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Sample records for 99mtc filtered tin

  1. Improved progressive TIN densification filtering algorithm for airborne LiDAR data in forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Guo, Qinghua; Su, Yanjun; Xue, Baolin

    2016-07-01

    Filtering of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into the ground and non-ground points is a fundamental step in processing raw airborne LiDAR data. This paper proposes an improved progressive triangulated irregular network (TIN) densification (IPTD) filtering algorithm that can cope with a variety of forested landscapes, particularly both topographically and environmentally complex regions. The IPTD filtering algorithm consists of three steps: (1) acquiring potential ground seed points using the morphological method; (2) obtaining accurate ground seed points; and (3) building a TIN-based model and iteratively densifying TIN. The IPTD filtering algorithm was tested in 15 forested sites with various terrains (i.e., elevation and slope) and vegetation conditions (i.e., canopy cover and tree height), and was compared with seven other commonly used filtering algorithms (including morphology-based, slope-based, and interpolation-based filtering algorithms). Results show that the IPTD achieves the highest filtering accuracy for nine of the 15 sites. In general, it outperforms the other filtering algorithms, yielding the lowest average total error of 3.15% and the highest average kappa coefficient of 89.53%.

  2. Tin-polyimide and indium-polyimide thin-film composites as soft X-ray bandpass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Stephen F.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Willis, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    A tin-polyimide and an indium-polyimide soft X-ray bandpass filter were fabricated with thicknesses of 1400 and 1750 A for the metal and polyimide components, respectively. The transmission of each filter was measured at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The transmission of the tin-polyimide filter was found to be about 40 percent for radiation with wavelengths between 60 and 80 A. The transmission of the indium-polyimide filter was greater than 40 percent between 70 and 90 A. The indium was about 5 percent more transmissive than the tin and attained a maximum transmission of about 48 percent at 76 A. Such filters have potential applications to soft X-ray telescopes that operate in this region. They might also be of interest to investigators who work with X-ray microscopes that image live biological specimens in the 23-44-A water window.

  3. Reclaim System Design of Indium Tin Oxide Thin-Film Removal from Color Filters of Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, Pai-Shan

    2008-09-01

    A newly design precision reclaim system using electrochemical machining as an etching process for indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film removal from the color filter surface of a displays is presented. Through the ultra precise etching of the nanostructure, the semiconductor industry can effectively recycle defective products, thereby reducing production costs. A large gyration diameter of a cathode combined with a small gap width between the cathode and a workpiece takes less time for the same amount of ITO removed. An adequate feed rate of color filters combined with a sufficient electric power produces fast machining. Pulsed direct current and higher rotational speed of the cathode can improve the effects of dregs discharge and are advantageous to be combined with a high feed rate of workpieces. Electrochemical machining only requires a short time to easily and cleanly remove ITO films.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of nano-granular indium-tin-oxide within modified electron filtering model with chemisorption-type potential barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinzari, V.; Nika, D. L.; Damaskin, I.; Cho, B. K.; Korotcenkov, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an approach to the numerical study of the thermoelectric parameters of nanoscale indium tin oxide (ITO, Sn content<10 at%) based on an electron filtering model (EFM) was developed. Potential barriers at grain boundaries were assumed to be responsible for a filtering effect. In the case of the dominant inelastic scattering of electrons, the maximal distance between potential barriers was limited in this modified model. The algorithm for such characteristic length calculation was proposed, and its value was evaluated for ITO. In addition, the contributions of different scattering mechanisms (SMs) in electron transport were examined. It was confirmed that in bulk ITO, the scattering on polar optical phonons (POPs) and ionized impurities dominates, limiting electron transport. In the framework of the filtering model, the basic thermoelectric parameters (i.e., electrical conductivity, mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor (PF)) were calculated for ITO in the temperature range of 100-500 °C as a function of potential barrier height. The results demonstrated a sufficient rise of the Seebeck coefficient with an increase in barrier height and specific behavior of PF. It was found that PF is very sensitive to barrier height, and at its optimal value for granular ITO, it may exceed the PF for bulk ITO by 3-5 times. The PF maximum was achieved by band bending, slightly exceeding Fermi energy. The nature of surface potential barriers in nano-granular ITO with specific grains is due to the oxygen chemisorption effect, and this can be observed despite of the degeneracy of the conduction band (CB). This hypothesis and the corresponding calculations are in good agreement with recent experimental studies [Brinzari et al. Thin Solid Films 552 (2014) 225].

  5. Superlative TINs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    TIN is short for 'triangulated irregular network,' which is a piecewise planar model of a surface. If properly constructed, a TIN can be more than 30 times as efficient as a regular triangulation. In our project (a ground combat simulation to support U.S. Army training exercises), the TIN is used to represent the Earth's surface and is used primarily to determine whether line of sight is blocked by terrain. High efficiency requires accurate identification of ridgelines with as few triangles as possible. The work currently in progress is the implementation of a TINning process that we hope will produce superlative TINs. This presentation describes that process.

  6. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  7. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  8. Hollow tin/chromium whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Li, James C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Tin whiskers have been an engineering challenge for over five decades. The mechanism has not been agreed upon thus far. This experiment aimed to identify a mechanism by applying compressive stresses to a tin film evaporated on silicon substrate with an adhesion layer of chromium in between. A phenomenon was observed in which hollow whiskers grew inside depleted areas. Using focused ion beam, the hollow whiskers were found to contain both tin and chromium. At the bottom of the depleted areas, thin tin/tin oxide film remained over the chromium layer. It indicates that tin transport occurred along the interface between tin and chromium layers.

  9. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  10. Mineral of the month: tin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Tin was one of the first metals discovered by humans and, like most metals, tin is rarely used by itself. Most tin is used as a protective coating or as an alloy with other metals in a diverse range of commercial and defense applications.

  11. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Rajah, S. S.; Askury, A. K.; Putthapiban, P.; Djaswadi, S.

    1995-07-01

    The Southeast Asian Tin Belt is a north-south elongate zone 2800 km long and 400 km wide, extending from Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand to Peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian Tin Islands. Altogether 9.6 million tonnes of tin, equivalent to 54% of the world's tin production is derived from this region. Most of the granitoids in the region can be grouped geographically into elongate provinces or belts, based on petrographic and geochronological features. - The Main Range Granitoid Province in western Peninsular Malaysia, southern Peninsular Thailand and central Thailand is almost entirely made up of biotite granite (184-230 Ma). Tin deposits associated with these granites contributed 55% of the historic tin production of Southeast Asia. - The Northern Granitoid Province in northern Thailand (0.1% of tin production) also has dominant biotite granite (200-269 Ma) but it is distinguished by abundant post-intrusion deformation. - The Eastern Granitoid Province extends from eastern Peninsular Malaysia to eastern Thailand. The Malaysian part is subdivided into the East Coast Belt (220-263 Ma), Boundary Range Belt (197-257 Ma) and Central Belt (79-219 Ma). The granitoids cover a wide compositional range from biotite granite to hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite and diorite-gabbro. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite in the East Coast Belt (3% of tin production). The granitoids in the other areas of the Eastern Granitoid Province are barren. - The Western Granitoid Province (22-149 Ma) in northern Peninsular Thailand, western Thailand and Burma has biotite granite and hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite, which probably is the dominant phase (14% of tin production). The granitoids of the Indonesian Tin Islands (193-251 Ma) do not permit grouping into geographically distinct units. Main Range-type and Eastern Province-type plutons occur next to each other. Most of the tin deposits are associated with Main

  12. Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

  13. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  14. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  15. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  16. 48 CFR 204.7202-3 - TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TINs. 204.7202-3 Section... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification 204.7202-3 TINs. Requirements for use of TINs are in FAR subpart 4.9....

  17. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  18. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  19. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  20. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  2. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  3. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  4. Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M. S.; Eng, G.

    2007-11-15

    This study examines the mechanisms governing sustained tin plasma formation in vacuum. The authors have experimentally demonstrated that sustained tin plasmas can form in vacuum at dc power supply voltages as low as 4 V, and present a qualitative model for the observed voltage and current signatures associated with tin plasma formation. Engineering estimates were developed to help quantify tin whisker risk as a function of power supply voltage. Implications for space applications are also discussed.

  5. SEPARATION OF TIN FROM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Kattner, W.T.

    1959-08-11

    A process is described for recovering tin from bronze comprising melting the bronze; slowly cooling the melted metal to from 280 to 240 deg C whereby eta- phase bronze crystallizes; separating the eta-bronze crystals from the liquid metal by mechanical means; melting the separated crystals; slowly cooling the melted eta-crystals to a temperature from 520 to 420 deg C whereby crystals of epsilonbronze precipitate; removing said epsilon-crystals from the remaining molten metal; and reintroducing the remaining molten metal into the process for eta-crystallization.

  6. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  7. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  8. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  9. Sorption of tin on human teeth.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, Gh A; Madbouly, H A

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of tin ions on human teeth from water and other drinks has been studied by the radioactive tracer technique using the isotope 113Sn (T(1/2) = 115.1 d) as a tracer. The tooth holds a minimum amount of tin from coffee and a maximum amount is held from water and from tea with sugar. The same technique was also used to study the desorption of tin already taken up on the teeth. It has been found that sorbed tin is hardly desorbed from the teeth specimens. The high uptake of tin on human teeth from various drinks showed that teeth act as a natural sieve holding trace elements. PMID:11768790

  10. Nucleation and growth of tin whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Zhang, Bei; Li, James C. M.

    2011-06-01

    Pure tin film of one micron thick was evaporated onto a silicon substrate with chromium and nickel underlayers. The tinned silicon disk was bent by applying a dead load at the center and supported below around the edge to apply biaxial compressive stresses to the tin layer. After 180 C vacuum annealing for 1,2,4,6, and 8 weeks, tin whiskers/hillocks grew. A quantitative method revealed that the overall growth rate decreased with time with a tendency for saturation. A review of the literature showed in general, tin whisker growth has a nucleation period, a growth period and a period of saturation, very similar to recrystallization or phase transformation. In fact we found our data fit Avrami equation very well. This equation shows that the nucleation period was the first week.

  11. Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  12. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results formore » several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.« less

  13. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  14. Therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  15. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  16. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  17. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  18. Taming Tin(IV) Polyazides.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rory; Davis, Martin F; Fazakerley, Mathew; Portius, Peter

    2015-12-14

    The first charge-neutral Lewis base adducts of tin(IV) tetraazide, [Sn(N3)4(bpy)], [Sn(N3)4(phen)] and [Sn(N3)4(py)2], and the salt bis{bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium} hexa(azido)stannate [(PPN)2Sn(N3)6] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; py = pyridine; PPN = N(PPh3)2) have been prepared using covalent or ionic azide-transfer reagents and ligand-exchange reactions. The azides were isolated on the 0.3 to 1 g scale and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, microanalytical and thermal methods and their molecular structures determined by single-crystal XRD. All complexes have a distorted octahedral Sn[N]6 coordination geometry and possess greater thermal stability than their Si and Ge homologues. The nitrogen content of the adducts of up to 44% exceed any Sn(IV) compound known hitherto. PMID:26767331

  19. An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Mark A.; Wilcox, Geoffrey D.; Higginson, Rebecca L.; Heath, Richard J.; Liu, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    It is widely documented that whisker growth is more rapid for tin deposits on brass compared with deposits produced on other substrate materials, such as copper. As a result, studies investigating the effect of process variables on tin whisker formation are often conducted on brass substrates to take advantage of the increased whisker growth rates. Although it has been understood since the 1960s that the increased whisker growth results from zinc diffusion, to date there has not been any detailed analysis of the zinc/zinc oxide distribution at the surface of the tin deposit. Using a commercial bright tin electroplating bath, the formation of zinc oxide at the surface of tin deposits on brass has been investigated. Analyses show that zinc oxide is present on the surface of the deposit within 1 day of electroplating. During storage at room temperature, a network of zinc oxide is formed at the surface grain boundaries, the extent of which increases with time. The critical role that zinc surface diffusion plays in whisker growth for tin deposits on brass has been demonstrated by electrochemical oxidation of the tin shortly after electroplating. This develops a tin oxide film that is thicker than the native air-formed oxide and subsequently serves as a diffusion barrier to zinc surface diffusion, thereby mitigating whisker growth.

  20. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  2. Friction and wear of tin and tin alloys from minus 100 C to 150 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron (110) single-crystal pin sliding on single and polycrystalline tin and tin alloys. Specimens were examined at various ambient temperatures from -100 to 150 C. Applied loads varied from 1 to 50 grams, and sliding velocity was constant at 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the crystal transformation of tin influences the friction coefficient. Friction was higher for the diamond structure (gray tin) than it was for the body-centered tetragonal structure (white tin). Bismuth arrested the crystal transformation, which resulted in constant friction over the temperature range -100 to 150 C. Both copper and aluminum enhanced the kinetics of transformation, with aluminum producing a nearly twofold change in friction with the crystal transformation.

  3. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  4. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  5. S-process studies on tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Kappler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The excitation function of the Sn-116(n, gamma) in the neutron energy range 3-200 keV was measured using the Karlsruhe pulsed 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator with the Li-7(p,n) reaction as a neutron source. Neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between 10 and 100 keV. The neutron capture cross section of Sn-116 in combination with s-process systematics was then used to determine solar tin abundance. The solar tin abundance value was found to be at least 23 percent lower than meteoritic tin abundance quoted by Anders (1988). This result is discussed with regard to the origin of Sn-115.

  6. The solar system abundance of tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, R. D.; Rosman, K. K. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    The elemental abundance of tin has been determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique for four carbonaceous chondrites, including the Cl chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna. A solar system abundance of 3.98 (normalized to Si = 10 to the 6th atoms) can be derived from these data, which is in excellent agreement with the presently accepted value. Recently, a theoretical value of 2.82 + or - 0.21 (Si = 10 to the 6th atoms) has been proposed for the abundance of tin based on an s-process nucleosynthesis model. This value is 26 percent lower than the presently accepted solar system abundance. The present data confirm the higher value for tin and indicate that a reexamination of the assumptions on which the nucleosynthetic value is based is required.

  7. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1989-03-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  8. Tin nanoparticle thin film electrodes fabricated by the vacuum filtration method for enhanced battery performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Kong, Byung-Seon; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Yang, Seung Bo; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2009-06-10

    A novel method for fabricating tin nanoparticle thin film electrodes that show good performance in lithium ion batteries during cycling is reported. The vacuum filtration method has the advantage of affording a high degree of dispersion of the electrode components, thereby providing good electrical contacts between the tin nanoparticles and the conductive carbon or current collector. The reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency are 726 mA h g(-1) and 85.3%, respectively, with this thin film electrode. Cycle life performance tests under real battery conditions show that the battery capacity and reaction peaks remained stable for up to 50 cycles. SEM shows that the uniform morphology of the vacuum filtered film was maintained throughout the cycle life test. This novel vacuum filtration method for providing nanoparticle-based film electrodes has further potential applications for use in various devices such as high power, thin film batteries, supercapacitors and organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic cells. PMID:19448286

  9. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  10. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  11. Eyeglass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  12. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Domashevskaya, E. P. Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu.

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  13. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Vasko, A. C.; Karpov, V. G.; Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Shvydka, Diana

    2015-09-28

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  14. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, A. C.; Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  15. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOEpatents

    Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki, Robert

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  17. Tin Whisker Formation - A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-07

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  18. Ground point filtering of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Seijmonsbergen, Arie; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have proved invaluable for generating high-resolution and multi-temporal imagery. Based on photographic surveys, 3D surface reconstructions can be derived photogrammetrically so producing point clouds, orthophotos and surface models. For geomorphological or ecological applications it may be necessary to separate ground points from vegetation points. Existing filtering methods are designed for point clouds derived using other methods, e.g. laser scanning. The purpose of this paper is to test three filtering algorithms for the extraction of ground points from point clouds derived from low-altitude aerial photography. Three subareas were selected from a single flight which represent different scenarios: 1) low relief, sparsely vegetated area, 2) low relief, moderately vegetated area, 3) medium relief and moderately vegetated area. The three filtering methods are used to classify ground points in different ways, based on 1) RGB color values from training samples, 2) TIN densification as implemented in LAStools, and 3) an iterative surface lowering algorithm. Ground points are then interpolated into a digital terrain model using inverse distance weighting. The results suggest that different landscapes require different filtering methods for optimal ground point extraction. While iterative surface lowering and TIN densification are fully automated, color-based classification require fine-tuning in order to optimize the filtering results. Finally, we conclude that filtering photogrammetric point clouds could provide a cheap alternative to laser scan surveys for creating digital terrain models in sparsely vegetated areas.

  19. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-04-01

    {sup 119}Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown.

  20. Relationship between microstructure and electronic properties of energetically deposited zinc tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, Billy James; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Partridge, James G.

    2016-06-01

    Thin films of amorphous n-type zinc tin oxide have been energetically deposited from a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at moderate temperatures. The characteristics of these films span a range suitable for semiconductor devices and transparent conducting oxide interconnects with carrier concentration and mobility dependent on local bonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron diffraction have revealed that acceptor-like Sn(II) bonding in the films decreased with increasing growth temperature, resulting in higher n-type carrier concentrations. XPS and in situ Ar plasma treatment showed that downward surface band bending resulted from OH attachment. Persistent photoconductivity was attributed to the photoionization of oxygen vacancies.

  1. Tin Oxide Microheater for Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Ansari, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is the main material utilized for the fabrication of chemical sensing pellets which operate at elevated temperatures. The heating is commonly carried out with ruthenium dioxide resistors. Here, a tin oxide-based microheater is developed for microsensor applications. These microheaters are fabricated on 0.5 mm thick alumina substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The optimum SnO2 heaters have a sheet resistivity in the 40-70 Ω/a range. Ohmic Ag/SnO2 contacts are formed by silver paste printing followed by an appropriate thermal annealing, which provide connections to the external circuitry. Durability tests are carried out on several samples; the long-term performance of the fabricated devices is satisfactory. The method allows the elimination of the expensive ruthenium dioxide from the structure of generic gas sensors.

  2. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajachidambaram, Jaana Saranya; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Varga, Tamas; Flynn, Brendan T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Herman, Gregory S.

    2012-06-12

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the effect of deposition and post annealing conditions on film structure, composition, surface contamination, and thin film transistor (TFT) device performance. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the ZTO films remain amorphous even after annealing to 600 °C. We found that the bulk Zn:Sn ratio of the sputter deposited films were slightly tin rich compared to the composition of the ceramic sputter target, and there was a significant depletion of zinc at the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also indicated that residual surface contamination depended strongly on the sample post-annealing conditions where water, carbonate and hydroxyl species were absorbed to the surface. Electrical characterization of ZTO films, using TFT test structures, indicated that mobilities as high as 17 cm2/Vs could be obtained for depletion mode devices.

  3. Dating of Malaysian fluvial tin placers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Daud A. F.

    The richest tin placers in Malaysia—fluviatile and piedmont fan placers—formed mainly within the "Boulder Beds" (BB fan facies), "Old Alluvium" (OA alluvial plain facies) and "Transitional Unit" (TU) which are regional lithostratigraphic units that can be correlated throughout western Peninsular Malaysia. Palaeomagnetic studies show that the TU was deposited during the early part of the Brunhes Normal Polarity Epoch (0-0.73 Ma) whereas the OA and BB mainly formed during the Matuyama Reversed Epoch (0.73-2.48 Ma). Present environments are mostly unfavorable for tin placer formation. Economic placers are generally covered on land by Young Alluvium (YA) overburden or are submerged offshore. As many of the rich OA/BB near-source placers are now largely worked out, the transported TU fluvial placers are becoming more important economically. The latest Pliocene to Mid Pleistocene period represented the principal phase of economic tin placer formation. Evidence from palaeomagnetism and the stratigraphic context of placers, and the relationship between sea level change, climatic change and placer genesis, suggest that the bulk of OA placers formed during a Lower Pleistocene interglacial period. A Mid Pleistocene age for TU placers is indicated by vertebrate fossils, palaeomagnetism, and their stratigraphic position below Upper Quaternary YA and above OA which is older than 0.73 Ma.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric determination of tin in canned foods.

    PubMed

    Manzoori, Jamshid L; Amjadi, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Djafar

    2006-10-11

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of tin as its complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in a mixed micellar medium was developed. The mixture of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 and an anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) was used as a suitable micellar medium for solubilizing of complex and ligand and also for enhancing the fluorescence intensity of complex. In the optimum experimental conditions the maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of Sn-PAN complex were 300 and 360 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.01-0.8 microg ml(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The detection limit was found to be 2 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method for the determination of 0.1 microg ml(-1) tin was calculated to be 0.74%. The interferences caused by the presence of a number of common cations and anions were studied. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of tin in various canned products. PMID:16764988

  5. Tin recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2001-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of tin supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of tin recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the flow of materials from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of the use of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. The quantity of tin recycled in 1998 as a percentage of apparent tin supply was estimated to be about 22%, and recycling efficiency was estimated to be 75%. Of the total tin consumed in products for the U.S. market in 1998, an estimated 12% was consumed in products where the tin was not recyclable (dissipative uses).

  6. Tin oxidation mechanism in the Sn-Se alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhalde, S.; Arcondo, B.; Nassif, E.; Sirkin, H.

    1988-06-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies performed on powdered samples of Sn-Se alloys allowed us to determine the influence of the chalcogenide bonds in the tin oxidation mechanism. The weak bonds present in the SnSe2 compound increase the tin oxidation kinetics, an effect which is not found in pure tin samples maintained in the same conditions.

  7. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  8. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  9. Placer tin deposits in central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Robert Mills; Coats, Robert Roy; Payne, Thomas G.

    1963-01-01

    Placer tin, in the form of cassiterite (Sn02) and (or) tinstone (fragments including cassiterite and some vein or rock material), is known or reported in deposits that have been prospected or mined for placer gold in four areas adjacent to the Yukon River in central Alaska, 120 to 240 miles west of Fairbanks. These areas are: the Morelock Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 30 miles upstream from Tanana; the Moran Dome area, about 16 miles north of the Yukon River and 25 miles northwest of Tanana; the Mason Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 36 miles west of Tanana; and the Ruby-Long area, on the south side of the Yukon River near Ruby and about 40 miles east of Galena. The only extensive placer mining in these areas has been in the Ruby-Long area. Other placer deposits including some cassiterite are known in central Alaska but are not discussed in this report. Bedrock in these areas is predominantly schist of various types with some associated greenstone and other metamorphic rocks. Some granite is exposed in the Moran Dome and Ruby-Long areas and in areas close to Morelock and Mason Creeks. Barren, milky quartz veins and veinlets transecting the metamorphic rocks are common. No cassiterite was found in the bedrock, and no bedrock source of the tin has been reported. In the Moran Dome and Mason Creek areas, and in part of the Ruby-Long area, tourmaline is present in the rocks of the tin-bearing drainage basins, and apparently absent elsewhere in these areas. The placer deposits are in both valley floor and bench alluvium, which are predominantly relatively thin, rarely exceeding a thickness of 30 feet. Most of the alluvium deposits are not perennially frozen. In the Morelock Creek area tin-bearing deposits are 5 to 5? miles above the mouth of the creek, and meager evidence indicates that cassiterite and gold are present in Morelock Creek valley and some of the tributaries both upstream and downstream from these deposits. The

  10. Tool For Tinning Integrated-Circuit Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Gregory N.

    1988-01-01

    As many as eight flatpacks held. Tool made of fiberglass boards. Clamps row of flatpacks by their leads so leads on opposite side of packages dipped. After dipping, nuts on boards loosened, flatpacks turned around, nuts retightened, and untinned leads dipped. Strips of magnetic material grip leads of flatpacks (made of Kovar, magnetic iron/nickel/cobalt alloy) while boards repositioned. Micrometerlike screw used to adjust exposed width of magnetic strip to suit dimensions of flatpacks. Holds flatpack integrated circuits so leads tinned. Accommodates several flatpacks for simultaneous dipping of leads in molten solder. Adjusts to accept flatpacks in range of sizes.

  11. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  12. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  13. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  14. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  15. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  16. Synthesis of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of low size dispersity for application in gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Nayral, C; Viala, E; Fau, P; Senocq, F; Jumas, J C; Maisonnat, A; Chaudret, B

    2000-11-17

    Nanocomposite core-shell particles that consist of a Sn0 core surrounded by a thin layer of tin oxides have been prepared by thermolysis of [(Sn(NMe2)2)2] in anisole that contains small, controlled amounts of water. The particles were characterized by means of electronic microscopies (TEM, HRTEM, SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The TEM micrographs show spherical nanoparticles, the size and size distribution of which depends on the initial experimental conditions of temperature, time, water concentration, and tin precursor concentration. Nanoparticles of 19 nm median size and displaying a narrow size distribution have been obtained with excellent yield in the optimized conditions. HRTEM, XPS, XRD and Mossbauer studies indicate the composite nature of the particles that consist of a well-crystallized tin beta core of approximately equals 11 nm covered with a layer of approximately equals 4 nm of amorphous tin dioxide and which also contain quadratic tin monoxide crystallites. The thermal oxidation of this nanocomposite yields well-crystallized nanoparticles of SnO2* without coalescence or size change. XRD patterns show that the powder consists of a mixture of two phases: the tetragonal cassiterite phase, which is the most abundant, and an orthorhombic phase. In agreement with the small SnO2 particle size, the relative intensity of the adsorbed dioxygen peak observed on the XPS spectrum is remarkable, when compared with that observed in the case of larger SnO2 particles. This is consistent with electrical conductivity measurements, which demonstrate that this material is highly sensitive to the presence of a reducing gas such as carbon monoxide. PMID:11151840

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method.

    PubMed

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V; Lutz, Victoriya A; Dontsova, Tatiana A; Astrelin, Igor M

    2016-12-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated. PMID:27456501

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated.

  19. The episodic influx of tin-rich cosmic dust particles during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaViolette, Paul A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents evidence of the first detection of interstellar dust in ice age polar ice. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are reported for 15 elements found in dust filtered from eight samples of Camp Century Greenland ice dating from 40 to 78 kyrs BP. High concentrations of Sn, Sb, Au, Ag, Ir, and Ni were found to be present in three out of these eight samples. One compositionally anomalous dust sample from an ice core depth of 1230.5 m (age ∼49 kyrs BP, near the beginning of D/O stadial No. 13) was found to contain tin with an average weight percent of 49% as determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). This sample was also found to contain high concentrations of Pb with an average weight abundance of 8.4% and matching the Sn:Pb ratio observed in interstellar spectra. Dust particles in this sample generally have a platy morphology and range from submicron size up to a size as large as 120 μm, a particle consisting almost entirely of SnO2 and being the largest monomineralic extraterrestrial dust particle so far discovered. One porous aggregate tin-bearing particle was found to contain nanometer sized chondrules indicating an extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial origin for the tin is also indicated by the presence of isotopic anomalies in the 114Sn, 115Sn and 117Sn isotopes. Follow up isotopic measurements of this tin-rich dust need to be performed to improve confidence in the anomalies reported here. High abundances of the low melting point elements Ag, Au, and Sb are also present in this tin-rich sample along with elevated abundances of the siderophiles Ir, Ni, Fe, and Co, the latter being present in chondritic proportions and indicating that about 9% of the dust has a C1 chondrite component. Measurements indicate that about 97% of this dust is of extraterrestrial origin with a 3% residual being composed of terrestrial windblown dust. EDS analysis of another tin-rich Camp Century ice core dust sample dating to ∼130 kyrs BP

  20. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the <0.5% level at the collector mirror location using the cusp magnetic field alone. Plasma also is rejected using a low argon density (<1x1014cm-3). We have measured the tin ion flow pattern toward the large area annular beam dump. Scaling of the cusp design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the substance referred to in 40 CFR 721.10231 (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) combined. Persons who... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10230 - Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the substance referred to in 40 CFR 721.10231 (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) combined. Persons who... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. 721... Substances § 721.10230 Rutile, tin zinc, calcium doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  3. Growth of TiN films at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L. I.; Jun-Fang, Chen

    2007-06-01

    Thermodynamic analysis on growth of TiN films was given. The driving force for deposition of TiN is dependent on original Ti(g)/N(g) ratio and original partial pressure of N(g). TiN films were deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system under suitable nitrogen gas flow rate at 523 K while the density of plasma varied with diverse discharge pressure had been investigated by the Langmuir probe. TiN films were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by means of atom force microscopy (AFM). The results of these measurements indicated preferential TiN(1 1 1) films were deposited on substrate of Si(1 0 0) and glass by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system at low temperature, and it was possible for the deposition of TiN films with a preferential orientation or more orientations if the nitrogen gas flow rate increased enough. Sand Box was used to characterize the fractal dimension of surface of TiN films. The results showed the fractal dimension was a little more than 1.7, which accorded with the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the fractal dimension of TiN films increased with increase of the temperature of deposition.

  4. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  5. [Biological functions of tin and disease].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Tomiyama, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    Tin generates a wide variety of biological functions due to its chemical character. In this article, the modes of the biological functions of tin(especially organotin compounds) are reviewed, with special emphasis on the connection with the immune system, brain nervous system and endocrine system, on the basis of our data. To sum up this article, the biological functions of organotin compounds appear to be due to the following several processes: (1) their incorporation into the cells in vesicle form through fusion or in a similar manner to their incorporation in cationic form; (2) transport to and accumulation in the regions of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not to or in the plasma membrane or nucleus because of their hydrophobicity; (3) inhibition of intracellular phospholipid transport between organelles due to impairment of the structures and functions of the Golgi apparatus and ER; (4) inhibition of the membrane-mediated signal transduction system leading to DNA synthesis via phospholipid turnover and Ca2+ mobilization, as in cell proliferation systems; (5) disturbance of the trace element balance and the localization of certain elements; (6) disorders of membrane-mediated Ca2+ homeostasis via various channel functions including Zn modulation on the plasma and organelle membranes, and protein phosphorylation, as in the signal transduction systems of memory and olfaction; (7) necrosis or apoptosis in vivo or toxic cell death in vitro. PMID:27455812

  6. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  7. Discovery of Cadmium, Indium, and Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Stephanie; Thoennessen, Michael

    2009-10-01

    As of today, no comprehensive study has been made covering the initial observations and identifications of isotopes. A project has been undertaken at MSU to document the discovery of all the known isotopes. The criteria defining discovery of a given isotope is the publication of clear mass and element assignment in a refereed journal. Prior to the current work the documentation of the discovery of eleven elements had been completed^1. These elements are cerium^2, arsenic, gold, tungsten, krypton, silver, vanadium, einsteinium, iron, barium, and cobalt. We will present the new documentation for the cadmium, indium, and tin isotopes. Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes, thirty-eight indium isotopes, and thirty-eight tin isotopes have been discovered so far. The description for each discovered isotope includes the year of discovery, the article published on the discovery, the article's author, the method of production, the method of identification, and any previous information concerning the isotope discovery. A summary and overview of all ˜500 isotopes documented so far as a function of discovery year, method and place will also be presented. ^1http://www.nscl.msu.edu/˜thoennes/2009/discovery.htm ^2J.Q. Ginepro, J. Snyder, and M. Thoennessen, At. Data Nucl. Data. Tables, in press (2009), doi:10.1016/j.adt.2009.06.002

  8. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  9. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  10. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  11. Effects of Substrate Quenching after TiN Coating on Tribological Properties of TiN Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Miyoshi, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Tohru; Sagara, Syuichi

    To investigate the effects of post-coat substrate quenching on the tribological properties of TiN film, a specimen was prepared in which the steel substrate (carbon tool steel, JIS SK3) was quenched after TiN coating, and the ball-on-disk type wear test was carried out using a ZrO2 ball. The delamination initiation life of TiN film was improved by the high adhesive strength of TiN film obtained by post-coat substrate quenching. The specific wear rate was also improved by post-coat substrate quenching, although TiN hardness was lower than that of the conventional type specimen, which was coated with TiN after substrate quenching. The improvement in the specific wear rate could be explained as follows. In the post-coat substrate quenching process, TiN was partly oxidized and titanium oxide, which acted as a lubricant, was formed on the TiN surface. The formation of titanium oxide resulted in a reduction in the friction coefficient and consequently a lower specific wear rate was obtained.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L.; Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A.

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  13. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  14. Corrosion resistant filter unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.M.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fluid filter assembly adapted for the filtration of corrosive fluid to be injected into a well bore at pressure levels which may exceed 10,000 pounds per square. It comprises: a frame assembly for the mounting of a portion of the fluid filter assembly therein, the frame assembly; filter pods, the plurality of filter pods forming at least two banks of filter pods, each bank having at least two filter pods therein, each bank of the filter pods being supported by one or more the supports of the plurality of supports secured to selected struts of the frame assembly; an inlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid to the plurality of filter pods, the inlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby flow of the corrosive fluid can be directed to each bank of the filter pods; an outlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid from the filter pods, the outlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods; a first valve means to control the flow of the corrosive fluid between banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby the flow of the corrosive fluid can be selectively directed to each bank of the filter pods; a second valve means to selectively control the flow of the corrosive fluid between the inlet manifold and the outlet manifold; and union means for interconnecting the filter pods, inlet manifold and outlet manifold, each of the union means including mechanical connection means and internal seal means for isolating the corrosive fluids from the mechanical connection means.

  15. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  16. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S.; Thompson, Robert C.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Perkins, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

  17. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1997-03-25

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

  18. Musical noise reduction using an adaptive filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeshi; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Hoya, Tetsuya

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a method for reducing a particular noise (musical noise). The musical noise is artificially produced by Spectral Subtraction (SS), which is one of the most conventional methods for speech enhancement. The musical noise is the tin-like sound and annoying in human auditory. We know that the duration of the musical noise is considerably short in comparison with that of speech, and that the frequency components of the musical noise are random and isolated. In the ordinary SS-based methods, the musical noise is removed by the post-processing. However, the output of the ordinary post-processing is delayed since the post-processing uses the succeeding frames. In order to improve this problem, we propose a novel method using an adaptive filter. In the proposed system, the observed noisy signal is used as the input signal to the adaptive filter and the output of SS is used as the reference signal. In this paper we exploit the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the proposed method has improved the intelligibility of the enhanced speech in comparison with the conventional method.

  19. The tin zone: sediment-hosted hydrothermal tin mineralization at Rooiberg, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, A.; Misiewicz, J. E.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-04-01

    The Rooiberg tin field, also known as the Rooiberg Fragment, is located within the western lobe of the Bushveld Complex. The fragment is triangular-shaped, consists of early Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence volcano-sedimentary rocks, and is surrounded by granitoid intrusives of the Lebowa Granite Suite. Practically all the significant tin deposits are hosted by arkoses, located towards the transition with shaly arkoses at the stratigraphic top of the Boschoffsberg Quartzite Member. This stratabound distribution of individual deposits gave rise to the concept of a regionally developed continuous stanniferous zone. On regional scale, the individual deposits are broadly similar and are collectively classified as replacement and open space-filling type. Particular styles of mineralization such as tourmaline pockets/orbicules, disseminated cassiterite, steep and flat dipping sulphidic fractures and hydrothermal carbonate breccias appear to dominate each mine. Petrological and geochemical investigations of four mineralized centres, indicated the presence of a 500 600 m thick stratified zone of pervasively altered clastic sedimentary rocks of possible arkosic precursor composition. Alteration displays a distinct zonal distribution consisting of a grey-green sodic (albitized) foot wall, an approximately 80 m transitional sericitized-tourmalinized sulphidic tin zone and red hematitic potassic hanging wall. The observed zonal pattern and localization of economically significant cassiterite, is explained by the evolutionary path of magmatic stanniferous hydrothermal fluids genetically related to the surrounding acid phase of the Bushveld Complex. Areas of high fracture density, the tectonic focal points, acted as conduits for the ascending reactive fluids. Factors such as fluid-lithostatic pressure equilibration, limited fracture evolution and/or impermeable shaly arkose retarded this ascent. As a result accumulation, lateral spreading of fluid and pervasive alteration occurred

  20. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  1. Silver-tin alloys and amalgams: electrochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H J

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion potential and anodic polarization profiles of a representative number of silver-tin alloys and their corresponding amalgams in a physiological solution were determined and compared to their microstructures. For the alloys with tin-content greater than 27%(wt) and for all amalgams, the corrosion process is related to the attack of free tin for the alloys and to the gamma-2 tin for the amalgams. The gamma-2 concentration in the amalgams increases with an increase in tin-content. For alloys with tin-content less than 27%, the corrosion process is even more restricted than for the process observed with pure silver. From a developed theory based upon the potential-time and polarization results, association of the O2 reduction process on a SnO cathodic film to an intermediate specie of H2O2 is made. The rate of H2O2 decomposition on a SnO surface in a four electron process is thought to control the O2 reduction overvoltage. The O2 reduction overvoltage decreases with increases in the silver-content of the amalgam, particularily seen with the 8 and 12% tin compositions. Due to the polarization induced corrosion process, a phase with high silver and high mercury concentrations was observed over the unreacted particles. PMID:7362862

  2. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T.

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  3. Tin impurity centers in glassy germanium chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Gladkikh, P. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Marchenko, A. V.; Seregin, P. P.; Terukov, E. I.

    2011-10-15

    Tin atoms produced by radioactive decay of {sup 119mm}Sn and {sup 119}Sn impurity atoms in the structure of Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} and Ge{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} glasses are stabilized in the form of Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions and correspond to ionized states of the amphoteric two-electron center with negative correlation energy (Sn{sup 2+} is an ionized acceptor, and Sn{sup 4+} is an ionized donor), whereas the neutral state of the Sn{sup 3+} center appears to be unstable. {sup 119}Sn atoms produced by radioactive decay of {sup 119m}Te impurity atoms in the structure of Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} and Ge{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} glasses are stabilized at both chalcogen sites (they are electrically inactive) and germanium sites.

  4. Real-time x-ray diffraction measurements of shocked polycrystalline tin and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dane V; Macy, Don; Stevens, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35 ns pulse. The characteristic K(alpha) lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K(beta) line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3 x 6 mm(2) spot and 1 degrees full width half maximum angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5 degrees . A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device camera through a coherent fiber-optic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1 mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic aluminum lattice with no phase transformation. PMID:19045900

  5. Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

    2008-11-22

    A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic Kα lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic Kβ line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

  6. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  7. HEPA filter monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  8. 40 CFR 421.290 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tin subcategory. 421.290 Section 421.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Tin Subcategory § 421.290 Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of tin at secondary...

  9. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  10. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  11. Porcelain enamelled absorbers, coated by spectral selective tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Simonis, F.; Faber, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    1987-02-01

    The use of porcelain enamelled absorbers in flat plate collectors features longevity thanks to the durability and thermal stability of the enamel finish. The porcelain enamel can be made spectral selective by coating with doped tin oxide or indium oxide. The application procedure involves an enamelling step followed by a pyrosol process with tin or indium compounds. The optical properties of tin oxide coated enamel yield values of 0.90-0.92 absorptance and 0.13-0.18 hemispherical emittance. The temperature dependence of the emittance is very small. The thermal stability has been proved up to 400/sup 0/C in air.

  12. PROCESS OF PRODUCING A NIOBIUM-TIN COMPOUND

    DOEpatents

    Zegler, S.T.; Darby, J.B. Jr.

    1963-04-01

    This patent deals with a process of preparing pure Nb/sub 3/Sn. The process comprises heating powders of niobium and excess tin to 900 to 1000 deg C, whereby niobium reacts with the molten tin under the formation of Nb/sub 3/Sn; cooling and powdering the product and immersing the powder in concentrated hydrochloric acid for removal of excessive tin; separating the Nb/sub 3/Sn, rinsing and drying it and sintering it in an inert atmosphere at 900 to 1300 deg C. (AEC)

  13. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  14. Nonlinear optimal semirecursive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Frederick E.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid approach to filtering, in which part of the filter is recursive but another part in non-recursive. The practical utility of this notion is to reduce computational complexity. In particular, if the non- recursive part of the filter is sufficiently small, then such a filter might be cost-effective to run in real-time with computer technology available now or in the future.

  15. Filter service system

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  16. HEPA filter encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  17. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  18. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  19. Practical Active Capacitor Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

  20. Tin and Tin Compounds for Sodium Ion Battery Anodes: Phase Transformations and Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Ding, Jia; Mitlin, David

    2015-06-16

    Sodium ion batteries (NIB, NAB, SIB) are attracting interest as a potentially lower cost alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIB), with readily available and geographically democratic reserves of the metal. Tin is one of most promising SIB anode materials, which alloys with up to 3.75 Na, leading to a charge storage capacity of 847 mAh g(-1). In this Account, we outline the state-of-the-art understanding regarding the sodiation-induced phase transformations and the associated performance in a range of Sn-based systems, treating metallic Sn and its alloys, tin oxide (SnO2), tin sulfide (SnS2/SnS), and tin phosphide (Sn4P3). We first detail what is known about the sodiation sequence in metallic Sn, highlighting the most recent insight into the reactions prior to the terminal equilibrium Na15Sn4 intermetallic. We explain why researchers argue that the equilibrium (phase diagram) series of phase transitions does not occur in this system, and rather why sodiation/desodiation proceeds through a series of metastable crystalline and amorphous structures. We also outline the recent modeling-based insight regarding how this phase transition profoundly influences the mechanical properties of the alloy, progressively changing the bonding and the near neighbor arrangement from "Sn-like" to "Na-like" in the process. We then go on to discuss the sodiation reactions in SnO2. We argue that while a substantial amount of experimental work already exists where the focus is on synthesis and testing of tin oxide-based nanocomposites, the exact sodiation sequence is just beginning to be understood. Unlike in Sn and Sn alloys, where capacities near the theoretical are reached at least early during cycling, SnO2 never quite achieves anything close to the 1398 mAh g(-1) that would be possible with a combination of fully reversible conversion and alloying reactions. We highlight recent work demonstrating that contrary to general expectations, it is the Sn to Na15Sn4 alloying reaction that

  1. Sputter-deposited TiN electrode coatings for superior sensing and pacing performance.

    PubMed

    Schaldach, M; Hubmann, M; Weikl, A; Hardt, R

    1990-12-01

    The sensing and pacing performance of pacemaker electrodes is characterized by the electrochemical properties of the electrode/tissue interface affecting tissue reactions and the kinetics of the ionic exchange. The usually smooth metallic electrode surface results in a high pass filter characteristic. To better match the electrode's filter characteristic to the spectral content of the depolarization signal, various combinations of electrode shape, material and surface structure have been researched. The electrode with sputter-deposited TiN coating presented in this report has been designed to meet the demand for low acute as well as chronic thresholds and superior sensing performance not only with respect to spontaneous activity but also regarding the detection of the evoked response. The clinical results obtained with this electrode prove the excellent pacing and sensing properties resulting from minimized polarization losses and optimized filtering of the signal to be detected, respectively. The acute and chronic clinical advantages over previous concepts are attributed mainly to the biocompatibility of the material used and the microcrystalline surface structure achieved by the coating process. The design concept of the new electrode is presented together with the clinical results obtained. While the advancements in microelectronics and battery technology have certainly formed the basis for the development of pulse generators featuring an ever increasing versatility of functions at the same or even smaller pacemaker dimensions, from a point of view of pacing system performance the development of improved electrode concepts as the one presented must be regarded as equally indispensable. PMID:1704562

  2. Regenerative particulate filter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

  3. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1995-08-08

    A lead-free solder alloy is disclosed for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0tin effective to depress the melting point of the tin-silver composition to a desired level. Melting point ranges from about 218 C down to about 205 C depending an the amount of bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10 C/min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight). 4 figs.

  4. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Rejent, Jerome A.

    1995-01-01

    A lead-free solder alloy for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0tin effective to depress the melting point of the tin-silver composition to a desired level. Melting point ranges from about 218.degree. C. down to about 205.degree. C. depending an the amount of bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10.degree. C./min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight).

  5. Process for making a noble metal on tin oxide catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quantity of reagent grade tin metal or compound, chloride-free, and high-surface-area silica spheres are placed in deionized water, followed by deaerating the mixture by boiling and adding an oxidizing agent, such as nitric acid. The nitric acid oxidizes the tin to metastannic acid which coats the spheres because the acid is absorbed on the substrate. The metastannic acid becomes tin oxide upon drying and calcining. The tin-oxide coated silica spheres are then placed in water and boiled. A chloride-free precious metal compound in aqueous solution is then added to the mixture containing the spheres, and the precious metal compound is reduced to a precious metal by use of a suitable reducing agent such as formic acid. Very beneficial results were obtained using the precious metal compound tetraammine platinum(II) hydroxide.

  6. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  7. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  8. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  9. Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction for Treating Tin Anode Slime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Weizhong; Qiu, Keqiang

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a process of vacuum carbothermal reduction was proposed for treating tin anode slime containing antimony and lead. During vacuum carbothermal reduction, the antimony and lead were selectively removed simultaneously by reducing and decomposing the less volatile mixed oxide of lead and antimony into the more volatile Sb2O3 and PbO. Then the tin was enriched in the distilland and primarily present as SnO2. Crude tin was obtained via vacuum reduction of the residual SnO2. The results showed that 92.85% by weight of antimony and 99.58% by weight of lead could be removed at 850°C for 60 min with 4 wt.% of reductant and air flow rate at 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-150 Pa. Under these conditions, an evaporation ratio of 52.7% was achieved. Crude tin with a tin content of 94.22 wt.% was obtained at temperature of 900°C, reduction time of 60 min, reductant dosage of 12.5 wt.%, and a residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-400 Pa. Correspondingly, the direct recovery of tin was 94.35%.

  10. Comparison of lead and tin concentrations in air at a solder manufacturer from the closed-face 37-mm cassette with and without a custom cellulose-acetate cassette insert.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Chisholm, William P; Burns, Dru A; Nelson, John H; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cassette insert with PVC filter (ACCU-CAP) in a 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) was designed for gravimetric analysis. A customized version of the ACCU-CAP, also to be used in the CFC, was manufactured from an acid-digestible cellulose-acetate cassette insert joined to a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter for wet chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to compare metal particle concentrations as sampled by the customized insert (CI) in a CFC sampler with the traditional sampling method using only a MCE filter in the CFC. Thirty-nine personal and 13 area samples were taken using paired filter-based CFC and the CI in CFC samplers at a solder manufacturing plant. The CI was removed from its CFC, and digested and analyzed as a whole. The MCE filter from the typical CFC was removed for analysis and then the interior of the cassette was wiped with Ghost Wipe for a separate analysis. The MCE filter only, Ghost Wipe, and CI were separately dissolved in heated nitric acid for ICP-MS analysis. Overall, the geometric mean concentration of the filter-only (FO) samples was considerably lower than that of the CI samples, by 53% for lead and 32% for tin. However, if the FO analysis was added to the corresponding Ghost Wipe analysis, i.e., filter+interior wipe (FW), the geometric mean concentrations of the FW results were similar to those of the CI results (by 113% for lead and 98% for tin). For both lead and tin the comparison of (log-transformed) metal concentrations between the FW and CI results showed no statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.3009 for lead and 0.800 for tin), while the comparison between the FO and CI results shows statistically significant differences (all p-values < 0.05). In conclusion, incorporating the sampler internal non-filter deposits by wiping or use of an internal filter capsule gave higher results than analyzing only the filter. Close agreement between the two methods of including non-filter deposits is

  11. Comparison of Lead and Tin Concentrations in Air at a Solder Manufacturer from the Closed-Face 37-mm Cassette With and Without a Custom Cellulose-Acetate Cassette Insert

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Chisholm, William P.; Burns, Dru A.; Nelson, John H.; Kashon, Michael L.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cassette insert with PVC filter (ACCU-CAP) in a 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) was designed for gravimetric analysis. A customized version of the ACCU-CAP, also to be used in the CFC, was manufactured from an acid-digestible cellulose-acetate cassette insert joined to a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter for wet chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to compare metal particle concentrations as sampled by the customized insert (CI) in a CFC sampler with the traditional sampling method using only a MCE filter in the CFC. Thirty-nine personal and 13 area samples were taken using paired filter-based CFC and the CI in CFC samplers at a solder manufacturing plant. The CI was removed from its CFC, and digested and analyzed as a whole. The MCE filter from the typical CFC was removed for analysis and then the interior of the cassette was wiped with Ghost Wipe for a separate analysis. The MCE filter only, Ghost Wipe, and CI were separately dissolved in heated nitric acid for ICP-MS analysis. Overall, the geometric mean concentration of the filter-only (FO) samples was considerably lower than that of the CI samples, by 53% for lead and 32% for tin. However, if the FO analysis was added to the corresponding Ghost Wipe analysis, i.e., filter+interior wipe (FW), the geometric mean concentrations of the FW results were similar to those of the CI results (by 113% for lead and 98% for tin). For both lead and tin the comparison of (log-transformed) metal concentrations between the FW and CI results showed no statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.3009 for lead and 0.800 for tin), while the comparison between the FO and CI results shows statistically significant differences (all p-values < 0.05). In conclusion, incorporating the sampler internal non-filter deposits by wiping or use of an internal filter capsule gave higher results than analyzing only the filter. Close agreement between the two methods of including non-filter deposits is

  12. Fabric filter blinding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Shang, J.Y.

    1982-08-01

    This discussion of various bag/cloth filter degradation mechanisms is mostly common sense. However, this information is occasionally lost in the subtleties of real-system operation. Although this paper is written with reference to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) applications, the insights are generally applicable. For enumeration of particular filter fabric and baghouse experiences in FBC applications, the reader is referred to a report by Davy McKee Corporatin (no date). A fabric filter is a composite matrix of fibers oriented to retain the dust particles from dust-laden gas. The cleaned gas passes through the fabric filter; the retained dust particles are deposited on the surface of (and within) the fiber matrix. The retained dust can be later removed through mechanical means. The fabric may be made of any fibrous material, spun in yarn, and then woven, impacted, needled, or bonded into a felt. Deep penetration of aggregated fine particles, lack of dust removal during filter cleaning, and chars or condensed aerosols may contribute to the increase in pressure drop across the filter. This increases the filter operation power consumption and, consequently, reduces the filtration capacity. The phenomenon of building a high-pressure drop in spite of filter cleaning provisions is known as blinding. In order to maintain an acceptable gas throughput, blinding problems must be addressed. Recommendations are given: maintain temperature above dew point, use filter aids, by-pass filter during start-up or operational upsets, etc.

  13. Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Margraf, A.

    1984-08-28

    This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

  14. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. PMID:27343753

  15. Granites of southeast Asian tin belt

    SciTech Connect

    Cobbing, E.J.; Mallick, D.I.J.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Teoh, L.H.

    1986-07-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the essential granite geology of the southeast Asian tin belt, distinguishing plutons within batholiths and characterizing them by their component units, field relationships, lithology, texture, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and mineral potential. To date, approximately 180 plutons have been recognized and partly or entirely described in the above terms. In addition, four granite provinces have been delineated, each with its own distinctive mineralization pattern. In all provinces, but particularly in the Main Range, granitoids designated as two-phase variants have been recognized where xenocrysts and xenoliths of coarse, primary texture granite are enclosed in and corroded by an invasive, equigranular quartzo-feldspathic matrix. These rocks form an essential part of the granite sequence in all provinces and have probably resulted from the infiltration and disruption of the host granite by late-stage magmatic fluids. Whole-rock geochemistry from peninsular Malaysia shows that the granites from the Main Range and Eastern provinces comprise two contrasted suites, which correspond approximately to the I- and S-type categories advocated by Chappell and White. In addition, individual plutons within batholiths in the two provinces have distinct geochemical parameters. Variation diagrams of plutons having the intrusive sequence primary texture granite-two-phase granite-microgranite show linear trends with increasing SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O, Rb, W, Sn, and U, and decreasing Sr, Ba, Th, and all other major elements.

  16. Tin isotope fractionation in terrestrial cassiterites

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, N.J. ); Rosman, K.J.R. )

    1991-02-01

    The isotopic composition of tin has been measured in a range of cassiterites and pure reagents to assess the extent to which this element is isotopically fractionated in natural processes. Only two samples showed evidence of isotopic fractionation, and it is concluded that natural Sn isotope fractionation is small and uncommon. This feature reflects the world dominance of Sn-oxide ores Sn-sulfide ores, and the highly efficient processes of Sn dissolution and precipitation which negate equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of Sn isotopes, respectively. The two samples which show slight fractionation are a highly purified and cassiterite from the Archaean Greenbushes pegmatite, Western Australia. The latter Sn is 0.15{per thousand} per mass unit heavier than the authors laboratory standard, whereas the former is 0.12{per thousand} per mass unit lighter. Although the cassiterite fractionation is considered to result from natural geological processes, the fractionation of purified Sn may be either natural or relate to the purification process, the fractionation of this magnitude has a negligible effect on the current best estimate of the atomic weight of Sn, but it does place a lower limit on its associated accuracy.

  17. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colas, Rafael

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  18. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  19. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice.

    PubMed

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-01-15

    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or the factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. To determine how the TIN2-DC mutations affect telomere function, we generated mice with the equivalent of the TIN2 K280E DC allele (TIN2(DC)) by gene targeting. Whereas homozygous TIN2(DC/DC) mice were not viable, first-generation TIN2(+/DC) mice were healthy and fertile. In the second and third generations, the TIN2(+/DC) mice developed mild pancytopenia, consistent with hematopoietic dysfunction in DC, as well as diminished fecundity. Bone marrow telomeres of TIN2(+/DC) mice shortened over the generations, and immortalized TIN2(+/DC) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed telomere shortening with proliferation. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening was accelerated in TIN2(+/DC) mTR(-/-) mice and MEFs compared with TIN2(+/+) mTR(-/-) controls, establishing that the TIN2(DC) telomere maintenance defect was not solely due to diminished telomerase action. The TIN2(DC) allele induced mild ATR kinase signaling at telomeres and a fragile telomere phenotype, suggestive of telomere replication problems. These data suggest that this TIN2-DC mutation could induce telomeric dysfunction phenotypes in telomerase-negative somatic cells and tissues that further exacerbate the telomere maintenance problems in telomerase-positive stem cell compartments. PMID:24449270

  20. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  1. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  2. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, D.

    1988-06-30

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream is described. The filter includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. A cover screen isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of porous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses. 6 figs.

  3. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  4. Filter vapor trap

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  5. SU-C-207-06: In Vivo Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles Using K-Edge Imaging Via Spectrum Shaping by Gold Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Cormack, R; Bhagwat, M; Berbeco, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are multifunctional platforms ideal for drug delivery, targeted imaging and radiosensitization. We have investigated quantitative imaging of AuNPs using on board imager (OBI) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). To this end, we also present, for the first time, a novel method for k-edge imaging of AuNP by filter-based spectral shaping. Methods: We used a digital 25 cm diameter water phantom, embedded with 3 cm spheres filled with AuNPs of different concentrations (0 mg/ml – 16 mg/ml). A poly-energetic X-ray spectrum of 140 kVp from a conventional X-ray tube is shaped by balanced K-edge filters to create an excess of photons right above the K-edge of gold at 80.7 keV. The filters consist of gold, tin, copper and aluminum foils. The phantom with appropriately assigned attenuation coefficients is forward projected onto a detector for each energy bin and then integrated. FKD reconstruction is performed on the integrated projections. Scatter, detector efficiency and noise are included. Results: We found that subtracting the results of two filter sets (Filter A:127 µm gold foil with 254 µm tin, 330 µm copper and 1 mm aluminum, and Filter B: 635 µm tin with 264 µm copper and 1 mm aluminum), provides substantial image contrast. The resulting filtered spectra match well below 80.7 keV, while maintaining sufficient X-ray quanta just above that. Voxel intensities of AuNP containing spheres increase linearly with AuNP concentration. K-edge imaging provides 18% more sensitivity than the tin filter alone, and 38% more sensitivity than the gold filter alone. Conclusion: We have shown that it is feasible to quantitatively detect AuNP distributions in a patient-sized phantom using clinical CBCT and K-edge spectral shaping.

  6. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Narváez, Angela C. E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P. E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Kruit, Pieter

    2014-06-23

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  7. Filter construction and design.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2006-01-01

    Sterilizing and pre-filters are manufactured in different formats and designs. The criteria for the specific designs are set by the application and the specifications of the filter user. The optimal filter unit or even system requires evaluation, such as flow rate, throughput, unspecific adsorption, steam sterilizability and chemical compatibility. These parameters are commonly tested within a qualification phase, which ensures that an optimal filter design and combination finds its use. If such design investigations are neglected it could be costly in the process scale. PMID:16570863

  8. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  9. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC), with Westinghouse are developing high temperature particulate filters for application in integrated, coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power generation systems. Development of these IGCC and PFBC advanced power cycles using subpilot and pilot scale facilities include the integrated operation of a high temperature particulate filter. This testing provides the basis for evaluating filter design, performance and operation characteristics in the actual process gas environment. This operating data is essential for the specification of components and materials and successful scaleup of the filter systems for demonstration and commercial application.

  10. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  11. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  12. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  13. Uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters for boundary filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falissard, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the use of Shapiro filters for boundary filtering. A new class of uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters is proposed and compared to classical Shapiro filters and even-order decentered Shapiro filters. The theoretical analysis shows that the proposed boundary filters are more accurate than the centered Shapiro filters and more robust than the even-order decentered boundary filters usable at the same distance to the boundary. The benefit of the new boundary filters is assessed for computations using the compressible Euler equations.

  14. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g. PMID:25686909

  15. Epigenetic lead, zinc, silver, antimony, tin, and gold veins in Boulder Basin, Blaine and Custer counties, Idaho; potential for economic tin mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratchford, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Boulder Basin is in a northwest-trending belt of allochthonous Paleozoic rocks in the Boulder Mountains of central Idaho. Regional Tertiary extension resulted in widespread normal faulting and coeval emplacement of shallow-level intrusions and extrusive rocks of the Challis Volcanic Group. Epigenetic lead-zinc-silver-antimony-tin-gold vein deposits formed during Tertiary extension and are hosted within Paleozoic strata. The major orebodies are in the lower plate of the Boulder Basin thrust fault, in massive quartzite of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Wood River Formation. Anomalous concentrations of tin are present in the base-metal mineral assemblage of the Boulder Basin ore deposits. The tin-bearing veins in Boulder Basin are strikingly similar to Bolivian tin deposits. The deposit model for Bolivian tin deposits identifies buried tin porphyry below the tin-bearing vein system.

  16. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  17. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  18. Non-hydrolytic Sol-gel Synthesis of Tin Sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajvinder

    The non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process is an effective low temperature route well known for preparing homogeneous metal oxides. Thermodynamically as well as kinetically favored products, which cannot be prepared with the traditional solid-state routes, can be produced using NHSG. This project is focused on the exploration of NHSG synthesis of binary tin sulfides. In the past few years, metal sulfides have been the subject of significant interest. Much effort has been devoted to understand these materials because of their potential applications in electronic, optical, and superconductor devices.4 Among these materials, tin sulfides are materials of technological importance, which are being explored as semiconductors, anode materials for Li ion batteries, photoconductors, photocatalysts and absorber layer materials in photovoltaic solar cell devices. All of these applications depend upon features like homogeneity, oxidation state, high surface area and purity of the materials. These properties can be difficult to achieve by employing traditional synthetic routes, which require high temperatures due to slow diffusion, limiting the products to thermodynamically stable phases and prohibiting control over properties like particle size and surface area. A variety of low temperature methods are being explored due to the increased demand for such advanced materials. This project is focused on exploring the NHSG approach to synthesize binary tin sulfides, with the main goal of establishing conditions for the targeted synthesis of different tin sulfide polymorphs with controlled particle size. Being non-oxide materials, tin sulfides can be air sensitive, which requires special attention in handling. All reactions were carried out in absence of oxygen. This project explores the reaction of tin halides with thioethers in a dry solvent medium, leading to the formation of tin sulfides. There are a number of synthetic parameters that can be varied for the NHSG approach. A

  19. Influence of Fretting Wear on Lifetime of Tin Plated Connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hirosaka; Ito, Tetsuya; Sawada, Shigeru; Hattori, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Yasushi; Tamai, Terutaka; Iida, Kazuo

    Due to the recent increase in electronic devices mounted on automobiles, a large number of connectors, especially low-cost tin plated connectors are being used. As a result, their contact reliability has become problematic. Furthermore, for the connectors which are subjected to fretting wear caused by heat cycle and vibrations, the contact resistance increases because of wear of tin and deposition of oxides, which generates problems of poor contact. This study is intended to analyze the change in contact resistance of tin plated connectors from the start of fretting wear to the end of their lifetime from the viewpoint of practical reliability, and to observe the trace and the characteristics of fretting wear microscopically. This study found that wear and oxidation of tin plated connectors start immediately with fretting wear, and thus accumulation of abrasion powder on fretting areas causes connectors to reach to the end of their useful lifetime quickly. Especially, it was demonstrated that amplitude of fretting has a considerable influence on a connector's lifetime. It is made clear that air-tightness, so-called “gas-tight” of tin in a fretting area influences fretting wear considerably.

  20. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Conformal Coatings as Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sungwon; Osterman, Michael; Meschter, Stephan; Pecht, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The application of a conformal coat has been considered as a mitigation strategy to prevent unintended shorting events induced by tin whisker formation in electronic products. While various conformal coatings have been shown to be effective at containing tin whiskers on treated coupons, the effectiveness of conformal coating on actual assembled hardware has not been adequately examined. In this study, the ability of six types of conformal coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined through their application to assembled gull-wing lead quad flat package test specimens. Nonuniform coverage of conformal coating on the gull-wing leads was found to be a primary concern. Quantitative image analysis using scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode was developed to aid in quantifying coating coverage. The ability of applied coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined after specimens were subjected to sequential temperature cycling and elevated temperature/humidity conditions as well as exposure to corrosive gases. For all but one coating, tin whiskers were observed to escape areas of relatively thin coating. Parylene C coating was found to be the most effective coating in providing uniform coverage and thickness, and containing whiskers.

  1. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Margolin, Len G.; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Turchi, Peter John

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  2. DEM Based Modeling: Grid or TIN? The Answer Depends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Moreno, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing power has enabled process-based hydrological simulations on large watersheds and two-way coupling with mesoscale atmospheric models. Of course with increasing watershed scale come corresponding increases in watershed complexity, including wide ranging water management infrastructure and objectives, and ever increasing demands for forcing data. Simulations of large watersheds using grid-based models apply a fixed resolution over the entire watershed. In large watersheds, this means an enormous number of grids, or coarsening of the grid resolution to reduce memory requirements. One alternative to grid-based methods is the triangular irregular network (TIN) approach. TINs provide the flexibility of variable resolution, which allows optimization of computational resources by providing high resolution where necessary and low resolution elsewhere. TINs also increase required effort in model setup, parameter estimation, and coupling with forcing data which are often gridded. This presentation discusses the costs and benefits of the use of TINs compared to grid-based methods, in the context of large watershed simulations within the traditional gridded WRF-HYDRO framework and the new TIN-based ADHydro high performance computing watershed simulator.

  3. Radiation-induced deposition of transparent conductive tin oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umnov, S.; Asainov, O.; Temenkov, V.

    2016-04-01

    The study of tin oxide films is stimulated by the search for an alternative replacement of indium-tin oxide (ITO) films used as transparent conductors, oxidation catalysts, material gas sensors, etc. This work was aimed at studying the influence of argon ions irradiation on optical and electrical characteristics of tin oxide films. Thin films of tin oxide (without dopants) were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using reactive magnetron sputtering. After deposition, the films were irradiated with an argon ion beam. The current density of the beam was (were) 2.5 mA/cm2, and the particles energy was 300-400 eV. The change of the optical and electrical properties of the films depending on the irradiation time was studied. Films optical properties were investigated by photometry in the range of 300-1100 nm. Films structural properties were studied using X-ray diffraction. The diffractometric research showed that the films, deposited on a substrate, had a crystal structure, and after argon ions irradiation they became quasi-crystalline (amorphous). It has been found that the transmission increases proportionally with the irradiation time, however the sheet resistance increases disproportionally. Tin oxide films (thickness ~30 nm) with ~100% transmittance and sheet resistance of ~100 kOhm/sq. were obtained. The study has proved to be prospective in the use of ion beams to improve the properties of transparent conducting oxides.

  4. Tin Nitride as an Earth Abundant Photoanode for Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, Christopher; Ma, Ming; Stephanovic, Vladan; Laney, Stephan; Ginley, David; Richards, Ryan; Smith, Wilson; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2014-03-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting-the conversion of water to hydrogen and oxygen using light-is an attractive route to the chemical storage of solar energy. We demonstrate that spinel tin nitride (Sn3N4) has conduction and valence bands that straddle the redox potentials of water and we study it as a photoannode material. Sn3N4 thin films have been grown on glass at ambient temperature by reactive sputtering of tin in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting materials were n-type semiconductors. Carrier concentration, carrier mobility, work function, and optical properties were measured. Results indicate that tin nitride has a band gap of ~ 1.7 eV aligned around water's redox potentials. GW-corrected DFT-surface calculations that take into account water surface dipole interactions are consistent with experiment. Early PEC devices were made from Sn3N4 on fluorinated tin oxide with cobalt oxide catalysts and show a small but promising photoresponse (~ 0.1 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE) under AM 1.5 illumination in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH= 7.25). Further work will focus on increasing the photocurrent in tin nitride devices by increasing film quality and identifying the proper catalyst. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), VENI scheme.

  5. Active rejector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, A.G.; Pirogov, S.G.; Savchenko, V.M.; Yakushev, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an active rejector filter for suppressing noise signals in the frequency range 50-100 Hz and for extracting a vlf information signal. The filter has the following characteristics: a high input impedance, a resonant frequency of 75 Hz, a Q of 1.25, and an attenuation factor of 53 dB at resonant frequency.

  6. Downflow dust filter

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, K.L.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an industrial dust filter apparatus comprising: a housing including upper, intermediate and lower sections, the upper section having a top opening inlet for particulate laden gases and the lower section tapering downwardly to a particulate outlet; a plurality of vertically arranged substantially cylindrical filters supported in substantially parallel relationship to each other in the intermediate section of the housing, the filters being closed at their upper ends and having their exterior filter surfaces exposed to particulate laden gases from the inlet; at least one horizontal duct extending across the housing beneath the filters, closed at one end and opening at its other end to a clean gas outlet through a side wall of the intermediate housing section; means communicating the lower open end of the filters through the upper walls of the duct so that the duct functions as a clean gas plenum; a plurality of verturis, vertically supported in the duct, on aligned with each filter; and means in the duct for pulse firing a jet of air upwardly through the venturis into the interior of the filters to remove particulates from the outer surfaces thereof.

  7. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  8. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  9. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monique; To, An; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components. Methods Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol. Conclusions Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality. PMID:26406602

  10. Sub-micron filter

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  11. Implicit Kalman filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  12. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

  13. Sintered composite filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  14. Information geometric nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Nigel J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.

  15. Synthesis and conductivity of indium-doped tin pyrophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized indium-doped tin pyrophosphates as high-temperature anhydrous proton conductors. The ratio of tin to indium was varied using two different synthetic methods. The first is a high-temperature reaction in which a paste containing the reactants in excess phosphoric acid was heated for various amounts of time at various temperatures. The second method is a solution precipitation procedure followed by calcination, which offers several advantages over traditional synthetic techniques. These advantages inc 1 ude better stoichiometric control, lower temperature requirements, and chemically uniform products. Several phosphate sources were investigated, including phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, and potassium pyrophosphate. The resulting indium-doped tin pyrophosphates had good proton conductivity over a wide temperature range with no humidification.

  16. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-01-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140

  17. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Nemov, S. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Zaiceva, A. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Seregin, P. P.

    2011-04-15

    It is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy of the {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U{sup -} centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup -} centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  18. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-08-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.

  19. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, A. V.; Mityakhina, V. S.; Krasnikov, L. V.; Galkin, B. Ya.; Besnosyuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125Sb was 95-98% of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98±0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 106-107 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di- n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di- n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125Sb has been developed.

  20. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N

    2016-01-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140

  1. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  2. Stabilized tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  3. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  4. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-07-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.

  5. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  6. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  7. Tin(II) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin(II) oxide.

    PubMed

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Davaasuren, Bambar; Alshankiti, Buthainah Ameen; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-12-14

    Tin(II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn (R = Me 1, CH2Ph 2) and (MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn](-) NH4(+)·2H2O 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH2 (R = H, Me) with tin(II) chloride dihydrate SnCl2·2H2O. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HON=C(Me)COO]2Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO2 in ambient atmosphere. PMID:26528675

  8. X-ray TV study of the penetration of tin into a steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A. V.; Panfilov, A. M.; Semenova, N. S.

    2016-02-01

    A technique is developed and an X-ray TV study is performed to investigate the penetration of spherical tin samples into the steel 40Kh melt at a temperature of 1550°C. Cold spherical tin particles 1-2 in weight are found to dissolve in the tin-free steel at an initial rate of 180 ± 50 mol/(m2 s). A sample dissolves fully in less than 2 s. When a sample reaches the steel-gas phase interface, its dissolution rate decreases by many times. Separation with the formation of a two-phase system occurs at 1.6-1.9 mol % tin in steel. The density of the iron-based alloy is lower than that of the tin-based alloy. Pure tin and the saturated solution of iron in tin wet Al2O3-based refractory ceramic better than pure iron or its alloy with tin.

  9. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J.

    2007-03-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600°C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature.

  10. Tin oxide-carbon nanotube composite for NOx sensing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Mi; Jung, Hyuck; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Dojin; Hong, Soon-Ku; Kim, Hyojin

    2012-02-01

    Tin oxide-single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nano composites are synthesized for gas sensor application. The fabrication includes deposition of porous SWCNTs on thermally oxidized SiO2 substrates followed by rheotaxial growth of Sn and thermal oxidation at 300, 400, 500, and 600 degrees C in air. The effects of oxidation temperature on morphology, microstructure, and gas sensing properties are investigated for process optimization. The tin monoxide oxidized at 400 degrees C showed the highest response at the operating temperature of 200 degrees C. Under the optimized test condition, the composite structure showed better response than both structures of SWCNTs and thin film SnO. PMID:22629971

  11. Ovonic type switching in tin selenide thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxter, C. R.; Mclennan, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Amorphous tin selenide thin films which possess Ovonic type switching properties are fabricated using vacuum deposition techniques. The devices are fabricated in a planar configuration and consist of amorphous tin selenide deposited over silver contacts. Results obtained indicate that Ovonic type memory switching does occur in these films with the energy density required for switching from a high impedance to a low impedance state being dependent on the spacing between the electrodes of the device. There is also a strong implication that the switching is a function of the magnitude of the applied voltage pulse.

  12. Reductive precipitation of metals photosensitized by tin and antimony porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Gong, Weiliang; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lutze, Werner

    2003-09-30

    A method for reducing metals using a tin or antimony porphyrin by forming an aqueous solution of a tin or antimony porphyrin, an electron donor, such as ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid, triethylamine, triethanolamine, and sodium nitrite, and at least one metal compound selected from a uranium-containing compound, a mercury-containing compound, a copper-containing compound, a lead-containing compound, a gold-containing compound, a silver-containing compound, and a platinum-containing compound through irradiating the aqueous solution with light.

  13. Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Albert T.

    2011-09-01

    This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

  14. Micro-mechanical properties of commercial TiN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Berriche, R.; Au, P.; Koul, A.K.; Immarigeon, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Vickers hardness HV, elastic modulus E and interfacial fracture toughness K{sub ic} of four commercial TiN coatings applied to a 17-4 PH stainless steel substrate were evaluated using a Nanomechanical Probe (NMP). The HV values of the TiN layers deposited by different methods varied between about 28 and 41 GPa, depending on the deposition process. The elastic modulus, on the other hand, appeared to remain constant at 320-330 GPa for all coatings examined. Finally, distinct differences between the K{sub ic} values representing the bond strength of the coating/substrate interface were observed.

  15. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  16. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  17. Method of filtering

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.R.

    1985-04-09

    This invention provides a non-fibrous combustible filter aid for vacuum pre-coat filter units which is effective to maintain a filter bed coating on rotary filter drums just sufficiently porous to pass the liquid of a slurry while retaining the slurry solids thereon and is capable of being scraped off the bed in thin film form with the slurry solids thereon. The filter aid comprises relatively non-compressible non-fibrous granular charcoal or nut shell particles having a dry bulk density from about 0.3 to about 0.6 grams per cubic centimeter, a particle density of about 1.4 to 1.7 grams per cubis centimeter and a particle size range of 30 to 125 microns. The filter aid of this invention is capable of being burned with the solids deposited thereon to recover the heat value thereof or to dispose of the solids, is free from silicates or other non-combustible ingredients, and is devoid of fibers which will interfere with the proper operation of the filter unit.

  18. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  19. A review of tin oxide-based catalytic systems: Preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflund, Gar B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the important aspects of the preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior of tin oxide-based catalytic systems including doped tin oxide, mixed oxides which contain tin oxide, Pt supported on tin oxide and Pt/Sn supported on alumina. These systems have a broad range of applications and are continually increasing in importance. However, due to their complex nature, much remains to be understood concerning how they function catalytically.

  20. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  1. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  2. Solc filter engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.; Title, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Solc (1965) filter configuration is presented which is both tunable and spectrally variable, since it possesses an adjustable bandwidth, and which although less efficient than a Lyot filter is attractive because of its spectral versatility. The lossless design, using only an entrance and exit polarizer, improves throughput generally and especially in the IR, where polarizers are less convenient than dichroic sheet polarizers. Attention is given to the transmission profiles of Solc filters with different numbers of elements and split elements, as well as their mechanical design features.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  8. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  9. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  10. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching... Number (TIN) matching program. (a) The matching program. Under section 3406(i), the Commissioner has the authority to establish Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching programs. The Commissioner...

  12. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  13. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  14. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  15. Free-surface temperature measurement of shock-loaded tin using ultrafast infrared pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondot, Michel; Remiot, Christian

    1991-11-01

    The main problem regarding free surface temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry is the lack of emissivity data of shocked materials. Moreover, the short rise time in an hydrodynamic experiment requires particular detectors and experimental measurement technique. This paper describes a three channel pyrometer adapted to the study of shocked tin sample melted in release. The radiative infrared emission is collected by ZnSe lens and carried from the firing chamber to the pyrometer by fluoride glass optical fiber. In order to deduce the temperature from the electrical signals amplified before recording on a numerical oscilloscope, we use different narrow filters associated with a previous static calibration of the detectors by means of a continuously heated black body. The spectral integration of Planck's formula and the comparison between the static calibration with the black body and the dynamic signals give, for each experiment, three temperature-emissivity couples in agreement with Planck's theory. The originality of this measurement technique is the use of a 15 meter infrared optical triple core fiber for transporting the radiation from the target to the detectors, which simultaneously permits the measurement of three temperature-emissivity couples in the case of very small and hermetic experimental set-up. The main characteristics of this pyrometer are: a rise time of about 20 nanoseconds; an analysis area with a diameter smaller than 5 millimeters; continuous free surface temperature measurement during more than 5 microseconds; and the study of the wavelengths between 2 and 5 micrometers. Experiments have been achieved with optical polished tin samples. The abacus voltages, temperature, and emissivity versus time for a 45 GPa shock pressure is discussed.

  16. Properties of TiN and TiN deposited by CVD on graphite for pyrochemical applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P. S.; Moon, B. M.

    1997-12-17

    High-density TiN (>98% of theoretical) has been prepared by hot pressing TiN powder with 2-4 wt.% Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} at temperatures between 1150-1550 C and pressures of {approx}40-50 MPa. The Li{sub 2}C0{sub 3} served as a fugitive sintering aid, enabling attainment of high density at low temperatures without adversely affecting the inherently good properties. Variation in processing variables and TiN powder characteristics resulted in material with various porosities. Measurement of mechanical properties such as flexural strength and fracture toughness showed that the high-density material has mechanical properties that are superior to those of several oxide ceramics. We have also quantified the effects of porosity on mechanical properties. In addition, adhesion and chemical stability tests were used to investigate graphite coated with TiN by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Pin-pull tests were used to determine coating adhesion and failure stresses were analyzed by Weibull statistics. All pin-pull tests resulted in fracture of the graphite substrate, rather than separation at the TiN/graphite interface. The data showed a good fit to the two-parameter Weibull expression, with a failure strength of 16.4 MPa and Weibull modulus of 9.3. Both the high-density TiN and the TiN coating on the graphite were exposed to a corrosive molten salt CaCl{sub 2}-7 wt.% CaO and a liquid metal alloy (Zn-10 wt.% Mg) at 800 C for 168 h to determine chemical interactions. No reaction was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thus, graphite coated with TiN by CVD combines the thermodynamic stability of TiN when exposed to reactive molten metals and salts, with the excellent machinability of graphite, and hence is promising for use in container vessels for pyrochemical processing of certain rare-earth and nuclear metals, where chemical inertness and good matching of thermal expansion coefficients are required.

  17. Low gravity solidification structures in the tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys have been solidified in the low-gravity environment provided by the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR), on the KC-135 airplane, and at high 'g' levels in a centrifuge furnace. In each case the resultant cast structure was significantly different from that obtained in ground based experiments. Earlier low-gravity studies with the metal-model system NH4Cl-H2O presaged these results. This paper presents and discusses the influence of changes in the gravity force on the grain structure of these materials.

  18. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  19. Improved optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Filter includes partial polarizer between birefrigent elements. Plastic film on partial polarizer compensates for any polarization rotation by partial polarizer. Two quarter-wave plates change incident, linearly polarized light into elliptically polarized light.

  20. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Hot gas filters have been implemented and operated in four different test facilities: Subpilot scale entrained gasifier, located at the Texaco Montebello Research facilities in California, Foster Wheeler Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion pilot plant facilities, located in Livingston, New Jersey, Slipstream of the American Electric Power (AEP) 70 MW (electric) Tidd-PFBC, located in Brilliant, Ohio, and in the Ahlstrom 10 MW (thermal) Circulating PFBC facility, located in Karhula, Finland. Candle filter testing has occurred at all four facilities; cross flow filter testing has occurred at the Texaco and Foster Wheeler facilities. Table 1 identifies and summarizes the key operating characteristics of these facilities and the type and scale of filter unit tested. A brief description of each project is given.

  1. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  2. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  3. Anti-Glare Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Glare from CRT screens has been blamed for blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, etc. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI) manufactures a coating to reduce glare which was used to coat the windows on the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft. In addition, OCLI offers anti-glare filters (Glare Guard) utilizing the same thin film coating technology. The coating minimizes brightness, provides enhanced contrast and improves readability. The filters are OCLI's first consumer product.

  4. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  5. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  6. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Maurice J.; Zaladonis, Larry A.

    1988-09-27

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge using an overhead crane. The filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station.

  7. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. Replacing the Tin Can: Creating an Effective Electronic Communication Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.

    Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…

  9. On the low-lying states of TiN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of CAS SCF and multi-reference CI calculations are used to describe the lowest states of TiN. The bonding in all states is described as a triple bond involving the Ti 3d orbitals. The system has some ionic character as seen from both population analysis and dipole moment. The origins of the excited states are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Tin Plating for Multi Canister Overpack Seals

    SciTech Connect

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-12-07

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) incorporates plated seals for use with (1) the port cover plates, (2) process valves of the shield plug, and (3) test plug ofthe cover cap. These seals are required to maintain leakage rates as low as 10{sup -7} scc/atm-sec. in the cover cap to test plug seal. The seals are manufactured by EG&G division of Perkin Elmer. Currently, the MCO design calls for use of silver or gold plated seals in these locations. The seal plating materials are deposited on Inconel 718 or X-750 substrates. Some of these seals are reused several times in service on the MCO. The MCO manufacturer has built several MCOs and is in the leak testing stage and has had great difficulty obtaining acceptable leakage rates at their plant in Camden, New Jersey. The seal manufacturer was called in to evaluate the situation and now the seal manufacturer recommends tin plated seals. This evaluation examines the Corrosion resistance and thermal stability of tin plating on the seals. The use of tin plating on MCO seals was evaluated for corrosion resistance and thermal stability. The corrosion resistance of tin in the expected MCO environments is acceptable. The effect of radiation hardening will offset creep deformation results. However, a low melting point indicates unsuitability at significantly elevated temperatures.

  11. Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadesch, Jong S.; Leidecker, Henning; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A whisker from a tin plated part was blamed for the loss of a commercial spacecraft in 1998. Although pure tin finishes are prohibited by NASA, tin plated parts, such as hybrids, relays and commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts, are something discovered to have been installed in NASA spacecraft. Invariably, the assumption is that a conformal coat will prevent the growth of, or short circuits caused by, tin whiskers. This study measures the effect a Uralane coating has on the initiation and growth of tin whiskers, on the ability of this coating to prevent a tin whisker from emerging from the coating, and on the ability to prevent shorting. A sample of fourteen brass substrates (1 inch by 4 inches by 1/16 inch) were plated by two separate processes: half of the specimens were 'bright' tin plated directly over the brass substrate and half received a copper flash over the brass substrate prior to 'bright' tin plating. Each specimen was coated on one half of the substrate with three bi-directional sprays of Uralane 5750 to a nominal thickness of 25 to 75 micrometers (1 to 3 mils). Several specimens of both types, Cu and non-Cu flashed, were placed in an oven maintained at 50 C as others' work suggests that this is the optimal temperature for whisker formation. The remaining specimens were maintained at room ambient conditions. The surfaces of each specimen have been regularly inspected using both optical (15 to 400x power) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Many types of growths, including needle-like whiskers, first appeared approximately three months after plating on the non-conformally coated sides of all specimens. At four months, 4 to 5 times more growth sites were observed on the coated side; however, the density of growth sites on the non-conformally coated side has since increased rapidly, and now, at one year, is about the same for both sides. The density of growth sites is estimated at 90/sq mm with 30 percent of the sites growing whiskers (needle

  12. Micro/nano-scale investigation on tin alloys and tin dioxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong

    Tin (Sn) and its alloys have been at people's service since 3000 BC when bronze (alloy of tin and copper) was produced in large scale. They have unique properties and find applications in various engineering fields. Correspondingly, there is abundant information waiting to be clarified surrounding these Sn-related materials. As the key element used for solder alloys, the properties of Sn alloys have been of great interest to the electronic packaging community. At the same time, the intriguing phenomenon of spontaneous Sn whisker growth from Sn / Sn-alloy thin films have bothered, yet also inspired materials scientists for over 60 years. The most commonly seen Sn-containing compound, SnO 2, is in high demand as well due to its exceptional electronic and chemical properties. In addition, nanostructures of SnO2 are intensively studied for their potential applications as solid-state sensors, transparent conducting materials, lithium-ion batteries, high-efficiency solar cell and recently, supercapacitors. The objective of this proposed research is to explore the amazing properties of Sn and Sn-alloys from several different perspectives. Firstly, ever since the banish of lead in solder alloys, lead-free alloys such as Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) has been put under the spotlight. We intend to use our expertise in nanomechanics to give an in-depth and thorough investigation on a popular SAC387 alloy. The mechanical properties of each phase and the local deformation mechanisms have been considered. Secondly, the Sn whisker growth phenomenon is to be re-visited. With the aid of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques, it was found that magnitude of the strain gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. Moreover, DIC helps to visualize the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of strain field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers. Last but not least, the performance of SnO2 nanowires is to be evaluated in several aspects including mechanical

  13. Synthesis and characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles via the Co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazikeh, Simin; Akbari, Amir; Talebi, Amin; Talebi, Emad

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the characteristics and co-precipitation method for synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles. The tin oxide nanoparticles were produced using tin chloride, Triton X-100 and ammonia precipitators. Structure, size and surface morphology of the tin oxide was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show sphere shaped tin oxide nanoparticles without chlorine contamination. The crystallite size determined by the Scherrer formula is about 23 nm. Lattice parameters calculated by Nelson-Riley equation show high quality of crystallization.

  14. Biosorption of inorganic tin and methyltin compounds by estuarine macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Weber, J.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Biosorption kinetics of total recoverable inorganic tin (TRISn), MeSn{sup 3+}, Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+}, and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +} compounds onto tissue from the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and onto a mixed community of Enteromorpha spp. (a filamentous genus) showed that after 48-h accumulation of tin compounds followed the trend TRISn {approximately} MeSn{sup 3+} > Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} > Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}. Uptake of tin compounds onto F. vesiculosus consisted of three phases: rapid phase 1, intermediate phase 2 (modeled by first-order kinetics). Uptake of tin compounds by Enteromorpha spp. occurred in rapid phase 1 and intermediate, saturating phase 2, which was complete in 3 h for TRISn and MeSn{sup 3+} and in 18 h for Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}. After 24 h, (TRISn) and (MeSn{sup 3+}) in dark-incubated plants, suggesting active uptake processes during phase 3. Enteromorpha spp. incubated in the dark for 1 h contained significantly less TRISn and MeSn{sup 3+}, but not less Me{sub 2}Sn{sup 2+} and Me{sub 3}Sn{sup +}, than light-incubated plants. Interactions with different compartments of the algal thallus account for differences in amounts of biosorbed tin compounds. Initial phase 1 biosorption by both algae was probably adsorption onto the thallus surface.

  15. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  16. Study of tin-sulphur-carbon nanocomposites based on electrically exploded tin as anode for sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S. A.; Kim, D.; Lee, S.-M.; Doh, C.-H.; Lee, S.; Farooq, U.; Saleem, M.

    2016-05-01

    An electrochemical study of tin-sulphur-carbon nano-composites, based on electrically exploded tin-carbon nanoparticles as anode for sodium-ion battery (NIB), is carried out in electrolytes with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC). The composites are synthesized through high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) of electrical exploded tin, sulphur nanoparticles and grinded carbon. The final product consists of tin sulfide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The results demonstrate an excellent response for the electrode materials in terms of initial discharge capacity (>425 mAhg-1) and cyclic performance (415 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles). Even more remarkably, at high current densities of 400, 600, and 800 mAg-1, electrodes still offer specific capacities of about 375, 355, and 315 mAhg-1, respectively, suggesting good rate capability of the materials. Furthermore, it is observed that the material response is much better when electrolyte has FEC as an additive which helped in the formation of an optimized SEI layer. Such an improved electrochemical performance of the electrode materials highlights their suitability for the recently emerging Na-ion battery technology.

  17. Filter and method of fabricating

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    2006-02-14

    A method of making a filter includes the steps of: providing a substrate having a porous surface; applying to the porous surface a coating of dry powder comprising particles to form a filter preform; and heating the filter preform to bind the substrate and the particles together to form a filter.

  18. 78 FR 16048 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for e-Services Registration TIN Matching-Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for e-Services Registration TIN Matching--Application and Screens for TIN Matching Interactive AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... INFORMATION: Title: e-Services Registration TIN Matching--Application and Screens for TIN Matching...

  19. Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Mrose, M.E.; Aruscavage, P.

    1985-01-01

    Abhurite is a new mineral species found in blister-like protuberances on the surface of tin ingots submerged at a depth of 35 m in the Red Sea. It forms 1.5 mm diameter hexagonal plates bounded by the negative rhombohedron (0115); is colourless, transparent with opalescent lustre, white streak, hackly fracture, with no cleavage, and H.approx 2; D(calc) 4.34, D(meas) 4.29 g/cm3; epsilon approx 2.11, omega 2.06. Chemical analysis gave 73.4 wt.% Sn, 15.7 Cl, 11.0 0 and 0.4 H. leading to the formula Sn3O(OH)2Cl2. DTA shows release of H2O at 235oC and SnCl2 at 525oC. Indexed XRD powder data are tabulated; prominent lines 2.5313(100), 2.8915(70), 4.139(50), 3.404(50), 2.8175(50) A; a 10.0175(3), c 44.014(2) A; space group R3m, R3m or R32; Z = 21. Comparison is made with a hexagonal synthetic dimorph. The name refers to the geographical origin, an arm of the Red Sea known as Sharm Abhur.-L.T.T.

  20. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  1. Anti-clogging filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  2. An IIR median hybrid filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  3. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  4. Multilayer volume microwave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdev, V. I.; Smirnov, S. V.; Chernushenko, A. M.

    1985-09-01

    Multilayer volume microwave filters are particularly suitable for miniaturization of radioelectronic devices by way of circuit integration, the principal advantage over planar filters being the much higher Q-factor; Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 3rd power as compared with Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 2nd power. Their metal-dielectric structure forms an array of coupled half-wavelength resonators electrically symmetric with respect to the center layer, coupling being effected by a magnetic field normal to the plane of resonators. The structure consists of an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the input end, followed by a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, a symmetric strip line with conductor, a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, and an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the output end. The size of such a filter depends directly on the number of resonator stages and, without the case, is comparable with the size of conventional filters on symmetric strip lines only but is much smaller than that of conventional filters on asymmetric strip lines only.

  5. Filter cake characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide gas turbine protection. The ILEC system is a ceramic barrier hot gas filter (HGF) that removes particulate while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur, alkali, and potentially other contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases. The gas-phase contaminant removal is performed by sorbent particles injected into the HGF. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests. The program has conducted ceramic barrier filter testing under simulated PFBC conditions to resolve issues relating to filter cake permeability, pulse cleaning, and filter cake additive performance. ILEC testing has also been performed to assess the potential for in-filter sulfur and alkali removal.

  6. Filter component assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.W.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a more ruggedized filter system that utilizes porous ceramic filters which have improved resistance to damage resulting from crack propagation, thermal fatigue and/or thermal excursions during plant or process transient conditions, and/or mechanical ash bridging events within the candle filter array. As part of the current Phase 1, Task 1, effort of this program, Westinghouse is evaluating the filtration characteristics, mechanical integrity, and corrosion resistance of the following advanced or second generation candle filters for use in advanced coal-fired process applications: 3M CVI-SiC composite--chemical vapor infiltration of silicon carbide into an aluminosilicate Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber preform; DuPont PRD-66--filament wound candle filter structure containing corundum, cordierite, cristobalite, and mullite; DuPont SiC-SiC--chemical infiltration of silicon carbide into a silicon carbide Nicalon{trademark} fiber mat or felt preform; and IF and P Fibrosic{trademark}--vacuum infiltrated oxide-based chopped fibrous matrix. Results to date are presented.

  7. Characteristics of indium oxide plasma filters deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, E.; Murthy, S.D.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.; Brown, E.; Dziendziel, R.; Freeman, M.; Choudhury, N.

    1995-07-01

    Thin films of undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} are being investigated for use as plasma filters in spectral control applications for thermal photovoltaic cells. These films are required to exhibit high reflectance at wavelengths longer than the plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p}, high transmittance at wavelengths shorter than {lambda}{sub p} and low absorption throughout the spectrum. Both types of films were grown via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on Si (100) and fused silica substrates using trimethylindium (TMI), tetraethyltin (TET), and oxygen as the precursors. Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure the filter transmittance and reflectance between 1.8--20 {micro}m. Nominal conditions used during the growth of undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were a substrate temperature of 450 C and partial pressures of 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} atm. and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} atm. for TMI and O{sub 2} respectively. The O{sub 2}/TMI partial pressure ratio and substrate temperature were systematically varied to control the filter characteristics. The plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p} was found to be a sensitive function of these parameters. Post-growth annealing of the films was done in inert as well as air ambient at elevated temperatures, but was found to have no beneficial effect. Tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown under similar conditions as above, with a typical TET partial pressure of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} atm. Here also, the material properties and consequently the optical response were found to be strongly dependent on growth conditions such as O{sub 2} and TET partial pressures. Both undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on fused silica exhibited enhanced transmittance due to the close matching of refractive indices of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and silica. X-ray diffractometer measurements indicated that all these films were polycrystalline and highly textured towards the (111) direction. The best

  8. DOE HEPA filter test program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  9. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  10. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.