penicillamine, 75 μg SnCl2. In vitro binding and biodistribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli showed good results. This new complex is efficient for the imaging of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26090412

  10. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  11. Human monoclonal antibody 99mTc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Krause, B J; Baum, R P; Staib-Sebler, E; Lorenz, M; Niesen, A; Hör, G

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of 99mTc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%. PMID:9044881

  12. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched uranium) targets. [For production of /sup 99m/Tc; by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for /sup 99/Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. A Novel Method for the Synthesis of (99m)Tc-Ofloxacin Kits Using D-Penicillamine as Coligand and Their Application as Infection Imaging Agent.

    PubMed

    Abdul Qadir, Muhammad; Shahzad, Shabnam; Rasheed, Rashid; Ahmed, Mahmood; Anwar, Shahzad; Kiran Shahzadi, Syeda

    2015-01-01

    The employment of radiopharmaceuticals is increasing nowadays for infection imaging and early execution of patients having infectious or inflammatory complaints. The main aim of this study was to discover a novel method for the labeling of ofloxacin with (99m)Tc, optimization of labelling conditions to get higher percent yield, to assess kits radiochemical purity, in vitro stability, partition coefficient, protein binding, and intracellular accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli in infected rabbits. Maximum labeling efficiency was achieved when 1.5 mg ofloxacin was labeled with 10-20 mCi sodium pertechnetate in the presence of 3 mg D-penicillamine, 75 μg SnCl₂. In vitro binding and biodistribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli showed good results. This new complex is efficient for the imaging of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26090412

  14. Breast Imaging Utilizing Dedicated Gamma Camera and (99m)Tc-MIBI: Experience at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and Review of the Literature Breast Imaging.

    PubMed

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Golan, Orit; Menes, Tehillah; Weinstein, Yuliana; Lerman, Hedva

    2016-07-01

    The scope of the current article is the clinical role of gamma cameras dedicated for breast imaging and (99m)Tc-MIBI tumor-seeking tracer, as both a screening modality among a healthy population and as a diagnostic modality in patients with breast cancer. Such cameras are now commercially available. The technology utilizing a camera composed of a NaI (Tl) detector is termed breast-specific gamma imaging. The technology of dual-headed camera composed of semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride detectors that directly converts gamma-ray energy into electronic signals is termed molecular breast imaging. Molecular breast imaging system has been installed at the Department of Nuclear medicine at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv in 2009. The article reviews the literature well as our own experience. PMID:27237439

  15. Prospective evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy and gray-scale ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Halls, J.M.; Siemsen, J.K.

    1982-07-01

    Prospective analysis of the efficacy of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy and cholecystosonography showed that both are excellent techniques for assessing patients with suspected acute cholecystitis (accuracy 84.7% and 88.1% respectively). Consequently, the choice of tests selected to evaluate patients with suspected acute cholecystitis depends on several factors including; (a.) quality of equipment available; (b.) capability of the technologist performing the examination; (c.) relative experience of the physician supervising the examination; and (d.) willingness of the surgical consultant to accept a positive examination as sufficient evidence to perform emergency surgery. The authors feel that cholecystosonography should be used to assess the presence of acute cholecystitis in jaundiced patients because of its capability in the assessment of bile duct dilatation, and because of the lower reliability of cholescintigraphy when bile duct obstruction is possible (i.e., in jaundice). Ancillary findings in cholecystosonography and cholescintigraphy can aid in the differential diagnosis of acute right upper quandrant pain syndromes.

  16. Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson's disease?--a [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ming Chi; Franco de Andrade, Luiz Augusto; Amaro, Edson; Felicio, Andre Carvalho; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Wagner, Jairo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Lin, Li Fu; Fu, Ying Kai; Mari, Jair Jesus; Tufik, Sergio; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2007-04-30

    Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from the classic late-onset PD (LOPD) because of its slower disease progression. The aim of this study was to compare dopamine neuronal loss in EOPD with that of LOPD with the same disease duration, through dopamine transporter (DAT) estimation. Fourteen patients, seven EOPD (<50 years) and seven LOPD, matched for disease duration were scanned with [(99m)Tc]-TRODAT-1-SPECT (INER-Taiwan), and were assessed with standard PD scales. EOPD patients had 34% lower striatal DAT binding potential (BP) compared with that of LOPD patients (BP = 0.29 +/- 0.12, BP = 0.44 +/- 0.12, P < 0.02) with similar PD severity. These results suggest that EOPD patients have greater dopamine density loss than LOPD patients without motor-symptom worsening. PMID:17290452

  17. HAHAHA, HEHEHE, HIHIHI, or HKHKHK: influence of position and composition of histidine containing tags on biodistribution of [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+)-labeled affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Hofström, Camilla; Altai, Mohamed; Honarvar, Hadis; Strand, Joanna; Malmberg, Jennie; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Orlova, Anna; Gräslund, Torbjörn; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2013-06-27

    Engineered affibody molecules can be used for high contrast in vivo molecular imaging. Extending a recombinantly produced HER2 binding affibody molecule with a hexa-histidine tag allows for convenient purification by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and labeling with [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+) but increases radioactivity uptake in the liver. To investigate the impact of charge, lipophilicity, and position on biodistribution, 10 variants of a histidine-based tag was attached to a HER2 binding affibody molecule. The biochemical properties and the HER2 binding affinity appeared to be similar for all variants. In vivo, positive charge promoted liver uptake. For N-terminally placed tags, lipophilicity promoted liver uptake and decreased kidney uptake. Kidney uptake was higher for C-terminally placed tags compared to their N-terminal counterparts. The variant with the amino acid composition HEHEHE placed in the N-terminus gave the lowest nonspecific uptake. PMID:23692562

  18. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  19. An Approach for Balancing Diagnostic Image Quality with Cancer Risk: Application to Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging of 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Wayson, Michael B.; Abadia, Andres F.; Treves, S. Ted

    2012-01-01

    A recent survey of pediatric hospitals showed a large variability in the activity administered for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging of children. Imaging guidelines, especially for pediatric patients, must balance the risks associated with radiation exposure with the need to obtain the high-quality images necessary to derive the benefits of an accurate clinical diagnosis. Methods Pharmacokinetic modeling and a pediatric series of nonuniform rational B-spline–based phantoms have been used to simulate 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT images. Images were generated for several different administered activities and for several lesions with different target-to-background activity concentration ratios; the phantoms were also used to calculate organ S values for 99mTc. Channelized Hotelling observer methodology was used in a receiver-operating-characteristic analysis of the diagnostic quality of images with different modeled administered activities (i.e., count densities) for anthropomorphic reference phantoms representing two 10-y-old girls with equal weights but different body morphometry. S value–based dosimetry was used to calculate the mean organ-absorbed doses to the 2 pediatric patients. Using BEIR VII age- and sex-specific risk factors, we converted absorbed doses to excess risk of cancer incidence and used them to directly assess the risk of the procedure. Results Combined, these data provided information about the tradeoff between cancer risk and diagnostic image quality for 2 phantoms having the same weight but different body morphometry. The tradeoff was different for the 2 phantoms, illustrating that weight alone may not be sufficient for optimally scaling administered activity in pediatric patients. Conclusion The study illustrates implementation of a rigorous approach for balancing the benefits of adequate image quality against the radiation risks and also demonstrates that weight-based adjustment to the administered activity is suboptimal

  20. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/99mTc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Haruka; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tsubokawa, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG)) and technetium-99m (99mTc) radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive) cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative) cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with 99mTc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner. PMID:27399687

  1. Usefulness of an Automatic Quantitative Method for Measuring Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Using 99mTc Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer Brain Uptake Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Rieko; Ofuji, Asato; Yamashita, Kosuke; Tomimatsu, Taeko; Orita, Shinnichi; Takaki, Akihiro; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ito, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Improved brain uptake ratio (IBUR), employing 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD), is an automatic non-invasive method for quantitatively measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). This method was developed by the reconstruction of the theory and linear regression equation, based on rCBF measurement by H215O positron emission tomography. Clarification of differences in rCBF values obtained by Patlak plot (PP) and IBUR method is important for clinical diagnosis during the transition period between these methods. Our purpose in this study was to demonstrate the relationship between rCBF values obtained by IBUR and PP methods and to evaluate the clinical applicability of IBUR method. Methods: The mean CBF (mCBF) and rCBF values in 15 patients were obtained using the IBUR method and compared with PP method values. Results: Overall, mCBF and rCBF values, obtained using these independent techniques, were found to be correlated (r=0.68). The mCBF values obtained by the IBUR method ranged from 18.9 to 44.9 ml/100g/min, whereas those obtained by the PP method ranged from 34.7 to 48.1 ml/100g/min. The rCBF values obtained by the IBUR method ranged from 16.3 to 60.2 ml/100g/min, whereas those obtained by the PP method were within the range of 26.7-58.8 ml/100g/min. Conclusion: The ranges of mCBF and rCBF values, obtained by the IBUR method, were approximately 60% lower than those obtained by the PP method; therefore, this method can be useful for diagnosing lower flow area. Re-analysis of prior PP data, using the IBUR method, could be potentially useful for the clinical follow-up of rCBF. PMID:27408886

  2. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a New 99mTc Labeled Substance P Analogue as a Potential Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Erfani, Mostafa; Beiki, Davood; Johari Daha, Fariba; Kobarfard, Farzad; Balalaie, Saeed; Fallahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R) are overexpressed on several types of important human cancer cells. Substance P (SP) is the most specific endogenous ligand known for NK1Rs. Accordingly,a new SP analogue was synthesized and evaluated for detection of NK1R positive tumors.[6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-Tyr8-Met(O)11-SP] was synthesized and radiolabeled with 99mTc using ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA)and Tricine as coligands. Common physicochemical properties of radioconjugate were studied and in-vitro cell line biological tests were accomplished to determine the receptor mediated characteristics. In-vivo biodistribution in normal and tumor bearingnude mice was also assessed. The cold peptide was prepared in high purity (>99%) and radiolabeled with 99mTc at high specific activities (84-112GBq/µmol) with an acceptable labeling yield (>95%). The radioconjugate was stable in-vitro in the presence of human serum and showed 44% protein binding to human serumalbumin. In-vitro cell line studies on U373MG cells showed an acceptable uptake up to 4.91 ± 0.22% with the ratio of 60.21 ± 1.19% for its specific fraction and increasing specific internalization during 4 h. Receptor binding assays on U373MG cells indicated a mean Kd of 2.46 ± 0.43 nM and Bmax of 128925 ± 8145 sites/cell. In-vivo investigations determined the specific tumor uptake in 3.36 percent of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) for U373MG cells and noticeable accumulations of activity in the intestines and lung. Predominant renal excretion pathway was demonstrated. Therefore, this new radiolabeled peptide could be a promising radiotracer for detection of NK1R positive primary or secondary tumors. PMID:25561916

  3. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/(99m)Tc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruka; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tsubokawa, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG)) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive) cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative) cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with (99m)Tc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner. PMID:27399687

  4. Quantitative evaluation of simultaneous reconstruction with model-based crosstalk compensation for 99mTc/123I dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition brain SPECT.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2009-06-01

    A model-based method has been previously developed to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk and downscatter contamination in simultaneous 123I/99mTc dual-isotope SPECT imaging. In this method, photon scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimate technique. Photon interactions with the collimator-detector are estimated using precalculated Monte Carlo simulated point response functions. Two different approaches, simultaneous and alternating model-based compensations, have been proposed for iterative reconstruction-based crosstalk and downscatter contamination compensation. In this work, both model-based approaches were evaluated in the context of quantitative accuracy when imaging the dopaminergic system using both Monte Carlo simulated and experimentally acquired data. Results indicate that mddel-based estimates of the crosstalk and downscatter contamination in both energy windows were in good agreement with the truth for the simulated data. The effects of the contamination reduced image contrast and overestimated absolute activity in all structures by up to 66%. Compensation using both model-based approaches improved image contrast. Errors in absolute activity quantitation were also reduced to less than +/-5% for most brain structures. The accuracy of striatal specific binding potentials, calculated as the ratio of activity in various striatal structures to the background, was also greatly improved after model-based compensation. In conclusion, model-based compensation of simultaneously acquired images of 99mTc and 123I labeled brain imaging agents provided image quality and quantitative accuracy that were comparable to the image without crosstalk. Both proposed compensation approaches can potentially be applied clinically, but when reconstruction time is a limiting factor, the alternating model-based compensation may be preferable. PMID:19610291

  5. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  6. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-hynic-Tyr3-octreotide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr3-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. 99mTc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of 99mhynic-Tyr3-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  7. Induction of DNA single-strand breaks by 131I and 99mTc in human mononuclear blood cells in vitro and extrapolation to the in vivo situation.

    PubMed

    Hengstler, J G; Bockisch, A; Fuchs, J; Grimm, W; Görges, R; Oesch-Bartlomowicz, B; Zapf, A O; Lade, K; Tanner, B; Teichmann, E; Thelen, M; Gebhard, S; Oesch, F

    2000-05-01

    The radionuclides (131)I and (99m)Tc are frequently used for therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease ((131)I) and for diagnosis of thyroid and other diseases ((99m)Tc). However, the levels of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) induced in cells of patients after administration of (131)I and (99m)Tc are not known. In this study, we measured the number of SSBs per cell induced by (131)I and (99m)Tc in vitro, extrapolated the results to the clinical situation, and assessed their biological relevance by comparing levels of SSBs induced after therapeutic administration of (131)I and (99m)Tc to those induced by endogenous processes or by occupational exposure to genotoxic substances. A linear dose-response relationship between the radioactivity concentrations of (131)I and (99m)Tc and SSBs in human mononuclear blood cells (determined by alkaline elution) was obtained after incubation at 4 and 37 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, where almost no repair of SSBs takes place, (131)I and (99m)Tc induced 81 and 7 SSBs per cell per hour/(MBq/ml), respectively. At 37 degrees C, only 20 and 1.6 SSBs per cell per hour/(MBq/ml) were observed after incubation with (131)I and (99m)Tc. To estimate the induction of SSBs in vivo in cells of patients after administration of 3700 MBq (131)I (oral) or 60 MBq (99m)Tc (i.v.), the rates of induction of SSBs obtained in vitro were extrapolated to the concentrations of (131)I and (99m)Tc measured in blood of patients. The total number of SSBs (mean +/- standard deviation) accumulated after oral administration of 3700 MBq (131)I up to 70 h after administration was calculated as 200 +/- 59 SSBs/cell. After administration of 60 MBq (99m)Tc (i.v.), 0.032 +/- 0.009 SSBs per cell (total SSBs up to 2 h after administration) were cumulated. The induction of SSBs by endogenous processes (estimated 2,000 SSBs per cell per hour) and by occupational exposure to genotoxic substances (125-430 SSBs per cell) has been estimated in earlier studies. In conclusion

  8. The use of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor with atypical and extensive metastasis responding dramatically to a single fraction of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Abhyankar, Amit

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a case of extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement with bilateral breast metastases from duodenal neuroendocrine tumor giving rise to a superscan-like appearance on somatostatin receptor-targeted (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC scintigraphy. The metastatic lesions demonstrated partial concordance with (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings, signifying varying tumor biology and heterogeneity among metastatic lesions in the same individual, as illustrated with a dual-tracer approach. There was a dramatic symptomatic and biochemical response and better health-related quality of life with a single fraction of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE, and radiologically there was stable disease at that point. PMID:25190735

  9. PET/CT-Based Dosimetry in 90Y-Microsphere Selective Internal Radiation Therapy: Single Cohort Comparison With Pretreatment Planning on 99mTc-MAA Imaging and Correlation With Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoo Sung; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 90Y PET/CT can be acquired after 90Y-microsphere selective radiation internal therapy (SIRT) to describe radioactivity distribution. We performed dosimetry using 90Y-microsphere PET/CT data to evaluate treatment efficacy and appropriateness of activity planning from 99mTc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT. Twenty-three patients with liver malignancy were included in the study. 99mTc-MAA was injected during planning angiography and whole body 99mTc-MAA scan and liver SPECT/CT were acquired. After SIRT using 90Y-resin microsphere, 90Y-microsphere PET/CT was acquired. A partition model (PM) using 4 compartments (tumor, intarget normal liver, out-target normal liver, and lung) was adopted, and absorbed dose to each compartment was calculated based on measurements from 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT, respectively, to be compared with each other. Progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated in terms of tumor absorbed doses calculated by 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT results. Lung shunt fraction was overestimated on 99mTc-MAA scan compared with 90Y-microsphere PET/CT (0.060 ± 0.037 vs. 0.018 ± 0.026, P < 0.01). Tumor absorbed dose exhibited a close correlation between the results from 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT (r = 0.64, P < 0.01), although the result from 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT was significantly lower than that from 90Y-microsphere PET/CT (135.4 ± 64.2 Gy vs. 185.0 ± 87.8 Gy, P < 0.01). Absorbed dose to in-target normal liver was overestimated on 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT compared with PET/CT (62.6 ± 38.2 Gy vs. 45.2 ± 32.0 Gy, P = 0.02). Absorbed dose to out-target normal liver did not differ between 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT (P = 0.49). Patients with tumor absorbed dose >200 Gy on 90Y-microsphere PET/CT had longer PFS than those with tumor absorbed dose ≤200 Gy (286 ± 56 days vs. 92 ± 20 days, P = 0.046). Tumor absorbed dose calculated by 99mTc

  10. Tomographic studies of rCBF with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO SPECT in patients with brain tumors: comparison with C VO2 continuous inhalation technique and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K.J.; Herzog, H.; Kuwert, T.; Roosen, N.; Rota, E.; Kiwit, J.C.; Bock, W.J.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-12-01

    In 10 patients with malignant gliomas, the intracerebral distribution of (/sup 99m/Tc)-hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in comparison with C VO2 steady-state inhalation technique to measure cerebral blood flow using positron emission tomography (PET). In all instances, the cerebral (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO distribution was comparable with the regional pattern of cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed with PET. This was confirmed by a significant correlation of tumor to cortex and tumor to white matter ratios between these two experimental methods. However, the contrast between high and low activity regions in the SPECT scans was significantly less than that in the PET scans. Contrast enhancement of the SPECT scans was accomplished using a correction formula proposed by Lassen.

  11. Substitution of the Lys Linker with the β-Ala Linker Dramatically Decreased the Renal Uptake of 99mTc-Labeled Arg-X-Asp-Conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-Conjugated α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala could reduce the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (1) {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-dTyr-Asp]-β-Ala-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RTD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (2), RVD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (3), RAD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (4), NAD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (5), and EAD-β-Ala-(Arg11)CCMSH (6) peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin 1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of their 99mTc-conjugates were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of the Lys linker with β-Ala linker dramatically reduced the renal uptake of all six 99mTc-peptides. 99mTc-4 exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (15.66 ± 6.19% ID/g) and the lowest kidney uptake (20.18 ± 3.86% ID/g) among these 99mTc-peptides at 2 h postinjection. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using 99mTc-4 as an imaging probe. PMID:25290883

  12. A novel, cysteine-modified chelation strategy for the incorporation of [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) in an α-MSH peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han; Kasten, Benjamin B.; Liu, Hongguang; Qi, Shibo; Liu, Yang; Tian, Mei; Barnes, Charles L.; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen; Benny, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering peptide-based targeting agents with residues for site specific and stable complexation of radionuclides is a highly desirable strategy for producing diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. In this report, a model N-S-NPy ligand (3) and a cysteine-derived alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide (6) were used as novel demonstrations of a widely applicable chelation strategy for incorporation of the [MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core into peptide-based molecules for radiopharmaceutical applications. The structural details of the core ligand-metal complexes as model systems were demonstrated by full chemical characterization of fac-[ReI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4) and comparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis between 4 and [99mTcI(CO)3(N,S,NPy-3)]+ (4a). The α-MSH analogue bearing the N-S-NPy chelate on a modified cysteine residue (6) was generated and complexed with [MI(CO)3]+ to confirm the chelation strategy’s utility when applied in a peptide-based targeting agent. Characterization of the ReI(CO)3-6 peptide conjugate (7) confirmed the efficient incorporation of the metal center, and the 99mTcI(CO)3-6 analogue (7a) was explored as a potential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compound for imaging the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in melanoma. Peptide 7a showed excellent radiolabeling yields and in vitro stability during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays. In vitro B16F10 melanoma cell uptake of 7a reached a modest value of 2.3 ± 0.08% of applied activity at 2 h at 37 °C while this uptake was significantly reduced by coincubation with a nonlabeled α-MSH analogue, NAPamide (3.2 µM) (P < 0.05). In vivo SPECT/X-ray computer tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and biodistribution of 7a were evaluated in a B16F10 melanoma xenografted mouse model. SPECT/CT imaging clearly visualized the tumor at 1 h post injection (p.i.) with high tumor-to-background contrast. Blocking

  13. Global skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (GSU) in patients affected by endocrine diseases: comparison with biochemical markers of bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Scillitani, A; Dicembrino, F; Chiodini, I; Minisola, S; Fusilli, S; Di Giorgio, A; Garrubba, M; D'Aloiso, L; Frusciante, V; Torlontano, M; Modoni, S; Trischitta, V; Trischitta, V; Carnevale, V

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to clinically validate the global skeletal uptake (GSU) of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP), and to compare it with a marker of bone formation (i.e. serum osteocalcin or OC) and an index of bone resorption (i.e. urinary deoxypyridinoline or U-DPD) in different endocrine disorders affecting the skeleton. We studied 29 female patients with thyrotoxicosis (TT), 27 with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 16 with acromegaly (AC), 15 with Cushing's syndrome (CS), and altogether 110 healthy women matched for age, BMI and menstrual status. In all subjects total body digital scan images (TBDS) were acquired at 5 min and at 4 h after the administration of (99m)Tc-MDP; the whole body retention (WBR) of the tracer was measured by counting two identical sets of rectangular ROIs, and GSU was subsequently calculated by drawing an irregular ROI on 4 h TBDS images. Serum OC was assessed by IRMA and urinary DPD by fluorometric detection after reverse phase high pressure chromatography. In TT patients GSU (40.0 +/- 5.1 vs 36.5 +/- 4.8%), OC (19.1 +/- 11.8 vs 7.1 +/- 2.9 microg/l) and U-DPD (62.4 +/- 42.7 vs 19.5 +/- 5.3 pmol/pmol) were significantly ( p<0.01) higher than in controls. PHPT patients showed GSU (47.2 +/- 6.6 vs 37.8 +/- 5.3%), OC (38.6 +/- 40.9 vs 8.2 +/- 2.5 microg/l), and U-DPD (55.0 +/- 51.3 vs 21.9 +/- 6.1 pmol/pmol) values significantly ( p<0.001) higher than controls. In CS patients, GSU (39.6 +/- 6.4 vs 32.7 +/- 3.5%; p<0.01) and U-DPD (22.8 +/- 8.4 vs 16.5 +/- 2.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.05) were higher, whereas OC (3.6 +/- 2.4 vs 5.2 +/- 1.9 mg/l; p<0,05) was lower than in controls. In AC patients, GSU (34.9 +/- 5.3 vs 35.2 +/- 3.4%) did not differ significantly from controls, whereas OC (16.8 +/- 8.8 vs 6.9 +/- 2.9 microg/l; p<0.001) and U-DPD (30.9 +/- 13.6 vs 21.0 +/- 5.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.01) were higher. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed with disease activity, creatinine clearance, age, and years since

  14. Splenic scintigraphy for further differentiation of unclear (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings: Strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christoph; Winkens, Thomas; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Splenic scintigraphy has been described to be a powerful tool in unclear (68 ) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings, allowing differentiation between somatostatin receptor (Sst)-positive tissue deriving from neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and functioning splenic tissue. However, our own experiences sometimes show a lack of identification on splenic scintigraphy, especially in small lesions, leading to uncertainties regarding the safe identification of NET or splenic tissue. Here, we report on 10 cases with (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT and (99m) Tc-heat-denaturated red blood cell (HDRBC) scintigraphy and we illustrate the strengths and limitations of (99m) Tc-HDRBC scintigraphy in this context. PMID:27188232

  15. Design and preclinical evaluation of a 99mTc-labelled diabody of mAb J591 for SPECT imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive and specific detection of nodal status, sites of metastases and low-volume recurrent disease could greatly improve management of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established marker for prostate carcinoma with increased levels of expression in high-grade, hormone-refractory and metastatic disease. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591 is directed against an extracellular epitope of PSMA and has been shown to efficiently target disseminated disease including metastases in lymph nodes and bone. Its use as a diagnostic imaging agent however is limited due to its slow pharmacokinetics. In this study a diabody derived from mAb J591 was developed as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer with improved pharmacokinetics for the detection of PSMA expression in prostate cancer. Methods A diabody in VH-VL orientation and with a C-terminal cysteine was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified by a combination of metal ion affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Specificity and affinity were determined in cell binding studies. For SPECT imaging, the diabody was site-specifically labelled with [99mTc(CO)3]+ via the C-terminal His tag and evaluated in a subcutaneous DU145/DU145-PSMA prostate carcinoma xenograft model. Results J591C diabody binds to PSMA-expressing cells with low nanomolar affinity (3.3 ± 0.2 nM). SPECT studies allowed imaging of tumour xenografts with high contrast from 4 h post injection (p.i.). Ex vivo biodistribution studies showed peak tumour uptake of the tracer of 12.1% ± 1.7% injected dose (ID)/g at 8 h p.i. with a tumour to blood ratio of 8.0. Uptake in PSMA-negative tumours was significantly lower with 6.3% ± 0.5% at 8 h p.i. (p < 0.001). Conclusion The presented diabody has favourable properties required to warrant its further development for antibody-based imaging of PSMA expression in prostate cancer, including PSMA-specific uptake

  16. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 05: Calibration of a SPECT/CT camera for quantitative SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudin, Émilie; Montégiani, Jean-François; Després, Philippe; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-08-15

    While quantitation is the norm in PET, it is not widely available yet in SPECT. This work's aim was to calibrate a commercially available SPECT/CT system to perform quantitative SPECT. Counting sensitivity, dead-time (DT) constant and partial volume effect (PVE) of the system were assessed. A dual-head Siemens SymbiaT6 SPECT/CT camera equipped with low energy high-resolution collimators was studied. {sup 99m}Tc was the radioisotope of interest because of its wide usage in nuclear medicine. First, point source acquisitions were performed (activity: 30–990MBq). Further acquisitions were then performed with a uniform Jaszczak phantom filled with water at high activity (25–5000MBq). PVE was studied using 6 hot spheres (diameters: 9.9–31.2 mm) filled with {sup 99m}Tc (2.8MBq/cc) in the Jaszczak phantom, which was: (1) empty, (2) water-filled and (3) water-filled with low activity (0.1MBq/cc). The data was reconstructed with the Siemens's Flash3D iterative algorithm with 4 subsets and 8 iterations, attenuation-correction (AC) and scatter-correction (SC). DT modelling was based on the total spectrum counting rate. Sensitivity was assessed using AC-SC reconstructed SPECT data. Sensitivity and DT for the sources were 99.51±1.46cps/MBq and 0.60±0.04µs. For the phantom, sensitivity and DT were 109.9±2.3cps/MBq and 0.62±0.13µs. The recovery-coefficient varied from 5% for the 9.9mm, to 80% for the 31.2mm spheres. With our calibration methods, both sensitivity and DT constant of the SPECT camera had little dependence on the object geometry and attenuation. For small objects of known size, recovery-coefficient can be applied to correct PVE. Clinical quantitative SPECT appears to be possible and has many potential applications.

  17. 99m tc labeled liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.W.; Timmons, J.H.; Rudolph, A.S.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method of preparing stable gamma-emitting radionuclide-labeled alkyleneamine oxime, the incubating being for a period of time sufficient to form labeled liposome-encapsulated protein.

  18. Assessment of Gastric Accommodation in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia by 99mTc-Pertechtenate Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging: Practical but not Widely Accepted

    PubMed Central

    Amiriani, Taghi; Javadi, Hamid; Raiatnavaz, Tahereh; Pashazadeh, Ali Mahmoud; Semnani, Shahriar; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Impaired gastric accommodation is one of the main symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to assess gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods: Twenty-four patients with functional dyspepsia and 50 healthy volunteers as control group were enrolled in this study. All participants were given 5 mCi 99mTc-pertechtenate intravenously, served with a low fat meal, and underwent SPECT scanning 20 minutes after the meal. Results: Based on the scintigraphic data, gastric volumes were found to be significantly increased after food ingestion in both patient and control groups. We also found that while there was no significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of fasting gastric volumes, postprandial gastric volume was significantly lower in patients as compared to healthy individuals (p<0.05). Conclusion: Measuring gastric volume by using SPECT can be a valuable method in the detection of functional dyspepsia and in differentiation of this entity from other organic disorders. PMID:27529885

  19. Assessing Response Using 99mTc-MIBI Early after Interstitial Chemotherapy with Carmustine-Loaded Polymers in Glioblastoma Multiforme: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cecchin, D.; Schiorlin, I.; Della Puppa, A.; Lombardi, G.; Zucchetta, P.; Bodanza, V.; Gardiman, M. P.; Rolma, G.; Frigo, A. C.; Bui, F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early signs of response after applying wafers of carmustine-loaded polymers (gliadel) are difficult to assess with imaging because of time-related imaging changes. 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) has reportedly been used to reveal areas of cellularity distinguishing recurrent neoplasm from radionecrosis. Our aim was to explore the role of MIBI SPET in assessing response soon after gliadel application in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts on 28 consecutive patients with a radiological diagnosis of GBM who underwent MIBI SPET/CT before surgery (with intracavitary gliadel placement in 17 patients), soon after surgery, and at 4 months. The area of uptake was selected using a volume of interest that was then mirrored contralaterally to obtain a semiquantitative ratio. Results. After adjusting for ratio at the baseline, the effect of treatment (gliadel versus non-gliadel) was not statistically significant. Soon after surgery, however, 100% of patients treated with gliadel had a decreased ratio, as opposed to 62.5% of patients in the non-gliadel group (P = 0.0316). The difference between ratios of patients with radical versus partial resection reached statistical significance by a small margin (P = 0.0528). Conclusions. These data seem to suggest that the MIBI ratio could be a valuable tool for monitoring the effect of gliadel early after surgery. PMID:24800247

  20. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel N3O3-Schiff base complexes of 99gTc, and in vivo imaging studies with analogous 99mTc complexes.

    PubMed

    Marmion, M E; Woulfe, S R; Newmann, W L; Pilcher, G; Nosco, D L

    1996-07-01

    Sixteen novel derivatives of 1,1,1-tris (salicylaldiminomethyl)ethane have been synthesized for the purpose of encapsulating 99mTc(IV) ions and generating new 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Two methods for the preparation of the 99gTc(IV) analog complexes are presented; one utilizes SnCl2 reduction on 99gTcO4- and the other a direct substitution route starting with [99gTcCl6]2-. Free ligands (H3L) are characterized by melting points, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, TLC, and/or elemental analyses. [99gTcL]+ complexes are characterized by FAB-ms, UV-VIS, IR and/or CV. An X-ray structural analysis was performed on a crystal of [M(6,6'-[[2-[[((4-Methoxy-2-hydroxyphenyl) methylene)-amino]methyl]-2-methyl- 1,3-propanediyl]bis(nitrilomethylidyne)]-bis-3-methoxyphenol )] tetraphenylborate, where M represents a 1/3 isomorphous mixture of 99gTc/Sn as determined by SEM. The metal coordination site is 6-coordinate, composed of N3O3 donor atoms, and intermediate between octahedral and trigonal prismatic geometry. The [99mTcL]+ complexes were prepared in a stannous environment; equivalence of the 99mTc and 99gTc complexes is demonstrated by HPLC techniques. The [SnL]+ complex was prepared for comparison purposes. An unusual ligand oxidation occurs for one series of ligands in which in situ amine-->imine conversion is observed during the complexation reaction in reducing media. Guinea pig, rat, dog, and human metabolism studies are reported for selected [99mTcL]+ complexes, the myocardial uptake of which approaches 2% of the injected dose. PMID:8905821

  2. Corrections in dose assessment of 99mTc radiolabeled aerosol particles targeted to central human airways using planar gamma camera imaging.

    PubMed

    Möller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Meyer, Gabriele; Meyer, Peter; Seitz, Jürgen; Kreyling, Wolfgang G

    2009-03-01

    The dose of inhaled radiolabeled aerosols is usually assessed using gamma (GC) camera imaging. Because of the complex and inhomogeneous structure of the lung, consisting of soft tissue, the thoracic skeleton, blood vessels, and air spaces, proper attenuation correction coefficients are difficult to evaluate and the estimated doses bear high uncertainty. One hundred milliliters of aerosol boli composed of 100 nm diameter (99m)Tc radiolabeled carbon particles (Technegas) were targeted either to the airways (AW) or to 800-mL volumetric lung depth (alveoli, AL) in 11 healthy volunteers. In addition, 750-mL full breaths (FB) of aerosol were inhaled to a 800-mL lung depth. The deposited dose was measured by collecting aerosol from inhaled and exhaled air stream on filters, which were analyzed for radioactivity. Lung imaging was performed using a planar GC (posterior). Ratios of GC counts to deposited dose (GC/DD) were similar after FB and AL administration, but twofold lower after AW administration (p < 0.01). Associated attenuation correction factors (ACF) were 2.5 +/- 0.5 (FB), 2.2 +/- 0.4 (AL), and 5.5 +/- 1.6 (AW, p < 0.01). Both GC/DD and ACF were highly correlated to the aerosol distribution index (central to peripheral ratio, C/P). After shallow bolus administration there was a negative correlation between body mass index and GC/DD. Inhalation of radioaerosols used in medical diagnosis and therapy in combination with high central airway deposition results in an underestimation of the deposited dose based on planar GC imaging. The aerosol distribution index C/P may provide one suitable indicator for corrections, which should be confirmed in future studies by individual attenuation analysis based on radiotracer transmission measurements. PMID:18844481

  3. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as (99m)Tc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b(+)-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE(-/-) mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  4. Determination of flow and rate constants in a kinetic model of (/sup 99m/Tc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, H.; Oba, H.; Seki, H.; Higashi, S.; Sumiya, H.; Tsuji, S.; Terada, H.; Imai, K.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.

    1988-12-01

    The values for flow and rate constants for a kinetic model of (99mTc)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) distribution in the human brain were determined. The single-pass extraction ratio of HM-PAO was also determined in the rat brain by the indicator diffusion method; a value of 0.90 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM, n = 5) was obtained. Time course data of brain activity and arterial blood activity of the tracer were fitted to a four compartment model: Values of blood flow and the first-order rate constants for backdiffusion of the diffusible tracer from brain to blood (k2), conversion of the lipophilic tracer to the hydrophilic one in brain (k3), and conversion of the diffusible tracer to the nondiffusible one in blood (k5) were determined. Conversion of hydrophilic tracer back to a lipophilic form in both blood and brain was assumed to be negligible during the course of the experiment. The values obtained for blood flow, k2, and k3 were, respectively, 0.40 +/- 0.03 ml/g/min, 0.38 +/- 0.04 min-1, and 0.92 +/- 0.05 min-1 in the gray matter (n = 4), and 0.23 +/- 0.01 ml/g/min, 0.17 +/- 0.01 min-1, and 1.01 +/- 0.05 min-1 in the white matter (n = 2) in patients with cerebrovascular disorder. The k5 value was 1.14 +/- 0.06 min-1 (n = 4). These experimentally determined values agree well with the theoretical ones previously reported by Lassen et al. The results suggest the relative constancy of the k3 and k5 values and the more prominent initial backdiffusion of the lipophilic HM-PAO from brain to blood in high flow regions compared to low flow regions.

  5. Role of Brain Perfusion SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO in the Assessment of Response to Drug Therapy in Patients with Autoimmune Vasculitis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Liberatore; Manuela, Morreale; Valentina, Megna; Sara, Collorone; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Maria, Drudi Francesco; Christos, Anagnostou; Liana, Civitelli; Ada, Francia; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Rubello, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of vasculitis in the brain remains a quite difficult achievement. To the best of our knowledge, there is no imaging method reported in literature which is capable of reaching to a diagnosis of vasculitis with very high sensitivity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be usefully employed in monitoring the treatment of vasculitis, allowing treating only potentially responder patients and avoiding the side effects on patients who do not respond. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (two males and 18 females) suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 5), Behcet's disease (BD; n = 5), undifferentiated vasculitis (UV; n = 5), and Sjogren's syndrome (SS; n = 5) were included in the study. All patients underwent a wide neurological anamnestic investigation, a complete objective neurological examination and SPECT of the brain with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO). The brain SPECT was then repeated after appropriate medical treatment. The neurological and neuropsychiatric follow-up was performed at 6 months after the start of the treatment. Results: Overall, the differences between the scintigraphic results obtained after and before the medical treatment indicated a statistically significant increase of the cerebral perfusion (CP). In 19 out of 200 regions of interest (ROI) studied, the difference between pre- and post treatment percentages had negative sign, indicating a worsening of CP. This latter event has occurred six times (five in the same patients) in the UV, 10 times (eight in the same patients) in the SLE, never in BD, and three times (two in the same patient) in the SS. Conclusion: The reported results seem to indicate the possibility of identifying, by the means of a brain SPECT, responder and nonresponder (unchanged or worsened CP) patients, affected by autoimmune vasculitis, to the therapy. PMID:25973400

  6. Preliminary findings of simultaneous 18F-FDG and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in patients with depressive disorders at rest: differential correlates with ratings of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Conca, A; Fritzsche, H; Peschina, W; König, P; Swoboda, E; Wiederin, H; Haas, C

    2000-02-28

    The assumption of a dynamic coupling between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose metabolic rates (rCMRGlu) has been challenged by simultaneous measurements of both. Through the use of a dual-headed gamma camera with a 511-keV collimator applying the double isotope 18F-FDG and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT technique, the uptake rates of these isotopes can be semi-quantitatively evaluated. Sixteen depressed patients, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria and assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), were studied. Based on the severity of HRSD-rated anxiety (item 10: low=1-21; high=3-4), two eight-patient subgroups were formed and compared with 12 age- and handedness-matched healthy control subjects. As regions of interest, we selected areas implicated in the neuroanatomy of anxiety and depression: hippocampus (hippo), basal ganglia (BG) and gyri temporales superiores (G.t.s.). In the control subjects, a significant statistical coupling between rCBF and rCMRGlu was revealed by the Spearman correlation coefficient only in left hippo and left BG. Patients in the low-anxiety subgroup demonstrated a marked dynamic coupling bilaterally for the G.t.s., while patients in the high-anxiety subgroup showed a significant statistical correlation of rCBF and rCMRGlu only in the left G.t.s. These findings indicate that a dynamic coupling between blood flow and glucose metabolism exists only in distinct brain regions, and that the depressive illness has an uncoupling effect on this correlation in the left BG. Furthermore, our results suggest that the HRSD anxiety score might interact with the underlying depressive illness to influence the relationship of rCBF and rCMRGlu. PMID:10708925

  7. 99mTc-Labeled Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Dual-Contrast (T1/T2) Magnetic Resonance and Dual-Modality Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Zhang, Chunfu; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yingjian

    2015-06-01

    Multi functional probes possessing magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography properties are favorable for the molecular imaging of cancers. In this study, ultra small super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, about 3.5 nm in size, were synthesized by the polyol method. The particles were functionalized using c(RGDyC) peptides and labeled with 99mTc to prepare molecular imaging probes for detecting tumor angiogenesis. The probes demonstrated good T1 (r1 = 8.2 s(-1) mM(-1)) and reasonable T2 contrast effects (r2 = 20.1 s(-1) mM(-1)) and could specifically target avβ3-positive cells, inducing more cell ingestion, unlike that in case of the control probes [functionalized with scrambled c(RADyC) peptides]. After the probes were injected into the mice bearing H1299 lung tumors, T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed that they addressed tumor angiogenic vessels, which were distributed mainly in the peripheral region of tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that tumor accumulation of the probes was significant [13.8 ± 9.6%ID/g (p < 0.01), which is more than that of the control probes, 4.5 ± 1.9%ID/g], and could be inhibited by free RGD peptides (6.0 ± 2.8%ID/g, p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that the dual-contrast (T1/T2) magnetic resonance and dual-modal imaging probe based on ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is very promising for the molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26353592

  8. Comparison of myocardial contrast echocardiography with NC100100 and 99mTc sestamibi SPECT for detection of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jucquois, I; Nihoyannopoulos, P; D'Hondt, A; Roelants, V; Robert, A; Melin, J; Glass, D; Vanoverschelde, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) following intravenous injection of perfluorocarbon microbubbles permits identification of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction.
PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS—22 patients (mean (SD) age 66 (11) years) underwent MCE after intravenous injection of NC100100, a novel perfluorocarbon containing contrast agent, and resting 99mTc sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With both methods, myocardial perfusion was graded semiquantitatively as 1 = normal, 0.5 = mild defect, and 0 = severe defect.
RESULTS—Among the 203 normally contracting segments, 151 (74%) were normally perfused by SPECT and 145 (71%) by MCE. With SPECT, abnormal tracer uptake was mainly found among normally contracting segments from the inferior wall. By contrast, with MCE poor myocardial opacification was noted essentially among the normally contracting segments from the anterior and lateral walls. Of the 142 dysfunctional segments, 87 (61%) showed perfusion defects by SPECT, and 94 (66%) by MCE. With both methods, perfusion abnormalities were seen more frequently among akinetic than hypokinetic segments. MCE correctly identified 81/139 segments that exhibited a perfusion defect by SPECT (58%), and 135/206 segments that were normally perfused by SPECT (66%). Exclusion of segments with attenuation artefacts (defined as abnormal myocardial opacification or sestamibi uptake but normal contraction) by either MCE or SPECT improved both the sensitivity (76%) and the specificity (83%) of the detection of SPECT perfusion defects by MCE.
CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that MCE allows identification of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction, provided that regional wall motion is simultaneously taken into account.


Keywords: myocardial contrast echocardiography; NC100100

  9. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as 99mTc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b+-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE−/− mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  10. Prediction of response to revascularization in patients with renal artery stenosis by Tc-99m-ethylenedicysteine captopril scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Uğur, O; Serdengeçti, M; Karacalioğlu, O; Ergün, E L; Peksoy, I; Cekirge, S

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of captopril scintigraphy with the new renal agent 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine (99mTc-EC) for post-interventional improvement in blood pressure. Twelve patients who had persistently high blood pressure with previous demonstration of various degrees of renal artery lesion on angiography were included into the study. Baseline and captopril scintigraphies were performed on the same day at 4 hour intervals after the injection of 74 and 296 MBq of 99mTc-EC, respectively. All patients had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and improvement in blood pressure was evaluated 3-6 months after the intervention. 99mTc-EC captopril scintigraphy successfully predicted a positive or negative outcome in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient with captopril induced renal function deterioration, scintigraphy failed to predict post-interventional response. Our preliminary findings showed that 99mTc-EC captopril scintigraphy can be used to determine patients who will benefit from revascularization. PMID:10355950

  11. 99mTc-Sestamibi Using a Direct Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging System to Assess Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Women With Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, David; Hruska, Carrie B.; Boughey, Judy C.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Jones, Katie N.; Tortorelli, Cindy; Conners, Amy Lynn; O’Connor, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the ability of breast imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi and a direct conversion–molecular breast imaging (MBI) system to predict early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods Patients undergoing NAC for breast cancer were imaged with a direct conversion–MBI system before (baseline), at 3 to 5 weeks after onset, and after completion of NAC. Tumor size and tumor-to-background (T/B) uptake ratio measured from MBI images were compared with extent of residual disease at surgery using the residual cancer burden. Results Nineteen patients completed imaging and proceeded to surgical resection after NAC. Mean reduction in T/B ratio from baseline to 3 to 5 weeks for patients classified as RCB-0 (no residual disease), RCB-1 and RCB-2 combined, and RCB-3 (extensive residual disease) was 56% (SD, 0.20), 28% (SD, 0.20), and 4% (SD, 0.15), respectively. The reduction in the RCB-0 group was significantly greater than in RCB-1/2 (P = 0.036) and RCB-3 (P = 0.001) groups. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for determining the presence or absence of residual disease was 0.88. Using a threshold of 50% reduction in T/B ratio at 3 to 5 weeks, MBI predicted presence of residual disease at surgery with a diagnostic accuracy of 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64%–0.99%), sensitivity of 92.3% (95% CI, 0.74%–0.99%), and specificity of 83.3% (95% CI, 0.44%–0.99%). The reduction in tumor size at 3 to 5 weeks was not statistically different between RCB groups. Conclusions Changes in T/B ratio on MBI images performed at 3 to 5 weeks following initiation of NAC were accurate at predicting the presence or absence of residual disease at NAC completion. PMID:24152645

  12. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow using SPECT and (/sup 99m/Tc)-d,l-HM-PAO compared to xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, A.R.; Friberg, H.H.; Schmidt, J.F.; Hasselbalch, S.G.

    1988-12-01

    The uptake and retention in a 2 cm thick brain section was recorded serially by SPECT after i.v. injection of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO). In 16 patients, the fraction of the administered dose retained by the brain was 5.2 +/- 1%, showing a peak after 40-50s, then decreasing by 10% within the first 10 min and then by only 0.4% per hour. The image contrast was measured in each patient as the regional hemispheric asymmetry difference in percent of the highest value of the two regions. It decreased from 31% at 30-40 s to 25% at 10 min. At 24 h, a value of 19% was reached. Using the images obtained at 10 min after injection, a region to region comparison of the original and corrected HM-PAO images to the xenon-133 regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) images was performed. Forty-four patients with stroke, epilepsy, dementia, basal ganglia disease, and tumors and control subjects were included in this comparison. The algorithm proposed by Lassen et al. was used to correct the original images for back diffusion of tracer (brain to blood); a good correlation very close to the line of identity between the corrected HM-PAO and xenon-133 data was obtained when using a conversion/clearance ratio of 1.5 and when the noninvolved hemisphere was used as a reference region (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001). Serial arterial and cerebral venous blood sampling was performed over 10 min following i.v. injection of HM-PAO in six patients. An overall brain retention fraction of 0.37 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SEM) was calculated from the data. An average CBF of 0.62 +/- 0.12 ml/g/min was determined on the basis of the Fick principle; this compared to a value of 0.59 +/- 0.09 ml/g/min (mean +/- SEM) measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method. The two sets of CBF values correlated linearly with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 (p less than 0.01).

  13. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S; Saini, J; Wong, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}≤5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}≤26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton

  14. Cu-Free 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Click Reactions To Form Isoxazole Linkers in Chelating Ligands for fac-[MI(CO)3]+ Centers (M = Re, 99mTc)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Isoxazole ring formation was examined as a potential Cu-free alternative click reaction to CuI-catalyzed alkyne/azide cycloaddition. The isoxazole reaction was explored at macroscopic and radiotracer concentrations with the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core for use as a noncoordinating linker strategy between covalently linked molecules. Two click assembly methods (click, then chelate and chelate, then click) were examined to determine the feasibility of isoxazole ring formation with either alkyne-functionalized tridentate chelates or their respective fac-[MI(CO)3]+ complexes with a model nitrile oxide generator. Macroscale experiments, alkyne-functionalized chelates, or Re complexes indicate facile formation of the isoxazole ring. 99mTc experiments demonstrate efficient radiolabeling with click, then chelate; however, the chelate, then click approach led to faster product formation, but lower yields compared to the Re analogues. PMID:24483834

  15. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  16. Synthesis and characterization of fac-Re(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, a structural analogue of a potential new renal tracer, fac-99mTc(CO)3(ASMA)

    PubMed Central

    Klenc, Jeffrey; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Taylor, Andrew T.; Marzilli, Luigi G.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of an aminopolycarboxylate ligand, aspartic-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), with [Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ was examined. The tridentate coordination of ASMA to this ReI tricarbonyl precursor yielded fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) as a mixture of diastereomers. The chemistry is analogous to that of the TcI tricarbonyl complex, which yields fac-99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) under similar conditions. The formation, structure, and isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) products were characterized by HPLC, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The two major fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) diastereomeric products each have a linear ONO coordination mode with two adjacent five-membered chelate rings, but they differ in the endo or exo orientation of the uncoordinated acetate group, in agreement with expectations based on previous studies. Conditions have been identified for the expedient isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) to a mixture consisting primarily of one major product. Because different isomeric species typically have different pharmacokinetic characteristics, these conditions may provide for the practical isolation of a single 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) species, thus allowing the isolation of the isomer that has optimal imaging and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This information will aid in the design of future 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:24273448

  17. [Usefulness of 201Tl/123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT to evaluate myocardial viability and area at risk in acute myocardial infarction--comparison with 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual SPECT].

    PubMed

    Isobe, N; Toyama, T; Hoshizaki, H; Oshima, S; Taniguchi, K

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the area at risk and the myocardial viability of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we compared rest 123I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) and 201Tl myocardial SPECT with 201Tl/99mTc-PYP dual SPECT (D-SPECT) in 65 patients (mean age 64 +/- 11 years) with AMI. D-SPECT was performed in 3 to 5 days, 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT in 5 to 7 days, and left ventriculography on 1 month after onset of AMI. Furthermore, 201Tl/123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT and left ventriculography were performed on 4 months after onset of AMI. The area which showed the reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake was larger than that showed the accumulation of 99mTc-PYP. The improvement of regional wall motion on 4 months after onset of AMI tended to be more closely correlated with the existence of discrepancy zone between 201Tl and 123I-BMIPP uptake than that of overlap zone between 201Tl and 99mTc-PYP uptake in acute period. We conclude that 201Tl/123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT is more useful to evaluate the area at risk and myocardial viability of AMI than D-SPECT. PMID:9183144

  18. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  19. Biliary scintigraphy in acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, A.N.; Al-Sheikh, W.; Barkin, J.S.; Hourani, M.; Sfakiankis, G.; Clarke, L.P.; Ashkar, F.S.

    1982-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out in 60 patients to determine the efficacy of /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scintigraphy in differentiating biliary pancreatitis from nonbiliary pancreatitis. Forty patients were classified as having biliary pancreatitis and 20 patients as having the nonbiliary type. Scintigraphic scans were divided into five main types according to the time to visualization of the gallbladder and the time to excretion of /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA into the intestinal tract. Normal scans were obtained on 95% of patients (19/20) with nonbiliary pancreatitis; 22.5% of patients (9/40) with biliary pancreatitis had normal scans. It is concluded that elevated amylase levels together with an abnormal biliary scan, as defined by the criteria presented here, indicate biliary pancreatitis, while a normal scan largely excludes such diagnosis.

  20. Bone scintigraphy in acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, Y G; Kim, S; Lee, M C; Lee, J S; Kim, S H

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of renal images and the diagnostic value as a screening test of the whole-body bone and renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) or -pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), we performed bone scintigraphy in 6 patients with acute renal failure (ARF) with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction on postcontrast renal computed tomography (CT). All 6 patients were young and previously healthy but experienced severe loin pain after track events. Five took analgesics. Postcontrast renal CT showed patchy low-density areas or diffuse enhancement immediately after radiocontrast injection and then patchy wedge-shaped enhancement 24 or 48 h later, which subsequently disappeared 72 h later. On the whole-body bone scintigrams with 99mTc-MDP or 99mTc-PYP before obtaining renal CT, there was no increased uptake of isotope in the soft tissue, and multiple patchy increased accumulations of the isotope in the kidney were observed in 5 patients. In 2 patients, renal scintigraphies with technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinate showed photon-deficient areas in the same areas of patchy isotope accumulation in the whole-body bone scintigraphies. Whole-body image and renal scintigraphy with bone-seeking agents may be useful as a screening test and in the search for the theoretical evidence of ARF with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction. PMID:1835520

  1. An Incidental Detection of Popliteal Vein Aneurysm during Labeled Leukocyte Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, H. Abu.; Nazri, M.; Azman, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Technetium (99mTc) exametazime (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is mainly used to exclude occult infection in our institution. On review of previously published article, no case of popliteal venous aneurysm was ever diagnosed and detected on labeled leukocyte scintigraphy. We present a rare case of popliteal venous aneurysm which was detected on labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and was further confirmed with single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography fusion. PMID:23372443

  2. [The effect of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in the food on the uptake and retention of 99mTc-methylenediphosphonate and 85Sr in the bones in rats].

    PubMed

    Kapitola, J; Jahoda, I; Kobos, L

    1990-05-01

    The effects of vitamin D-free diet with low Ca content on 24 hours' 99mTc-methylendiphosphonate retention (in the whole body and tibia), long-term the whole body 85Sr retention and 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis of femur and tibia in rats (at the same time in certain experiments femur density and weight after incineration were established) were followed. The whole body 99mTc-MDP retention increases significantly as early as the third day of the diet administration, retention in tibia and the whole body is in further 2 experiments increased after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of the diet (density decreases from the first or the second week). The whole body 85Sr retention is significantly increased as early as after 2 days of the diet, the great difference against controls only slowly decreases after discontinuation of low-Ca diet. Further experiment followed 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in femur and tibia samples after 2, 5, 10 and 20 days of diet--catchment increase is significant after 20 days (bone density and ash weight is significantly decreased after 10 and 20 days of diet). Thus retention of both osteotrophic substances in bone is as a result of low Ca diet increased. This reaction is in case with 85Sr expected, in that of 99mTc-MDP it suggests a possible relation of the catchment and mineral component of osseous tissue. Increased retention of both the substances obviously fails to be related to local blood circulation which was in this situation in our previous experiments decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2371530

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Tricarbonyl 99mTc-Labeled 2-(4-Chloro)phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Analogs as Novel SPECT Imaging Radiotracer for TSPO-Rich Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Young; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Perrone, Mara; Margiotta, Nicola; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Jung, Jae Ho; Park, Do Dam; Moon, Byung Seok; Denora, Nunzio; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) levels are associated with brain, breast, and prostate cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy and imaging. In order to develop highly selective and active ligands with a high affinity for TSPO, imidazopyridine-based TSPO ligand (CB256, 3) was prepared as the precursor. 99mTc- and Re-CB256 (1 and 2, respectively) were synthesized in high radiochemical yield (74.5% ± 6.4%, decay-corrected, n = 5) and chemical yield (65.6%) by the incorporation of the [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ and (NEt4)2[Re(CO)3Br3] followed by HPLC separation. Radio-ligand 1 was shown to be stable (>99%) when incubated in human serum for 4 h at 37 °C with a relatively low lipophilicity (logD = 2.15 ± 0.02). The rhenium-185 and -187 complex 2 exhibited a moderate affinity (Ki = 159.3 ± 8.7 nM) for TSPO, whereas its cytotoxicity evaluated on TSPO-rich tumor cell lines was lower than that observed for the precursor. In vitro uptake studies of 1 in C6 and U87-MG cells for 60 min was found to be 9.84% ± 0.17% and 7.87% ± 0.23% ID, respectively. Our results indicated that 99mTc-CB256 can be considered as a potential new TSPO-rich cancer SPECT imaging agent and provides the foundation for further in vivo evaluation.

  4. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Tricarbonyl (99m)Tc-Labeled 2-(4-Chloro)phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Analogs as Novel SPECT Imaging Radiotracer for TSPO-Rich Cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Perrone, Mara; Margiotta, Nicola; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Jung, Jae Ho; Park, Do Dam; Moon, Byung Seok; Denora, Nunzio; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) levels are associated with brain, breast, and prostate cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy and imaging. In order to develop highly selective and active ligands with a high affinity for TSPO, imidazopyridine-based TSPO ligand (CB256, 3) was prepared as the precursor. (99m)Tc- and Re-CB256 (1 and 2, respectively) were synthesized in high radiochemical yield (74.5% ± 6.4%, decay-corrected, n = 5) and chemical yield (65.6%) by the incorporation of the [(99m)Tc(CO)₃(H₂O)₃]⁺ and (NEt₄)₂[Re(CO)₃Br₃] followed by HPLC separation. Radio-ligand 1 was shown to be stable (>99%) when incubated in human serum for 4 h at 37 °C with a relatively low lipophilicity (logD = 2.15 ± 0.02). The rhenium-185 and -187 complex 2 exhibited a moderate affinity (Ki = 159.3 ± 8.7 nM) for TSPO, whereas its cytotoxicity evaluated on TSPO-rich tumor cell lines was lower than that observed for the precursor. In vitro uptake studies of 1 in C6 and U87-MG cells for 60 min was found to be 9.84% ± 0.17% and 7.87% ± 0.23% ID, respectively. Our results indicated that (99m)Tc-CB256 can be considered as a potential new TSPO-rich cancer SPECT imaging agent and provides the foundation for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:27409602

  6. Synthesis and Evaluation of Tricarbonyl (99m)Tc-Labeled 2-(4-Chloro)phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Analogs as Novel SPECT Imaging Radiotracer for TSPO-Rich Cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Perrone, Mara; Margiotta, Nicola; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Jung, Jae Ho; Park, Do Dam; Moon, Byung Seok; Denora, Nunzio; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) levels are associated with brain, breast, and prostate cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy and imaging. In order to develop highly selective and active ligands with a high affinity for TSPO, imidazopyridine-based TSPO ligand (CB256, 3) was prepared as the precursor. (99m)Tc- and Re-CB256 (1 and 2, respectively) were synthesized in high radiochemical yield (74.5% ± 6.4%, decay-corrected, n = 5) and chemical yield (65.6%) by the incorporation of the [(99m)Tc(CO)₃(H₂O)₃]⁺ and (NEt₄)₂[Re(CO)₃Br₃] followed by HPLC separation. Radio-ligand 1 was shown to be stable (>99%) when incubated in human serum for 4 h at 37 °C with a relatively low lipophilicity (logD = 2.15 ± 0.02). The rhenium-185 and -187 complex 2 exhibited a moderate affinity (Ki = 159.3 ± 8.7 nM) for TSPO, whereas its cytotoxicity evaluated on TSPO-rich tumor cell lines was lower than that observed for the precursor. In vitro uptake studies of 1 in C6 and U87-MG cells for 60 min was found to be 9.84% ± 0.17% and 7.87% ± 0.23% ID, respectively. Our results indicated that (99m)Tc-CB256 can be considered as a potential new TSPO-rich cancer SPECT imaging agent and provides the foundation for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:27399688

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Tricarbonyl (99m)Tc-Labeled 2-(4-Chloro)phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Analogs as Novel SPECT Imaging Radiotracer for TSPO-Rich Cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Perrone, Mara; Margiotta, Nicola; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Jung, Jae Ho; Park, Do Dam; Moon, Byung Seok; Denora, Nunzio; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) levels are associated with brain, breast, and prostate cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy and imaging. In order to develop highly selective and active ligands with a high affinity for TSPO, imidazopyridine-based TSPO ligand (CB256, 3) was prepared as the precursor. (99m)Tc- and Re-CB256 (1 and 2, respectively) were synthesized in high radiochemical yield (74.5% ± 6.4%, decay-corrected, n = 5) and chemical yield (65.6%) by the incorporation of the [(99m)Tc(CO)₃(H₂O)₃]⁺ and (NEt₄)₂[Re(CO)₃Br₃] followed by HPLC separation. Radio-ligand 1 was shown to be stable (>99%) when incubated in human serum for 4 h at 37 °C with a relatively low lipophilicity (logD = 2.15 ± 0.02). The rhenium-185 and -187 complex 2 exhibited a moderate affinity (Ki = 159.3 ± 8.7 nM) for TSPO, whereas its cytotoxicity evaluated on TSPO-rich tumor cell lines was lower than that observed for the precursor. In vitro uptake studies of 1 in C6 and U87-MG cells for 60 min was found to be 9.84% ± 0.17% and 7.87% ± 0.23% ID, respectively. Our results indicated that (99m)Tc-CB256 can be considered as a potential new TSPO-rich cancer SPECT imaging agent and provides the foundation for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:27457557

  8. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain.

    PubMed

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck. PMID:27385898

  9. Radiochemical investigations of (99m)Tc-N(3)S-X-BBN[7-14]NH(2): an in vitro/in vivo structure-activity relationship study where X = 0-, 3-, 5-, 8-, and 11-carbon tethering moieties.

    PubMed

    Smith, C Jeffrey; Gali, Hariprasad; Sieckman, Gary L; Higginbotham, Chris; Volkert, Wynn A; Hoffman, Timothy J

    2003-01-01

    Bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRPr) with high affinity and specificity. The GRPr is overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells, including prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. The specific aim of this study was to develop (99m)Tc-radiolabeled BBN analogues that maintain high specificity for the GRPr in vivo. A preselected synthetic sequence via solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was designed to produce N(3)S-BBN (N(3)S = dimethylglycyl-l-seryl-l-cysteinylglycinamide) conjugates with the following general structure: DMG-S-C-G-X-Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH(2)), where the spacer group, X = 0 (no spacer), omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(2)COOH, omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(4)COOH, omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(7)COOH, or omega-NH(2)-(CH(2))(10)COOH. The new BBN constructs were purified by reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC). Electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) was used to characterize the nonmetalated BBN conjugates. Re(V)-BBN conjugates were prepared by the reaction of Re(V)gluconate with N(3)S-X-BBN[7-14]NH(2) (X = 0 carbons, beta-Ala (beta-alanine), 5-Ava (5-aminovaleric acid), 8-Aoc (8-aminooctanoic acid), and 11-Aun (11-aminoundecanoic acid)) with gentle heating. Re-N(3)S-5-Ava-BBN[7-14]NH(2) was also prepared by the reaction of [Re(V)dimethylglycyl-l-seryl-l-cysteinylglycinamide] with 5-Ava-BBN[7-14]NH(2). ES-MS was used to determine the molecular constitution of the new Re(V) conjugates. The (99m)Tc conjugates were prepared at the tracer level by each the prelabeling, post-conjugation and pre-conjugation, postlabeling approaches from the reaction of Na[(99m)TcO(4)] with excess SnCl(2), sodium gluconate, and corresponding ligand. The (99m)Tc and Re(V) conjugates behaved similarly under identical RP-HPLC conditions. In vitro and in vivo models demonstrated biological integrity of the new conjugates. PMID:12526698

  10. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck. PMID:27385898

  11. Simplified quantification method for in vivo SPECT/CT imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor with (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI) to assess and stage hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deliang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Li, Yesen; Su, Xinhui; You, Linyi; Gao, Mengna; Liu, Chang; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a noninvasive method of SPECT imaging to quantify and stage liver fibrosis with an Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) targeting tracer-(99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI). ASGP-Rs are well known to specifically express in the mammalian liver. Here, we demonstrated ASGP-R expression decreased in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model. ASGP-R expression correlated with liver fibrosis progression. ASGP-R could be a useful marker in the stage of liver fibrosis. Liver uptake value (LUV) derived by SPECT imaging was used to assess liver fibrosis in the CCl4-induced mouse model. LUV = [radioactivity (liver uptake)/radioactivity (injected)] × 100/liver volume. The LUV decreased along with the disease progression. The relationships between LUV and liver hydroxyproline (i.e. collagen), as well as Sirius Red were established and verified. A strong negative linear correlation was found between LUV and hydroxyproline levels (r = -0.83) as well as LUV and Sirius Red quantification (r = -0.83). In conclusion, SPECT imaging with (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI) is useful in evaluating and staging liver fibrosis in vivo. PMID:27150943

  12. Simplified quantification method for in vivo SPECT/CT imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor with 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI) to assess and stage hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deliang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Li, Yesen; Su, Xinhui; You, Linyi; Gao, Mengna; Liu, Chang; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a noninvasive method of SPECT imaging to quantify and stage liver fibrosis with an Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) targeting tracer—99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI). ASGP-Rs are well known to specifically express in the mammalian liver. Here, we demonstrated ASGP-R expression decreased in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model. ASGP-R expression correlated with liver fibrosis progression. ASGP-R could be a useful marker in the stage of liver fibrosis. Liver uptake value (LUV) derived by SPECT imaging was used to assess liver fibrosis in the CCl4-induced mouse model. LUV = [radioactivity (liver uptake)/radioactivity (injected)] × 100/liver volume. The LUV decreased along with the disease progression. The relationships between LUV and liver hydroxyproline (i.e. collagen), as well as Sirius Red were established and verified. A strong negative linear correlation was found between LUV and hydroxyproline levels (r = −0.83) as well as LUV and Sirius Red quantification (r = −0.83). In conclusion, SPECT imaging with 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI) is useful in evaluating and staging liver fibrosis in vivo. PMID:27150943

  13. A case of metastatic malignancy masquerading as a hepatic hemangioma on labeled red blood cell scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Farlow, D C; Little, J M; Gruenewald, S M; Antico, V F; O'Neill, P

    1993-07-01

    A 36-yr-old woman with a past history of gastric neuro-endocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor) underwent 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy for evaluation of a 2-cm echogenic liver mass demonstrated on ultrasound. Scan findings were typical of a cavernous hemangioma. On follow-up, however, there was progressive lesion enlargement; histopathology of the resected mass revealed neuro-endocrine carcinoma. This case report, one of the few examples of a false-positive 99mTc-RBC scan, highlights the need for cautious evaluation of focal liver masses, even when there are typical scintigraphic features of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:8315498

  14. Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of (99m)Tc Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate SPECT/CT for the Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder.

    PubMed

    Suh, Min Seok; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative parameter standardized uptake value (SUV) at single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder (TMD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the need for informed consent was waived. Forty-four TMJs in 22 patients with TMD (five men and 17 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 30.0 years ± 12.1) were evaluated. The patients underwent planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT/CT 3-4 hours after injection of technetium 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. The planar scintigraphy parameter of relative ratio (RR) and SPECT/CT parameters mean SUV (SUVmean) and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were compared for the visual assessment of TMD on planar scintigraphy images and for the presence of TMJ arthralgia. Group comparisons, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were conducted. Results SUVmax gradually increased from normal (2.82 ± 0.73) to mild or moderately abnormal (3.56 ± 0.76, P < .05) and then to severely abnormal (4.86 ± 1.25, P < .05). However, RR and SUVmean did not vary significantly according to visual grade (P > .05). On the other hand, SUVmax was significantly greater in arthralgic TMJs (4.15 ± 1.11) than in nonarthralgic TMJs (2.97 ± 0.75, P < .001), as was SUVmean (1.63 ± 0.42 vs 1.30 ± 0.31, respectively; P = .005). However, there was no significant difference in RR (3.61 ± 0.57 vs 3.76 ± 0.68, P = .45). In receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for arthralgic TMJ, SUVmax had the greatest area under the curve (area of 0.815). Conclusion SUVmax derived from bone SPECT/CT may be useful for the evaluation of TMD. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27035060

  15. (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC imaging and 177Lu DOTA-octreotate treatment in non-iodine-concentrating dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases: an unusual alternative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Joshi, Amit

    2014-07-01

    The value of Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy clarifying skeletal and hepatic-predominant metastatic disease in a 55-year-old woman (diagnosed earlier to have papillary carcinoma thyroid and had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) is illustrated. The whole-body radioiodine scan and battery of serum tumor markers were normal. Multiple metastatic foci in the liver and skeleton were Tc HYNIC-TOC avid. Serum chromogranin A level was substantially elevated (1771.60 ng/mL). This represents an unusual alternative diagnosis signified by a highly positive scan in the setting of apparent non-iodine-concentrating metastatic disease in a patient of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24873792

  16. {sup 99m}Tc generators for clinical use based on zirconium molybdate gel and (n, gamma) produced {sup 99}Mo: Indian experience in the development and deployment of indigenous technology and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Saraswathy, P.; Dey, A.C.; Sarkar, S.K.; Kothalkar, C.; Naskar, P.; Arjun, G.; Arora, S.S.; Kohli, A.K.; Meera, V.; Venugopal, V.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2008-07-15

    The Indian pursuit of gel generator technology for {sup 99m}Tc was driven mainly by three considerations, namely, (i) well-established and ease of reliable production of (n, gamma)-based {sup 99}Mo in several tens of GBq quantities in the research reactors in Trombay/Mumbai, India, (ii) need for relatively low-cost alternate technology to replace the solvent (MEK) extraction generator system in use in India since 1970s and (iii) minimize dependency on weekly import of fission-produced {sup 99}Mo raw material required for alumina column generator. Extensive investigations on process standardisation for zirconium molybdate gel (ZMG) led to a steady progress, achieved both in terms of process technology and final performance of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators. The {sup 99m}Tc final product purity from the Indian gel system was comparable to that obtained from the gold-standard alumina column generators. Based on the feasibility established for reliable small-scale production, as well as satisfactory clinical experience with a number of gel generators used in collaborating hospital radiopharmacies, full-fledged mechanised processing facilities for handling up to 150 g of ZMG were set up. The indigenous design and development included setting up of shielded plant facilities with pneumatic-driven as well as manual controls and special gadgets such as, microwave heating of the zirconium molybdate cake, dispenser for gel granules, loading of gel columns into pre-assembled generator housing etc. Formal review of the safety features was carried out by the regulatory body and stage-wise clearance for processing low and medium level {sup 99}Mo activity was granted. Starting from around 70 GBq {sup 99}Mo handling, the processing facilities have since been successfully operated at a level of 740 GBq {sup 99}Mo, twice a month. In all 18 batches of gel have been processed and 156 generators produced. The individual generator capacity was 15 to 30 GBq with an elution yield of nearly 75

  17. Design and Synthesis of a Bombesin Peptide-Conjugated Tripodal Phosphino Dithioether Ligand Topology for the Stabilization of the fac-[M(CO)3]+ Core (M = 99 mTc or Re)

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Raghuraman; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Gali, Hariprasad; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Barnes, Charles L.; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Smith, Charles J.; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2015-01-01

    A new tumor-seeking tridentate topology consisting of a phosphino dithioether ((HOCH2)2PCH2CH2S(CH2)nCH2SR; PS2) ligand framework for the production of kinetically inert and in vivo stable facial [99mTc(CO)3(PS2)]+ or [Re(CO)3(PS2)]+ is described. The X-ray crystal structure of fac-Re(CO)3(PS2)PF6 is reported. The bioconjugation strategies for incorporating bombesin (BBN) peptides on to the PS2 tripodal framework and, thereby, de novo designing of GRP receptor-seeking Tc(PS2–BBN)(CO)3 are developed. PMID:21591746