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Sample records for 99mtc-dmsa early images

  1. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  2. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Fiona M

    2013-08-01

    Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone extraordinary change in recent years and new techniques are now available to help the clinician diagnose and manage patients much more effectively than previously. While established modalities such as plain radiography (X-Ray) remain important, especially for detection of erosions and determining the progression of joint damage, there are many instances where ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scanning provide added information. MRI and US are now used regularly by clinicians to help diagnose RA in the pre-radiographic stage as they offer improved visualisation of joint erosions. They also have the potential to provide prognostic information as MRI bone oedema/osteitis is linked to the later development of erosions and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) joint positivity is also a predictor of joint damage. Nuclear imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are also highly sensitive for detecting joint change in early RA and pre-RA but not yet used clinically mainly because of accessibility and radiation exposure. MRI, US, scintigraphy, SPECT and PET have all been shown to detect sub-clinical joint inflammation in patients in clinical remission, a state that is now the goal of most treat-to-target management strategies. Thus, imaging may be used to direct therapeutic decision making and MRI is also now being used in clinical trials to determine the impact of disease-suppressing therapy on the course of synovitis and osteitis. As is the case for all tests, it would be unwise to rely completely on any one imaging result, as false positives and negatives can occur for all modalities. Thus, the clinician needs to choose the most relevant and reliable imaging test, while also striving to minimise patient discomfort, radiation burden and economic impact. PMID:24315051

  3. Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kenneth K.; Reese, Timothy G.; Nelissen, Koen; Wu, Ona; Chan, Suk-Tak; Benner, Thomas; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Foley, Mary; Vanduffel, Wim; Chesler, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the feasibility of making relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps from MR images acquired with short TR by measuring the initial arrival amount of Gd-DTPA evaluated within a time window before any contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue. We named this rCBF measurement technique utilizing the early data points of the Gd-DTPA bolus the “early time points” method (ET), based on the hypothesis that early time point signals were proportional to rCBF. Simulation data were used successfully to examine the ideal behavior of ET while monkey’s MRI results offered encouraging support to the utility of ET for rCBF calculation. A better brain coverage for ET could be obtained by applying the Simultaneous Echo Refocusing (SER) EPI technique. A recipe to run ET was presented, with attention paid to the noise problem around the time of arrival (TOA) of the contrast agent. PMID:20851196

  4. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed. PMID:24726667

  5. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity.

  6. Imaging early demineralization with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hobin; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we attempt to determine the earliest stage at which we can detect significant differences in lesion severity. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using a simulated caries model that emulates demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross polarization OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization.

  7. Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; O'Donoghue, Geoffrey; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis; Elackattu, Alphi; Stier, Elizabeth; Grillone, Gregory; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2008-09-29

    We report a fully quantitative spectroscopy imaging instrument for wide area detection of early cancer (dysplasia). This instrument provides quantitative maps of tissue biochemistry and morphology, making it a potentially powerful surveillance tool for objective early cancer detection. We describe the design, construction, calibration, and first clinical application of this new system. We demonstrate its accuracy using physical tissue models. We validate its diagnostic ability on a resected colon adenoma, and demonstrate feasibility of in vivo imaging in the oral cavity. PMID:18825262

  8. Imaging in Spondyloarthritis: Controversies in Recognition of Early Disease.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Lambert, Robert G W; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2016-09-01

    Advanced imaging has become essential for recognition of clinically suspected early spondyloarthritis. This report summarizes recent progress towards a data-driven comprehensive definition of a positive sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis, which incorporates contextual information provided by structural lesions alongside with active changes. A focus is on emerging limitations and challenges with increasing use of imaging in spondyloarthritis. We discuss the ongoing controversy as to whether sacroiliac joint MRI due to its superior reliability and ability to depict both structural and active lesions should be the preferred imaging modality in early disease over the traditional approach with pelvic radiographs. Another challenge is transferring the expanding knowledge about imaging evaluation in spondyloarthritis to the community of rheumatologists and radiologists. Advanced imaging modalities will not become the gold standard for diagnosis of spondyloarthritis, which remains a process of composite deduction based on complementary information obtained from clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessment. PMID:27435070

  9. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  10. Early close image of comet Borrelly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solid nucleus of comet Borrelly is barely resolved in this image, enhanced to reveal the highly collimated dust extending towards the bottom left corner of the picture. The jet is attributed to dust carried outward by gas expanding outwards into a cone about 20 degrees across. The surface of Borrelly is composed of a mixture of dust and water ice, and as the comet approaches the Sun the water ice sublimes. The gases produced inside the comet by the Sun's heating race away from the surface into the vacuum of space, carrying the dust away with them. The jet was also seen in images acquired around 9 hours earlier. This suggests that the emission is coming from close to the rotation axis at the comet's constantly illuminated pole. The Sun is at the bottom of the image.

    Deep Space 1 completed its primary mission testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced, high-risk technologies in September 1999. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to undertake this chancy but exciting, and ultimately successful, encounter with the comet. More information can be found on the Deep Space 1 home page at http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/ .

    Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The California Institute of Technology manages JPL for NASA.

  11. Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Palcic, Branko

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected State I nonsmall cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for twenty-five years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect more than twice as many moderate-severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ sites than conventional white-light bronchoscopy. The use of fluorescence imaging to detect small peripheral lung nodules was investigated in a micro metastatic lung model of mice implanted with Lewis lung tumor cells. Fluorescence imaging was found to be able to detect small malignant lung lesions. The use of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to enhance fluorescence detection of CIS was investigated in a patient after oral administration of 60 mg/kg of ALA four hours prior to bronchoscopy, although ALA enhanced the tumor's visibility, multiple sites of false positive fluorescence were observed in areas of inflammation or metaplasia.

  12. Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) method for early breast cancer detection. MAMI is a two-stage robust Capon beamforming (RCB) based image formation algorithm. MAMI exhibits higher resolution, lower sidelobes, and better noise and interference rejection capabilities than the existing approaches. The effectiveness of using MAMI for breast cancer detection is demonstrated via a simulated 3-D breast model and several numerical examples. PMID:16916099

  13. Imaging the Hot Stellar Content of Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, Francesco

    1991-07-01

    WE PROPOSE TO IMAGE WITH THE FOC IN THE F/96 CONFIGURATION FIVE EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN FOUR PASSBANDS CENTERED AT 1500 A, 2200 A, 2800 A AND 3400 A. WHEN COUPLED WITH PHOTOMETRY OBTAINED FROM THE GROUND OUR OBSERVATIONS WILL ALLOW US TO DERIVE COMPLETE SED OF THESE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER. THIS IS A KEY STEP TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF STELLAR POPULATIONS - IN PARTICULAR THE ONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UV EMISSION - IN EARLY TYPE GALAXIES AND WILL PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHT IN THEIR FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. WE PLAN TO OBSERVE NGC 1399, NGC 2681, NGC 4552, NGC 5018 AND NGC 4627 WHICH SAMPLE A WIDE RANGE OF INTRINSIC PROPERTIES AS INDICATED BY PREVIOUS IUE OBSERVATIONS. FOR NGC 4627 THERE IS EVIDENCE OF ONGOING STAR FORMATION AND THE HST WILL BE ABLE TO SHOW THE CHARACTERISTIC CLUMPINESS. NGC 2681 HAD A STARBUST OF AGE GREATER THAN 1 GYR. NGC 4552 IS ONE OF THE MOST METAL RICH GALAXY KNOWN. NGC 1399 HAS THE SAME METALLICITY AND LUMINOSITY OF THE PREVIOUS GALAXY BUT IS A MUCH STRONGER X-RAY EMITTER. NGC 5018 IS A VERY GOOD CANDIDATE FOR ONGOING STAR FORMATION. WE BELIEVE IN THIS WAY WE CAN OBTAIN SED FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES FROM BROAD BAND IMAGING ALONE. THE CALIBRATION OF OUR FILTER SYSTEM WILL ALLOW US TO APPLY IT TO THE BIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SAMPLE OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES.

  14. Advances in ultrasound imaging for congenital malformations during early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, William F.; Jolley, Jennifer A.; Simpson, Lynn L.

    2015-01-01

    With refinement in ultrasound technology, detection of fetal structural abnormalities has improved and there have been detailed reports of the natural history and expected outcomes for many anomalies. The ability to either reassure a high-risk woman with normal intrauterine images or offer comprehensive counseling and offer options in cases of strongly suspected lethal or major malformations has shifted prenatal diagnoses to the earliest possible gestational age. When indicated, scans in early gestation are valuable in accurate gestational dating. Stricter sonographic criteria for early nonviability guard against unnecessary intervention. Most birth defects are without known risk factors, and detection of certain malformations is possible in the late first trimester. The best time for a standard complete fetal and placental scan is 18–20 weeks. In addition, certain soft anatomic markers provide clues to chromosomal aneuploidy risk. Maternal obesity and multifetal pregnancies are now more common and further limit early gestation visibility. Other advanced imaging techniques during early gestation in select cases of suspected malformations include fetal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25820190

  15. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Understanding Brain Development in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination. PMID:25559117

  17. [Molecular imaging for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Pozo García, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    The progressive aging of the population and the difficulty of diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) portends an exponencial increase in the prevalence of this illness. One way to approach this social and health problem is to develop diagnostic techniques that allow us to detect the disease in its pre-clinical stages and apply early treatment that can slow down AD advance. Molecular imaging, in particular that generated by positron emission tomography with 2-fluoro-2 deoxi-D-glucose (PET-FDG) has shown high sensitivity in detecting changes in cerebral metabolic activity in the early stages of AD, and allow other dementias and physiological changes that accompany normal aging to be distinguished from AD. PMID:15997594

  18. Early differential processing of material images: Evidence from ERP classification.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. PMID:24961247

  19. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F. Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space. PMID:26981483

  20. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space. PMID:26981483

  1. Molecular imaging of apoptosis for early prediction of therapy efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Bauwens, Matthias; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and any effective therapy primarily attempts to induce apoptosis. The evaluation of the degree of success of cancer therapy is currently mainly based on clinical and laboratory parameters and in a later stage on tumor shrinkage. However, none of these parameters provide an objective and early analysis of a therapeutic effect. Molecular imaging may provide a tool for this purpose by using not only pathophysiological but also biochemical effects of the therapy. First in the field, FDG-PET has been explored and demonstrated to offer insight in the amount of viable cells, even though false positives are commonly due to the lack of specificity of this particular radiopharmaceutical. More specific markers target the dying cells instead of those remaining alive. Specific apoptosis markers have been developed of which the radiolabeled Annexin A5 is the most intensely studied probe. Site-specific labeling strategies have improved this imaging probe with good results both in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials, with promises for clinical applications. Caspase sensitive probes, such as the isatines, can also effectively image apoptosis but are limited due to the high background activities. More recent discoveries of small apoptosis sensitive probes, such as (18)F-ML10, are currently being explored. In this review, the most important apoptosis sensitive probes are described from both a pre-clinical and a clinical perspective, highlighting their potential but also their limitations as an early marker for therapeutic success. It seems that apoptosis imaging can help to guide therapy, not by replacing the current methodology but by providing additional and useful information. PMID:24025102

  2. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  3. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging: a novel early caries detection and imaging modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2011-03-01

    Using photothermal wave principles and as an extension to the frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. In order to assess the capabilities of the proposed methodology samples with natural and artificially-generated caries were examined and the results were compared with the destructive transverse microradiography density profiles. It was found that the increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stain. Amplitude images provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It was concluded that the results of our non-invasive, non-contacting imaging methodology exhibit significantly higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  4. Live Imaging Fluorescent Proteins in Early Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Nowotschin, Sonja; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic development comprises highly dynamic and coordinated events that drive key cell lineage specification and morphogenetic events. These processes involve cellular behaviors including proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation, each of which is regulated both spatially and temporally. Live imaging of developing embryos provides an essential tool to investigate these coordinated processes in three-dimensional space over time. For this purpose, the development and application of genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) reporters has accelerated over the past decade allowing for the high-resolution visualization of developmental progression. Ongoing efforts are aimed at generating improved reporters, where spectrally distinct as well as novel FPs whose optical properties can be photomodulated, are exploited for live imaging of mouse embryos. Moreover, subcellular tags in combination with using FPs allow for the visualization of multiple subcellular characteristics, such as cell position and cell morphology, in living embryos. Here, we review recent advances in the application of FPs for live imaging in the early mouse embryo, as well as some of the methods used for ex utero embryo development that facilitate on-stage time-lapse specimen visualization. PMID:22341233

  5. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  7. Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society. PMID:24769802

  8. BVR Imaging of Extremely Isolated Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, P. M.; Aars, C. E.; Fanelli, M. N.

    2004-05-01

    We have conducted a BVR imaging survey of nine extremely isolated early-type galaxies. Our objective is to understand their origins and evolutionary histories by searching for certain photometric and morphological signatures which would implicate that these objects are the remnants of merged galaxy groups. Our analysis reveals that these galaxies are underluminous by at least a magnitude as compared to objects recognized as "fossil groups" in the literature. Two of our objects are clearly late-stage merger remnants, as indicated by faint tidal tails, multiple nuclei and very blue colors. Two other objects also have blue colors indicating star formation within the past ˜2Gyr, but otherwise have morphological properties normal for spheroidal systems. Our potentially most exciting discovery is that two other objects are strong candidates for "primordial" elliptical galaxies formed early in cosmic time via protogalactic gravitational collapse in isolation. We acknowledge the McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin, for use of their facilities. Support was provided through NASA grant NAG5-7040 and the Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research Program.

  9. Noise evaluation of early images for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huazhong; Du, Chen; Liu, Rongyuan; Qin, Qiming; Yan, Guangjian; Li, Zhao-Liang; Meng, Jinjie

    2014-11-01

    This study performed an on-orbit evaluation of noise level for the Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 using early images over ground homogeneous sites. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were higher than 160 of OLI nine bands at typical radiance level, while the noise equivalent radiance difference (NE∆L) and the noise equivalent reflectance difference (NE∆ρ) were respectively lower than 0.8 W/m(2)/µm/sr and 0.002. Compared to pre-launch predictions, the on-orbit low noise and high SNR almost satisfied requirements for OLI bands, and can provide a prior knowledge for uncertainty analysis of OLI images in monitoring land surface, oceanic, and atmospheric status. PMID:25401877

  10. Appearance of a hepatic hemangioma on prostate immunoscintigraphy. Value of early images.

    PubMed

    Krynyckyi, B R; Ganeles, A; Freeman, L M; Zuckier, L S

    1996-07-01

    In this case, the authors describe the appearance of hemangioma, the most common benign tumor of the liver, on early and delayed in-111 CP antibody images. The early immunoscintigraphic images show intense blood pool activity comparable in appearance to labeled RBC imaging, the current procedure of choice for confirming the diagnosis of hemangioma. In combination with disappearance of blood pool activity on the late scintigraphic images, these findings are pathognomonic for hemangioma and sufficiently distinct from the appearance of hepatic metastases on in-111 labeled antibody images to obviate the need for further confirmatory diagnostic studies. PMID:8818467

  11. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  12. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oncology: Translational Preclinical and Early Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Valluru, Keerthi S; Wilson, Katheryne E; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2016-08-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has evolved into a clinically translatable platform with the potential to complement existing imaging techniques for the management of cancer, including detection, characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. In photoacoustic imaging, tissue is optically excited to produce ultrasonographic images that represent a spatial map of optical absorption of endogenous constituents such as hemoglobin, fat, melanin, and water or exogenous contrast agents such as dyes and nanoparticles. It can therefore provide functional and molecular information that allows noninvasive soft-tissue characterization. Photoacoustic imaging has matured over the years and is currently being translated into the clinic with various clinical studies underway. In this review, the current state of photoacoustic imaging is presented, including techniques and instrumentation, followed by a discussion of potential clinical applications of this technique for the detection and management of cancer. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27429141

  13. Application of Different Imaging Methods in the Early Diagnosis of Primary Hepatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin'ai; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Guojian; Zheng, Na; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) is the one of the most common tumors and the common cause of cancer death in the world. Detecting PHC in its early stage by imaging methods may greatly increase survival rates of patients. Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography are common imaging methods in the diagnosis of PHC. In this paper, the application of different imaging methods in diagnosing the primary hepatic carcinoma will be discussed. PMID:26819614

  14. Comparison of Spectral and Image Morphological Analysis for Egg Early Hatching Property Detection Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The use of non-destructive methods to detect egg hatching properties could increase efficiency in commercial hatcheries by saving space, reducing costs, and ensuring hatching quality. For this purpose, a hyperspectral imaging system was built to detect embryo development and vitality using spectral and morphological information of hatching eggs. A total of 150 green shell eggs were used, and hyperspectral images were collected for every egg on day 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 of incubation. After imaging, two analysis methods were developed to extract egg hatching characteristic. Firstly, hyperspectral images of samples were evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and only one optimal band with 822 nm was selected for extracting spectral characteristics of hatching egg. Secondly, an image segmentation algorithm was applied to isolate the image morphologic characteristics of hatching egg. To investigate the applicability of spectral and image morphological analysis for detecting egg early hatching properties, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQNN) was employed. The experimental results demonstrated that model using image morphological characteristics could achieve better accuracy and generalization than using spectral characteristic parameters, and the discrimination accuracy for eggs with embryo development were 97% at day 3, 100% at day 4. In addition, the recognition results for eggs with weak embryo development reached 81% at day 3, and 92% at day 4. This study suggested that image morphological analysis was a novel application of hyperspectral imaging technology to detect egg early hatching properties. PMID:24551130

  15. Early detection of postoperative residual tumor using image subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Suresh B.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Taha, Jamal M.; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lamba, Michael; Sarwal, Alok; Chitre, Yateen S.

    1995-05-01

    The detection after surgery of residual tumor from magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the low contrast level of the images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has been found valuable in detecting residual enhancing tumor when performed within 72 hours after surgery. The patient is scanned by the MR scanner with and without infusion of gadolinium, a contrast agent. Usually, the estimation of post-operative tumor volume is done by visual comparison of the T1 MR images obtained with and without gadolinium infusion. The T1 MR images, in most cases, without contrast demonstrates areas of hyper intensities (high brightness levels), consistent with hemorrhage. These hyper intense areas often make it difficult to detect residual tumor in post contrast images. This is due to the presence of both acute hemorrhage and gadolinium enhancement which have high brightness levels in T1 MR images. Even in MR images taken within 72 hours after surgery, detection of tumor enhancement in areas of increased T1 signal produced by blood products or by postoperative changes can be difficult when performed by the naked eye. Due to these problems, the quantification of residual tumor becomes a subjective issue among neuro-radiologists. Thus to reduce errors produced by the human factor, an automated procedure to detect residual tumor is required. We have developed a technique to differentiate tumor enhancement from postoperative changes and blood products on MR imaging. The technique involves fusion of pre- and post-gadolinium MR images performed in the immediate postoperative period. Computerized slice based substraction is then done on the corresponding fused images of the two sets. The subtraction process results in a composite slice, which is examined for differences between pre- and post-gadolinium studies. The presented technique was tested on 14 cases in which MR images were obtained from brain tumor patients within 72 hours after surgery. The subtraction technique easily

  16. Calculus students' early concept images of tangent lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and use tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. We examined students' graphical illustrations and the language they used to describe tangent lines and identified six prominent categories that described students' concept images of tangent lines. Our data show that individual students often possessed multiple concept images of tangent lines, and often these multiple concept images were conflicting. Furthermore, students were usually willing to modify their concept images of tangent lines depending on the task presented to the students.

  17. Imaging of Venus from Galileo: Early results and camera performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Gierasch, P.; Klaasen, K.P.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J.W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Pollock, J.B.; Morrison, D.; Clary, M.C.; Cunningham, W.; Breneman, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three images of Venus have been returned so far by the Galileo spacecraft following an encounter with the planet on UT February 10, 1990. The images, taken at effective wavelengths of 4200 and 9900 A??, characterize the global motions and distribution of haze near the Venus cloud tops and, at the latter wavelength, deep within the main cloud. Previously undetected markings are clearly seen in the near-infrared image. The global distribution of these features, which have maximum contrasts of 3%, is different from that recorded at short wavelengths. In particular, the "polar collar," which is omnipresent in short wavelength images, is absent at 9900 A??. The maximum contrast in the features at 4200 A?? is about 20%. The optical performance of the camera is described and is judged to be nominal. ?? 1992.

  18. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  19. Early-phase myocardial infarction: Evaluation by MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tscholakoff, D.; Higgins, C.B.; McNamara, M.T.; Derugin, N.

    1986-06-01

    In vivo gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 12 dogs immediately after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and serially up to 5 hours and again between 4 and 14 days. This was done to evaluate the appearance of acute myocardial infarcts and to determine how soon after coronary artery occlusion MR imaging can demonstrate the site of acute myocardial ischemia. In nine dogs with postmortem evidence of myocardial infarction, regional increase of signal intensity of the myocardium was present by 3 hours after coronary occlusion and conformed to the site of myocardial infarct found at autopsy. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images of the infarcted on T2-weighted images of the infarcted myocardium was significantly greater than that of normal myocardium at 3, 4, and 5 hours after occlusion. The T2 (spin-spin) relaxation time was significantly prolonged in the region of myocardial infarct at 3, 4, and 5 hours post-occlusion compared with normal myocardium. Myocardial wall thinning and increased intracavitary flow signal were found in six dogs with comparable pre- and postocclusion images in late systole.

  20. A new indicator in early drought diagnosis of cucumber with chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Crop population growth information can more fully reflect the state of crop growth, eliminate individual differences, and reduce error in judgment. We have built a suitable plant population growth information online monitoring system with the plant chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral scanning imaging to get the crop growth status. On the basis of the fluorescence image detection, we have studied the early drought diagnosis of cucumber. The typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can not reflect the drought degree significantly. We define a new indication parameter (DI). With the drought deepening, DI declines. DI can enlarge the early manifestation of cucumber drought (3-5 days), indicate more significantly in the early drought diagnosis of cucumber.

  1. Amyloid imaging with PET in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2013-05-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) with positron emission tomography has moved from the research arena into clinical practice. Clinicians working with cognitive decline and dementia must become familiar with its benefits and limitations. Amyloid imaging allows earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and better differential diagnosis of dementia and provides prognostic information for mild cognitive impairment. It also has an increasingly important role in therapeutic trial recruitment and for evaluation of anti-Aβ treatments. Longitudinal observations are required to elucidate the role of Aβ deposition in the course of Alzheimer disease and provide information needed to fully use the prognostic power of this investigation. PMID:23642577

  2. Nanoparticle-facilitated functional and molecular imaging for the early detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramanian, Maharajan; Hsia, Yu; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer detection in its early stages is imperative for effective cancer treatment and patient survival. In recent years, biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and ultrasound have been greatly developed and have served pivotal roles in clinical cancer management. Molecular imaging (MI) is a non-invasive imaging technique that monitors biological processes at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. To achieve these goals, MI uses targeted imaging agents that can bind targets of interest with high specificity and report on associated abnormalities, a task that cannot be performed by conventional imaging techniques. In this respect, MI holds great promise as a potential therapeutic tool for the early diagnosis of cancer. Nevertheless, the clinical applications of targeted imaging agents are limited due to their inability to overcome biological barriers inside the body. The use of nanoparticles has made it possible to overcome these limitations. Hence, nanoparticles have been the subject of a great deal of recent studies. Therefore, developing nanoparticle-based imaging agents that can target tumors via active or passive targeting mechanisms is desirable. This review focuses on the applications of various functionalized nanoparticle-based imaging agents used in MI for the early detection of cancer. PMID:25988156

  3. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  4. Decreased sensitivity of early imaging with In-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes in detection of occult infection: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Jacobs, J.; Baker, W.; Landrum, W.; Alazraki, N.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging with leukocytes labeled with indium-111 oxine is a sensitive technique for detecting sites of occult infection. Traditionally, imaging is performed 24 hr after injection. The authors undertook a prospective study of 35 patients (40 studies) with possible occult infection to see whether a 24-hr delay in imaging is really necessary. Patients were imaged at 1-4 hr and again at 24 hr after injection. The early images had a sensitivity of only 33%, compared with 95% for the 24-hr images. Of the seven studies that were positive on both early and delayed images, 71% had more intense uptake at 24 hr. There were no false-positive early images. It was concluded that imaging 1-4 hr after injection with In-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes has a low sensitivity for detecting occult infection. However, a positive early image is specific for a site of infection.

  5. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles. PMID:21806248

  6. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  7. Radiolabeled Apoptosis Imaging Agents for Early Detection of Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since apoptosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and is associated with responses to therapy, molecular imaging of apoptotic cells could be useful for early detection of therapeutic effects, particularly in oncology. Radiolabeled annexin V compounds are the hallmark in apoptosis imaging in vivo. These compounds are reviewed from the genesis of apoptosis (cell death) imaging agents up to recent years. They have some disadvantages, including slow clearance and immunogenicity, because they are protein-based imaging agents. For this reason, several studies have been conducted in recent years to develop low molecule apoptosis imaging agents. In this review, radiolabeled phosphatidylserine targeted peptides, radiolabeled bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) complex, radiolabeled 5-fluoropentyl-2-methyl-malonic acid (ML-10), caspase-3 activity imaging agents, radiolabeled duramycin, and radiolabeled phosphonium cation are reviewed as promising low-molecular-weight apoptosis imaging agents. PMID:25383382

  8. Multiparametric and Multimodality Functional Radiological Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Early Treatment Response Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Stearns, Vered; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; El Khouli, Riham; Bluemke, David A.; Wahl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, and the chance of a woman developing breast cancer sometime during her lifetime is one in eight. Early detection and diagnosis to allow appropriate locoregional and systemic treatment are key to improve the odds of surviving its diagnosis. Emerging data also suggest that different breast cancer subtypes (phenotypes) may respond differently to available adjuvant therapies. There is a growing understanding that not all patients benefit equally from systemic therapies, and therapeutic approaches are being increasingly personalized based on predictive biomarkers of clinical benefit. Optimal use of established and novel radiological imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which have different biophysical mechanisms can simultaneously identify key functional parameters. These methods provide unique multiparametric radiological signatures of breast cancer, that will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, help select appropriate therapies for early stage disease, and allow early assessment of therapeutic benefit. PMID:26063885

  9. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  10. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging.

    PubMed

    Abou Nader, Christelle; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness. PMID:26720050

  11. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  12. Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Cabello, Inmaculada; Vílchez, Miguel Angel Cabrerizo; Fernández, Miguel Angel; Osorio, Raquel

    2014-02-01

    This study reports physical and chemical changes that occur at early dentin remineralization stages. Extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain dentin discs. After polishing the dentin surfaces, three groups were established: (1) untreated dentin (UD), (2) 37% phosphoric acid application for 15 s (partially demineralized dentin-PDD), and (3) 10% phosphoric acid for 12 h at 25° C (totally demineralized dentin-TDD). Five different remineralizing solutions were used: chlorhexidine (CHX), artificial saliva (AS), phosphate solution (PS), ZnCl2, and ZnO. Wettability (contact angle), ζ potential and Raman spectroscopy analysis were determined on dentin surfaces. Demineralization of dentin resulted in a higher contact angle. Wettability decreased after immersion in all solutions. ζ potential analysis showed dissimilar performance ranging from -6.21 mV (TDD + AS) up to 3.02 mV (PDD + PS). Raman analysis showed an increase in mineral components after immersing the dentin specimens, in terms of crystallinity, mineral content, and concentration. This confirmed the optimal incorporation and deposition of mineral on dentin collagen. Organic content reflected scarce changes, except in TDD that appeared partially denatured. Pyridinium, as an expression of cross-linking, appeared in all spectra except in specimens immersed in PS. PMID:24160361

  13. Near-infrared transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Huynh, Gigi D.; Jones, Graham C.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    New imaging technologies are needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR at 1300-nm. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1300-nm was used to acquire images through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, which model the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of acquired projection images. The results show significant contrast between the lesion and the enamel (>0.35) and a spatial line profile that clearly resolves the lesion in samples as thick as 6.75-mm. This study clearly demonstrates that a near-IR transillumination system has considerable potential for the imaging of early dental decay.

  14. Nonoperative management of blunt renal trauma: Is routine early follow-up imaging necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, John B; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Mehrazin, Reza; DiBlasio, Christopher J; Vance, David D; Joshi, Salil; Wake, Robert W; Gold, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on the role of routine follow-up imaging during nonoperative management of blunt renal trauma. We reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of blunt renal injuries in order to evaluate the utility of routine early follow-up imaging. Methods We reviewed all cases of blunt renal injury admitted for nonoperative management at our institution between 1/2002 and 1/2006. Data were compiled from chart review, and clinical outcomes were correlated with CT imaging results. Results 207 patients were identified (210 renal units). American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades I, II, III, IV, and V were assigned to 35 (16%), 66 (31%), 81 (39%), 26 (13%), and 2 (1%) renal units, respectively. 177 (84%) renal units underwent routine follow-up imaging 24–48 hours after admission. In three cases of grade IV renal injury, a ureteral stent was placed after serial imaging demonstrated persistent extravasation. In no other cases did follow-up imaging independently alter clinical management. There were no urologic complications among cases for which follow-up imaging was not obtained. Conclusion Routine follow-up imaging is unnecessary for blunt renal injuries of grades I-III. Grade IV renovascular injuries can be followed clinically without routine early follow-up imaging, but urine extravasation necessitates serial imaging to guide management decisions. The volume of grade V renal injuries in this study is not sufficient to support or contest the need for routine follow-up imaging. PMID:18768088

  15. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  16. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  17. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  18. [Application of hyperspectral fluorescence image technology in detection of early rotten oranges].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-bo; Wang, Fu-jie; Ying, Yi-bin; Rao, Xiu-qin

    2012-01-01

    Rottenness is most prevalent and devastating disease that threats citrus fruit. Automatic detection of early rottenness can enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. However, there is no efficient automatic detection technology at this time that could detect this disease. The navel orange was selected as research objective. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was used to detect early rottenness in orange. Optimum index factor (OIF) method was applied to identify the optimal band combination. 100% detection rate was achieved based on the optimal bands ratio image and two threshold values. The research showed that the proposed method can effectively overcome the affect from florescence effect because stem damage area and stem also can produce florescence under ultraviolet light. This study will lay a foundation for developing multispectral detection system used in on-line detection of early rottenness fruit. PMID:22497146

  19. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  20. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  1. Advances in bio-optical imaging for the diagnosis of early oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2-3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  2. Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

  3. Opto-acoustic imaging system for early breast cancer diagnostics: experimental and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Tanya D.; Zharinov, Alexei M.; Kozhushko, Viktor V.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2006-03-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging is based on the generation of thermoelastic stress waves by heating an object in an optically heterogeneous medium with a short laser pulse. The stress waves contain information on the distribution of structures with enhanced optical absorption that can be used for early cancer diagnostics. This technique has already been applied in-vivo for breast cancer diagnostics and yielded higher contrast of obtained images than that of X-ray or ultrasonic images. The resolution was comparable with that yielded by ultrasonic imaging. Therefore, OA imaging is a very promising technique and it is being rapidly developed. Research in the area is now mostly targeted to the development of OA wave detection systems and image reconstruction algorithms. In this work a new design of receiving array transducer, that allows to enhance image resolution is proposed. The array consists of 64 focused piezo-elements made of PVDF slabs imposed on a spherical surface. Resolution yielded by the array in different directions is determined. Several tissue irradiation geometries and laser wavelengths are considered for optimization of the OA image contrast. Obtained results are used for maximum imaging depth studies. All the investigations include both numerical modelling and experiment.

  4. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  5. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Images of Science Teaching in Constructivism Science Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Youngmi; Kang, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it investigates the self-images of science teaching held by early childhood pre-service teachers who took constructivism early childhood science education courses. Second, it analyzes what aspects of those courses influenced these images. The participants were eight pre-service teachers who took these…

  6. Importance of the grayscale in early assessment of image quality gains with iterative CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noo, F.; Hahn, K.; Guo, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Iterative reconstruction methods have become an important research topic in X-ray computed tomography (CT), due to their ability to yield improvements in image quality in comparison with the classical filtered bacprojection method. There are many ways to design an effective iterative reconstruction method. Moreover, for each design, there may be a large number of parameters that can be adjusted. Thus, early assessment of image quality, before clinical deployment, plays a large role in identifying and refining solutions. Currently, there are few publications reporting on early, task-based assessment of image quality achieved with iterative reconstruction methods. We report here on such an assessment, and we illustrate at the same time the importance of the grayscale used for image display when conducting this type of assessment. Our results further support observations made by others that the edge preserving penalty term used in iterative reconstruction is a key ingredient to improving image quality in terms of detection task. Our results also provide a clear demonstration of an implication made in one of our previous publications, namely that the grayscale window plays an important role in image quality comparisons involving iterative CT reconstruction methods.

  7. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves. PMID:27187387

  8. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves. PMID:27187387

  9. Retinal vascular imaging in early life: insights into processes and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In recent years, studies have shown that the origins of CVD may be traced to vascular and metabolic processes in early life. Retinal vascular imaging is a new technology that allows detailed non-invasive in vivo assessment and monitoring of the microvasculature. In this systematic review, we described the application of retinal vascular imaging in children and adolescents, and we examined the use of retinal vascular imaging in understanding CVD risk in early life. We reviewed all publications with quantitative retinal vascular assessment in two databases: PubMed and Scopus. Early life CVD risk factors were classified into four groups: birth risk factors, environmental risk factors, systemic risk factors and conditions linked to future CVD development. Retinal vascular changes were associated with lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, low-fibre and high-sugar diet, lesser physical activity, parental hypertension history, childhood hypertension, childhood overweight/obesity, childhood depression/anxiety and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. In summary, there is increasing evidence supporting the view that structural changes in the retinal microvasculature are associated with CVD risk factors in early life. Thus, the retina is a useful site for pre-clinical assessment of microvascular processes that may underlie the future development of CVD in adulthood. PMID:26435039

  10. Linked color imaging technology facilitates early detection of flat gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hisashi; Miura, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Takezawa, Takahito; Ino, Yuji; Okada, Masahiro; Osawa, Hiroyuki; Lefor, Alan K; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    Conventional endoscopy can miss flat early gastric cancers (0-IIb) because they may not be visible. We treated a patient with synchronous flat early gastric cancers missed by conventional white-light endoscopy (WLE). A 74-year-old Japanese male was referred for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of a depressed-type early gastric cancer (0-IIc) on the posterior wall of the antrum. Linked color imaging (LCI) detected two flat reddish lesions (0-IIb) measuring 30 mm and 10 mm in diameter in the distal body and prepyloric area, respectively, which had not been detected by conventional WLE. LCI clearly demonstrated the line of demarcation between the malignant lesion and the surrounding mucosa without magnification. Flat early gastric cancers were suspected because both lesions had irregular surface patterns using magnifying blue laser imaging (BLI). An additional depressed lesion (0-IIc) was detected by laser WLE along the greater curvature in the antrum. Magnifying BLI suggested a malignant lesion. Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed atypical glands in all four lesions. ESD of these lesions was performed. Pathological examination of the resected specimens confirmed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma localized to the mucosa in all four lesions. Flat early gastric cancers became clearly visible using new endoscopic technology. PMID:26560036

  11. [Effect of fundus image devices for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying-zi

    2009-10-01

    Evaluation of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer measurements (RNFL) with stereophotography is the current "gold standard" for the diagnosis of early primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), but it is still subjective and is dependent too much upon an experienced observer. Substantial variability exists in the interpretation of optic disc change over time. There are consistent evidences that image analysis devices such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT-II) can detect early to moderate glaucoma as well as expert assessment of stereoscopic optic disc and RNFL photographs. Optic disc and RNFL defect can be quantitatively measured by these devices. But the sensitivity and specificity of the measurements obtained with these devices are not good enough for the early diagnosis of POAG at this time due to several reasons, such as individual variety of the structure parameters in normal subjects, lack of powerful normative database, lack of diagnostic parameters which are good enough both in sensitivity and specificity for detecting early glaucoma damage. However, information obtained from these image analysis devices might be helpful in early POAG diagnosis if clinicians can understand the advantages and limitations of these instruments. PMID:20137444

  12. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  13. 3D imaging of the early embryonic chicken heart with focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Monique Y.; Gahan, Curran G.; López, Claudia S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic heart development is a period of dynamic growth and remodeling, with rapid changes occurring at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. A detailed understanding of the events that establish the components of the heart wall has been hampered by a lack of methodologies for three dimensional (3D), high-resolution imaging. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a novel technology for imaging 3D tissue volumes at the subcellular level. FIB-SEM alternates between imaging the block face with a scanning electron beam and milling away thin sections of tissue with a focused ion beam, allowing for collection and analysis of 3D data. FIB-SEM was used to image the three layers of the day 4 chicken embryo heart: myocardium, cardiac jelly, and endocardium. Individual images obtained with FIB-SEM were comparable in quality and resolution to those obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Up to 1100 serial images were obtained in 4 nm increments at 4.88 nm resolution, and image stacks were aligned to create volumes 800–1500 μm3 in size. Segmentation of organelles revealed their organization and distinct volume fractions between cardiac wall layers. We conclude that FIB-SEM is a powerful modality for 3D subcellular imaging of the embryonic heart wall. PMID:24742339

  14. Use of dynamic light scattering and Scheimpflug imaging for the early detection of cataracts.

    PubMed

    Ansari, R R; Datiles, M B

    1999-01-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of blindness. Diabetes and glycemic conditions enhance the chances of developing cataracts early. At clinical stage cataracts are detected and documented by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and Scheimpflug photography. A compact fiber optic probe, developed for space experiments, was mounted on a Scheimpflug imaging system. The probe detects and documents cataracts at pre-clinical stage noninvasively and quantitatively. The early detection at the molecular level may lead to medical treatment of cataracts, better control of glycemia, and diabetes mellitus. PMID:11475288

  15. Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

  16. Imaging the Gas Distribution and Kinematics in the Early Universe with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1999-12-01

    A summary is presented of the status of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project. The scientific goals for the project, in particular the goals for imaging gas in early galaxies, are used to illustrate the specific needs for the development of ALMA technology making it, uniquely, a complete imaging system. The plans to achieve this development by means of common international effort and under a common Memorandum of Understanding are noted. Finally, estimates are given of the construction timescale and the principle issues that remain to be settled are highlighted.

  17. The Subaru SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets of Early-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Kellen D.; Carson, Joseph; Thalmann, Christian; Seeds Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the Subaru SEEDS sub-program to search for extrasolar planets around early-type (mostly A-type) stars. SEEDS, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, is a multi-year, direct-imaging survey to explore the link between planets and disks, and the evolution of protoplanetary systems and debris disks. With first observations carried out in 2009, the early-type star sub-program uses the Subaru 8-meter Telescope, the AO188 adaptive optics system, the HiCIAO near infrared science camera, and an Angular Differential Imaging observing procedure to distinguish faint orbiting companions from the overwhelming light of the parent star. We summarize progress to date, including the nature of our data processing techniques, improved software sensitivities, and our prior discovery of the 'Super-Jupiter' Kappa Andromedae b.

  18. Early imaging of a macular hole following vitrectomy with primary silicone oil tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart; Wang, Bob Z

    2011-01-01

    Background To describe the morphology of a macular hole in the early postoperative period following vitrectomy with primary silicone oil tamponade. Methods A case report with optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans prior to surgery, at 20 minutes postoperatively and then at 17 hours postoperatively. Results OCT images of a 73-year-old woman with a stage 3 macular hole were obtained. At 20 minutes postoperatively, there was a reduction in intraretinal cysts and a reduction in macular hole size with elevated-open configuration. At 17 hours postoperatively, complete macular hole closure was noted. Conclusion OCT Images of a macular hole in the early postoperative period have been successfully obtained. Macular holes can close within 24 hours postoperatively and show morphological changes that may be predictive of closure within 20 minutes postoperatively. PMID:22140310

  19. Neurovascular unit impairment in early Alzheimer's disease measured with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    van de Haar, Harm J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Osch, Matthias J P; van Buchem, Mark A; Muller, Majon; Wong, Sau May; Hofman, Paul A M; Burgmans, Saartje; Verhey, Frans R J; Backes, Walter H

    2016-09-01

    The neurovascular unit, which protects neuronal cells and supplies them with essential molecules, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aim of this study was to noninvasively investigate 2 linked functional elements of the neurovascular unit, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in patients with early AD and healthy controls. Therefore, both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging were applied to measure BBB permeability and CBF, respectively. The patients with early AD showed significantly lower CBF and local blood volume in the gray matter, compared with controls. In the patients, we also found that a reduction in CBF is correlated with an increase in leakage rate. This finding supports the hypothesis that neurovascular damage, and in particular impairment of the neurovascular unit constitutes the pathophysiological link between CBF reduction and BBB impairment in AD. PMID:27459939

  20. Early detection of cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging: Experiences in 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Ulrich, Nils H; Yuqiang, Yao; Nanz, Daniel; Sarnthein, Johannes; Kollias, Spyros S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for early detection of pathological alterations in the myelon in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) without T2-weighted imaging (T2W) signal abnormalities but with a narrowed spinal canal with corresponding clinical correlation. Axial DTI at 1.5T together with routine magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 18 patients fulfilling above mentioned criteria. Quantitative fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated. Values at the narrowest cervical levels were compared to pre- and poststenotic levels and the interindividual means were tested for statistically significant differences by means of paired t-tests. The correlation between the grade and width of canal stenosis in the axial plane was measured. FA was significantly reduced at the stenotic level, compared to prestenotic level, whereas no significant differences were found when compared to poststenotic level. No significant differences between ADC values at stenotic level versus both adjacent non-stenotic levels were found, suggesting very early stage of degeneration. ADC values correlated significantly with the width of the spinal canal at the prestenotic level, but not at the poststenotic level. Findings indicate sufficient robustness of routine implementation of DTI at 1.5T to detect abnormalities in the spinal cord of CSM patients, before apparent T2W signal abnormalities and marked clinical deterioration. Therefore, larger and long-term studies should be conducted to establish the DTI scalar metrics that would indicate early intervention for a better clinical outcome in patients with clinical signs of CSM. PMID:26452521

  1. Predictors of Imaging Surveillance for Surgically Treated, Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Backhus, Leah M; Farjah, Farhood; Zeliadt, Steven B; Varghese, Thomas K; Cheng, Aaron; Kessler, Larry; Au, David H; Flum, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend routine imaging surveillance for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following treatment. Little is known about surveillance patterns for surgically resected, early-stage lung cancer patients in the community-at-large. We sought to characterize surveillance patterns in a national cohort. Methods We conducted a retrospective study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1995-2010). Patients with stage I/II NSCLC treated with surgical resection were included. Our primary outcome was receipt of imaging between 4 and 8 months following surgery. Covariates included demographics and comorbidities. Results Chest radiography (CXR) was the most frequent initial modality (60%) followed by chest computerized tomography (CT) (25%). Positron emission tomography (PET) was least frequent as initial imaging modality (3%). A total of 13% of patients received no imaging within the initial surveillance period. Adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for imaging by overall prevalence was 47% for receipt of CT, however rates of CT imaging increased over time from 28% to 61% (p<0.01). Reduced rates of CT imaging were associated with stage I disease and surgery as the sole treatment modality. Conclusions Imaging following definitive surgery for NSCLC predominantly utilizes CXR rather than CT. Most of this imaging is likely for surveillance and in that context, CXR has inferior detection rates for recurrence and detection of new cancers. Adherence to guideline recommended CT surveillance following surgery is poor, but the reason multifactorial. Efforts to improve adherence to imaging surveillance must be coupled with greater evidence demonstrating improved long-term outcomes. PMID:25282167

  2. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rafay; Oborski, Matthew J; Hwang, Misun; Lieberman, Frank S; Mountz, James M

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies, and importantly, for facilitating patient management, sparing patients from weeks or months of toxicity and ineffective treatment. This review will present an overview of epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis and current advances in diagnoses, and management of malignant gliomas. PMID:24711712

  3. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  4. Imaging Early Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces with a High Definition InGaAs Camera

    PubMed Central

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-IR due to the high transparency of dental enamel. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1300-nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1 & 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using NIR reflectance at 3 wavelengths, 1310, 1460 and 1600-nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 24 hr and 48 hr lesions were significantly higher (P<0.05) for NIR reflectance imaging at 1460-nm and 1600-nm than it was for NIR reflectance imaging at 1300-nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The results of this study suggest that NIR reflectance measurements at longer near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are better suited for imaging early caries lesions. PMID:24357911

  5. Imaging early demineralization on tooth occlusional surfaces with a high definition InGaAs camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-IR due to the high transparency of dental enamel. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1300-nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acidresistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1 and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using NIR reflectance at 3 wavelengths, 1310, 1460 and 1600-nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 24 hr and 48 hr lesions were significantly higher (P<0.05) for NIR reflectance imaging at 1460-nm and 1600-nm than it was for NIR reflectance imaging at 1300-nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The results of this study suggest that NIR reflectance measurements at longer near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are better suited for imaging early caries lesions.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael J; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A; Coulthard, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying "health" at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task. PMID:27378911

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying “health” at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task. PMID:27378911

  8. Early Prediction of Postmeningitic Hearing Loss in Children Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; Germiller, John A.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Shah, Samir S.; Pollock, Avrum N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether early gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) can reliably detect meningitic labyrinthitis and thereby predict which children are at high risk for hearing loss. Permanent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) remains a common sequela of bacterial meningitis, and early diagnosis of the associated suppurative labyrinthitis can be difficult, especially in critically ill, sedated patients and young children. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary pediatric hospital. Participants Twenty-three survivors of bacterial meningitis (median age, 15 months [range, 3 months–14 years]) who had undergone brain GdMRI during the acute disease and had subsequent ear-specific audiometric data. Main Outcome Measure Blinded to disease and outcome, a neuroradiologist rated the relative enhancement of each cochlea on T1-weighted images using a 4-point scale. Scores were then correlated with the degree of hearing loss on subsequent testing. Results Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 15 of 46 ears (8 of 23 patients). Enhancement on GdMRI was detected in 13 of the 15 ears that later developed SNHL but was absent in all 31 unaffected ears. Thus, GdMRI was 87% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting which ears would develop permanent SNHL. In the subgroup with pneumococcal meningitis (n=15), GdMRI was 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Labyrinthine enhancement was detectable as early as 1 day after diagnosis. Conclusion Gadolinium-enhanced MRI detected meningitic labyrinthitis at early stages and accurately predicted which patients would later develop hearing loss. PMID:21339394

  9. Early recognition of lung cancer by integrin targeted imaging in K-ras mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Aichler, Michaela; Kayser, Gian; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by slow progression and high heterogeneity of tumors. Integrins play an important role in lung cancer development and metastasis and were suggested as a tumor marker; however their role in anticancer therapy remains controversial. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of integrin-targeted imaging to recognize early lesions in transgenic mouse model of lung cancer based on spontaneous introduction of mutated human gene bearing K-ras mutation. We conducted ex vivo and fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography (FMT-XCT) in vivo imaging and analysis for specific targeting of early lung lesions and tumors in rodent preclinical model for lung cancer. The lesions and tumors were characterized by histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using a panel of cancer markers. Ex vivo, the integrin-targeted fluorescent signal significantly differed between wild type lung tissue and K-ras pulmonary lesions (PL) at all ages studied. The panel of immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that PL, which only partially show cancer cell features were detected by αvβ3-integrin targeted imaging. Human patient material analysis confirmed the specificity of target localization in different lung cancer types. Most importantly, small tumors in the lungs of 4-week-old animals could be noninvasively detected in vivo on the fluorescence channel of FMT-XCT. Our findings demonstrated αvβ3-integrin targeted fluorescent imaging to specifically detect premalignant pleural lesions in K-ras mice. Integrin targeted imaging may find application areas in preclinical research and clinical practice, such as early lung cancer diagnostics, intraoperative assistance or therapy monitoring. PMID:25450481

  10. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  11. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  12. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature." PMID:26256503

  13. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

  14. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  15. Early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with presumed diskospondylitis: 10 cases (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with diskospondylitis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 10 client-owned dogs < 6 months of age. PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis. Signalment, history, examination findings, diagnostic test results, and imaging procedures were reviewed. Archived diagnostic images were retrieved and retrospectively evaluated. Data analysis was descriptive. RESULTS All dogs were evaluated for signs of vertebral pain ≤ 3 weeks after treatment for blunt trauma, bite wounds, or systemic illness. The earliest radiographic change was a narrowed intervertebral disk space (found for 28 disk spaces ≤ 2 weeks after evaluation for signs of vertebral pain); subluxation of adjacent vertebrae was identified for 8 of 28 affected disks, either initially or within the following 2 weeks. Vertebral end plate lysis was not an initial radiographic feature but was evident in follow-up radiographs. Ultrasonographic and transverse, multiformatted, volume-rendered CT images were obtained for 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Ultrasonographic changes included ventrally bulging hypoechoic material at the affected disk site and loss of typical normal reverberation artifact in 4 dogs; these were detected prior to radiographic changes in 2 dogs. Affected disks on volume-rendered CT images had altered coloration in 3 of 4 dogs, and this was identified prior to radiographic changes in 1 dog. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis had early imaging findings that were atypical, compared with the changes described for adult dogs with this condition. PMID:27556268

  16. Iatrogenic Consequences of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute, Work-Related, Disabling Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Barbara S.; Bauer, Ann Z.; Choi, YoonSun; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pransky, Glenn S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Objective. To determine the effect of early (receipt ≤30 d postonset) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on disability and medical cost outcomes in patients with acute, disabling, work-related low back pain (LBP) with and without radiculopathy. Summary of Background Data. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that, except for “red flags,” MRI is indicated to evaluate patients with persistent radicular pain, after 1 month of conservative management, who are candidates for surgery or epidural steroid injections. Prior research has suggested an independent iatrogenic effect of nonindicated early MRI, but it had limited clinical information and/or patient populations. Methods. A nationally representative sample of workers with acute, disabling, occupational LBP was randomly selected, oversampling those with radiculopathy diagnoses (N = 1000). Clinical information from medical reports was used to exclude cases for which early MRI might have been indicated, or MRI occurred more than 30 days postonset (final cohort = 555). Clinical information was also used to categorize cases into “nonspecific LBP” and “radiculopathy” groups and further divided into “early-MRI” and “no-MRI” subgroups. The Cox proportional hazards model examined the association of early MRI with duration of the first episode of disability. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association with medical costs. All models adjusted for demographic and medical severity measures. Results. In our sample, 37% of the nonspecific LBP and 79.9% of the radiculopathy cases received early MRI. The early-MRI groups had similar outcomes regardless of radiculopathy status: much lower rates of going off disability and, on average, $12,948 to $13,816 higher medical costs than the no-MRI groups. Even in a subgroup with relatively minimal disability impact (≤30 d of total lost time post-MRI), medical costs were, on average, $7643 to $8584 higher in the

  17. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  18. Response of early active rheumatoid arthritis to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Wataru; Nishikawa, Kenichiro; Hirose, Masuko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory changes (synovitis and bone marrow edema) and destructive changes (bone erosion) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and their relations with disease activity were assessed during treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Ten patients with early active RA underwent MRI at 0 and 16 weeks of TNF-inhibitor treatment. The carpal bones of the dominant hand were evaluated by the outcome measures in rheumatology clinical trials MRI score for RA. After 16 weeks, the mean disease activity score (DAS 28) decreased significantly from 5.54 to 2.70, while the number of tender joints, number of swollen joints, and inflammatory parameters were also significantly improved. The mean synovitis and marrow edema scores determined by MRI showed a significant decrease from 6.1 to 2.2 and 12.8 to 6.2, respectively, while the annual bone-erosion progression score decreased from 12.6 to 2.0. Although synovitis persisted in some patients, imaging remission was achieved in two patients. In conclusion, TNF-inhibitor therapy achieved an early decrease of disease activity and MRI revealed amelioration of joint destruction. The MRI score for RA is useful for assessing the early response to TNF inhibitors. PMID:18762862

  19. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging for early assessment of anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Maunoury, Vincent; Geboes, K.; Klein, Olivier; Desreumaux, P.; Debaert, A.; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    1999-02-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The mechanism of the initial mucosal alterations is still unclear: ulcerations overlying lymphoid follicles and/or vasculitis have been proposed as the early lesions. We have developed a new and original method combining endoscopy of fluorescence angiography for identifying the early pathological lesions, occurring in the neo-terminal ileum after right ileocolonic resection. The patient population consisted of 10 subjects enrolled in a prospective protocol of endoscopic follow-up at 3 and 12 months after surgery. Fluorescence imaging showed small spots giving a bright fluorescence distributed singly in mucosa which appeared normal in routine endoscopy. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the fluorescence of small spots originated from small, usually superficial, erosive lesions. In several cases, these erosive lesions occurred over lymphoid follicles. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging provides a suitable means of investigating the initial aspect of the Crohn's disease process in displaying some correlative findings between fluorescent aspects and early pathological mucosal alterations.

  20. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  1. A hand-held mosaicked multispectral imaging device for early stage pressure ulcer detection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hairong; Kong, Linghua; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lidan

    2011-10-01

    The use of a custom filter mosaic overlaying a CMOS/CCD sensor represents a novel idea to multispectral imaging. The innovation provides simple, miniaturized, low cost instrumentation that has many potential biological applications which require a hand-held detector. This makes it extremely adaptable and can serve as an integrated component to distributed diagnosis and home healthcare (D2H2). A mosaicked sensor is a monolithic array of many sensors, arranged in a geometric pattern with each sensor covered by an optical filter sensitive to a specified wavelength. In this way, only one spectral component is sensed at each pixel and the other spectral components must be estimated from neighbors. Although with great potential, one challenge faced by this device, however, is the reconstruction of the high-resolution full-spectral image from the low-resolution input. Due to the physical limitations in fabrication and the usage of the multispectral filter mosaic, two types of degradations exist, including filter misalignment and the missing spectral components, that must be corrected using intelligent algorithms to take full advantage of the hardware capability of the device. In this paper, we first describe a custom geometric correction method to restore the image from the misalignment distortion. We then present a binary tree-based generic demosaicking algorithm to efficiently estimate the missing special components and reconstruct a high-resolution full-spectral image. We choose early detection of pressure ulcer as a targeting area as early stage pressure ulcers and other subcutaneous lesions are nearly invisible in clinical settings, particularly so for dark pigmented skin. We show how the geometric correction and demosaicking algorithms successfully reconstruct a full-spectral image from which apparent contrast enhancement between damaged skin and the normal skin is observed. PMID:20703688

  2. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  3. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  4. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  5. OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

  6. Body image in recently diagnosed young women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Gelber, Shari; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Kereakoglow, Sandra; Borges, Virginia F.; Come, Steven E.; Schapira, Lidia; Winer, Eric P.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess body image concerns among young women following a breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS 419 women with recently diagnosed stage 0-III breast cancer were surveyed following enrollment as part of a prospective cohort study of women age 40 or younger at diagnosis. Body image was assessed using three items from the psycho-social scale of the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES). CARES scores range from 0–4, with higher scores indicative of greater image concerns. Mean CARES scores were calculated and compared between treatment groups using t-tests and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression models were fit to evaluate the relationship between physical and psychological factors and body image. RESULTS Mean time from diagnosis to completion of the baseline survey was 5.2 months. The mean CARES score for all women was 1.28. Mean CARES scores in the mastectomy-only group (1.87) and in the mastectomy with reconstruction group (1.52) were significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared to the scores in the lumpectomy group (0.85), indicating that radical surgery was associated with more body image concerns. Radiation (p=0.01), anxiety (p=0.0001), depression (p<0.0001), fatigue (p=0.04), musculoskeletal pain symptoms (p<0.0001), weight gain (p=0.01) and weight loss (p=0.02), in addition to surgery type (p<0.0001), were all associated with more body image concerns in the multi-variable analysis. CONCLUSION This analysis highlights the impact of treatment, along with physical and psychological factors, on body image early in the survivorship period. Our findings provide targets for potential future intervention and may aid young women in the surgical decision-making process. PMID:23132765

  7. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Núñez, A.; Pérez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-01

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  8. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  9. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  10. In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A. Dean; Bachoo, Robert M.; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma. PMID:24616497

  11. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  12. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  13. Predicting cortical dark/bright asymmetries from natural image statistics and early visual transforms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-05-01

    The nervous system has evolved in an environment with structure and predictability. One of the ubiquitous principles of sensory systems is the creation of circuits that capitalize on this predictability. Previous work has identified predictable non-uniformities in the distributions of basic visual features in natural images that are relevant to the encoding tasks of the visual system. Here, we report that the well-established statistical distributions of visual features--such as visual contrast, spatial scale, and depth--differ between bright and dark image components. Following this analysis, we go on to trace how these differences in natural images translate into different patterns of cortical input that arise from the separate bright (ON) and dark (OFF) pathways originating in the retina. We use models of these early visual pathways to transform natural images into statistical patterns of cortical input. The models include the receptive fields and non-linear response properties of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways, with their ON and OFF pathway divisions. The results indicate that there are regularities in visual cortical input beyond those that have previously been appreciated from the direct analysis of natural images. In particular, several dark/bright asymmetries provide a potential account for recently discovered asymmetries in how the brain processes visual features, such as violations of classic energy-type models. On the basis of our analysis, we expect that the dark/bright dichotomy in natural images plays a key role in the generation of both cortical and perceptual asymmetries. PMID:26020624

  14. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible. PMID:20299389

  15. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Tielian; Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor's mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P = 0.004). ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter. PMID:24688359

  16. Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Le; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Chuttani, Ram; Pleskow, Douglas; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D.; Guo, Lianyu; Vitkin, Edward; Itzkan, Irving; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the evolution of scanning spectral imaging techniques using scattered light for minimally invasive detection of early cancerous changes in tissue and cell biology applications. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of disease on a cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo, and allow for real time diagnoses. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing molecular properties of tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles, such as epithelial cell nuclei and organelles, to their size, shape and refractive index. It is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue on cellular and sub-cellular scales. However, in order to be useful in the detection of early cancerous changes which are otherwise not visible to the naked eye, it must rapidly survey a comparatively large area while simultaneously detecting these cellular changes. Both goals are achieved by combining LSS with spatial scanning imaging. Two examples are described in this article. The first reviews a clinical system for screening patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The second presents a novel advancement in confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. PMID:23087592

  17. H-alpha images of early type galaxies with hot gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trinchieri, G.; Di serego alighieri, S. European Southern Observatory, Garching )

    1991-05-01

    H-alpha imaging observations of 13 early type galaxies with known X-ray fluxes are presented from the Einstein Observatory data, and long-slit spectroscopy of nine of these. H-alpha emission is detected in the central regions of ten objects. The line emission appears extended over a radius of 5-10 kpc, is generally peaked on the nucleus with regular elliptical isophotes, similar to the red continuum, although with a steeper radial distribution. Low surface brightness filamentary structure is also seen in a few cases (NGC 4406 and NGC 5846). To study the different phases of the interstellar medium in early type galaxies, the emissions due to hot (X-ray) and warm (H-alpha) gas are compared. On average, galaxies with a larger content of hot gas also show a more powerful line emission. However, the scatter in the relation is significant, and suggests that other parameters must play a role. The depth of the gravitational potential and/or the shape of the objects are probably important in determining the amount of gas present in early type galaxies. 50 refs.

  18. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development. PMID:25514497

  19. Early detection of chemotherapy-refractory patients by monitoring textural alterations in diffuse optical spectroscopic images

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Vorauer, Eric; Chin, Lee; Tran, William T.; Wright, Frances C.; Gandhi, Sonal; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Changes in textural characteristics of diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) functional images, accompanied by alterations in their mean values, are demonstrated here for the first time as early surrogates of ultimate treatment response in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). NAC, as a standard component of treatment for LABC patient, induces measurable heterogeneous changes in tumor metabolism which were evaluated using DOS-based metabolic maps. This study characterizes such inhomogeneous nature of response development, by determining alterations in textural properties of DOS images apparent at early stages of therapy, followed later by gross changes in mean values of these functional metabolic maps. Methods: Twelve LABC patients undergoing NAC were scanned before and at four times after treatment initiation, and tomographic DOS images were reconstructed at each time. Ultimate responses of patients were determined clinically and pathologically, based on a reduction in tumor size and assessment of residual tumor cellularity. The mean-value parameters and textural features were extracted from volumetric DOS images for several functional and metabolic parameters prior to the treatment initiation. Changes in these DOS-based biomarkers were also monitored over the course of treatment. The measured biomarkers were applied to differentiate patient responses noninvasively and compared to clinical and pathologic responses. Results: Responding and nonresponding patients demonstrated different changes in DOS-based textural and mean-value parameters during chemotherapy. Whereas none of the biomarkers measured prior the start of therapy demonstrated a significant difference between the two patient populations, statistically significant differences were observed at week one after treatment initiation using the relative change in contrast/homogeneity of seven functional maps (0.001 < p < 0.049), and mean value of water

  20. Early Results from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; AIA Team

    2011-01-01

    SDO was launched on February 11, 2010, and first light was in late March. AIA provides multiple simultaneous high-resolution full-disk images of the corona and transition region up to 0.5 R above the solar limb with 1.5" spatial resolution (0.6" pixels) and 10 second temporal resolution. AIA consists of four telescopes that employ normal incidence multilayer coated optics to provide narrow band imaging of seven EUV band-passes centered on specific lines: Fe XVIII (94 A), Fe VIII, XX, XXIII (131 A), Fe IX (171 A), Fe XII, XXIV (193 A), Fe XIV (211 A), He II (304 A), and Fe XVI (335 A). One telescope observes C IV (1600 A) and the nearby continuum (1700 A), and a filter that observes in the visible enables coalignment with images from other telescopes. The temperature diagnostics of the EUV emissions covers the range from 0.06M °K to 20M °K. Since early April, these images have been taken nearly continuously, usually with a cadence of 12 seconds. Although solar activity has only been increasing slowly in this cycle, there have been a large number of filament ejections that interact with large regions over the solar surface. In addition, because of the rapid cadence of images, a number of new wave phenomena have been discovered associated both with small flares and the interaction of expanding magnetic structures with pre-existing structures. Movies illustrating some of these events will be shown. AIA is supported by NASA (GSFC) contract NNG04EA00C at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center.

  1. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  2. Early myocardial damage assessment in dystrophinopathies using 99Tcm-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhe; Hu, Ke-You; Tian, Qing-Bao; Wei, Ling-Ge; Zhao, Zhe; Shen, Hong-Rui; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of muscular dystrophy (MD)-associated cardiomyopathy is important because early medical treatment may slow cardiac remodeling and attenuate symptoms of cardiac dysfunction; however, no sensitive and standard diagnostic method for MD at an earlier stage has been well-recognized. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the early diagnostic value of technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99Tcm-MIBI) gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) for MD. Methods and results Ninety-one patients underwent 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations when they were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (n=77) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD; n=14). 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations were repeated in 43 DMD patients who received steroid treatments for 2 years as a follow-up examination. Myocardial defects were observed in nearly every segment of the left ventricular wall in both DMD and BMD patients compared with controls, especially in the inferior walls and the apices by using 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI. Cardiac wall movement impairment significantly correlated with age in the DMD and BMD groups (rs=0.534 [P<0.05] and rs=0.784 [P<0.05], respectively). Intermittent intravenous doses of glucocorticoids and continuation with oral steroid treatments significantly improved myocardial function in DMD patients (P<0.05), but not in BMD patients. Conclusion 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI is a sensitive and safe approach for early evaluation of cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD or BMD, and can serve as a candidate method for the evaluation of progression, prognosis, and assessment of the effect of glucocorticoid treatment in these patients. PMID:26677332

  3. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h. PMID:26892180

  4. Dental panoramic image analysis for enhancement biomarker of mandibular condyle for osteoporosis early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprijanto; Azhari; Juliastuti, E.; Septyvergy, A.; Setyagar, N. P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Currently, a BMD level is determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Previous studies reported that dental panoramic radiography image has potential information for early osteoporosis detection. This work reported alternative scheme, that consists of the determination of the Region of Interest (ROI) the condyle mandibular in the image as biomarker and feature extraction from ROI and classification of bone conditions. The minimum value of intensity in the cavity area is used to compensate an offset on the ROI. For feature extraction, the fraction of intensity values in the ROI that represent high bone density and the ROI total area is perfomed. The classification will be evaluated from the ability of each feature and its combinations for the BMD detection in 2 classes (normal and abnormal), with the artificial neural network method. The evaluation system used 105 panoramic image data from menopause women which consist of 36 training data and 69 test data that were divided into 2 classes. The 2 classes of classification obtained 88.0% accuracy rate and 88.0% sensitivity rate.

  5. Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Venna, Suraj S.; Boisvert, Marc E.; Flanagan, Katherine E.; Jordan, Marion H.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-07-01

    Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin--simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed.

  6. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  7. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h. PMID:26892180

  8. In vivo early diagnosis of gastric dysplasia using narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2010-05-01

    We first report on the implementation of a novel narrow-band image-guided Raman endoscopy technique for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia. High-quality in vivo Raman spectra can be acquired from normal and dysplastic gastric mucosal tissue within 0.5 sec under narrow-band image (NBI) guidance at gastroscopy. Significant differences are observed in in vivo Raman spectra between normal (n=54) and dysplastic (n=18) gastric tissue from 30 gastric patients, particularly in the spectral ranges of 825 to 950, 1000 to 1100, 1250 to 1500, and 1600 to 1800 cm-1, which primarily contain signals related to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The multivariate analysis [i.e., principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA)], together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation on in vivo gastric Raman spectra yields a diagnostic sensitivity of 94.4% (17/18) and specificity of 96.3% (52/54) for distinction of gastric dysplastic tissue. This study suggests that narrowband image-guided Raman endoscopy associated with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has potential for the noninvasive, in vivo early diagnosis and detection of gastric precancer during clinical gastroscopic examination.

  9. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h.

  10. The role of ultrasound imaging in diagnosing and investigating early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Johns, J; Burton, G J

    2005-06-01

    The advent of high-resolution transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) has revolutionized our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of early pregnancy failure. Knowledge of the ultrasound appearances of normal early pregnancy development and a good understanding of its pitfalls are essential for the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy failure. Ultrasound imaging has rapidly replaced all other techniques used to study normal human development in the first trimester, and ultrasound features of the early gestational sac have corroborated anatomical studies showing that the first structures to appear are the celomic cavity and the secondary yolk sac. No single ultrasound measurement of the different anatomical features in the first trimester has been shown to have a high predictive value for determining early pregnancy outcome. Similarly, Doppler studies have failed to demonstrate abnormal blood flow indices in the first-trimester uteroplacental circulation of pregnancies that subsequently end in miscarriage. Ultrasound parameters combined with maternal serum hormone levels, maternal age, smoking habits, obstetric history and the occurrence of vaginal bleeding have all been combined in multivariate analyses, with mixed results. Combined ultrasound and in-vitro experiments have demonstrated that the maternal circulation inside the placenta starts at the periphery at around 9 weeks of gestation and that this is associated with a physiological oxidative stress which could be the trigger for the formation of the placental membranes. Abnormal development of these membranes can result in subchorionic hemorrhage and threatened miscarriage with subsequent long-term consequences such as preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm labor, irrespective of the finding of a hematoma on ultrasound. In both euploid and aneuploid missed miscarriages there is clear ultrasound evidence for excessive entry of maternal blood at a very early stage inside the developing

  11. Radiofrequency ablation of very-early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US: value of fusion imaging with contrast-enhanced US

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ji Hye; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lim, Sanghyeok; Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo; Choi, Seo-youn; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine the value of fusion imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) images for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very-early-stage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) that are inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode ultrasound (US) and CT/MR images. Methods This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Fusion imaging with CEUS using Sonazoid contrast agent and CT/MR imaging was performed on HCCs (<2 cm) that were inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US. We evaluated the number of cases that became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS. Percutaneous RFA was performed under the guidance of fusion imaging with CEUS. Technical success and major complication rates were assessed. Results In total, 30 patients with 30 HCCs (mean, 1.2 cm; range, 0.6-1.7 cm) were included, among which 25 (83.3%) became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS at the time of the planning US and/or RFA procedure. Of those 25 HCCs, RFA was considered feasible for 23 (92.0%), which were thus treated. The technical success and major complication rates were 91.3% (21/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. Conclusions Fusion imaging with CEUS and CT/MR imaging is highly effective for percutaneous RFA of very-early-stage HCCs inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US and CT/MR imaging. PMID:24757660

  12. A voxel-wise encoding model for early visual areas decodes mental images of remembered scenes.

    PubMed

    Naselaris, Thomas; Olman, Cheryl A; Stansbury, Dustin E; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gallant, Jack L

    2015-01-15

    Recent multi-voxel pattern classification (MVPC) studies have shown that in early visual cortex patterns of brain activity generated during mental imagery are similar to patterns of activity generated during perception. This finding implies that low-level visual features (e.g., space, spatial frequency, and orientation) are encoded during mental imagery. However, the specific hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery is difficult to directly test using MVPC. The difficulty is especially acute when considering the representation of complex, multi-object scenes that can evoke multiple sources of variation that are distinct from low-level visual features. Therefore, we used a voxel-wise modeling and decoding approach to directly test the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded in activity generated during mental imagery of complex scenes. Using fMRI measurements of cortical activity evoked by viewing photographs, we constructed voxel-wise encoding models of tuning to low-level visual features. We also measured activity as subjects imagined previously memorized works of art. We then used the encoding models to determine if putative low-level visual features encoded in this activity could pick out the imagined artwork from among thousands of other randomly selected images. We show that mental images can be accurately identified in this way; moreover, mental image identification accuracy depends upon the degree of tuning to low-level visual features in the voxels selected for decoding. These results directly confirm the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery of complex scenes. Our work also points to novel forms of brain-machine interaction: we provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of an internet image search guided by mental imagery. PMID:25451480

  13. Gold nanoparticles allow detection of early-stage edema in mice via computed tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Domey, Jenny; Teichgräber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high X-ray attenuation, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) emerged as preclinical contrast agents by giving high vasculature contrast. For this reason, GNPs are regularly applied for computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumors but not for the visualization of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and applicability of preclinical GNPs (AuroVist™) of two different sizes (1.9 nm and 15 nm) for the detection of inflammation-associated phagocytes in early-stage edema. Both GNP variants were stable under in vitro conditions and achieved high micro-CT (mCT) contrast after embedment into agarose. Fifteen-nanometer GNPs were detected after uptake into macrophages via mCT imaging exhibiting higher X-ray contrast than cells treated with 1.9 nm GNPs and untreated ones. Both 1.9 nm and 15 nm GNPs exhibited good biocompatibility on murine macrophages according to ATP and cellular dehydrogenase levels. Reactive oxygen species levels produced by phagocytic cells decreased significantly (P≤0.05) after co-incubation with GNPs regardless of the size of the nanoparticle (NP) in comparison to untreated control cells. In vivo mCT studies of inflammation imaging revealed that GNPs with a diameter of 15 nm accumulated within subcutaneous edema 2 hours after injection with a maximum signaling 8 hours postinjection and could be detected up to 48 hours within the edema region. In contrast, 1.9 nm GNPs were not shown to accumulate at the site of the inflammation region and were mostly excreted via the renal system 2–4 hours after injection. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that both GNP variants (1.9 nm and 15 nm) were stable and biocompatible under in vitro conditions. However, only 15 nm NPs have the potential as contrast agent for phagocyte labeling and applications in CT imaging of inflammation on a cellular level. PMID:26082631

  14. A voxel-wise encoding model for early visual areas decodes mental images of remembered scenes

    PubMed Central

    Naselaris, Thomas; Olman, Cheryl A.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent multi-voxel pattern classification (MVPC) studies have shown that in early visual cortex patterns of brain activity generated during mental imagery are similar to patterns of activity generated during perception. This finding implies that low-level visual features (e.g., space, spatial frequency, and orientation) are encoded during mental imagery. However, the specific hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery is difficult to directly test using MVPC. The difficulty is especially acute when considering the representation of complex, multi-object scenes that can evoke multiple sources of variation that are distinct from low-level visual features. Therefore, we used a voxel-wise modeling and decoding approach to directly test the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded in activity generated during mental imagery of complex scenes. Using fMRI measurements of cortical activity evoked by viewing photographs, we constructed voxel-wise encoding models of tuning to low-level visual features. We also measured activity as subjects imagined previously memorized works of art. We then used the encoding models to determine if putative low-level visual features encoded in this activity could pick out the imagined artwork from among thousands of other randomly selected images. We show that mental images can be accurately identified in this way; moreover, mental image identification accuracy depends upon the degree of tuning to low-level visual features in the voxels selected for decoding. These results directly confirm the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery of complex scenes. Our work also points to novel forms of brain-machine interaction: we provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of an internet image search guided by mental imagery. PMID:25451480

  15. Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging: From Multiscale Biomedical Applications Towards Early-Stage Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajing; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has ushered in a new era of observational biotechnology and has facilitated the exploration of fundamental biological mechanisms and clinical translational applications, which has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. By converting laser into ultrasound emission, PAI combines rich optical contrast, high ultrasonic spatial resolution, and deep penetration depth in a single modality. This evolutional technique enables multiscale and multicontrast visualization from cells to organs, anatomy to function, and molecules to metabolism with high sensitivity and specificity. The state-of-the-art developments and applications of PAI are described in this review. Future prospects for clinical use are also highlighted. Collectively, PAI holds great promise to drive biomedical applications towards early-stage theranostics. PMID:26924233

  16. Archeological treasures protection based on early forest wildfire multi-band imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouverneur, B.; Verstockt, S.; Pauwels, E.; Han, J.; de Zeeuw, P. M.; Vermeiren, J.

    2012-10-01

    Various visible and infrared cameras have been tested for the early detection of wildfires to protect archeological treasures. This analysis was possible thanks to the EU Firesense project (FP7-244088). Although visible cameras are low cost and give good results during daytime for smoke detection, they fall short under bad visibility conditions. In order to improve the fire detection probability and reduce the false alarms, several infrared bands are tested ranging from the NIR to the LWIR. The SWIR and the LWIR band are helpful to locate the fire through smoke if there is a direct Line Of Sight. The Emphasis is also put on the physical and the electro-optical system modeling for forest fire detection at short and longer ranges. The fusion in three bands (Visible, SWIR, LWIR) is discussed at the pixel level for image enhancement and for fire detection.

  17. Early Outcomes From Three Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G.; Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph; Henderson, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We accrued 211 prostate cancer patients on prospective Institutional Review Board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, dose escalation from 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel followed by androgen deprivation for high-risk disease. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Results: One intermediate-risk patient and 2 high-risk patients had disease progression. Pretreatment genitourinary (GU) symptom management was required in 38% of patients. A cumulative 88 (42%) patients required posttreatment GU symptom management. Four transient Grade 3 GU toxicities occurred, all among patients requiring pretreatment GU symptom management. Multivariate analysis showed correlation between posttreatment GU 2+ symptoms and pretreatment GU symptom management (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.0048). Only 1 Grade 3+ gastrointestinal (GI) symptom occurred. The prevalence of Grade 2+ GI symptoms was 0 (0%), 10 (5%), 12 (6%), and 8 (4%) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with a cumulative incidence of 20 (10%) patients at 2 years after proton therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant correlation between Grade 2+ rectal bleeding and proctitis and the percentage of rectal wall (rectum) receiving doses ranging from 40 CGE (10 CGE) to 80 CGE. Conclusions: Early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy suggest high efficacy and minimal toxicity with only 1.9% Grade 3 GU symptoms and <0.5% Grade 3 GI toxicities.

  18. Integrated live imaging and molecular profiling of embryoid bodies reveals a synchronized progression of early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Boxman, Jonathan; Sagy, Naor; Achanta, Sirisha; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Nachman, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can spontaneously differentiate into cell types of all germ layers within embryoid bodies (EBs) in a highly variable manner. Whether there exists an intrinsic differentiation program common to all EBs is unknown. Here, we present a novel combination of high-throughput live two-photon imaging and gene expression profiling to study early differentiation dynamics spontaneously occurring within developing EBs. Onset timing of Brachyury-GFP was highly variable across EBs, while the spatial patterns as well as the dynamics of mesendodermal progression following onset were remarkably similar. We therefore defined a 'developmental clock' using the Brachyury-GFP signal onset timing. Mapping snapshot gene expression measurements to this clock revealed their temporal trends, indicating that loss of pluripotency, formation of primitive streak and mesodermal lineage progression are synchronized in EBs. Exogenous activation of Wnt or BMP signaling accelerated the intrinsic clock. CHIR down-regulated Wnt3, allowing insights into dependency mechanisms between canonical Wnt signaling and multiple genes. Our findings reveal a developmental clock characteristic of an early differentiation program common to all EBs, further establishing them as an in vitro developmental model. PMID:27530599

  19. Integrated live imaging and molecular profiling of embryoid bodies reveals a synchronized progression of early differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Boxman, Jonathan; Sagy, Naor; Achanta, Sirisha; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Nachman, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can spontaneously differentiate into cell types of all germ layers within embryoid bodies (EBs) in a highly variable manner. Whether there exists an intrinsic differentiation program common to all EBs is unknown. Here, we present a novel combination of high-throughput live two-photon imaging and gene expression profiling to study early differentiation dynamics spontaneously occurring within developing EBs. Onset timing of Brachyury-GFP was highly variable across EBs, while the spatial patterns as well as the dynamics of mesendodermal progression following onset were remarkably similar. We therefore defined a ‘developmental clock’ using the Brachyury-GFP signal onset timing. Mapping snapshot gene expression measurements to this clock revealed their temporal trends, indicating that loss of pluripotency, formation of primitive streak and mesodermal lineage progression are synchronized in EBs. Exogenous activation of Wnt or BMP signaling accelerated the intrinsic clock. CHIR down-regulated Wnt3, allowing insights into dependency mechanisms between canonical Wnt signaling and multiple genes. Our findings reveal a developmental clock characteristic of an early differentiation program common to all EBs, further establishing them as an in vitro developmental model. PMID:27530599

  20. Prevalence of grey matter pathology in early multiple sclerosis assessed by magnetization transfer ratio imaging.

    PubMed

    Crespy, Lydie; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Lemaire, Mathias; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Reuter, Françoise; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, the distribution and the impact on disability of grey matter (GM) pathology in early multiple sclerosis. Eighty-eight patients with a clinically isolated syndrome with a high risk developing multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Forty-four healthy controls constituted the normative population. An optimized statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each subject's GM Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) imaging maps with those of the whole group of controls. The statistical threshold of significant GM MTR decrease was determined as the maximum p value (p<0.05 FDR) for which no significant cluster survived when comparing each control to the whole control population. Using this threshold, 51% of patients showed GM abnormalities compared to controls. Locally, 37% of patients presented abnormalities inside the limbic cortex, 34% in the temporal cortex, 32% in the deep grey matter, 30% in the cerebellum, 30% in the frontal cortex, 26% in the occipital cortex and 19% in the parietal cortex. Stepwise regression analysis evidenced significant association (p = 0.002) between EDSS and both GM pathology (p = 0.028) and T2 white matter lesions load (p = 0.019). In the present study, we evidenced that individual analysis of GM MTR map allowed demonstrating that GM pathology is highly heterogeneous across patients at the early stage of MS and partly underlies irreversible disability. PMID:21949813

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging of the hippocampus in MCI and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Yakushev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is among the first brain structures to be affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Microstructural alterations within this region have been quantified in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a relatively novel MRI-based technique for mapping diffusion properties of water. Existing evidence indicates that DTI-derived mean diffusivity (MD) of the anterior hippocampus is more predictive than ordinary volumetric indices of the degree of episodic memory impairment in patients with early AD. Thus, altered MD of the (anterior) hippocampus might be highly indicative of hippocampal dysfunction, thereby potentially qualifying this measure as a candidate marker for monitoring progression of AD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this concept. DTI-based assessment of hippocampal microstructure might be also of value for early AD diagnosis and for predicting the course of cognitive decline in subjects at risk for Alzheimer's dementia. Mean diffusivity as microstructural and volume as macrostructural index of hippocampal integrity seem to reflect different, albeit overlapping, aspects of the neurodegenerative process. In contrast, fractional anisotropy is less efficient for quantifying microstructural integrity of the diseased hippocampus in the clinical context. Development of automatic algorithms, providing MD measurements of the hippocampus for routine use, is a task for future studies. PMID:21971465

  2. Positron-emission tomography imaging of early events after transplantation of islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Toso, Christian; Zaidi, Habib; Morel, Philippe; Armanet, Mathieu; Andres, Axel; Pernin, Nadine; Baertschiger, Reto; Slosman, Daniel; Bühler, Leo H; Bosco, Domenico; Berney, Thierry

    2005-02-15

    The aim of our study was to assess cell trafficking and early events after intraportal islet transplantation. Sprague-Dawley rat islets were incubated for various times, with various concentrations of 2-[F]fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and in presence of various glucose concentrations. FDG-labeled syngeneic islets or FDG alone were injected in rats. Radioactivity was measured in the liver and in various organs by positron-emission tomography for 6 hours. FDG uptake increased with incubation time or FDG concentration and decreased in presence of glucose. In vivo, all islets implanted in the liver, with an uptake 4.4 times higher than controls (44.2% vs. 10.1%, P=0.02). Radioactivity in the liver decreased at the same rate after injection of labeled-islets and FDG alone. Ex vivo labeling of islets and imaging of posttransplant early events were feasible. Islets engrafted exclusively in the liver. No islet loss could be demonstrated 6 hours after transplantation. PMID:15699768

  3. Noninvasive Dynamic Imaging of Tumor Early Response to Nanoparticle-mediated Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Cao, Jianbo; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Fu, Guifeng; Huang, Xinglu; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of rapidly increasing interest in the use of nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) for treatment of different types of tumors, very little is known on early treatment-related changes in tumor response. Using graphene oxide (GO) as a model nanoparticle (NP), in this study, we tracked the changes in tumors after GO NP-mediated PTT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively identified MRI multiple parameters to assess the dynamic changes of MRI signal in tumor at different heating levels and duration. We found a time- and temperature-dependent dynamic change of the MRI signal intensity in intratumor microenvironment prior to any morphological change of tumor, mainly due to quick and effective eradication of tumor blood vessels. Based on the distribution of GO particles, we also demonstrated that NP-medited PTT caused heterogeneous thermal injury of tumor. Overall, these new findings provide not only a clinical-related method for non-invasive early tracking, identifying, and monitoring treatment response of NP-mediated PTT but also show a new vision for better understanding mechanisms of NP-mediated PTT. PMID:26681988

  4. Diagnostic imaging in 13 cases of Rasmussen's encephalitis: can early MRI suggest the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Chiapparini, L; Granata, T; Farina, L; Ciceri, E; Erbetta, A; Ragona, F; Freri, E; Fusco, L; Gobbi, G; Capovilla, G; Tassi, L; Giordano, L; Viri, M; Dalla Bernardina, B; Spreafico, R; Savoiardo, M

    2003-03-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare, progressive, chronic encephalitis characterised by drug-resistant epilepsy, progressive hemiparesis and mental impairment. It typically involves only one cerebral hemisphere, which becomes atrophic. We present neuroradiological findings in 13 children with RE. MRI was performed in all patients, fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) in three, Tc-99m hexamethylpropylenamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in two and proton MR spectroscopy ((1)HMRS) in two. MRI showed progression of the hemisphere atrophy, always prevalent in the region primarily involved (13 patients), spread of the abnormal signal in white matter (11) and cortex (10) and progression of atrophy of the head of the caudate nucleus (nine). Associated secondary changes were: atrophy of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere (in four patients), the ipsilateral hippocampus (in five) and the brain stem (in five). The earliest CT and MRI abnormalities, seen between 1 day and 4 months after the first seizure (in 12 patients examined, nine of whom had MRI) in one cerebral hemisphere included: high signal on T2-weighted images in the cortex (seven patients) and white matter (nine), cortical atrophy usually involving the frontoinsular region, with mild or severe enlargement of the lateral ventricle (eight) and moderate atrophy of the head of the caudate nucleus (seven). Cortical swelling in the early stage of the disease was recognisable only in two patients. PET revealed hypometabolism, SPECT decreased perfusion, and (1)HMRS reduction of N-acetylaspartate in the affected hemisphere. PET and SPECT were usually performed in the late stages and did not provide specific findings. MRI thus demonstrates the progression of RE and may suggest the diagnosis in the early stages, often before the appearance of neurological deficits. Early diagnosis of RE may be crucial for selecting patients for aggressive medical therapy or major surgical

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals a noncategorical representation of hue in early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Persichetti, Andrew S.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Color names divide the fine-grained gamut of color percepts into discrete categories. A categorical transition must occur somewhere between the initial encoding of the continuous spectrum of light by the cones and the verbal report of the name of a color stimulus. Here, we used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation experiment to examine the representation of hue in the early visual cortex. Our stimuli varied in hue between blue and green. We found in the early visual areas (V1, V2/3, and hV4) a smoothly increasing recovery from adaptation with increasing hue distance between adjacent stimuli during both passive viewing (Experiment 1) and active categorization (Experiment 2). We examined the form of the adaptation effect and found no evidence that a categorical representation mediates the release from adaptation for stimuli that cross the blue–green color boundary. Examination of the direct effect of stimulus hue on the fMRI response did, however, reveal an enhanced response to stimuli near the blue–green category border. This was largest in hV4 and when subjects were engaged in active categorization of the stimulus hue. In contrast with a recent report from another laboratory (Bird, Berens, Horner, & Franklin, 2014), we found no evidence for a categorical representation of color in the middle frontal gyrus. A post hoc whole-brain analysis, however, revealed several regions in the frontal cortex with a categorical effect in the adaptation response. Overall, our results support the idea that the representation of color in the early visual cortex is primarily fine grained and does not reflect color categories. PMID:26024465

  6. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: early and late magnetic resonance imaging findings in relation to outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, M; Pennock, J; Schwieso, J; Cowan, F; Dubowitz, L

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) were studied using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) up to the age of 2 years. The infants had regular neurological and developmental assessments. An nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) score was devised to quantify the early and late MRI findings and a neurological optimality score was used to quantify abnormal neurological signs at the time of the final examination. The follow up MRI score was compared with the neonatal MRI score and the outcome of the child. There was a strong positive correlation between the neonatal and follow up MRI scores and between MRI scores and optimality score. All infants with a normal outcome had patchy white matter abnormalities. All infants with an abnormal outcome had extensive white matter abnormalities. The outcome was most severe in those infants with additional basal ganglia atrophy with or without cyst formation. Infants with mild HIE who are developmentally normal at the age of 2 years do not have normal MRI scans and may be at risk of minor neurological problems by school age. Bilateral basal ganglia abnormalities are associated with severe developmental delay, but infants with mainly white matter and cortical abnormalities have less severe problems despite extensive tissue loss. Images PMID:8976678

  7. Dynamic spatio-temporal imaging of early reflow in a neonatal rat stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Pierre-Louis; Bonnin, Philippe; Lacombe, Pierre; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Fau, Sebastien; Renolleau, Sylvain; Gharib, Abdallah; Baud, Olivier; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blood-flow changes in large arteries and microvessels during the first 15 minutes of reflow in a P7 rat model of arterial occlusion. Blood-flow changes were monitored by using ultrasound imaging with sequential Doppler recordings in internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar trunk. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were obtained by using laser speckle Doppler monitoring. Tissue perfusion was measured with [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Cerebral energy metabolism was evaluated by mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Gradual increase in mean blood-flow velocities illustrated a gradual perfusion during early reflow in both ICAs. On ischemia, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory presented a residual perfusion, whereas the caudal territory remained normally perfused. On reflow, speckle images showed a caudorostral propagation of reperfusion through anastomotic connections, and a reduced perfusion in the MCA territory. Autoradiography highlighted the caudorostral gradient, and persistent perfusion in ventral and medial regions. These blood-flow changes were accompanied by mitochondrial respiration impairment in the ipsilateral cortex. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of a primary collateral pathway through the circle of Willis, providing an immediate diversion of blood flow toward ischemic regions, and secondary efficient cortical anastomoses in the immature rat brain. PMID:23047273

  8. Early characteristic findings in bowleg deformities: evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mukai, S; Suzuki, S; Seto, Y; Kashiwagi, N; Hwang, E S

    2000-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate bowleg deformities in infancy. Twenty-five tibiae of 13 infants were examined and divided into two groups based on MRI findings: group A had high intensity area in the medial epiphyseal cartilage on T2-weighted images. Group B had depression of medial physis and abnormal signal in the perichondrial region in addition to the epiphyseal lesion. At the final follow-up, all cases in group A demonstrated normal lower leg alignments, whereas five cases in group B showed characteristic roentogenographic findings of Blount's disease. The improvement rate of metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle was correlated with this classification. These findings suggested that abnormal findings in physis and perichondrial region might be preliminary findings in early stage of Blount's disease. The high intensity areas in the medial epiphyseal cartilage were commonly found among the cases with bowing deformities, which suggested that there might be a common pathomechanism between physiologic bowing and infantile Blount's disease. PMID:11008740

  9. Acrosome integrity assessment of boar spermatozoa images using an early fusion of texture and contour descriptors.

    PubMed

    García-Olalla, Oscar; Alegre, Enrique; Fernández-Robles, Laura; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of the state of the acrosome is a priority in artificial insemination centres since it is one of the main causes of function loss. In this work, boar spermatozoa present in gray scale images acquired with a phase-contrast microscope have been classified as acrosome-intact or acrosome-damaged, after using fluorescent images for creating the ground truth. Based on shape prior criteria combined with Otsu's thresholding, regional minima and watershed transform, the spermatozoa heads were segmented and registered. One of the main novelties of this proposal is that, unlike what previous works stated, the obtained results show that the contour information of the spermatozoon head is important for improving description and classification. Other of this work novelties is that it confirms that combining different texture descriptors and contour descriptors yield the best classification rates for this problem up to date. The classification was performed with a Support Vector Machine backed by a Least Squares training algorithm and a linear kernel. Using the biggest acrosome intact-damaged dataset ever created, the early fusion approach followed provides a 0.9913 F-Score, outperforming all previous related works. PMID:25887848

  10. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T.; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid 11C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher 11C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial 11C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased 11C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased 11C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and 11C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated 11C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. 11C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  11. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bankstahl, Jens P; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid (11)C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher (11)C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial (11)C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased (11)C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased (11)C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and (11)C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated (11)C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. (11)C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  12. Visualizing the blind brain: brain imaging of visual field defects from early recovery to rehabilitation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, Marika; Coubard, Olivier A.; Bourlon, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    Visual field defects (VFDs) are one of the most common consequences observed after brain injury, especially after a stroke in the posterior cerebral artery territory. Less frequently, tumors, traumatic brain injury, brain surgery or demyelination can also determine various visual disabilities, from a decrease in visual acuity to cerebral blindness. Visual field defects is a factor of bad functional prognosis as it compromises many daily life activities (e.g., obstacle avoidance, driving, and reading) and therefore the patient’s quality of life. Spontaneous recovery seems to be limited and restricted to the first 6 months, with the best chance of improvement at 1 month. The possible mechanisms at work could be partly due to cortical reorganization in the visual areas (plasticity) and/or partly to the use of intact alternative visual routes, first identified in animal studies and possibly underlying the phenomenon of blindsight. Despite processes of early recovery, which is rarely complete, and learning of compensatory strategies, the patient’s autonomy may still be compromised at more chronic stages. Therefore, various rehabilitation therapies based on neuroanatomical knowledge have been developed to improve VFDs. These use eye-movement training techniques (e.g., visual search, saccadic eye movements), reading training, visual field restitution (the Vision Restoration Therapy, VRT), or perceptual learning. In this review, we will focus on studies of human adults with acquired VFDs, which have used different imaging techniques (Positron Emission Tomography, PET; Diffusion Tensor Imaging, DTI; functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI; Magneto Encephalography, MEG) or neurostimulation techniques (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS; transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, tDCS) to show brain activations in the course of spontaneous recovery or after specific rehabilitation techniques. PMID:25324739

  13. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC). The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90) with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, barium enema (BE) and chest radiography (CR) were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%): biliary tract stones (n = 11) and other malignant tumors (n = 2). Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor) but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%). BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%). Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%): pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1) and cardiomegaly (n = 2). Seventy-nine patients (56%) were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information. PMID:20534137

  14. Multidimensional Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Impairment in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Mabray, Marc C; Talbott, Jason F; Whetstone, William D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Phillips, David B; Pan, Jonathan Z; Manley, Geoffrey T; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Beattie, Michael S; Haefeli, Jenny; Ferguson, Adam R

    2016-05-15

    Literature examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on cervical SCI. Reproducible systems have been developed for MRI-based grading; however, it is unclear how they apply to thoracic SCI. Our hypothesis is that MRI measures will group as coherent multivariate principal component (PC) ensembles, and that distinct PCs and individual variables will show discriminant validity for predicting early impairment in thoracic SCI. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 25 patients with acute thoracic SCI who underwent MRI on admission and had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) assessment at hospital discharge. Imaging variables of axial grade, sagittal grade, length of injury, thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), maximum canal compromise (MCC), and maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were collected. We performed an analytical workflow to detect multivariate PC patterns followed by explicit hypothesis testing to predict AIS at discharge. All imaging variables loaded positively on PC1 (64.3% of variance), which was highly related to AIS at discharge. MCC, MSCC, and TLICS also loaded positively on PC2 (22.7% of variance), while variables concerning cord signal abnormality loaded negatively on PC2. PC2 was highly related to the patient undergoing surgical decompression. Variables of signal abnormality were all negatively correlated with AIS at discharge with the highest level of correlation for axial grade as assessed with the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score. A multiple variable model identified BASIC as the only statistically significant predictor of AIS at discharge, signifying that BASIC best captured the variance in AIS within our study population. Our study provides evidence of convergent validity, construct validity, and clinical predictive validity for the sampled MRI measures of SCI when applied in acute thoracic and thoracolumbar SCI. PMID:26414451

  15. Cost implications of unwarranted imaging for distant metastasis in women with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Thavorn, K.; Wang, Z.; Fergusson, D.; van Katwyk, S.; Arnaout, A.; Clemons, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the publication of multiple evidence-based guidelines recommending against routine imaging for distant metastasis in patients with early-stage (i/ii) breast cancer, such imaging is frequently performed. The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the cost of unnecessary imaging tests in women with stage i and ii breast cancer diagnosed between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 in Ontario. Methods We obtained patient-level demographic and tumour data from a large provincial dataset. The total cost of unwarranted imaging tests (in 2015 Canadian dollars) was considered to be equal to the sum of imaging costs incurred between 2007 and 2012 and was stratified by disease stage, imaging modality, and body site. Results Of the 26,547 identified patients with early-stage breast cancer, 22,811 (85.9%) underwent at least 1 imaging test, with an average of 3.7 tests per patient (3.2 for stage i patients and 4.0 for stage ii patients) over 5 years. At least 1 imaging test was performed in 79.6% of stage i and 92.7% of stage ii patients. During a 5-year period, the cost of unwarranted imaging in patients with early-stage breast cancer ranged from CA$4,418,139 to CA$6,865,856, depending on guideline recommendations. Conclusions Our study highlights the substantial cost of excess imaging that could be saved and re-allocated to patient care if evidence-based guidelines are followed. Future studies should assess strategies to ensure that evidence-based guidelines are followed and to increase awareness of the cost implications of nonadherence to guidelines. PMID:26985147

  16. Fluorescence-based endoscopic imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen to improve early detection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Shinji; Yu, James Y H; Quang, Timothy; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Kao, Stephanie; Holt, Alex; Erskind, Jalysa; McClure, Richard; Siuta, Michael; Kitamura, Tokio; Tobita, Etsuo; Koike, Seiji; Wilson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Liu, Eric; Washington, Kay; Omary, Reed; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level. PMID:25052906

  17. Development of the Deep Impact Ejecta Based on Early MRI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdimunov, Lev; Ludmilla, Kolokolova; Wolff, Michael; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony

    2014-11-01

    We analyze a sequence of the images acquired by the Deep Impact spacecraft High Resolution (HRI) and Medium Resolution (MRI) instruments during the first seconds after impact. These early images reflect the development of material excavation from the cometary nucleus, enabling a study of variations in the excavated material with time, and potentially allowing a peek into the nucleus’ interior. Simply studying the brightness of the ejecta plume and its distribution as a function of height and time-after-impact could provide some insight into the characteristics of the ejecta. However, including the optical thickness of the ejecta offers an additional source of information through the resultant shadow on the surface of the nucleus, and brightness variations within it. Our goal was to reproduce both the distribution of brightness in the plume and in its shadow, thus constraining the characteristics of the ejecta. To achieve this, we used a 3D radiative transfer package HYPERION (http://hyperion-rt.org). The parameters of our dust modeling were composition, size distribution, and number density of particles at the base of the ejecta cone. Composition was created as a mixture of silicates, carbon and organics, ice, as well as voids to account for particle porosity. In our current modeling, we use the results of a parameter survey of dust characteristics reported previously, which was targeted to primarily simulating an HRI image taken at around 1 sec. In this survey, the best fit to Deep Impact data and excavated mass constraints showed a dust/ice mass ratio ≥ 1, with some individual particle porosity necessary to retrieve a good fit (we checked individual particle density extremes of 0.4 g/cm3 and 1.75 g/cm3). Our current work explores the spatial distribution of dust within the ejecta plume and focuses on the changes in dust characteristics over time by analyzing and simulating a sequence of Medium Resolution (MRI) images, attempting to reveal the structure of the

  18. Early lipid changes in acute kidney injury using SWATH lipidomics coupled with MALDI tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeetha; Walters, Kelly B; Wilson, Landon; Chen, Bo; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Graves, David; Barnes, Stephen; Agarwal, Anupam; Kabarowski, Janusz H

    2016-05-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the leading causes of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, particularly in critically ill patients. Although our understanding of AKI at the molecular level remains limited due to its complex pathophysiology, recent advances in both quantitative and spatial mass spectrometric approaches offer new opportunities to assess the significance of renal metabolomic changes in AKI models. In this study, we evaluated lipid changes in early ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-related AKI in mice by using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH)-mass spectrometry (MS) lipidomics. We found a significant increase in two abundant ether-linked phospholipids following IR at 6 h postinjury, a plasmanyl choline, phosphatidylcholine (PC) O-38:1 (O-18:0, 20:1), and a plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) O-42:3 (O-20:1, 22:2). Both of these lipids correlated with the severity of AKI as measured by plasma creatinine. In addition to many more renal lipid changes associated with more severe AKI, PC O-38:1 elevations were maintained at 24 h post-IR, while renal PE O-42:3 levels decreased, as were all ether PEs detected by SWATH-MS at this later time point. To further assess the significance of this early increase in PC O-38:1, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to determine that it occurred in proximal tubules, a region of the kidney that is most prone to IR injury and also rich in the rate-limiting enzymes involved in ether-linked phospholipid biosynthesis. Use of SWATH-MS lipidomics in conjunction with MALDI-IMS for lipid localization will help in elucidating the role of lipids in the pathobiology of AKI. PMID:26911846

  19. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of early metabolic tumor response to therapies targeting choline metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mignion, Lionel; Danhier, Pierre; Magat, Julie; Porporato, Paolo E; Masquelier, Julien; Gregoire, Vincent; Muccioli, Giulio G; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard; Jordan, Bénédicte F

    2016-04-15

    The cholinic phenotype, characterized by elevated phosphocholine and a high production of total-choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, is a metabolic hallmark of cancer. It can be exploited for targeted therapy. Non-invasive imaging biomarkers are required to evaluate an individual's response to targeted anticancer agents that usually do not rapidly cause tumor shrinkage. Because metabolic changes can manifest at earlier stages of therapy than changes in tumor size, the aim of the current study was to evaluate (1)H-MRS and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) as markers of tumor response to the modulation of the choline pathway in mammary tumor xenografts. Inhibition of choline kinase activity was achieved with the direct pharmacological inhibitor H-89, indirect inhibitor sorafenib and down-regulation of choline-kinase α (ChKA) expression using specific short-hairpin RNA (shRNA). While all three strategies significantly decreased tCho tumor content in vivo, only sorafenib and anti-ChKA shRNA significantly repressed tumor growth. The increase of apparent-diffusion-coefficient of water (ADCw) measured by DW-MRI, was predictive of the induced necrosis and inhibition of the tumor growth in sorafenib treated mice, while the absence of change in ADC values in H89 treated mice predicted the absence of effect in terms of tumor necrosis and tumor growth. In conclusion, (1)H-choline spectroscopy can be useful as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for choline targeted agents, while DW-MRI can be used as an early marker of effective tumor response to choline targeted therapies. DW-MRI combined to choline spectroscopy may provide a useful non-invasive marker for the early clinical assessment of tumor response to therapies targeting choline signaling. PMID:26595604

  20. Dependent/Independent Images of the Early Adolescent Boys--Case Studies through "Sandplay Technique" and Dream Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Toshihisa

    The purpose of this paper is to present early adolescent Japanese boys' images that emerge from the counseling process through the use of sandplay and dreams. The author, an assistant professor of clinical psychology at the International Buddhist University in Japan, has made use of sandplay and dreams as a mediative method to understand and…

  1. In vivo small animal imaging for early assessment of therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Xiang; Meyers, Joseph; Mulvilhill, John; Feyes, Denise; Edgehouse, Nancy; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Pretlow, Thomas G.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-03-01

    We are developing in vivo small animal imaging techniques that can measure early effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for prostate cancer. PDT is an emerging therapeutic modality that continues to show promise in the treatment of cancer. At our institution, a new second-generation photosensitizing drug, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, has been developed and evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In this study, we are developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that provide therapy monitoring and early assessment of tumor response to PDT. We generated human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. For the imaging experiments, we used a highfield 9.4-T small animal MR scanner (Bruker Biospec). High-resolution MR images were acquired from the treated and control tumors pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. We utilized multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) MR sequences. During imaging acquisitions, the animals were anesthetized with a continuous supply of 2% isoflurane in oxygen and were continuously monitored for respiration and temperature. After imaging experiments, we manually segmented the tumors on each image slice for quantitative image analyses. We computed three-dimensional T2 maps for the tumor regions from the MSME images. We plotted the histograms of the T2 maps for each tumor pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. After the imaging and PDT experiments, we dissected the tumor tissues and used the histologic slides to validate the MR images. In this study, six mice with human prostate cancer tumors were imaged and treated at the Case Center for Imaging Research. The T2 values of treated tumors increased by 24 +/- 14% 24 hr after the therapy. The control tumors did not demonstrate significant changes of the T2 values. Inflammation and necrosis were observed within the treated tumors 24 hour after the treatment. Preliminary results show that Pc 4-PDT is effective for the treatment of human prostate cancer in mice. The small animal MR

  2. Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  3. Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Swan, Elizabeth; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is over 90% if early detection occurs, yet no effective early screening method exists. We have designed and are constructing a dual modality Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) endoscope to optically screen the Fallopian tube and ovary for early stage cancer. The endoscope reaches the ovary via the natural pathway of the vagina, cervix, uterus and Fallopian tube. In order to navigate the Fallopian tube the endoscope must have an outer diameter of 600 μm, be highly flexible, steerable, tracking and nonperforating. The imaging systems consists of six optical subsystems, two from OCT and four from MFI. The optical subsystems have independent and interrelated design criteria. The endoscope will be tested on realistic tissue models and ex vivo tissue to prove feasibility of future human trials. Ultimately the project aims to provide women the first effective ovarian cancer screening technique.

  4. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  5. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Filonenko, E V; Telegina, L V; Boulgakova, N N; Smirnov, V V

    2002-11-30

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  6. Modeling the RV jitter of early M dwarfs using tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, É. M.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; Boisse, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we show how tomographic imaging (Zeeman Doppler Imaging, ZDI) can be used to characterize stellar activity and magnetic field topologies, ultimately allowing to filter out the radial velocity (RV) activity jitter of M-dwarf moderate rotators. This work is based on spectropolarimetric observations of a sample of five weakly-active early M-dwarfs (GJ 205, GJ 358, GJ 410, GJ479, GJ 846) with HARPS-Pol and NARVAL. These stars have vsin i and RV jitters in the range 1-2 km s-1 and 2.7-10.0 m s-1 rms respectively. Using a modified version of ZDI applied to sets of phase-resolved Least-Squares- Deconvolved (LSD) profiles of unpolarized spectral lines, we are able to characterize the distribution of active regions at the stellar surfaces. We find that darks spots cover less than 2% of the total surface of the stars of our sample. Our technique is efficient at modeling the rotationally modulated component of the activity jitter, and succeeds at decreasing the amplitude of this component by typical factors of 2-3 and up to 6 in optimal cases. From the rotationally modulated time-series of circularly polarized spectra and with ZDI, we also reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field topology. These fields suggest that bi-stability of dynamo processes observed in active M dwarfs may also be at work for moderately active M dwarfs. Comparing spot distributions with field topologies suggest that dark spots causing activity jitter concentrate at the magnetic pole and/or equator, to be confirmed with future data on a larger sample.

  7. Modelling the RV jitter of early-M dwarfs using tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, É. M.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; Boisse, I.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show how tomographic imaging (Zeeman-Doppler imaging, ZDI) can be used to characterize stellar activity and magnetic field topologies, ultimately allowing us to filter out the radial velocity (RV) activity jitter of M dwarf moderate rotators. This work is based on spectropolarimetric observations of a sample of five weakly active early-M dwarfs (GJ 205, GJ 358, GJ 410, GJ 479, GJ 846) with HARPS-Pol and NARVAL. These stars have v sin i and RV jitters in the range 1-2 km s-1 and 2.7-10.0 m s-1 rms, respectively. Using a modified version of ZDI applied to sets of phase-resolved least-squares deconvolved profiles of unpolarized spectral lines, we are able to characterize the distribution of active regions at the stellar surfaces. We find that dark spots cover less than 2 per cent of the total surface of the stars of our sample. Our technique is efficient at modelling the rotationally modulated component of the activity jitter, and succeeds at decreasing the amplitude of this component by typical factors of 2-3 and up to 6 in optimal cases. From the rotationally modulated time series of circularly polarized spectra and with ZDI, we also reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field topology. These fields suggest that bistability of dynamo processes observed in active M dwarfs may also be at work for moderately active M dwarfs. Comparing spot distributions with field topologies suggest that dark spots causing activity jitter concentrate at the magnetic pole and/or equator, to be confirmed with future data on a larger sample.

  8. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of an HSP27-targeted nanoprobe for in vivo photoacoustic imaging of early nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Zhou, Ting; Xu, Jiankun; Hu, Jun; Xing, Da

    2016-08-01

    Imaging is routinely used for clinical and diagnostic purposes, but techniques capable of high specificity and resolution for the early detection of nerve injury are still limited. In this study, we found that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) becomes highly upregulated within 3 to 7 days of nerve injury. Taking advantage of this expression pattern, we conjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) to HSP27-specific antibodies to generate a nanoprobe (GNR-HSP27Abs) that could be targeted to the site of nerve injury and detected by near-infrared photoacoustic imaging. Notably, photoacoustic images acquired 12hours after local administration of GNR-HSP27Abs demonstrated that the nanoprobe can distinguish between injured and uninjured nerves in rats. Taken together, these findings expand the application of nanoprobe-targeted photoacoustic imaging to the detection of injured nerves, and prompt further development of this novel imaging platform for clinical application. PMID:27046663

  10. Endoscopy imaging of 5-ALA-induced PPIX fluorescence for detecting early neoplasms in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Olivo, Malini; Sivanandan, Ranjiv; Karuman, Philip; Lim, Tuan-Kay; Soo, K. C.

    2001-10-01

    A digitized fluorescence endoscopy imaging system combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) has been developed for the detection of neoplasms in oral cavity. It mainly consists of the illumination console, fluorescence detection unit, computer system for image acquisition, processing and analysis, and online image display system as well. The developed system can produce both the digital and video fluorescence images in real time, and can be used to quantify fluorescence images acquired. Preliminary results from the Head and Neck clinic show that high sensitivity and high specificity can be achieved. Furthermore, applying the intensity ratios at two different wavelength regions, the developed system shows the capability of differentiating between different histopathological stages of oral lesions, suggesting a significant potential for realizing the non-invasive optical biopsy for early cancer diagnosis.

  11. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: early and late magnetic resonance imaging findings in relation to outcome.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M; Pennock, J; Schwieso, J; Cowan, F; Dubowitz, L

    1996-11-01

    Sixteen infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) were studied using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) up to the age of 2 years. The infants had regular neurological and developmental assessments. An nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) score was devised to quantify the early and late MRI findings and a neurological optimality score was used to quantify abnormal neurological signs at the time of the final examination. The follow up MRI score was compared with the neonatal MRI score and the outcome of the child. There was a strong positive correlation between the neonatal and follow up MRI scores and between MRI scores and optimality score. All infants with a normal outcome had patchy white matter abnormalities. All infants with an abnormal outcome had extensive white matter abnormalities. The outcome was most severe in those infants with additional basal ganglia atrophy with or without cyst formation. Infants with mild HIE who are developmentally normal at the age of 2 years do not have normal MRI scans and may be at risk of minor neurological problems by school age. Bilateral basal ganglia abnormalities are associated with severe developmental delay, but infants with mainly white matter and cortical abnormalities have less severe problems despite extensive tissue loss. PMID:8976678

  12. Early Instrument Performance Results from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Guenther, B. W.; Barnes, W. L.; Murphy, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a major observational capability flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 "Terra" mission. This mission is to go into orbit in late 1999 or very early 2000. The MODIS was developed to provide improved observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features relative to "heritage instruments" such as the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Nimbus Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)and the SeaStar/SeaWiFS instruments, in particular. In addition the MODIS should provide complementary observations to the Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper and the NOAA HIRS instrument. There has been considerable effort to include capabilities or plans to characterize and assure calibration of the instrument data. These efforts include on on-board blackbody (BB), a solar diffuser (SID), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), and a spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SDSM). These devices, along with careful analyses of scenes acquired during orbit, are expected to allow comparisons with pre-launch expectations regarding spatial performance, spectral performance, and radiometric performance. In addition deep space observations and observations of the moon are to be used to characterize instrument performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative comparisons, as results become available from the Terra MODIS, to heritage instruments, pre-launch expectations and specifications.

  13. Magnifying Endoscopy with Narrow Band Imaging of Early Gastric Cancer: Correlation with Histopathology and Mucin Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Baek, Dong Hoon; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is a useful modality for the detailed visualization of microsurface (MS) and microvascular (MV) structures in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine whether the MS and MV patterns in ME-NBI differ according to the histologic type, invasion depth, and mucin phenotype of early gastric cancers (EGCs). Methods The MS and MV patterns of 160 lesions in 160 patients with EGC who underwent ME-NBI before endoscopic or surgical resection were prospectively collected and analyzed. EGCs were categorized as either differentiated or undifferentiated and as either mucosal or submucosal, and their mucin phenotypes were determined via immunohistochemistry of the tumor specimens. Results Differentiated tumors mainly displayed an oval and/or tubular MS pattern and a fine network or loop MV pattern, whereas undifferentiated tumors mainly displayed an absent MS pattern and a corkscrew MV pattern. The destructive MS pattern was associated with submucosal invasion, and this association was more prominent in the differentiated tumors than in the undifferentiated tumors. MUC5AC expression was increased in lesions with either a papillary or absent MS pattern and a corkscrew MV pattern, whereas MUC6 expression was increased in lesions with a papillary MS pattern and a loop MV pattern. CD10 expression was more frequent in lesions with a fine network MV pattern. Conclusions ME-NBI can be useful for predicting the histopathology and mucin phenotype of EGCs. PMID:27021504

  14. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  15. Frontiers for the Early Diagnosis of AD by Means of MRI Brain Imaging and Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Christian; Battista, Petronilla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a consequence of increasing aging population makes urgent the availability of methods for the early and accurate diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could be used as in vivo, non invasive tool to identify sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression. In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and machine- learning algorithms have attracted strong interest within the neuroimaging community, as they allow automatic classification of imaging data with higher performance than univariate statistical analysis. An exhaustive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Medline records was performed in this work, in order to retrieve studies focused on the potential role of MRI in aiding the clinician in early diagnosis of AD by using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as MVPA automated classification method. A total of 30 studies emerged, published from 2008 to date. This review aims to give a state-of-the-art overview about SVM for the early and differential diagnosis of AD-related pathologies by means of MRI data, starting from preliminary steps such as image pre-processing, feature extraction and feature selection, and ending with classification, validation strategies and extraction of MRI-related biomarkers. The main advantages and drawbacks of the different techniques were explored. Results obtained by the reviewed studies were reported in terms of classification performance and biomarker outcomes, in order to shed light on the parameters that accompany normal and pathological aging. Unresolved issues and possible future directions were finally pointed out. PMID:26567735

  16. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Yi, Dingrong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fengtao; Liu, Fuhan; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel idea, innovative technology in building multi spectral imaging based device. The benefit from them is people can have low cost, handheld and standing alone device which makes acquire multi spectral images real time with just a snapshot. The paper for the first time publishes some images got from such prototyped miniaturized multi spectral imager.

  17. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of Substantia Nigra Is a Sensitive Method for Early Diagnosis and Disease Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Yuhu; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Ma, Guixian; Nie, Kun; Xie, Haiqun; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Background. To diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) in an early stage and accurately evaluate severity, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Method. Seventy-two untreated patients with early PD and 72 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging. Regions of interest were drawn in the rostral, middle, and caudal SN by two blinded and independent raters. Mean kurtosis (MK) and fractional anisotropy in the SN were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Spearman correlation analyses were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy and correlate imaging findings with Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging and part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). Result. MK in the SN was increased significantly in PD patients compared with healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was 0.976 for MK in the SN (sensitivity, 0.944; specificity, 0.917). MK in the SN had a positive correlation with H-Y staging and UPDRS-III scores. Conclusion. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is a sensitive method for PD diagnosis and severity evaluation. MK in the SN is a potential biomarker for imaging studies of early PD that can be widely used in clinic. PMID:26770867

  18. Recent Advances in Molecular Imaging of Premalignant Gastrointestinal Lesions and Future Application for Early Detection of Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Han, Na Young; Kwon, Chang Il; Lee, Hoo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in optical molecular imaging allow identification of morphologic and biochemical changes in tissues associated with gastrointestinal (GI) premalignant lesions earlier and in real-time. This focused review series introduces high-resolution imaging modalities that are being evaluated preclinically and clinically for the detection of early GI cancers, especially Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and chromoendoscopy are currently applied for this purpose in the clinic, further adoptions of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and metabolomic imaging, as well as imaging mass spectrometry, will lead to detection at the earliest and will guide predictions of the clinical course in the near future in a manner that is beyond current advancements in optical imaging. In this review article, the readers will be introduced to sufficient information regarding this matter with which to enjoy this new era of high technology and to confront science in the field of molecular medical imaging. PMID:24570878

  19. Early Changes in Atrial Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Hypertension: Assessment by Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Burcak Kilickiran; Gulmez, Oyku; Donmez, Guclu; Pehlivanoglu, Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension (HT) is associated with atrial electrophysiological abnormalities. Echocardiographic pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of atrial electromechanical properties. The aims of our study were to investigate the early changes in atrial electromechanical conduction in patients with HT and to assess the parameters that affect atrial electromechanical conduction. Methods: Seventy-six patients with HT (41 males, mean age 52.6 ± 9.0 years) and 41 controls (22 males, mean age 49.8 ± 7.9 years) were included in the study. Atrial electromechanical coupling at the right (PRA), left (PLA), interatrial septum (PIS) were measured with TDI. Intra- (right: PIS-PRA, left: PLA-PIS) and inter-atrial (PLA-PRA) electromechanical delays were calculated. Maximum P-wave duration (Pmax) was calculated from 12-lead electrocardiogram. Results: Atrial electromechanical coupling at PLA (76.6 ± 14.1 ms vs. 82.9 ± 15.8 ms, P = 0.036), left intra-atrial (10.9 ± 5.0 ms vs. 14.0 ± 9.7 ms, P = 0.023), right intra-atrial (10.6 ± 7.8 ms vs. 14.5 ± 10.1 ms, P = 0.035), and interatrial electromechanical (21.4 ± 9.8 ms vs. 28.3 ± 12.7 ms, P = 0.003) delays were significantly longer in patients with HT. The linear regression analysis showed that left ventricular (LV) mass index and Pmax were significantly associated with PLA (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), and the LV mass index was the only related factor for interatrial delay (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Intra- and interatrial electromechanical delay, PLA were significantly prolonged in hypertensive patients. LV mass index and Pmax were significantly associated with PLA, and the LV mass index was the only related factor for interatrial delay. The atrial TDI can be a valuable method to assess the early changes of atrial electromechanical conduction properties in those patients. PMID:27231168

  20. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  1. Delineation of Early and Later Adult Onset Depression by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjun; Nie, Binbin; Li, Na; Luo, Chunrong; Li, Haijun; Liu, Fang; Bai, Yan; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a lack of evidence, there is no consistent age of onset to define early onset (EO) versus later onset (LO) major depressive disorder (MDD). Fractional anisotropy (FA), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been widely used to study neuropsychiatric disorders by providing information about the brain circuitry, abnormalities of which might facilitate the delineation of EO versus LO MDD. Method In this study, 61 pairs of untreated, non-elderly, first-episode MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) aged 18–45 years old received DTI scans. The voxel-based analysis method (VBM), classification analysis, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and regression analyses were used to determine abnormal FA clusters and their correlations with age of onset and clinical symptoms. Results Classification analysis suggested in the best model that there were two subgroups of MDD patients, delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, by which MDD patients could be divided into EO (18–29 years old) and LO (30–45 years old) groups. LO MDD was characterized by decreased FA, especially in the white matter (WM) of the fronto-occipital fasciculus and posterior limb of internal capsule, with a negative correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms; in marked contrast, EO MDD showed increased FA, especially in the WM of the corpus callosum, corticospinal midbrain and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, while FA of the WM near the midbrain had a positive correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Specific abnormalities of the brain circuitry in EO vs. LO MDD were delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, as demonstrated by distinct abnormal FA clusters with opposite correlations with clinical symptoms. This DTI study supported the evidence of an exact age for the delineation of MDD, which could have broad multidisciplinary importance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703742 PMID:25393297

  2. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of cortical development through early childhood in autism.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Cynthia M; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Wideman, Graham M; Carper, Ruth A; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Pierce, Karen; Hagler, Donald; Schork, Nicholas; Lord, Catherine; Courchesne, Eric

    2010-03-24

    Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however, this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We performed the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms of autism are becoming clinically apparent using structural MRI scans at multiple time points beginning at 1.5 years up to 5 years of age. We collected 193 scans on 41 toddlers who received a confirmed diagnosis of autistic disorder at approximately 48 months of age and 44 typically developing controls. By 2.5 years of age, both cerebral gray and white matter were significantly enlarged in toddlers with autistic disorder, with the most severe enlargement occurring in frontal, temporal, and cingulate cortices. In the longitudinal analyses, which we accounted for age and gender effect, we found that all regions (cerebral gray, cerebral white, frontal gray, temporal gray, cingulate gray, and parietal gray) except occipital gray developed at an abnormal growth rate in toddlers with autistic disorder that was mainly characterized by a quadratic age effect. Females with autistic disorder displayed a more pronounced abnormal growth profile in more brain regions than males with the disorder. Given that overgrowth clearly begins before 2 years of age, future longitudinal studies would benefit from inclusion of even younger populations as well as further characterization of genetic and other biomarkers to determine the underlying neuropathological processes causing the onset of autistic symptoms. PMID:20335478

  3. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume.

    PubMed

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Miles, Darryl K

    2016-01-01

    Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (p<0.05). GOS-E Peds correlated with HLVI-total (r=0.39; p=0.002) and HLVI in all three zones: zone A (r=0.31; p<0.02); zone B (r=0.35; p=0.004); and zone C (r=0.37; p=0.003). In adolescents ages 13-17 years, HLVI-total correlated best with outcome (r=0.5; p=0.007), whereas in younger children under the age of 13, HLVI-zone B correlated best (r=0.52; p=0.001). Compared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  4. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  5. Early detection of glaucoma using fully automated disparity analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) from stereo fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Archie; Corona, Enrique; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian S.

    2006-03-01

    Early detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical in diagnosis of glaucoma, because such glaucomatous damage precedes clinically identifiable visual loss. Early detection of glaucoma can prevent progression of the disease and consequent loss of vision. Traditional early detection techniques involve observing changes in the ONH through an ophthalmoscope. Stereo fundus photography is also routinely used to detect subtle changes in the ONH. However, clinical evaluation of stereo fundus photographs suffers from inter- and intra-subject variability. Even the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) has not been found to be sufficiently sensitive for early detection. A semi-automated algorithm for quantitative representation of the optic disc and cup contours by computing accumulated disparities in the disc and cup regions from stereo fundus image pairs has already been developed using advanced digital image analysis methodologies. A 3-D visualization of the disc and cup is achieved assuming camera geometry. High correlation among computer-generated and manually segmented cup to disc ratios in a longitudinal study involving 159 stereo fundus image pairs has already been demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of the proposed technique can only be tested by a fully automated algorithm. In this paper, we present a fully automated algorithm for segmentation of optic cup and disc contours from corresponding stereo disparity information. Because this technique does not involve human intervention, it eliminates subjective variability encountered in currently used clinical methods and provides ophthalmologists with a cost-effective and quantitative method for detection of ONH structural damage for early detection of glaucoma.

  6. A fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in corneal images.

    PubMed

    Al-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami; Al-Waisy, Alaa S; Ipson, Stanley; Malik, Rayaz A; Brahma, Arun; Chen, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering. Second, morphological operations are applied to remove unwanted objects in the input image such as epithelial cells and small nerve segments. Finally, an edge detection step is applied to detect all the nerves in the input image. In this step, an efficient algorithm for connecting discontinuous nerves is proposed. In the morphometric parameters quantification part, a number of features are extracted, including thickness, tortuosity and length of nerve, which may be used for the early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy and when planning Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) or Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The performance of the proposed segmentation system is evaluated against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 498 corneal sub-basal nerve images (238 are normal and 260 are abnormal). In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed system in extracting morphometric features with clinical utility was evaluated in 919 images taken from healthy subjects and diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. We demonstrate rapid (13 seconds/image), robust and effective automated corneal nerve quantification. The proposed system will be deployed as a useful clinical tool to support the expertise of ophthalmologists and save the clinician time in a busy clinical setting. PMID:27586488

  7. Early and delayed thallium 201 imaging. Diagnosis of patients with cold thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bleichrodt, R.P.; Vermey, A.; Piers, D.A.; de Langen, Z.J.

    1987-12-01

    To investigate the utility of thallium 201 (Tl-201) thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of thyroid malignancies, early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy was done in 70 consecutive patients with a clinically solitary cold (Iodine 123 (I-123)) nodule. Early Tl-201 scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 7% in predicting malignancy. With a combination of early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy, sensitivity ranged from 17 to 25% and specificity from 95 to 100%. Early and and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy are only of limited value for the detection of thyroid cancer.

  8. Study of Functional Infrared Imaging for Early Detection of Mucositis in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Ahmed, Omar; Kocherginsky, Masha; Shustakova, Galyna; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Salama, Joseph K.; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Novosad, Valentyn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has led to improved efficacy in treating locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN) but has led to almost universal in-field mucositis. Patients treated with the same regimen often have differences in mucositis occurrence and severity. Mucositis induced via radiation is known to represent an intense inflammatory response histologically. We hypothesized that patients destined to display severe mucocutaneous toxicity would demonstrate greater alterations in thermal intensity early in therapy than identically treated counterparts. This will allow identification of patients that will require more intensive supportive care using thermal imaging technology. Materials and Methods Subjects with LA-SCCHN (oral cavity or oropharynx) being treated with the identical chemoradiotherapy regimen underwent baseline and weekly thermal imaging. Changes in skin temperature caused by mucositis and dermatitis compared with a reference area (T were calculated and correlated to grade of mucositis based on NCI-CTCAE 3.0. Results Thirty-four subjects were enrolled. Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis was observed in 53% and 21%, respectively. We observed a statistically significant positive association between an early rise in T and mucositis grade (p value=0.03). Conclusions Thermal imaging is able to detect small and early changes in skin surface temperature that may be associated with development of mucositis in patients being treated with chemoradiotherapy. PMID:23988569

  9. Continuous Grading of Early Fibrosis in NAFLD Using Label-Free Imaging: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirhonen, Juho; Arola, Johanna; Sädevirta, Sanja; Luukkonen, Panu; Karppinen, Sanna-Maria; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Isomäki, Antti; Hukkanen, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Early detection of fibrosis is important in identifying individuals at risk for advanced liver disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We tested whether second-harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, detecting fibrillar collagen and fat in a label-free manner, might allow automated and sensitive quantification of early fibrosis in NAFLD. Methods We analyzed 32 surgical biopsies from patients covering histological fibrosis stages 0–4, using multimodal label-free microscopy. Native samples were visualized by SHG and CARS imaging for detecting fibrillar collagen and fat. Furthermore, we developed a method for quantitative assessment of early fibrosis using automated analysis of SHG signals. Results We found that the SHG mean signal intensity correlated well with fibrosis stage and the mean CARS signal intensity with liver fat. Little overlap in SHG signal intensities between fibrosis stages 0 and 1 was observed. A specific fibrillar SHG signal was detected in the liver parenchyma outside portal areas in all samples histologically classified as having no fibrosis. This signal correlated with immunohistochemical location of fibrillar collagens I and III. Conclusions This study demonstrates that label-free SHG imaging detects fibrillar collagen deposition in NAFLD more sensitively than routine histological staging and enables observer-independent quantification of early fibrosis in NAFLD with continuous grading. PMID:26808140

  10. Clinical value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma - with a special emphasis on early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Gadoxetic acid- or gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) achieves excellent lesion detection and characterization for both hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in arterial phase imaging and hypovascular early HCC (small well-differentiated HCC of the vaguely nodular type) in hepatobiliary phase imaging, and has become an indispensable imaging modality in the treatment of HCC. Early HCCs have been detected more frequently since the introduction of EOB-MRI into daily clinical practice. Early HCC is known to progress to conventional hypervascular HCC, and many risk factors have been identified for the hypervascularization of early HCC including the diameter of the tumor, presence of fat, and imaging findings of EOB-MRI. The rate of the development of hypervascular HCC was previously reported to be high in patients with chronic liver disease and early HCC. The presence of early HCC is regarded as a predictor for the recurrence of HCC following hepatic resection. On the other hand, although early HCC itself is currently not regarded as a target lesion for hepatic resection, early HCC at high risk of hypervascularity needs to be treated by local ablation therapy. If concomitant early HCC with progressed HCC is at high risk of hypervascularization and the functional liver reserve of a patient is sufficient, its simultaneous treatment at the time of hepatic resection for progressed HCC is recommended. Further studies on larger numbers of patients are needed before this strategy is adopted. PMID:26730272

  11. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  12. Optimal settings and accuracy of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging for sentinel node biopsy in early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    KINAMI, SHINICHI; OONISHI, TOSHIO; FUJITA, JUN; TOMITA, YASUTO; FUNAKI, HIROSHI; FUJITA, HIDETO; NAKANO, YASUHARU; UEDA, NOBUHIKO; KOSAKA, TAKEO

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging represents a promising method for sentinel node (SN) biopsy in laparoscopic gastric surgery due to its signal stability. In the present study, the suitability and optimal settings of ICG fluorescence imaging for SN biopsy in early gastric cancer were determined. Patients with single primary superficial-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach, lesions <5 cm in diameter, and no evident nodal metastasis and out of indication for endoscopic submucosal dissection were enrolled. The day prior to surgery, ICG solution was endoscopically injected into four quadrants of the submucosal layer of the tumor. The Photodynamic Eye was used to detect ICG fluorescence. Bright nodes were defined as clearly fluorescent nodes. A total of 72 patients were enrolled; 11 cases presented with metastasis, and of these, 10 could be diagnosed by bright node biopsy. The adequate concentration and injection volume of ICG was determined to be 50 µg/ml (×100) and 0.5 mlx4 points, respectively. There was 1 false-negative case, and this was attributed to the failure of the frozen section diagnosis. These results suggested that ICG fluorescence imaging for SN biopsy in laparoscopic surgery for early gastric cancer is feasible. However, a weakness of ICG fluorescence imaging is the subjectivity of bright node evaluation. PMID:27313740

  13. Molecular Imaging of Platelet-Endothelial Interactions and Endothelial Von Willebrand Factor In Early and Mid-Stage Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chi Young; Liu, Ya Ni; Atkinson, Tamara; Xie, Aris; Foster, Ted; Davidson, Brian P.; Treible, Mackenzie; Qi, Yue; López, José A.; Munday, Adam; Ruggeri, Zaverio; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-thrombotic platelet-endothelial interactions may contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development, although in vivo studies examining mechanism without platelet pre-activation are lacking. Using in vivo molecular imaging at various stages of atherosclerosis, we quantified platelet-endothelial interactions and evaluated the contribution of major adhesion pathways. Methods and Results Mice deficient for the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1 were studied as an age-dependent model of atherosclerosis at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wks of age, which provided progressive increase in stage from very early fatty streak (10 wks) to large complex plaques without rupture (40 wks). Platelet-targeted contrast ultrasound molecular imaging of the thoracic aorta performed with microbubbles targeted to GPIbα demonstrated selective signal enhancement as early as 10 weeks of age. This signal increased progressively with age (almost 8-fold increase from 10 to 40 weeks, ANOVA p<0.001). Specificity for platelet targeting was confirmed by the reduction in platelet-targeted signal commensurate with the decrease in platelet count after immunodepletion with anti-GPIb or anti-CD41 antibody. Inhibition of P-selectin in 20 and 40 wk atherosclerotic mice resulted in a small (15-30%) reduction in platelet signal. Molecular imaging with microbubbles targeted to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF) demonstrated selective signal enhancement at all time points which did not significantly increase with age. Treatment of 20 and 40 week mice with recombinant ADAMTS13 eliminated platelet and VWF molecular imaging signal. Conclusions Platelet-endothelial interactions occur in early atherosclerosis. These interactions are in part due to endothelial VWF large multimers which can be reversed with exogenous ADAMTS13. PMID:26156014

  14. CT Perfusion Imaging as an Early Biomarker of Differential Response to Stereotactic Radiosurgery in C6 Rat Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy Pok Chi; Kurdi, Maher; Wang, Yong; Al-Khazraji, Baraa; Morrison, Laura; Hoffman, Lisa; Jackson, Dwayne; Crukley, Cathie; Lee, Ting-Yim; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav

    2014-01-01

    Background The therapeutic efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma is not well understood, and there needs to be an effective biomarker to identify patients who might benefit from this treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging as an early imaging biomarker of response to stereotactic radiosurgery in a malignant rat glioma model. Methods Rats with orthotopic C6 glioma tumors received either mock irradiation (controls, N = 8) or stereotactic radiosurgery (N = 25, 12 Gy in one fraction) delivered by Helical Tomotherapy. Twelve irradiated animals were sacrificed four days after stereotactic radiosurgery to assess acute CT perfusion and histological changes, and 13 irradiated animals were used to study survival. Irradiated animals with survival >15 days were designated as responders while those with survival ≤15 days were non-responders. Longitudinal CT perfusion imaging was performed at baseline and regularly for eight weeks post-baseline. Results Early signs of radiation-induced injury were observed on histology. There was an overall survival benefit following stereotactic radiosurgery when compared to the controls (log-rank P<0.04). Responders to stereotactic radiosurgery showed lower relative blood volume (rBV), and permeability-surface area (PS) product on day 7 post-stereotactic radiosurgery when compared to controls and non-responders (P<0.05). rBV and PS on day 7 showed correlations with overall survival (P<0.05), and were predictive of survival with 92% accuracy. Conclusions Response to stereotactic radiosurgery was heterogeneous, and early selection of responders and non-responders was possible using CT perfusion imaging. Validation of CT perfusion indices for response assessment is necessary before clinical implementation. PMID:25329655

  15. Sequential Cranial Ultrasound and Cerebellar Diffusion Weighted Imaging Contribute to the Early Prognosis of Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Margaretha J.; van Kooij, Britt J. M.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the contribution of sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging (TEA-MRI) including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in a cohort of very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <31 weeks). Study design In total, 93 preterm infants (median [range] GA in weeks: 28.3 [25.0–30.9]) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and underwent early and term cUS as well as TEA-MRI including DWI. Early cUS abnormalities were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe. Term cUS was evaluated for ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (VM) and enlargement of the extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF) space. Abnormalities on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI were scored according to Kidokoro et al. Using DWI at TEA, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured in four white matter regions bilaterally and both cerebellar hemispheres. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years’ corrected age (CA) using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between the different neuroimaging modalities and outcome. Results Moderate/severe abnormalities on early cUS, ex-vacuo VM and enlargement of the eCSF space on term cUS and increased cerebellar ADC values on term DWI were independently associated with worse motor outcome (p<.05). Ex-vacuo VM on term cUS was also related to worse cognitive performance at two years’ CA (p<.01). Conclusion These data support the clinical value of sequential cUS and recommend repeating cUS at TEA. In particular, assessment of moderate/severe early cUS abnormalities and ex-vacuo VM on term cUS provides important prognostic information. Cerebellar ADC values may further aid in the prognostication of gross motor function. PMID:25329772

  16. Integrating High-Dimensional Transcriptomics and Image Analysis Tools into Early Safety Screening: Proof of Concept for a New Early Drug Development Strategy.

    PubMed

    Verbist, Bie M P; Verheyen, Geert R; Vervoort, Liesbet; Crabbe, Marjolein; Beerens, Dominiek; Bosmans, Cindy; Jaensch, Steffen; Osselaer, Steven; Talloen, Willem; Van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Van Hecke, Geert; Wuyts, Dirk; Van Goethem, Freddy; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H

    2015-10-19

    During drug discovery and development, the early identification of adverse effects is expected to reduce costly late-stage failures of candidate drugs. As risk/safety assessment takes place rather late during the development process and due to the limited ability of animal models to predict the human situation, modern unbiased high-dimensional biology readouts are sought, such as molecular signatures predictive for in vivo response using high-throughput cell-based assays. In this theoretical proof of concept, we provide findings of an in-depth exploration of a single chemical core structure. Via transcriptional profiling, we identified a subset of close analogues that commonly downregulate multiple tubulin genes across cellular contexts, suggesting possible spindle poison effects. Confirmation via a qualified toxicity assay (in vitro micronucleus test) and the identification of a characteristic aggregate-formation phenotype via exploratory high-content imaging validated the initial findings. SAR analysis triggered the synthesis of a new set of compounds and allowed us to extend the series showing the genotoxic effect. We demonstrate the potential to flag toxicity issues by utilizing data from exploratory experiments that are typically generated for target evaluation purposes during early drug discovery. We share our thoughts on how this approach may be incorporated into drug development strategies. PMID:26313431

  17. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V; Parry, R Mitchell; Gaul, David A; Wang, May D; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  18. Functionalized magnetic nanochains with enhanced MR imaging: A novel nanosystem for targeting and inhibition of early glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhi; Yin, Guangfu; Wang, Lei; Gao, Fabao

    2016-04-01

    Absence of efficient targeting limits the application of magnetic nanochains (NCs) in the diagnosis of early brain cancer. Herein, dextran-coated NCs (more than 100nm length and ∼10nm cores diameter), which were modified by cyclic pentapeptide c(RGDyC) or chlorotoxin (CTX) as the targeting molecules, were fabricated via carbodiimide chemistry and thiol technique. The analysis results revealed that the obtained slender NCs exhibited good biocompatibility, superparamagnetic property, high transverse relaxivity (R2) and longer blood circulation time. The test results of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and U251 human glioma cells indicated that the conjugation of c(RGDyC) could obviously increase the cyto-internalization of c(RGDyC)-NCs, however, CTX modification could significantly enhance accumulation of CTX-NCs in U251 cells, leading to cellular apoptosis. The results of in vivo biodistribution tests and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicated that, although the c(RGDyC)-NCs could target early glioma to some extent and obviously enhance the contrast of MR imaging, CTX-NCs possessed higher tumor-targeting ability and good inhibition effect than the c(RGDyC)-NCs, suggesting that CTX-NCs are promising candidates for the diagnosis and therapy of early glioma. PMID:26803007

  19. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  20. Discovery of Radioiodinated Monomeric Anthraquinones as a Novel Class of Necrosis Avid Agents for Early Imaging of Necrotic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Shengwei; Jiang, Cuihua; Li, Jindian; Wang, Cong; Chen, Linwei; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of myocardial viability is deemed necessary to aid in clinical decision making whether to recommend revascularization therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Dianthraquinones such as hypericin (Hyp) selectively accumulate in necrotic myocardium, but were unsuitable for early imaging after administration to assess myocardial viability. Since dianthraquinones can be composed by coupling two molecules of monomeric anthraquinone and the active center can be found by splitting chemical structure, we propose that monomeric anthraquinones may be effective functional groups for necrosis targetability. In this study, eight radioiodinated monomeric anthraquinones were evaluated as novel necrosis avid agents (NAAs) for imaging of necrotic myocardium. All 131I-anthraquinones showed high affinity to necrotic tissues and 131I-rhein emerged as the most promising compound. Infarcts were visualized on SPECT/CT images at 6 h after injection of 131I-rhein, which was earlier than that with 131I-Hyp. Moreover, 131I-rhein showed satisfactory heart-to-blood, heart-to-liver and heart-to-lung ratios for obtaining images of good diagnostic quality. 131I-rhein was a more promising “hot spot imaging” tracer for earlier visualization of necrotic myocardium than 131I-Hyp, which supported further development of radiopharmaceuticals based on rhein for SPECT/CT (123I and 99mTc) or PET/CT imaging (18F and 124I) of myocardial necrosis. PMID:26878909

  1. Development of a Multiparametric Voxel-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarker for Early Cancer Therapeutic Response Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, Craig J.; Lemasson, Benjamin; Hoff, Benjamin A.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Tsien, Christina; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarkers, which capture physiological and functional tumor processes, were evaluated as imaging surrogates of early tumor response following chemoradiotherapy in glioma patients. A multiparametric extension of a voxel-based analysis, referred as the parametric response map (PRM), was applied to quantitative MRI maps to test the predictive potential of this metric for detecting response. Fifty-six subjects with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas treated with radiation and concurrent temozolomide were enrolled in a single-site prospective institutional review board-approved MRI study. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were acquired before therapy and 3 weeks after therapy was initiated. Multiparametric PRM (mPRM) was applied to both physiological MRI maps and evaluated as an imaging biomarker of patient survival. For comparison, single-biomarker PRMs were also evaluated in this study. The simultaneous analysis of ADC and rCBV by the mPRM approach was found to improve the predictive potential for patient survival over single PRM measures. With an array of quantitative imaging parameters being evaluated as biomarkers of therapeutic response, mPRM shows promise as a new methodology for consolidating physiologically distinct imaging parameters into a single interpretable and quantitative metric. PMID:26568982

  2. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging of pancreatic cancer: Potential for early diagnosis through targeted strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongjie; Yan, Yuzhong; Zou, Qi; Chen, Jie; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)-based magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, noninvasive tool in biomedical imaging. The recent embedding of SPIO in nanoencapsulations that had different controllable surface properties has now made it possible to use SPIO in the imaging of metabolic processes. The two major issues to realize maximized and selective SPIO cancer targeting are the minimization of macrophage uptake and the preferential binding to cancerous cells over healthy neighbor cells. The utility of SPIO has been shown in clinical applications using a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Applications have ranged from detecting inflammatory diseases to the specific identification of cell surface markers expressed on tumors. This review focuses on iron-oxide-based nanoparticles, to include the physiochemical properties of SPION surface engineering and its synthetic methods as well as SPIO imaging applications and specifically targeted SPIO conjugates (e.g. targeted probes) for labeling cancerous, cell-surface molecules. As a specific application of this technology, we discuss its use in the imaging of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma in addition to its potential for use in early diagnosis through targeted strategies. PMID:26663873

  3. In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers.

    PubMed

    Zellweger, M; Grosjean, P; Goujon, D; Monnier, P; van den Bergh, H; Wagnières, G

    2001-01-01

    We are developing an imaging system to detect pre-/early cancers in the tracheo-bronchial tree. Autofluorescence might be useful but many features remain suboptimal. We have studied the autofluorescence of human healthy, metaplastic and dysplastic/CIS bronchial tissue, covering excitation wavelengths from 350 to 480 nm. These measurements are performed with a spectrofluorometer whose distal end is designed to simulate the spectroscopic response of an imaging system using routine bronchoscopes. Our data provide information about the excitation and emission spectral ranges to be used in a dual range detection imaging system to maximize the tumor vs healthy and the tumor vs. inflammatory/metaplastic contrast in detecting pre-/early malignant lesions. We find that the excitation wavelengths yielding the highest contrasts are between 400 and 480 nm with a peak at 405 nm. We also find that the shape of the spectra of healthy tissue is similar to that of its inflammatory/metaplastic counterpart. Finally we find that, when the spectra are normalized, the region of divergence between the tumor and the nontumor spectra is consistently between 600 and 800 nm and that the transition wavelength between the two spectral regions is around 590 nm for all the spectra regardless of the excitation wavelength, thus suggesting that there might be one absorber or one fluorophore. The use of backscattered red light enhances the autofluorescence contrast. PMID:11178579

  4. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex (tBuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that tBuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35–40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI. PMID:25565804

  5. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P<0.01), compared to normal controls. More than 80% of the VEGFR-2 in the diabetic retina was in the capillaries, compared to 47% in normal controls (P<0.01). Angiography in rabbit retinas revealed microvascular capillaries to be the location for VEGF-A-induced leakage, as expressed by significantly higher rate of fluorophore spreading with VEGF-A injection when compared to vehicle control (26±2 vs. 3±1 μm/s, P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed VEGFR-2 expression in capillaries of diabetic animals but not in normal controls. Macular vessels from diabetic patients (n=7) showed significantly more VEGFR-2 compared to nondiabetic controls (n=5) or peripheral retinal regions of the same retinas (P<0.01 in both cases). Here we introduce a new approach for early diagnosis of DR and VEGFR-2 as a molecular marker. VEGFR-2 could become a key diagnostic target, one that might help to prevent retinal vascular leakage and proliferation in diabetic patients.—Sun, D., Nakao, S., Xie, F., Zandi, S., Bagheri, A., Kanavi, M. R., Samiei, S., Soheili, Z.-S., Frimmel, S., Zhang, Z., Ablonczy, Z., Ahmadieh, H., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis. PMID:24903276

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Early Spondylodiscitis: Interpretive Challenges and Atypical Findings.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jeong A; Lee, In Sook; Suh, Hie Bum; Song, You Seon; Song, Jong Woon

    2016-01-01

    MR findings of early infectious spondylodiscitis are non-specific and may be confused with those of other conditions. Therefore, it is important to recognize early MR signs of conditions, such as inappreciable cortical changes in endplates, confusing marrow signal intensities of vertebral bodies, and inflammatory changes in paraspinal soft tissues, and subligamentous and epidural spaces. In addition, appreciation of direct inoculation, such as in iatrogenic spondylodiscitis may be important, because the proportion of patients who have undergone recent spine surgery or a spinal procedure is increasing. In this review, the authors focus on the MR findings of early spondylodiscitis, atypical findings of iatrogenic infection, and the differentiation between spondylodiscitis and other disease entities mimicking infection. PMID:27587946

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Early Spondylodiscitis: Interpretive Challenges and Atypical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Jeong A; Suh, Hie Bum; Song, You Seon; Song, Jong Woon

    2016-01-01

    MR findings of early infectious spondylodiscitis are non-specific and may be confused with those of other conditions. Therefore, it is important to recognize early MR signs of conditions, such as inappreciable cortical changes in endplates, confusing marrow signal intensities of vertebral bodies, and inflammatory changes in paraspinal soft tissues, and subligamentous and epidural spaces. In addition, appreciation of direct inoculation, such as in iatrogenic spondylodiscitis may be important, because the proportion of patients who have undergone recent spine surgery or a spinal procedure is increasing. In this review, the authors focus on the MR findings of early spondylodiscitis, atypical findings of iatrogenic infection, and the differentiation between spondylodiscitis and other disease entities mimicking infection. PMID:27587946

  8. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  9. Early structural anomalies observed by high-resolution imaging in two related cases of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

  10. Early detection of metastatic disease in asymptomatic breast cancer patients with whole-body imaging and defined tumour marker increase

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, D; Stieber, P; Schmidt, G P; Nagel, D; Heinemann, V; Baur-Melnyk, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Follow-up care in breast cancer is still an issue of debate. Diagnostic methods are more sensitive, and more effective therapeutic options are now available. The risk of recurrence is not only influenced by tumour stage but also by the different molecular subtypes. This study was performed to evaluate the use of whole-body imaging combined with tumour marker monitoring for the early detection of asymptomatic metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: This analysis was performed as part of a follow-up study evaluating 813 patients with a median follow-up of 63 months. After primary therapy, all patients underwent tumour marker monitoring for CEA, CA 15-3 and CA 125 at 6-week intervals within an intensified diagnostic aftercare algorithm. A reproducible previously defined increase was considered as a strong indicator of MBC. From 2007 to 2010, 44 patients with tumour marker increase underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and/or an FDG-PET/CT scan. Histological clarification and/or imaging follow-up were done. Results: Metastases were detected in 65.9% (29/44) of patients, 13.6% (6/44) had secondary malignancies besides breast cancer and 20.5% (9/44) had no detectable malignancy. Limited disease was found in 24.1% (7/29) of patients. Median progression-free survival of MBC was 9.2 months and median overall survival was 41.1 months. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 64.2% and 40.0%, respectively. Conclusions: A reproducible tumour marker increase followed by whole-body imaging is highly effective for early detection. By consequence, patients might benefit from earlier detection and improved therapeutic options with a prolonged survival. PMID:25647014

  11. Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Delyse M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls' self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls' level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends' respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence. PMID:17258173

  12. Effect of 18F-FDG uptake time on lesion detectability in PET imaging of early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Novakova, Alena; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Kurland, Brenda F.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports have suggested that delayed FDG-PET oncology imaging can improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for known lesions. Our goal was to estimate realistic bounds for lesion detectability for static measurements with one to four hours between FDG injection and image acquisition. Tumor and normal tissue kinetic model parameters were estimated from dynamic PET studies of patients with early stage breast cancer. These were used to generate time-activity curves (TACs) out to four hours, for which we assumed both nonreversible and reversible models with different rates of FDG dephosphorylation (k4). For each pair of tumor and normal tissue TACs, 600 PET sinogram realizations were generated, and images were reconstructed using OSEM. Test statistics for each tumor and normal tissue region of interest were output from the computer model observers and evaluated using an ROC analysis with the calculated AUC providing a measure of lesion detectability. For the nonreversible model (k4 = 0), the AUC increased in 11/23 (48%) of patients for one to two hours after the current standard post-radiotracer injection imaging window of one hour. This improvement was driven by increased tumor/normal tissue contrast before the impact of increased noise due to radiotracer decay began to dominate the imaging signal. As k4 was increased from 0 to 0.01 min−1, the time of maximum detectability shifted earlier, as the decreasing FDG concentration in the tumor lowered the CNR. These results imply that delayed PET imaging may reveal low-conspicuity lesions that would have otherwise gone undetected. PMID:26807443

  13. Modeling distinct imaging hemodynamics early after TBI: the relationship between signal amplitude and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; McAleavey, Andrew A; Rostami, Sohayla; Slocomb, Julia; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, fMRI studies of cognitive change following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have investigated blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity during working memory (WM) performance in individuals in early and chronic phases of recovery. Recently, BOLD fMRI work has largely shifted to focus on WM and resting functional connectivity following TBI. However, fundamental questions in WM remain. Specifically, the effects of injury on the basic relationships between local and interregional functional neuroimaging signals during WM processing early following moderate to severe TBI have not been examined. This study employs a mixed effects model to examine prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe signal change during a WM task, the n-back, and whether there is covariance between regions of high amplitude signal change, (synchrony of elicited activity (SEA) very early following TBI. We also examined whether signal change and SEA differentially predict performance during WM. Overall, percent signal change in the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) was and important predictor of both reaction time (RT) and SEA in early TBI and matched controls. Right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) percent signal change positively predicted SEA within and between persons regardless of injury status, suggesting that the link between these neurodynamic processes in WM-activated regions remains unaffected even very early after TBI. Additionally, rPFC activity was positively related to RT within and between persons in both groups. Right parietal (rPAR) activity was negatively related to RT within subjects in both groups. Thus, the local signal intensity of the rPFC in TBI appears to be a critical property of network functioning and performance in WM processing and may be a precursor to recruitment observed in chronic samples. The present results suggest that as much research moves toward large scale functional connectivity modeling, it will be essential to develop integrated models of how local and

  14. Echocardiographic and Fluoroscopic Fusion Imaging for Procedural Guidance: An Overview and Early Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Sanon, Saurabh; Geske, Jeffrey B; Eleid, Mackram F; Nijhof, Niels; Malouf, Joseph F; Rihal, Charanjit S; Bruce, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    There has been significant growth in the volume and complexity of percutaneous structural heart procedures in the past decade. Increasing procedural complexity and accompanying reliance on multimodality imaging have fueled the development of fusion imaging to facilitate procedural guidance. The first clinically available system capable of echocardiographic and fluoroscopic fusion for real-time guidance of structural heart procedures was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012. Echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging combines the precise catheter and device visualization of fluoroscopy with the soft tissue anatomy and color flow Doppler information afforded by echocardiography in a single image. This allows the interventionalist to perform precise catheter manipulations under fluoroscopy guidance while visualizing critical tissue anatomy provided by echocardiography. However, there are few data available addressing this technology's strengths and limitations in routine clinical practice. The authors provide a critical review of currently available echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging for guidance of structural heart interventions to highlight its strengths, limitations, and potential clinical applications and to guide further research into value of this emerging technology. PMID:27021355

  15. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  16. Early detection of toxigenic fungi on maize by hyperspectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Del Fiore, A; Reverberi, M; Ricelli, A; Pinzari, F; Serranti, S; Fabbri, A A; Bonifazi, G; Fanelli, C

    2010-11-15

    Fungi can grow on many food commodities. Some fungal species, such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium spp., can produce, under suitable conditions, mycotoxins, secondary metabolites which are toxic for humans and animals. Toxigenic fungi are a real issue, especially for the cereal industry. The aim of this work is to carry out a non destructive, hyperspectral imaging-based method to detect toxigenic fungi on maize kernels, and to discriminate between healthy and diseased kernels. A desktop spectral scanner equipped with an imaging based spectrometer ImSpector- Specim V10, working in the visible-near infrared spectral range (400-1000 nm) was used. The results show that the hyperspectral imaging is able to rapidly discriminate commercial maize kernels infected with toxigenic fungi from uninfected controls when traditional methods are not yet effective: i.e. from 48 h after inoculation with A. niger or A. flavus. PMID:20869132

  17. Multimodal imaging in autism: an early review of comprehensive neural circuit characterization.

    PubMed

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Herrington, John D

    2014-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is linked to atypical neural communication and connectivity. This body of work emphasizes the need to characterize the function of multiple regions that comprise neural circuits rather than focusing on singular regions as contributing to deficits in ASD. Multimodal neuroimaging - the formal combination of multiple functional and structural measures of the brain - is extremely promising as an approach to understanding neural deficits in ASD. This review provides an overview of the multimodal imaging approach, and then provides a snapshot of how multimodal imaging has been applied in the study of ASD to date. This body of work is separated into two categories: one concerning whole brain connectomics and the other focused on characterizing neural circuits implicated as altered in ASD. We end this review by highlighting emerging themes from the existing body of literature, and new resources that will likely influence future multimodal imaging studies. PMID:25260934

  18. Evaluation of Stiffness of the Spastic Lower Extremity Muscles in Early Spinal Cord Injury by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate intrinsic viscoelastic changes using shear wave velocities (SWVs) of spastic lower extremity muscles in patients with early spinal cord injury (SCI) via acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and to evaluate correlation between the SWV values and spasticity. Methods Eighteen patients with SCI within 3 months and 10 healthy adults participated. We applied the ARFI technique to measure SWV of gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) and long head of biceps femoris muscle. Spasticity of ankle and knee joint was assessed by original Ashworth Scale. Results Ten patients with SCI had spasticity. Patients with spasticity had significantly faster SWV for GCM and biceps femoris muscle than those without spasticity (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.007 and p=0.008) and normal control (p=0.011 and p=0.037, respectively). The SWV values of GCM correlated with the ankle spasticity (Spearman rank teat, p=0.026). There was significant correlation between the SWV values for long head of biceps femoris muscle and knee spasticity (Spearman rank teat, p=0.022). Conclusion ARFI demonstrated a difference in muscle stiffness in the GCM between patients with spastic SCI and those without spasticity. This finding suggested that stiffness of muscles increased in spastic lower extremity of early SCI patients. ARFI imaging is a valuable tool for noninvasive assessment of the stiffness of the spastic muscle and has the potential to identify pathomechanical changes of the tissue associated with SCI. PMID:26161345

  19. Tracking early autoimmune disease by bioluminescent imaging of NF-kappaB activation reveals pathology in multiple organ systems.

    PubMed

    Zangani, Michael; Carlsen, Harald; Kielland, Anders; Os, Audun; Hauglin, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune; Munthe, Ludvig A; Bogen, Bjarne

    2009-04-01

    It is desirable to have an early and sensitive detection marker of autoimmune disease in intact animals. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is a transcription factor that is associated with inflammatory responses and immune disorders. Previously, we demonstrated that so-called idiotypic-driven T-B cell collaboration in mice doubly transgenic for paired immunoglobulin and T cell receptor transgenes resulted in a systemic autoimmune disease with systemic lupus erythematosus-like features. Here, we investigated NF-kappaB activation by including an NF-kappaB-responsive luciferase reporter transgene in this animal model. Triply transgenic mice developed bioluminescence signals from diseased organs before onset of clinical symptoms and autoantibody production, and light emissions correlated with disease progression. Signals were obtained from secondary lymphoid organs, inflamed intestines, skin lesions, and arthritic joints. Moreover, bioluminescence imaging and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that a minority of mice suffered from an autoimmune disease of the small intestine, in which light emissions correlated with antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and gliadin. Detection of luciferase by immunohistochemistry revealed NF-kappaB activation in collaborating B and T cells, as well as in macrophages. These results demonstrate that bioluminescent in vivo imaging of NF-kappaB activation can be used for early and sensitive detection of autoimmune disease in an experimental mouse model, offering new possibilities for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:19286564

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects and Predicts Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Canine Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Vikram; Sugawara, Takashi; Zhang, John; Jacobson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The canine double hemorrhage model is an established model to study cerebral vasospasm, the late sequelae of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the recently reported early brain injury after SAH. Double hemorrhage SAH modeling was obtained by injecting 0.5 mL/kg of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna of five adult mongrel dogs on day 0 and day 2, followed by imaging at day 2 and day 7 using a 4.7-Tesla (T) scanner. White matter (WM) showed a remarkable increase in T2 values at day 2 which resolved by day 7, whereas gray matter (GM) T2 values did not resolve. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values progressively increased in both WM and GM after SAH, suggestive of a transition from vasogenic to cytotoxic edema. Ventricular volume also increased dramatically. Prominent neuronal injury with Nissl's staining was seen in the cortical GM and in the periventricular tissue. Multimodal MRI reveals acute changes in the brain after SAH and can be used to non-invasively study early brain injury and normal pressure hydrocephalus post-SAH. MR can also predict tissue histopathology and may be useful for assessing pharmacological treatments designed to ameliorate SAH. PMID:18729770

  1. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past. PMID:24855872

  2. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Swann, Karl; Borri, Paola

    2016-06-15

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  3. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Transverse Relaxometry in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonenc, Atilla; Frazier, Jean A.; Crowley, David J.; Moore, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Transverse relaxation time (T2) imaging provides the opportunity to examine membrane fluidity, which can affect a number of cellular functions. The objective of the present work was to examine T2 abnormalities in children with unmodified DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorder (BD) in bilateral cingulate-paracingulate (CPC) white matter. Method: A…

  4. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  5. Lateral Temporal Lobe: An Early Imaging Marker of the Presymptomatic GRN Disease?

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Paola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Durrleman, Stanley; Funkiewiez, Aurélie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Hahn, Valérie; Bertin, Hugo; Gaubert, Malo; Routier, Alexandre; Hannequin, Didier; Deramecourt, Vincent; Pasquier, Florence; Rivaud-Pechoux, Sophie; Vercelletto, Martine; Edouart, Geoffrey; Valabregue, Romain; Lejeune, Pascal; Didic, Mira; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Benali, Habib; Lehericy, Stephane; Dubois, Bruno; Colliot, Olivier; Brice, Alexis; Le Ber, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The preclinical stage of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is not well characterized. We conducted a brain metabolism (FDG-PET) and structural (cortical thickness) study to detect early changes in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers (aGRN+) that were evaluated longitudinally over a 20-month period. At baseline, a left lateral temporal lobe hypometabolism was present in aGRN+ without any structural changes. Importantly, this is the first longitudinal study and, across time, the metabolism more rapidly decreased in aGRN+ in lateral temporal and frontal regions. The main structural change observed in the longitudinal study was a reduction of cortical thickness in the left lateral temporal lobe in carriers. A limit of this study is the relatively small sample (n = 16); nevertheless, it provides important results. First, it evidences that the pathological processes develop a long time before clinical onset, and that early neuroimaging changes might be detected approximately 20 years before the clinical onset of disease. Second, it suggests that metabolic changes are detectable before structural modifications and cognitive deficits. Third, both the baseline and longitudinal studies provide converging results implicating lateral temporal lobe as early involved in GRN disease. Finally, our study demonstrates that structural and metabolic changes could represent possible biomarkers to monitor the progression of disease in the presymptomatic stage toward clinical onset. PMID:26401709

  6. Short Association Fibres of the Insula-Temporoparietal Junction in Early Psychosis: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, Sean N.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Scott, Elizabeth; Bennett, Maxwell R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows that there are reductions in gray matter volume (GMV) and changes in long association white matter fibres within the left insula-temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during the early stages of psychotic disorders but less is known about short association fibres (sAFs). In this study we sought to characterise the changes in sAFs and associated volumetric changes of the left insula-TPJ during the early stages of psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from a sample of young people with psychosis (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 45), and cortical parcellations of the left insula-TPJ were used as seeding masks to reconstruct 13 sAFs. Compared to healthy counterparts, the psychosis group showed significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the sAFs connecting the superior (STG) and middle temporal gyri (MTG) and as well as reduced GMV within the inferior temporal gyrus and increased white matter volume (WMV) within Heschl's gyrus (HG). Furthermore, adolescent-onset psychosis subjects (onset 18 year or earlier) showed FA reductions in the STG-HG sAF when compared to adult-onset subjects, but this was not associated with changes in GMV nor WMV of the STG or HG. These findings suggest that during the early stages of psychosis, changes in sAFs and associated cortical GMV and WMV appear to occur independently, however age of onset of a psychotic syndrome/disorder influences the pattern of neuroanatomical abnormalities. PMID:25405994

  7. Comparison of clinical, radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early prediction of canine hip laxity and dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ginja, Mário M D; Ferreira, António J; Jesus, Sandra S; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Bulas-Cruz, José; Orden, Maria A; San-Roman, Fidel; Llorens-Pena, Maria P; Gonzalo-Orden, José M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use two palpation methods (Bardens and Ortolani), a radiographic distraction view, three computed tomography (CT) measurements (dorsolateral subluxation score, the lateral center-edge angle, and acetabular ventroversion angle) and two magnetic resonance (MR) imaging hip studies (synovial fluid and acetabular depth indices) in the early monitoring of hip morphology and laxity in 7-9 week old puppies; and in a follow-up study to compare their accuracy in predicting later hip laxity and dysplasia. The MR imaging study was performed with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the CT study with the animal in a weight-bearing position. There was no association between clinical laxity with later hip laxity or dysplasia. The dorsolateral subluxation score and the lateral center-edge angle were characterized by a weak negative correlation with later radiographic passive hip laxity (-0.26 < r < -0.38, P < 0.05) but its association with hip dysplasia was not significant. There was an association between early radiographic passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index with later passive hip laxity (0.41 < r < 0.55, P < 0.05) and this was significantly different in dysplastic vs. nondysplastic hips (P < 0.05). There was no association between the remaining variables and later hip laxity or dysplasia. The overlapping ranges of early passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index for hip dysplasia grades and the moderate correlations with the later passive hip laxity make the results of these variables unreliable for use in predicting hip laxity and dysplasia susceptibility. PMID:19400458

  8. [Molecular imaging-based early-phase and exploratory clinical research].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging became a key technology for innovative drug development. Especially, positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied to patho-physiological science, pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics (PD/PK) studies, and drug delivery system (DDS) studies, and accelerated the paradigm shift not only from experimental animals to human subjects, but also from PK in blood circulation to PK in target tissues, even in human. Our RIKEN Centre for Molecular Imaging Science has been established to promote such innovative drug developmental studies with PET molecular imaging, as a center of excellence for development of molecular probes. The center is creating novel labeling methods on drug candidate molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides, and is providing the molecular probes suitable for targeting bio-functional molecules and cellular functions, which are useful for evaluation of drug efficacy and pharmacokinetics in human subjects. Animal PET studies with mice, rats, rabbits, marmosets, and macaque monkeys have also been promoted both under anesthetic condition and consciousness, which was a really difficult task but important for comparison with human PET studies. In this sense, mutual collaboration between the research consortia in basic PET field and in clinical PET molecular imaging such as Osaka City University Hospital would be of great value. Here, the concept, outline of our activities, and PK/PD studies with efficient application of molecular imaging is presented. In addition, the results of the first cassette-dose and micro-dose clinical trials approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project represented by Prof. Yuichi Sugiyama) are described. PMID:23370512

  9. Detection of Alzheimer's disease signature in MR images seven years before conversion to dementia: Toward an early individual prognosis.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir S; Bernard, Charlotte; Zandifar, Azar; Eskildsen, Simon F; Helmer, Catherine; Manjón, José V; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwenaelle; Collins, D Louis

    2015-12-01

    Finding very early biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) to aid in individual prognosis is of major interest to accelerate the development of new therapies. Among the potential biomarkers, neurodegeneration measurements from MRI are considered as good candidates but have so far not been effective at the early stages of the pathology. Our objective is to investigate the efficiency of a new MR-based hippocampal grading score to detect incident dementia in cognitively intact patients. This new score is based on a pattern recognition strategy, providing a grading measure that reflects the similarity of the anatomical patterns of the subject under study with dataset composed of healthy subjects and patients with AD. Hippocampal grading was evaluated on subjects from the Three-City cohort, with a followup period of 12 years. Experiments demonstrate that hippocampal grading yields prediction accuracy up to 72.5% (P < 0.0001) 7 years before conversion to AD, better than both hippocampal volume (58.1%, P = 0.04) and MMSE score (56.9%, P = 0.08). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) supports the efficiency of imaging biomarkers with a gain of 8.4 percentage points for hippocampal grade (73.0%) over hippocampal volume (64.6%). Adaptation of the proposed framework to clinical score estimation is also presented. Compared with previous studies investigating new biomarkers for AD prediction over much shorter periods, the very long followup of the Three-City cohort demonstrates the important clinical potential of the proposed imaging biomarker. The high accuracy obtained with this new imaging biomarker paves the way for computer-based prognostic aides to help the clinician identify cognitively intact subjects that are at high risk to develop AD. PMID:26454259

  10. Potential for Early Fracture Risk Assessment in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease using Parametric Response Mapping of CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Benjamin A.; Toole, Michael; Yablon, Corrie; Ross, Brian D.; Luker, Gary D.; VanPoznak, Catherine; Galbán, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic vertebral compression fractures (PVCF) cause significant morbidity in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer and other malignancies. Due to limitations of existing biochemical and imaging biomarkers, clinicians currently have no reliable metrics to identify patients with impending PVCF, impeding efforts to prevent this severe complication. To establish the feasibility of a new method for defining risk of PVCF, we retrospectively analyzed serial CT scans from five breast cancer patients using parametric response mapping (PRM) to quantify dynamic bone density changes that preceded an event. Vertebrae segmented from each scan were registered to vertebrae at the earliest time point (i.e. furthest from PVCF) and voxel classification accomplished using a predetermined threshold of change in HU values, resulting in relative volumes of increased (PRMHU+), decreased (PRMHU−), or unchanged (PRMHU0) attenuation. A total of seven PVCF were compared to un-diseased vertebrae in each patient serving as controls. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis identified optimal image acquisition and analysis times for group stratification. Bone density changes were visualized by an increasing trend in PRMHU+ as early as one year before fracture. PRMHU− demonstrated negligible changes over the course of the study. These observations were consistent with ROC results, showing poor performance of PRMHU− in stratifying PVCF versus control. As early as 6 months prior to PVCF, PRMHU+ was significantly larger (12.9 ± 11.6%) compared to control vertebrae (2.3 ± 2.5%), with an AUC of 0.918 from a receiver operator curve analysis. Mean HU changes were also significant between PVCF (+26.8 ± 26.9%) and control (−2.2 ± 22.0%) over the same period. PRM analysis of bone density changes using standard CT imaging was sensitive for spatially resolving bone remodeling which preceded structural failure in patients with breast cancer vertebral metastases. PMID:26771006

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a New Contrast Agent for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Biasutti, Maria; Dufour, Natacha; Ferroud, Clotilde; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore), should it become clinically available. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In alternative “screen and treat” scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population). We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the “screen and treat” analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. Conclusions/Significance It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove cost

  12. Evidence of slow maturation of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in early childhood by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyang; Evans, Alan; Hermoye, Laurent; Lee, Seung-Koo; Wakana, Setsu; Zhang, Weihong; Donohue, Pamela; Miller, Michael I; Huang, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing; van Zijl, Peter C M; Mori, Susumu

    2007-11-01

    While the majority of axonal organization is established by birth in mammalian brains, axonal wiring and pruning processes, as well as myelination, are known to extend to the postnatal periods, where environmental stimuli often play a major role. Normal axonal and myelin development of individual white matter tracts of human in this period is poorly understood and may have a major role in cognitive development of human. In this study, we applied diffusion tensor imaging and normalization-based population analyses to 44 preteen children and 30 adult images. We observed highly significant changes of fiber orientations at regions that correspond to the superior longitudinal fasciculus during the first 5 years. The result is attributed to slow axonal and/or myelin maturation of this tract, which is believed to be involved in language functions. PMID:17826183

  13. Evaluation of two imaging techniques: near-infrared transillumination and dental radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Maia, A M A; Karlsson, L; Margulis, W; Gomes, A S L

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper was to evaluate a transillumination (TI) system using near-infrared (NIR) light and bitewing radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries lesions. Methods Mesiodistal sections of teeth (n = 14) were cut with various thicknesses from 1.5 mm to 4.75 mm. Both sides of each section were included, 17 approximal surfaces with natural enamel caries and 11 surfaces considered intact. The approximal surfaces were illuminated by NIR light and X-ray. Captured images were analysed by two calibrated specialists in radiology, and re-analysed after 6 months using stereomicroscope images as a gold standard. Results The interexaminer reliability (Kappa test statistic) for the NIR TI technique showed moderate agreement on first (0.55) and second (0.48) evaluation, and low agreement for bitewing radiographs on first (0.26) and second (0.32) evaluation. In terms of accuracy, the sensitivity for the NIR TI system was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.72. For the bitewing radiographs the sensitivity ranged from 0.35 to 0.53 and the specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. Conclusion In the same samples and conditions tested, NIR TI images showed reliability and the enamel caries surfaces were better identified than on dental radiographs. PMID:21960400

  14. Early-Stage Imaging of Nanocarrier-Enhanced Chemotherapy Response in Living Subjects by Scalable Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional evaluation methods of chemotherapeutic efficacy such as tissue biopsy and anatomical measurement are either invasive with potential complications or dilatory to capture the rapid pathological changes. Here, a sensitive and resolution-scalable photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with theranostic nanoformulation was developed to noninvasively monitor the therapy response in a timely manner. Ultrasmall graphene oxide nanosheets were designed as both drug-loading vehicle and photoacoustic signal amplifier to the tumor. With the signal enhancement by the injected contrast agents, the subtle microvascular changes of the chemotherapy response in tumor were advantagely revealed by our PAM system, which was much earlier than the morphological measurement by standard imaging techniques. High tumor uptake of the enhanced nanodrug with Cy5.5 labeling was validated by fluorescence imaging. At different observation scales, PAM offered unprecedented sensitivity of optical absorption and high spatial resolution over optical imaging. Our studies demonstrate the PAM system with synergistic theranostic strategy to be a multiplexing platform for tumor diagnosis, drug delivery, and chemotherapy response monitoring at a very early stage and in an effective way. PMID:25406986

  15. Early averted gaze processing in the right Fusiform Gyrus: An EEG source imaging study.

    PubMed

    Berchio, Cristina; Rihs, Tonia A; Piguet, Camille; Dayer, Alexandre G; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christoph M

    2016-09-01

    Humans are able to categorize face properties with impressively short latencies. Nevertheless, the latency at which gaze recognition occurs is still a matter of debate. Through spatio-temporal analysis of high-density event-related potentials (ERP), we investigated the brain activity underlying the ability to spontaneously and quickly process gaze. We presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze in a matching picture paradigm, where subjects had to detect repetition of identical faces and gaze was implicitly manipulated. The results indicate that faces with averted gaze were better discriminated than faces with direct gaze, and evoked stronger P100 amplitudes localized to the right fusiform gyrus. In contrast, direct gaze induced stronger activation in the orbital frontal gyrus at this latency. Later in time, at the beginning of the N170 component, direct gaze induced changes in scalp topography with a stronger activation in the right medial temporal gyrus. The location of these differential activations of direct vs. averted gaze further support the view that faces with averted gaze are perceived as less rewarding than faces with direct gaze. We additionally found differential ERP responses between repeated and novel faces as early as 50ms, thereby replicating earlier studies of very fast detection of mnestic aspects of stimuli. Together, these results suggest an early dissociation between implicit gaze detection and explicit identity processing. PMID:27381931

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christian; Cerasa, Antonio; Battista, Petronilla; Gilardi, Maria C.; Quattrone, Aldo; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as to lessen the time and cost of clinical trials. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-related biomarkers have been recently identified by the use of machine learning methods for the in vivo differential diagnosis of AD. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging papers investigating this topic are focused on the difference between AD and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), not considering the impact of MCI patients who will (MCIc) or not convert (MCInc) to AD. Morphological T1-weighted MRIs of 137 AD, 76 MCIc, 134 MCInc, and 162 healthy controls (CN) selected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohort, were used by an optimized machine learning algorithm. Voxels influencing the classification between these AD-related pre-clinical phases involved hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal ganglia, gyrus rectus, precuneus, and cerebellum, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. Classification accuracy was 76% AD vs. CN, 72% MCIc vs. CN, 66% MCIc vs. MCInc (nested 20-fold cross validation). Our data encourage the application of computer-based diagnosis in clinical practice of AD opening new prospective in the early management of AD patients. PMID:26388719

  17. Imaging of vascular development in early mouse decidua and its association with leukocytes and trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Croy, B Anne; Chen, Zhilin; Hofmann, Alexander P; Lord, Edith M; Sedlacek, Abigail L; Gerber, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    In species with endometrial decidualization and hemochorial placentation (humans, mice, and others), leukocytes localize to early implant sites and contribute to decidual angiogenesis, spiral arterial remodeling, and trophoblast invasion. Relationships between leukocytes, trophoblasts, and the decidual vasculature are not fully defined. Early C57BL/6J implant sites were analyzed by flow cytometry to define leukocyte subsets and by whole-mount immunohistochemistry to visualize relationships between leukocytes, decidual vessels, and trophoblasts. Ptprc(+) (CD45(+)) cells increased in decidua between Gestational Day (GD) 5.5 and GD 9.5. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells that showed dynamic expression of Cd (CD) 69, an activating receptor, and Klrg1 (KLRG1), an inhibitory receptor, localized mesometrially and were the dominant CD45(+) cells between GD 5.5 and GD 7.5. At GD 8.5, immature monocytes that occurred throughout decidua exceeded uNK cells numerically and many leukocytes acquired irregular shapes, and leukocyte-leukocyte conjugates became frequent. Vessels were morphologically heterogeneous and regionally unique. Migrating trophoblasts were first observed at GD 6.5 and, at GD 9.5, breached endothelium, entered vascular lumens, and appeared to occlude some vessels, as described for human spiral arteries. No leukocyte-trophoblast conjugates were detected. Whole-mount staining gave unparalleled decidual vascular detail and cell-specific positional information. Its application across murine models of pregnancy disturbances should significantly advance our understanding of the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:22954796

  18. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  19. Continuous automated imaging-in-flow cytometry for detection and early warning of Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lisa; Henrichs, Darren W; Olson, Robert J; Sosik, Heidi M

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring programs for harmful algal blooms (HABs) typically rely on time-consuming manual methods for identification and enumeration of phytoplankton, which make it difficult to obtain results with sufficient temporal resolution for early warning. Continuous automated imaging-in-flow by the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) deployed at Port Aransas, TX has provided early warnings of six HAB events. Here we describe the progress in automating this early warning system for blooms of Karenia brevis. In 2009, manual inspection of IFCB images in mid-August 2009 provided early warning for a Karenia bloom that developed in mid-September. Images from 2009 were used to develop an automated classifier that was employed in 2011. Successful implementation of automated file downloading, processing and image classification allowed results to be available within 4 h after collection and to be sent to state agency representatives by email for early warning of HABs. No human illness (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning) has resulted from these events. In contrast to the common assumption that Karenia blooms are near monospecific, post-bloom analysis of the time series revealed that Karenia cells comprised at most 60-75 % of the total microplankton. PMID:23307076

  20. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  1. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    PubMed

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  2. Use of gallium-67 liver imaging for the early diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Horovitz, I.; Keynan, A.

    1984-03-01

    A gallium-67 study, performed in a rare case of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in a 6-yr-old child, showed marked concentration of the tracer in the left and caudate lobes of the liver. Ten days later, a less specific and clear-cut appearance of left- and caudate-lobe concentration of Tc-99m phytate was obtained. The possible use of Ga-67 citrate imaging to diagnose BCS in its earliest stage is suggested, although no firm conclusion can be made from this single case.

  3. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  4. Early Venous Occlusion Detection in a Free Flap Using Real-time Laser Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alkhashnam, Héba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Kolb, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Early detection of venous occlusion in free flaps is particularly difficult to identify, and its duration is known to be directly proportional to flap mortality. Here, we report a case of deep inferior epigastric perforator based breast reconstruction in which the intraoperative use of a perfusion camera enabled identifying a venous occlusion based on microcirculatory pulsation dynamics in real time. The sensitivity of our proposed method suggests that in certain cases in which the onset of venous occlusion begins in the operating room we can detect and treat occlusion before sending the patient to recovery. Further development of this technique will allow for earlier and more objective decision making with regard to venous occlusion detection in free tissue transfer. PMID:25289200

  5. Digital image correlation: a technique for determining local mechanical conditions within early bone callus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M S; Schell, H; Lienau, J; Duda, G N

    2007-09-01

    Local mechanical conditions are known to play a role during the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues, and histomorphometrical investigations of the time course of healing have enabled specific conclusions regarding the mechanosensitivity of tissue differentiation. However, the mechanism for this influence is not clearly understood. In order to extend this analysis, it is essential to link local histological understanding with direct characterisation of the local mechanical environment. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a computer-based image analysis technique that enables the non-contact measurement of strains on material surfaces and is finding application in many areas of biomechanics. Here we report a DIC technique to investigate the local distribution of mechanical strain within regenerating soft tissue sections. We provide exemplary data from analysis of a section of sheep bone callus. An assessment of displacement measurement accuracy gave an RMS error of 4.2 microm, corresponding to an estimated strain error of 1.4%. The sections showed concentrations of up to four times the applied strain and comparison of the strain patterns with histological analysis confirmed that these concentrations reflected boundaries between hard and soft callus. PMID:17045512

  6. Progress on a Landsat 8 Image Mosaic of Antarctica and Early Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T.

    2015-12-01

    The polar regions, and the large ice sheets in particular, are quickly evolving harbingers of global change. Therefore, it is important that we measure and monitor the ice sheets in a consistent and repeatable manner over time. While kilometer-scale resolution sensors like MODIS and VIIRS can do this on a daily basis, the higher spatial and radiometric resolution of Landsat 8 supports a more quantitative measure of polar change over decameter spatial scales and weekly to seasonal timescales. To date, Landsat 8 has collected over two years of imagery of exceptional radiometric quality and geolocation accuracy, and with unprecedented acquisition rates for the poles. Building upon lessons learned from the Landsat 7 Antarctic mosaic (LIMA; Bindschadler et al., 2008, Remote Sensing of the Environment), this project harnesses the multispectral imaging capabilities of Landsat 8 with Google's Earth Engine to produce time-series data sets for monitoring the remote, vast, polar ice sheets in a fraction of the time it would take to do so with traditional computational methods (or earlier manual efforts). We focus on building cloud-free, multi-temporal Landsat 8 mosaics ('data cubes') by applying a range of strategies (e.g., normalized indices, statistically based thresholds, image cross-correlation). These can then be used to quantify ice sheet surface and snow cover properties over time to study ice sheet change (e.g., ice sheet morphology, ice shelf extent, snow grain size, melt and melt pond extent, surface wind direction from drift orientation).

  7. Early detection of skin cancer via terahertz spectral profiling and 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K; Rao, Babar

    2016-08-15

    Terahertz scanning reflectometry, terahertz 3D imaging and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy have been used to identify features in human skin biopsy samples diagnosed for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with healthy skin samples. It was found from the 3D images that the healthy skin samples exhibit regular cellular pattern while the BCC skin samples indicate lack of regular cell pattern. The skin is a highly layered structure organ; this is evident from the thickness profile via a scan through the thickness of the healthy skin samples, where, the reflected intensity of the terahertz beam exhibits fluctuations originating from different skin layers. Compared to the healthy skin samples, the BCC samples' profiles exhibit significantly diminished layer definition; thus indicating a lack of cellular order. In addition, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy reveals significant and quantifiable differences between the healthy and BCC skin samples. Thus, a combination of three different terahertz techniques constitutes a conclusive route for detecting the BCC condition on a cellular level compared to the healthy skin. PMID:27040943

  8. Molecular imaging: High-resolution detectors for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Fratoni, R.; Lo Meo, S.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santanvenere, F.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Simonetti, G.; Schillaci, O.; Del Vecchio, S.; Salvatore, M.; Majewski, S.; Lanza, R. C.; De Vincentis, G.; Scopinaro, F.

    2006-12-01

    Dedicated high-resolution detectors are required for detection of small cancerous breast tumours by molecular imaging with radionuclides. Absorptive collimation is normally applied in imaging single photon emitters, but it results in a strong reduction in detection efficiency. Systems based on electronic collimation are complex and expensive. For these reasons simulations and measurements have been performed to design optimised dedicated high-resolution mini gamma camera. Critical parameters are contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Intrinsic performance (spatial resolution, pixel identification, and response linearity and uniformity) were first optimised. Pixellated scintillator arrays (NaI(Tl)) of different pixel size were coupled to arrays of PSPMTs with different anode pad dimensions (6×6 mm 2 and 3×3 mm 2). Detectors having a field of view (FOV) of 100×100 mm 2 and 150×200 mm 2 were designed and built. The electronic system allows read out of all the anode pad signals. The collimation technique was then considered and limits of coded aperture option were studied. Preliminary results are presented.

  9. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Buist, Diana S M; Gold, Laura S; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D; Sullivan, Sean D; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08-2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  10. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Diana S. M.; Gold, Laura S.; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D.; Sullivan, Sean D.; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  11. A method to assist in the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy: Image processing applied to detection of microaneurysms in fundus images.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Romero, Roberto; Martínez-Carballido, Jorge; Hernández-Capistrán, Jonathan; Uribe-Valencia, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of developing any deterioration in the blood vessels that supply the retina, an ailment known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Since this disease is asymptomatic, it can only be diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. However, the growth of the number of ophthalmologists is lower than the growth of the population with diabetes so that preventive and early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of opportunity in terms of time and cost. Preliminary, affordable and accessible ophthalmological diagnosis will give the opportunity to perform routine preventive examinations, indicating the need to consult an ophthalmologist during a stage of non proliferation. During this stage, there is a lesion on the retina known as microaneurysm (MA), which is one of the first clinically observable lesions that indicate the disease. In recent years, different image processing algorithms, which allow the detection of the DR, have been developed; however, the issue is still open since acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity have not yet been reached, preventing its use as a pre-diagnostic tool. Consequently, this work proposes a new approach for MA detection based on (1) reduction of non-uniform illumination; (2) normalization of image grayscale content to improve dependence of images from different contexts; (3) application of the bottom-hat transform to leave reddish regions intact while suppressing bright objects; (4) binarization of the image of interest with the result that objects corresponding to MAs, blood vessels, and other reddish objects (Regions of Interest-ROIs) are completely separated from the background; (5) application of the hit-or-miss Transformation on the binary image to remove blood vessels from the ROIs; (6) two features are extracted from a candidate to distinguish real MAs from FPs, where one feature discriminates round shaped candidates (MAs) from elongated shaped ones (vessels) through application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA

  12. Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management. PMID:21943349

  13. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  14. Early breast tumor and late SARS detections using space-variant multispectral infrared imaging at a single pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Buss, James R.; Kopriva, Ivica

    2004-04-01

    We proposed the physics approach to solve a physical inverse problem, namely to choose the unique equilibrium solution (at the minimum free energy: H= E - ToS, including the Wiener, l.m.s E, and ICA, Max S, as special cases). The "unsupervised classification" presumes that required information must be learned and derived directly and solely from the data alone, in consistence with the classical Duda-Hart ATR definition of the "unlabelled data". Such truly unsupervised methodology is presented for space-variant imaging processing for a single pixel in the real world case of remote sensing, early tumor detections and SARS. The indeterminacy of the multiple solutions of the inverse problem is regulated or selected by means of the absolute minimum of isothermal free energy as the ground truth of local equilibrium condition at the single-pixel foot print.

  15. Live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in CNS dopaminergic neurons in vivo demonstrates early reversal of mitochondrial transport following MPP(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Dukes, April A; Bai, Qing; Van Laar, Victor S; Zhou, Yangzhong; Ilin, Vladimir; David, Christopher N; Agim, Zeynep S; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Cannon, Jason R; Watkins, Simon C; Croix, Claudette M St; Burton, Edward A; Berman, Sarah B

    2016-11-01

    Extensive convergent evidence collectively suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, changes in the dynamic properties of mitochondria have been increasingly implicated as a key proximate mechanism underlying neurodegeneration. However, studies have been limited by the lack of a model in which mitochondria can be imaged directly and dynamically in dopaminergic neurons of the intact vertebrate CNS. We generated transgenic zebrafish in which mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons are labeled with a fluorescent reporter, and optimized methods allowing direct intravital imaging of CNS dopaminergic axons and measurement of mitochondrial transport in vivo. The proportion of mitochondria undergoing axonal transport in dopaminergic neurons decreased overall during development between 2days post-fertilization (dpf) and 5dpf, at which point the major period of growth and synaptogenesis of the relevant axonal projections is complete. Exposure to 0.5-1.0mM MPP(+) between 4 and 5dpf did not compromise zebrafish viability or cause detectable changes in the number or morphology of dopaminergic neurons, motor function or monoaminergic neurochemistry. However, 0.5mM MPP(+) caused a 300% increase in retrograde mitochondrial transport and a 30% decrease in anterograde transport. In contrast, exposure to higher concentrations of MPP(+) caused an overall reduction in mitochondrial transport. This is the first time mitochondrial transport has been observed directly in CNS dopaminergic neurons of a living vertebrate and quantified in a PD model in vivo. Our findings are compatible with a model in which damage at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals causes an early compensatory increase in retrograde transport of compromised mitochondria for degradation in the cell body. These data are important because manipulation of early pathogenic mechanisms might be a valid therapeutic approach to PD. The novel transgenic lines and

  16. Infrared and optical imaging of IRAS sources with CO outflow - A snapshot of early star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Strom, K. M.; Hodapp, K.-W.

    1993-01-01

    We present multiband imaging of three IRAS sources associated with CO molecular outflows. We find stellar density enhancements around all three IRAS sources. Optical and near-IR photometry indicates that at least 60 percent of the near-IR sources in the vicinity of the IRAS sources are pre-main-sequence stars. Using the photometric data at nbL and M, we are able to identify candidates for the near-IR counterparts of the IRAS sources. We also find that (1) the spectral energy distribution of the deeply embedded sources could be complicated by source confusion and scattered light from the young stellar objects; (2) star formation in the vicinity of the IRAS sources is a continuous process with an age span of 0.5-3 Myr; and (3) stellar density enhancement is probably a phenomenon found at the earliest stage of star formation.

  17. In vivo subcellular resolution optical imaging in the lung reveals early metastatic proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Rodriguez-Tirado, Carolina; Kato, Yu; Kitamura, Takanori; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Condeelis, John

    2016-01-01

    To better understand breast cancer metastatic cell seeding, we have employed multiphoton microscopy and a vacuum stabilized window which eliminates the need for complex registration software, video rate microscopy or specialized gating electronics to observe the initial steps of tumor cell seeding within the living, breathing lung. We observe that upon arrival to the lung, tumor cells are found exclusively in capillary vessels, completely fill their volume and display an initial high level of protrusive activity that dramatically reduces over time. Further, we observe a concomitant increase in positional stability during this same period. We employ several techniques accessible to most imaging labs for optimizing signal to noise and resolution which enable us to report the first direct observation, with subcellular resolution, of the arrival, proliferation, and motility of metastatic tumor cells within the lung. PMID:26855844

  18. Relevance of magnetic resonance imaging for early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan J; Grothe, Michel; Lista, Simone; Toschi, Nicola; Garaci, Francesco G; Hampel, Harald

    2013-05-01

    Hippocampus volumetry currently is the best-established imaging biomarker for AD. However, the effect of multicenter acquisition on measurements of hippocampus volume needs to be explicitly considered when it is applied in large clinical trials, for example by using mixed-effects models to take the clustering of data within centers into account. The marker needs further validation in respect of the underlying neurobiological substrate and potential confounds such as vascular disease, inflammation, hydrocephalus, and alcoholism, and with regard to clinical outcomes such as cognition but also to demographic and socioeconomic outcomes such as mortality and institutionalization. The use of hippocampus volumetry for risk stratification of predementia study samples will further increase with the availability of automated measurement approaches. An important step in this respect will be the development of a standard hippocampus tracing protocol that harmonizes the large range of presently available manual protocols. In the near future, regionally differentiated automated methods will become available together with an appropriate statistical model, such as multivariate analysis of deformation fields, or techniques such as cortical-thickness measurements that yield a meaningful metrics for the detection of treatment effects. More advanced imaging protocols, including DTI, DSI, and functional MRI, are presently being used in monocenter and first multicenter studies. In the future these techniques will be relevant for the risk stratification in phase IIa type studies (small proof-of-concept trials). By contrast, the application of the broader established structural imaging biomarkers, such as hippocampus volume, for risk stratification and as surrogate end point is already today part of many clinical trial protocols. However, clinical care will also be affected by these new technologies. Radiologic expert centers already offer “dementia screening” for well-off middle

  19. A Powerful New Imager for HST: Performance and Early Science Results from Wide Field Camera 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope during the highly successful Servicing Mission 4 in May, 2009. WFC3 offers sensitive, high resolution imaging over a broad wavelength range from the near UV through the visible to the near IR (200nm - 1700nm). Its capabilities in the near UV and near IR ends of that range represent particularly large advances vs. those of previous HST instruments. In this talk, I will review the purpose and design of the instrument, describe its performance in flight, and highlight some of the initial scientific results from the instrument, including its use in deep infrared surveys in search of galaxies at very high redshift, in investigations of the global processes of star formation in nearby galaxies, and in the study of the recent impact on Jupiter.

  20. Longitudinal metabolic imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in transgenic mouse models identifies acylcarnitine as a potential biomarker for early detection

    PubMed Central

    Yaligar, Jadegoud; Teoh, Wei Wei.; Othman, Rashidah; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Phang, Beng Hooi; Lee, Swee Shean; Wang, Who Whong; Toh, Han Chong; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Sabapathy, Kanaga; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of hepatic injury due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) exposure are the major risk factors of HCC. Understanding early metabolic changes involving these risk factors in an animal model closely resembling human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical for biomarker discovery and disease therapeutics. We have used the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) transgenic mouse model that mimics HBV carriers with and without AFB1 treatment. We investigated early metabolic changes from preneoplastic state to HCC by non-invasive longitudinal imaging in three HCC groups of mice: HBsAg + AFB1(Gp-I), AFB1 alone (Gp-II), HBsAg alone (Gp-III) and a control group (wild-type untreated; Gp-IV). For the first time, we have identified acylcarnitine signals in vivo in the liver prior to the histological manifestation of the tumors in all three groups. Acylcarnitine concentration increased with increase in tumor growth in all HCC mouse models, indicating elevated metabolic activity and increased cell turnover. This was confirmed in a pilot study using human serum from HCC patients, which revealed a higher concentration of acylcarnitine compared with normal subjects. Translational clinical studies can be designed to detect acylcarnitine in patients with high risk factors for HCC. PMID:26831370

  1. Early window of diabetes determinism in NOD mice, dependent on the complement receptor CRIg, identified by noninvasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenxian; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Weissleder, Ralph; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2012-04-01

    All juvenile mice of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) strain develop insulitis, but there is considerable variation in their progression to diabetes. Here we used a strategy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of magnetic nanoparticles to noninvasively visualize local effects of pancreatic-islet inflammation to predict the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. MRI signals acquired during a narrow early time window allowed us to sort mice into groups that would progress to clinical disease or not and to estimate the time to diabetes development. We exploited this approach to identify previously unknown molecular and cellular elements correlated with disease protection, including the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg), which marked a subset of macrophages associated with diabetes resistance. Administration of a fusion of CRIg and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin resulted in lower MRI signals and diabetes incidence. In addition to identifying regulators of disease progression, we show here that diabetes is set at an early age in NOD mice. PMID:22366893

  2. Imaging the early material response associated with exit surface damage in fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Raman, R N; Negres, R A

    2010-11-05

    The processes involved at the onset of damage initiation on the surface of fused silica have been a topic of extensive discussion and thought for more than four decades. Limited experimental results have helped develop models covering specific aspects of the process. In this work we present the results of an experimental study aiming at imaging the material response from the onset of the observation of material modification during exposure to the laser pulse through the time point at which material ejection begins. The system involves damage initiation using a 355 nm pulse, 7.8 ns FWHM in duration and imaging of the affected material volume with spatial resolution on the order of 1 {micro}m using as strobe light a 150 ps laser pulse that is appropriately timed with respect to the pump pulse. The observations reveal that the onset of material modification is associated with regions of increased absorption, i.e., formation of an electronic excitation, leading to a reduction in the probe transmission to only a few percent within a time interval of about 1 ns. This area is subsequently rapidly expanding with a speed of about 1.2 {micro}m/ns and is accompanied by the formation and propagation of radial cracks. These cracks appear to initiate about 2 ns after the start of the expansion of the modified region. The damage sites continue to grow for about 25 ns but the mechanism of expansion after the termination of the laser pulse is via formation and propagation of lateral cracks. During this time, the affected area of the surface appears to expand forming a bulge of about 40 {micro}m in height. The first clear observation of material cluster ejection is noted at about 50 ns delay.

  3. Early evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound sonication in the treatment of uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Himabindu, Y.; Sriharibabu, M.; Nyapathy, Vinay; Mishra, Anindita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common cause of morbidity in women of reproductive age group. High intensity focused ultrasound with the imaging guidance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) known as magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound sonication (MRgFUS) is now available. However, there are no available studies with this non invasive modality of treatment in Indian subjects. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of MRgFUS in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods: This prospective study included 32 consecutive women with clinically symptomatic uterine fibroids who were treated with MRgFUS from February 2011 to October 2011. Pre and post treatment symptom severity scores (SSS) were assessed at the time of enrolment and at one, three and six months follow up using a validated uterine fibroid symptom - quality of life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Pre and post treatment fibroid volumes were compared immediately after treatment and at six months follow up using contrast enhanced MRI scan. Non perfused volume (NPV) ratios were calculated and correlated with fibroid volume reductions immediately after the treatment and at the end of six months follow up. Results: This procedure was well tolerated by the patients and procedure related adverse effects were non significant. Significant reductions in SSS were seen at one, three and six month intervals after the treatment (P<0.01). Significant reductions were noticed in fibroid volumes at six months follow up compared to pretreatment fibroid volumes (P<0.01). Significant positive correlations were observed between NPV ratios and reduction in fibroid volumes at six months follow-up (r=0.659, P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: MRgFUS is relatively a safe and effective non invasive treatment modality for treating uterine fibroids in selected patients. Its long term efficacy is yet to be tested and compared with other available minimally invasive

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging based network analysis detects alterations of neuroconnectivity in patients with clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Jewells, Valerie; Kim, Minjeong; Chen, Yasheng; Moon, Andrew; Armao, Diane; Troiani, Luigi; Markovic-Plese, Silva; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-12-01

    Although it is inarguable that conventional MRI (cMRI) has greatly contributed to the diagnosis and assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS), cMRI does not show close correlation with clinical findings or pathologic features, and is unable to predict prognosis or stratify disease severity. To this end, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tractography and neuroconnectivity analysis may assist disease assessment in MS. We, therefore, attempted this pilot study for initial assessment of early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Neuroconnectivity analysis was used for evaluation of 24 early RRMS patients within 2 years of presentation, and compared to the network measures of a group of 30 age-and-gender-matched normal control subjects. To account for the situation that the connections between two adjacent regions may be disrupted by an MS lesion, a new metric, network communicability, was adopted to measure both direct and indirect connections. For each anatomical area, the brain network communicability and average path length were computed and compared to characterize the network changes in efficiencies. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) loss of communicability was revealed in our RRMS cohort, particularly in the frontal and hippocampal/parahippocampal regions as well as the motor strip and occipital lobes. Correlation with the 25-foot Walk test with communicability measures in the left superior frontal (r = -0.71) as well as the left superior temporal gyrus (r = -0.43) and left postcentral gyrus (r = -0.41) were identified. Additionally identified were increased communicability between the deep gray matter structures (left thalamus and putamen) with the major interhemispheric and intrahemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum, and cingulum, respectively. These foci of increased communicability are thought to represent compensatory changes. The proposed DTI-based neuroconnectivity analysis demonstrated quantifiable, structurally relevant alterations of fiber

  5. Early-time Observations of Gamma-ray Burst Error Boxes with the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George Grant

    2000-08-01

    Approximately three times per day a bright flash of high energy radiation from the depths of the universe encounters the Earth. These gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were discovered circa 1970 yet their origin remains a mystery. Traditional astronomical observations of GRBs are hindered by their transient nature. They have durations of only a few seconds and occur at random times from unpredictable directions. In recent years, precise GRB localizations and rapid coordinate dissemination have permitted sensitive follow-up observations. These observations resulted in the identification of long wavelength counterparts within distant galaxies. Despite the wealth of data now available the physical mechanism which produces these extremely energetic phenomena is still unknown. In the near future, simultaneous and early-time optical observations of GRBs will aid in constraining the theoretical models. The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) is an automated robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical emission from GRBs. Since routine operations began in October 1996 LOTIS has responded to over 145 GRB triggers. LOTIS has not yet detected optical emission from a GRB but upper limits provided by the telescope constrain the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, is 100 times more sensitive than LOTIS. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs Super-LOTIS obtained its first upper limit on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. An overview of the history and current state of GRBs is presented. Theoretical models are reviewed briefly. The LOTIS and Super-LOTIS hardware and operating procedures are discussed. A summary of the results from both LOTIS and Super-LOTIS and an interpretation of those results is presented. Plans for future studies with both systems are briefly stated.

  6. Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of patients with early onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Yujiro; Sugihara, Genichi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Suckling, John; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Toyoda, Takao; Isoda, Haruo; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sakahara, Harumi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2008-01-01

    Background Investigation into the whole brain morphology of early onset schizophrenia (EOS) to date has been sparse. We studied the regional brain volumes in EOS patients, and the correlations between regional volume measures and symptom severity. Methods A total of 18 EOS patients (onset under 16 years) and 18 controls matched for age, gender, parental socioeconomic status, and height were examined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis using the Brain Analysis Morphological Mapping (BAMM) software package was employed to explore alterations of the regional grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes in EOS patients. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results EOS patients had significantly reduced GM volume in the left parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and superior temporal gyri, compared with the controls. They also had less WM volume in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The positive symptom score of PANSS (higher values corresponding to more severe symptoms) was negatively related to GM volume in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus. The negative symptom score was positively correlated with GM volume in the right thalamus. As for the association with WM volume, the positive symptom score of PANSS was positively related to cerebellar WM (vermis region), and negatively correlated with WM in the brain stem (pons) and in the bilateral cerebellum (hemisphere region). Conclusion Our findings of regional volume alterations of GM and WM in EOS patients coincide with those of previous studies of adult onset schizophrenia patients. However, in brain regions that had no overall structural differences between EOS patients and controls (that is, the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, the right thalamus, the cerebellum, and the pons), within-subject analysis of EOS patients alone revealed that there were significant associations of the volume in these areas and the symptom

  7. A CCD/CMOS process for integrated image acquisition and early vision signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keast, Craig L.; Sodini, Charles G.

    The development of technology which integrates a four phase, buried-channel CCD in an existing 1.75 micron CMOS process is described. The four phase clock is employed in the integrated early vision system to minimize process complexity. Signal corruption is minimized and lateral fringing fields are enhanced by burying the channel. The CMOS process for CCD enhancement is described, which highlights a new double-poly process and the buried channel, and the integration is outlined. The functionality and transfer efficiency of the process enhancement were appraised by measuring CCD shift registers at 100 kHz. CMOS measurement results are presented, which include threshold voltages, poly-to-poly capacitor voltage and temperature coefficients, and dark current. A CCD/CMOS processor is described which combines smoothing and segmentation operations. The integration of the CCD and the CMOS processes is found to function due to the enhancement-compatible design of the CMOS process and the thorough employment of CCD module baseline process steps.

  8. Detection of Early Response to Temozolomide Treatment in Brain Tumors Using Hyperpolarized 13C MR Metabolic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ilwoo; Bok, Robert; Ozawa, Tomoko; Phillips, Joanna J.; James, C. David; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using DNP hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate to measure early response to temozolomide (TMZ) therapy using an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model. Materials and Methods Twenty athymic rats with intracranial implantation of human glioblastoma cells were divided into two groups: one group received an oral administration of 100 mg/kg TMZ (n = 10) and the control group received vehicle only (n = 10). 13C 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data were acquired following injection of 2.5 mL (100 mM) hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate using a 3T scanner prior to treatment (day D0), at D1 (days from treatment) or D2. Results Tumor metabolism as assessed by the ratio of lactate to pyruvate (Lac/Pyr) was significantly altered at D1 for the TMZ-treated group but tumor volume did not show a reduction until D5 to D7. The percent change in Lac/Pyr from baseline was statistically different between the two groups at D1 and D2 (P < 0.008), while percent tumor volume was not (P > 0.2). Conclusion The results from this study suggest that metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate may provide a unique tool that clinical neuro-oncologists can use in the future to monitor tumor response to therapy for patients with brain tumors. PMID:21590996

  9. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  10. Role of Early Postradiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Christine; Kaushal, Aradhana; Hammoud, Dima A.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Bent, Robyn; Citrin, Deborah; Camphausen, Kevin; Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal timing of assessing postradiation radiographic response on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated on a prospective study at the National Cancer Institute (Protocol no. 06-C-0219) evaluating the effects of radiotherapy (RT). Standard RT was administered in standard fractionation over 6 weeks. Postradiation MRI scans were performed at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Results: Eleven patients with DIPG were evaluated. Median age was 6 years (range, 4-13 years). Patients were treated with external-beam RT to 55.8 Gy (n = 10) or 54 Gy (n = 1), with a gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of 1.8-2.0 cm. All patients received prescribed dose and underwent posttreatment MRI scans at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Pretreatment imaging revealed compression of fourth ventricle (n = 11); basilar artery encasement (n = 9); tumor extension outside the pons (n = 11); and tumor hemorrhage (n = 2). At the 2-week scan, basilar artery encasement improved in 7 of 9 patients, and extent of tumor was reduced in 5 of 11 patients. Fourth ventricle compression improved in 6 of 11 patients but worsened in 3 of 11 patients. Presumed necrosis was observed in 5 of 11 patients at 2 weeks and in 1 additional patient at 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in mean anteroposterior and transverse diameters of tumor between the 2- and 6-8-week time points. Six of 11 patients had increasing ventricular size, with no evidence of obstruction. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in tumor size of DIPG patients who have received standard RT when measured at 2 weeks vs. 6-8 weeks after RT. The majority of patients had the largest change in tumor size at the 2-week post-RT scan, with evolving changes documented on the 6-8-week scan. Six of 11 patients had progressive ventriculomegaly without obstruction, suggestive of communicating hydrocephalus. To the best

  11. Analysis of microvascular density in early gastric carcinoma using magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masashi; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Rie; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakai, Yoshitaka; Nagasaki, Futoshi; Nomura, Eiki; Suzuki, Noriaki; Saito, Eri

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Intramucosal vascular density differs between differentiated and undifferentiated type gastric carcinomas. This study aimed to evaluate the microvascular density characteristics of these two types of carcinoma using magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI). Patients and methods: In total, 42 differentiated and 10 undifferentiated types were evaluated. The microvessels observed using ME-NBI were extracted from stored still images and the microvascular density in the two carcinoma types was analyzed. Histological vascular density in resected specimens was also evaluated using CD34 immunostaining. Results: There were significant differences between the microvascular density in the differentiated and undifferentiated types of carcinoma (10.02 ± 4.72 % vs 4.02 ± 0.40 %; P < 0.001) using ME-NBI. Vascular density assessed histologically also differed significantly between differentiated and undifferentiated types in both the whole mucosal (5.81 ± 3.17 % vs 3.25 ± 1.21 %) and the superficial mucosal layers (0 – 100 μm) (6.38 ± 3.73 % vs 3.66 ± 1.46 %). However, the vascular density in the surrounding non-carcinomatous mucosa assessed using ME-NBI and histologically, was significantly lower in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated types (P < 0.001). There was good agreement between ME-NBI and histologically assessed microvascular density in both the whole (r = 0.740; P < 0.001) and superficial mucosal layers (r = 0.764; P < 0.001). White opaque substance (WOS) was seen in eight patients who had the differentiated type carcinoma. In almost all cases with WOS, the appearance of the carcinoma was discolored. Conclusions: There was a close relationship between ME-NBI assessed microvascular density and histologically assessed vascular density in the mucosal layer. Microvascular density differed significantly between the differentiated and undifferentiated

  12. Speckle myocardial imaging modalities for early detection of myocardial impairment in isolated left ventricular non-compaction

    PubMed Central

    Bellavia, Diego; Michelena, Hector I; Martinez, Matthew; Pellikka, Patricia A; Bruce, Charles J; Connolly, Heidi M; Villarraga, Hector R; Veress, Gabriella; Oh, Jae K; Miller, Fletcher A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that speckle myocardial imaging (SMI) modalities, including longitudinal, radial and circumferential systolic (s) and diastolic (d) myocardial velocity imaging, displacement (D), strain rate (SR) and strain (S), as well as left ventricular (LV) rotation/torsion are sensitive for detecting early myocardial dysfunction in isolated LV non-compaction (iLVNC). Design and results Twenty patients with iLVNC diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance (15) or echocardiography (5) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: ejection fraction (EF)>50% (n=10) and EF≤50% (n=10). Standard measures of systolic and diastolic function including pulsed wave tissue Doppler Imaging (PWTDI) were obtained. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential SMI, and LV rotation/torsion were compared with values for 20 age/sex-matched controls. EF, PWTDI E′, E/E′ and all of the SMI modalities were significantly abnormal for patients with EF≤50% compared with controls. In contrast, EF and PWTDI E′, E/E′ were not significantly different between controls and patients with iLVNC (EF>50%). However, SMI-derived longitudinal sS, sSR, sD and radial sS, as well as LV rotation/torsion values, were all reduced in iLVNC (EF>50%) compared with controls. Measurements with the highest discriminating power between iLVNC (EF>50%) and controls were longitudinal sS mean of the six apical segments (area under the curve (AUC)=0.94), sS global average (AUC=0.94), LV rotation apical mean (AUC=0.94); LV torsion (AUC=0.93) LV torsion rate (AUC=0.94). Conclusions LV SMI values are reduced in patients with iLVNC, even those with normal EF and PWTDI. The most accurate SMI modalities to discriminate between patients and controls are longitudinal sS mean of the six apical segments, LV apical rotation or LV torsion rate. PMID:19966109

  13. Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Chu, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Meng-Tien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions. PMID:24414091

  14. Early and protective microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease: a prospective study using 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Lorraine; Lagarde, Julien; Dorothée, Guillaume; Leroy, Claire; Labit, Mickael; Comley, Robert A; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Corne, Helene; Dauphinot, Luce; Bertoux, Maxime; Dubois, Bruno; Gervais, Philippe; Colliot, Olivier; Potier, Marie Claude; Bottlaender, Michel; Sarazin, Marie

    2016-04-01

    While emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease, the impact of the microglia response in Alzheimer's disease remains a matter of debate. We aimed to study microglial activation in early Alzheimer's disease and its impact on clinical progression using a second-generation 18-kDa translocator protein positron emission tomography radiotracer together with amyloid imaging using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography. We enrolled 96 subjects, 64 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 32 controls, from the IMABio3 study, who had both(11)C-Pittsburgh compound B and(18)F-DPA-714 positron emission tomography imaging. Patients with Alzheimer's disease were classified as prodromal Alzheimer's disease (n= 38) and Alzheimer's disease dementia (n= 26). Translocator protein-binding was measured using a simple ratio method with cerebellar grey matter as reference tissue, taking into account regional atrophy. Images were analysed at the regional (volume of interest) and at the voxel level. Translocator protein genotyping allowed the classification of all subjects in high, mixed and low affinity binders. Thirty high+mixed affinity binders patients with Alzheimer's disease were dichotomized into slow decliners (n=10) or fast decliners (n=20) after 2 years of follow-up. All patients with Alzheimer's disease had an amyloid positive Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography. Among controls, eight had positive amyloid scans (n= 6 high+mixed affinity binders), defined as amyloidosis controls, and were analysed separately. By both volumes of interest and voxel-wise comparison, 18-kDa translocator protein-binding was higher in high affinity binders, mixed affinity binders and high+mixed affinity binders Alzheimer's disease groups compared to controls, especially at the prodromal stage, involving the temporo-parietal cortex. Translocator protein-binding was positively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores

  15. Advanced Imaging Technologies for the Detection of Dysplasia and Early Cancer in Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Alberto; Cirocco, Maria; DaCosta, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas arising from Barrett esophagus (BE) are tumors with an increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The aim of endoscopic surveillance of BE is to detect dysplasia, particularly high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancers that can subsequently be treated endoscopically before progression to invasive cancer with lymph node metastases. Current surveillance practice standards require the collection of random 4-quadrant biopsy specimens over every 1 to 2 cm of BE (Seattle protocol) to detect dysplasia with the assistance of white light endoscopy, in addition to performing targeted biopsies of recognizable lesions. This approach is labor-intensive but should currently be considered state of the art. Chromoendoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy (e.g., narrow band imaging), and confocal laser endomicroscopy, in addition to high-definition standard endoscopy, might increase the diagnostic yield for the detection of dysplastic lesions. Until these modalities have been demonstrated to enhance efficiency or cost effectiveness, the standard protocol will remain careful examination using conventional off the shelf high-resolution endoscopes, combined with as longer inspection time which is associated with increased detection of dysplasia. PMID:24570883

  16. Development of vocal tract length during early childhood: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Kent, Ray D.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Kalina, Cliff M.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Yandell, Brian S.

    2005-01-01

    Speech development in children is predicated partly on the growth and anatomic restructuring of the vocal tract. This study examines the growth pattern of the various hard and soft tissue vocal tract structures as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and assesses their relational growth with vocal tract length (VTL). Measurements on lip thickness, hard- and soft-palate length, tongue length, naso-oro-pharyngeal length, mandibular length and depth, and distance of the hyoid bone and larynx from the posterior nasal spine were used from 63 pediatric cases (ages birth to 6 years and 9 months) and 12 adults. Results indicate (a) ongoing growth of all oral and pharyngeal vocal tract structures with no sexual dimorphism, and a period of accelerated growth between birth and 18 months; (b) vocal tract structure's region (oral/anterior versus pharyngeal/posterior) and orientation (horizontal versus vertical) determine its growth pattern; and (c) the relational growth of the different structures with VTL changes with development-while the increase in VTL throughout development is predominantly due to growth of pharyngeal/posterior structures, VTL is also substantially affected by the growth of oral/anterior structures during the first 18 months of life. Findings provide normative data that can be used for modeling the development of the vocal tract. .

  17. Cellular dynamics during early barley pollen embryogenesis revealed by time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Daghma, Diaa Eldin S.; Hensel, Goetz; Rutten, Twan; Melzer, Michael; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Plants display a remarkable capacity for cellular totipotency. An intriguing and useful example is that immature pollen cultured in vitro can pass through embryogenic development to form haploid or doubled haploid plants. However, a lack of understanding the initial mechanisms of pollen embryogenesis hampers the improvement and more effective and widespread employment of haploid technology in plant research and breeding. To investigate the cellular dynamics during the onset of pollen embryogenesis, we used time-lapse imaging along with transgenic barley expressing nuclear localized Green Fluorescent Protein. The results enabled us to identify nine distinct embryogenic and non-embryogenic types of pollen response to the culture conditions. Cell proliferation in embryogenic pollen normally started via a first symmetric mitosis (54.3% of pollen observed) and only rarely did so via asymmetric pollen mitosis I (4.3% of pollen observed). In the latter case, proliferation generally originated from the vegetative-like cell, albeit the division of the generative-like cell was observed in few types of pollen. Under the culture conditions used, fusion of cell nuclei was the only mechanism of genome duplication observed. PMID:25538715

  18. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  19. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  20. Detection of early diastolic alterations by tissue Doppler imaging in untreated childhood-onset essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Agu, Ngozi C; McNiece Redwine, Karen; Bell, Cynthia; Garcia, Kathleen Marie; Martin, David S; Poffenbarger, Tim S; Bricker, John T; Portman, Ronald J; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the presence of preclinical diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive children relative to normotensive children by Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI). We prospectively enrolled children with untreated essential hypertension in absence of any other disease and a matched healthy control group with normal blood pressure (BP); both groups confirmed by clinic BP and a 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Echocardiographic diastolic parameters were determined using spectral transmitral inflow Doppler, flow propagation velocity, TDI, and systolic parameters were determined via midwall shortening fraction and ejection fraction. A total of 80 multiethnic children were prospectively enrolled for the study: 46 hypertensive (median age, 13 years; 72% males) and 34 control (median age, 14 years; 65% males). The only echocardiography parameters that had a statistically significant change compared with the control children, were regional mitral Ea, Aa, and the E/Ea ratio by TDI. In comparison with controls, hypertensive children had lower Ea and Aa velocities of anterior and posterior walls and higher lateral wall E/Ea ratio. The decrease in posterior wall Ea and Aa remained significant after adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, ethnicity, and left ventricular hypertrophy on multivariate analysis. The lateral and septal wall E/Ea ratios correlated significantly with fasting serum insulin levels on similar multivariate analysis. Decreased regional TDI velocities were seen with preserved left ventricular systolic function even when other measures of diastolic dysfunction remained unchanged in untreated hypertensive children. Hypertension and serum insulin levels had strong associations with preclinical diastolic alterations in children. PMID:24685005

  1. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival. PMID:26286863

  2. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular cluster systems in five early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, Favio R.; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Bridges, Terry; Forbes, Duncan A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Mike; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present deep high-quality photometry of globular cluster systems (GCSs) belonging to five early-type galaxies, covering a range of mass and environment. Photometric data were obtained with the Gemini North and Gemini South telescopes in the filter passbands g', r' and i'. The combination of these filters with good seeing conditions allows an excellent separation between globular cluster (GC) candidates and unresolved field objects. In fact, our previously published spectroscopic data indicate a contamination level of only ˜10 per cent in our sample of GC candidates. Bimodal GC colour distributions are found in all five galaxies. Most of the GCSs appear bimodal even in the (g'-r') versus (r'-i') plane. A population of resolved/marginally resolved GC and ultracompact dwarf candidates was found in all the galaxies. A search for the so-called 'blue tilt' in the colour-magnitude diagrams reveals that NGC 4649 clearly shows this phenomenon, although no conclusive evidence was found for the other galaxies in the sample. This 'blue tilt' translates into a mass-metallicity relation given by Z∝M0.28 ±0.03. This dependence was found using a new empirical (g'-i') versus [Z/H] relation, which relies on an homogeneous sample of GC colours and metallicities. In this paper, we also explore the radial trends in both colour and surface density for the blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations. As usual, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. Evidence of galactocentric colour gradients is found in some of the GCSs, which is more significant for the two S0 galaxies in the sample. Red GC subpopulations show similar colours and gradients to the galaxy halo stars in their inner region. A GC mean colour-galaxy luminosity relation, consistent with [Z/H]∝L0.26 ±0.08B, is present for the red GCs. Estimates of the total GC populations and specific frequency SN values are presented for NGC 3115, 3923 and 4649. Based on

  3. FINAL REPORT. ENHANCEMENTS TO AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT AND APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central aim of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) EMSP project was to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5 m)subsurface through electrically conductive soils. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of the new ...

  4. Tissue Doppler Imaging Combined with Advanced 12-Lead ECG Analysis Might Improve Early Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Childhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Femlund, E.; Schlegel, T.; Liuba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of early diagnosis of childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is essential in lowering the risk of HCM complications. Standard echocardiography (ECHO) has shown to be less sensitive in this regard. In this study, we sought to assess whether spatial QRS-T angle deviation, which has shown to predict HCM in adults with high sensitivity, and myocardial Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) could be additional tools in early diagnosis of HCM in childhood. Methods: Children and adolescents with familial HCM (n=10, median age 16, range 5-27 years), and without obvious hypertrophy but with heredity for HCM (n=12, median age 16, range 4-25 years, HCM or sudden death with autopsy-verified HCM in greater than or equal to 1 first-degree relative, HCM-risk) were additionally investigated with TDI and advanced 12-lead ECG analysis using Cardiax(Registered trademark) (IMED Co Ltd, Budapest, Hungary and Houston). Spatial QRS-T angle (SA) was derived from Kors regression-related transformation. Healthy age-matched controls (n=21) were also studied. All participants underwent thorough clinical examination. Results: Spatial QRS-T angle (Figure/ Panel A) and septal E/Ea ratio (Figure/Panel B) were most increased in HCM group as compared to the HCM-risk and control groups (p less than 0.05). Of note, these 2 variables showed a trend toward higher levels in HCM-risk group than in control group (p=0.05 for E/Ea and 0.06 for QRS/T by ANOVA). In a logistic regression model, increased SA and septal E/Ea ratio appeared to significantly predict both the disease (Chi-square in HCM group: 9 and 5, respectively, p less than 0.05 for both) and the risk for HCM (Chi-square in HCM-risk group: 5 and 4 respectively, p less than 0.05 for both), with further increased predictability level when these 2 variables were combined (Chi-square 10 in HCM group, and 7 in HCM-risk group, p less than 0.01 for both). Conclusions: In this small material, Tissue Doppler Imaging and spatial mean QRS-T angle

  5. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  6. A Rapid and Efficient 2D/3D Nuclear Segmentation Method for Analysis of Early Mouse Embryo and Stem Cell Image Data

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Xinghua; Kang, Minjung; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Summary Segmentation is a fundamental problem that dominates the success of microscopic image analysis. In almost 25 years of cell detection software development, there is still no single piece of commercial software that works well in practice when applied to early mouse embryo or stem cell image data. To address this need, we developed MINS (modular interactive nuclear segmentation) as a MATLAB/C++-based segmentation tool tailored for counting cells and fluorescent intensity measurements of 2D and 3D image data. Our aim was to develop a tool that is accurate and efficient yet straightforward and user friendly. The MINS pipeline comprises three major cascaded modules: detection, segmentation, and cell position classification. An extensive evaluation of MINS on both 2D and 3D images, and comparison to related tools, reveals improvements in segmentation accuracy and usability. Thus, its accuracy and ease of use will allow MINS to be implemented for routine single-cell-level image analyses. PMID:24672759

  7. Very Low Utility of Surveillance Imaging in Early-Stage Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With a Combination of Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gandikota, Neetha; Hartridge-Lambert, Sidonie; Migliacci, Jocelyn C.; Yahalom, Joachim; Portlock, Carol S.; Schoder, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study evaluated the need for surveillance imaging in early-stage classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) after planned combined-modality therapy (CMT). METHODS Primary early-stage cHL patients who underwent CMT were included. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), CT, or both were performed at the initial staging, during or after chemotherapy, and for at least 2 years during follow-up. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed to determine if and when relapse had occurred. Radiation doses and costs were also calculated from follow-up imaging. RESULTS The study included 78 patients with a median follow-up of 46 months; 85% of the patients had stage II disease (32% with bulky disease). Four of 77 interim PET scans were positive; none of these patients relapsed during follow-up, which ranged from 24 to 80 months. After a total of 466 follow-up imaging studies (91% with CT and 9% with PET/CT), no cHL relapse was detected. Eleven abnormal findings were noted on surveillance imaging: 9 were false-positives, and 2 were second primary malignancies. The average cumulative dose per patient from follow-up imaging was 107 mSv, which translated into an estimated lifetime excess cancer risk of 0.5%; the estimated total costs were $296,817 according to Medicare reimbursements. CONCLUSIONS Surveillance imaging with either CT or PET/CT can be omitted safely for early-stage cHL treated with a combination of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine and radiation therapy because the risk of relapse is extremely low. This observation also applies to patients with bulky disease. The elimination of surveillance imaging will also reduce healthcare expenses and cumulative radiation doses in these predominantly young patients. PMID:25739719

  8. Imaging of Norway spruce early somatic embryos with the ESEM, Cryo-SEM and laser scanning microscope.

    PubMed

    Neděla, Vilém; Hřib, Jiří; Havel, Ladislav; Hudec, Jiří; Runštuk, Jiří

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the surface structure of Norway spruce early somatic embryos (ESEs) as a typical culture with asynchronous development. The microstructure of extracellular matrix covering ESEs were observed using the environmental scanning electron microscope as a primary tool and using the scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment and laser electron microscope as a complementary tool allowing our results to be proven independently. The fresh samples were observed in conditions of the air environment of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with the pressure from 550Pa to 690Pa and the low temperature of the sample from -18°C to -22°C. The samples were studied using two different types of detector to allow studying either the thin surface structure or material composition. The scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment was used for imaging frozen extracellular matrix microstructure with higher resolution. The combination of both electron microscopy methods was suitable for observation of "native" plant samples, allowing correct evaluation of our results, free of error and artifacts. PMID:26954464

  9. Reduction of Tubular Flow Rate as a Mechanism of Oliguria in the Early Phase of Endotoxemia Revealed by Intravital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Daisuke; Doi, Kent; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Urine output is widely used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AKI. Although several potential mechanisms of septic AKI have been identified, regulation of urine flow after glomerular filtration has not been evaluated. This study evaluated changes in urine flow in mice with septic AKI. The intratubular urine flow rate was monitored in real time by intravital imaging using two-photon laser microscopy. The tubular flow rate, as measured by freely filtered dye (FITC-inulin or Lucifer yellow), time-dependently declined after LPS injection. At 2 hours, the tubular flow rate was slower in mice injected with LPS than in mice injected with saline, whereas BP and GFR were similar in the two groups. Importantly, fluorophore-conjugated LPS selectively accumulated in the proximal tubules that showed reduced tubular flow at 2 hours and luminal obstruction with cell swelling at 24 hours. Delipidation of LPS or deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 in mice abolished these effects, whereas neutralization of TNF-α had little effect on LPS-induced tubular flow retention. Rapid intravenous fluid resuscitation within 6 hours improved the tubular flow rate only when accompanied by the dilation of obstructed proximal tubules with accumulated LPS. These findings suggest that LPS reduces the intratubular urine flow rate during early phases of endotoxemia through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism, and that the efficacy of fluid resuscitation may depend on the response of tubules with LPS accumulation. PMID:25855781

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis reveals progression of erosions despite clinical improvement

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, F.; Stewart, N.; Crabbe, J.; Robinson, E.; Yeoman, S.; Tan, P.; McLean, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the progression of joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist and determine whether this technique can be used to predict prognosis.
METHODS—An inception cohort of 42 early patients has been followed up prospectively for one year. Gadolinium enhanced MRI scans of the dominant wrist were obtained at baseline and one year and scored for synovitis, tendonitis, bone marrow oedema, and erosions. Plain radiographs were performed concurrently and scored for erosions. Patients were assessed clinically for disease activity and HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed.
RESULTS—At one year, MRI erosions were found in 74% of patients (31 of 42) compared with 45% at baseline. Twelve patients (28.6%) had radiographic erosions at one year. The total MRI score and MRI erosion score increased significantly from baseline to one year despite falls in clinical measures of inflammation including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), and swollen joint count (p < 0.01 for all). Baseline findings that predicted carpal MRI erosions at one year included a total MRI score of 6 or greater (sensitivity: 93.3%, specificity 81.8%, positive predictive value 93.3%, p = 0.000007), MRI bone oedema (OR = 6.47, p < 0.001), MRI synovitis (OR = 2.14, p = 0.003), and pain score (p = 0.01). Radiological erosions at one year were predicted by a total MRI score at baseline of greater than 13 (OR = 12.4, p = 0.002), the presence of MRI erosions (OR = 11.6, p = 0.005), and the ESR (p = 0.02). If MRI erosions were absent at baseline and the total MRI score was low, radiological erosions were highly unlikely to develop by one year (negative predictive value 0.91 and 0.92 respectively). No association was found between the shared epitope and erosions on MRI (p = 0.4) or radiography (p = 1.0) at one year.
CONCLUSIONS—MRI scans of the dominant wrist are useful

  11. Blue laser imaging endoscopy system for the early detection and characterization of colorectal lesions: a guide for the endoscopist

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Kazutomo; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Isohata, Noriyuki; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Lefor, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Blue laser imaging is a new system for image-enhanced endoscopy using laser light. Blue laser imaging utilizes two monochromatic lasers (410 and 450 nm) instead of xenon light. A 410 nm laser visualizes vascular microarchitecture, similar to narrow band imaging, and a 450 nm laser provides white light by excitation. According to three recently published reports, the diagnostic ability of polyp characterization using blue laser imaging compares favorably with narrow band imaging. No published data are available to date regarding polyp detection with blue laser imaging. However, blue laser imaging has the possibility to increase the detection of colorectal polyps by depicting brighter and clearer endoscopic images, even at a distant view, compared with first-generation image-enhanced endoscopy. A clinical trial to compare the detection between blue laser imaging and xenon light is warranted. PMID:26770267

  12. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo; Botto, Barbara; Gavarotti, Paolo; Merli, Francesco; Vitolo, Umberto; Iotti, Cinzia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  13. Research on intelligent scenic security early warning platform based on high resolution image: real scene linkage and real-time LBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baishou; Huang, Yu; Lan, Guangquan; Li, Tingting; Lu, Ting; Yao, Mingxing; Luo, Yuandan; Li, Boxiang; Qian, Yongyou; Gao, Yujiu

    2015-12-01

    This paper design and implement security monitor system within a scenic spot for tourists, the scenic spot staff can be automatic real time for visitors to perception and monitoring, and visitors can also know about themselves location in the scenic, real-time and obtain the 3D imaging conditions of scenic area. Through early warning can realize "parent-child relation", preventing the old man and child lost and wandering. Research results to the further development of virtual reality to provide effective security early warning platform of the theoretical basis and practical reference.

  14. Perfusion parameters as potential imaging biomarkers for the early prediction of radiotherapy response in a rat tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Namkug; Goo, Jin Mo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Song, Hye Jong

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare various tumor-related radiologic morphometric changes and computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters before and after treatment, and to determine the optimal imaging assessment technique for the prediction of early response in a rat tumor model treated with radiotherapy. METHODS Among paired tumors of FN13762 murine breast cancer cells implanted bilaterally in the necks of eight Fischer rats, tumors on the right side were treated with a single 20 Gy dose of radiotherapy. Perfusion CT studies were performed on day 0 before radiotherapy, and on days 1 and 5 after radiotherapy. Variables based on the size, including the longest diameter, tumor area, and volume, were measured. Quantitative perfusion analysis was performed for the whole tumor volume and permeabilities and blood volumes (BVs) were obtained. The area under the curve (AUC) difference in the histograms of perfusion parameters and texture analyses of uniformity and entropy were quantified. Apoptotic cell density was measured on pathology specimens immediately after perfusion imaging on day 5. RESULTS On day 1 after radiotherapy, differences in size between the irradiated and nonirradiated tumors were not significant. In terms of percent changes in the uniformity of permeabilities between tumors before irradiation and on day 1 after radiotherapy, the changes were significantly higher in the irradiated tumors than in the nonirradiated tumors (0.085 [−0.417, 0.331] vs. −0.131 [−0.536, 0.261], respectively; P = 0.042). The differences in AUCs of the histogram of voxel-by-voxel vascular permeability and BV in tumors between day 0 and day 1 were significantly higher in treated tumors compared with the control group (permeability, 21.4 [−2.2, 37.5] vs. 9.5 [−8.9, 33.8], respectively, P = 0.030; BV, 52.9 [−6186.0, 419.2] vs. 11.9 [−198.3, 346.7], respectively, P = 0.049). Apoptotic cell density showed a significantly positive correlation with the AUC difference of BV, the

  15. Attentional bias to affective faces and complex IAPS images in early visual cortex follows emotional cue extraction.

    PubMed

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Craddock, Matt; Müller, Matthias M

    2015-05-15

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are known to rapidly draw the brain's processing resources, even when they are task-irrelevant. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) response, a neural response to a flickering stimulus which effectively allows measurement of the processing resources devoted to that stimulus, has been used to examine this process of attentional shifting. Previous studies have used a task in which participants detected periods of coherent motion in flickering random dot kinematograms (RDKs) which generate an SSVEP, and found that task-irrelevant emotional stimuli withdraw more attentional resources from the task-relevant RDKs than task-irrelevant neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether the emotion-related differences in the SSVEP response are conditional on higher-level extraction of emotional cues as indexed by well-known event-related potential (ERPs) components (N170, early posterior negativity, EPN), or if affective bias in competition for visual attention resources is a consequence of a time-invariant shifting process. In the present study, we used two different types of emotional distractors - IAPS pictures and facial expressions - for which emotional cue extraction occurs at different speeds, being typically earlier for faces (at ~170ms, as indexed by the N170) than for IAPS images (~220-280ms, EPN). We found that emotional modulation of attentional resources as measured by the SSVEP occurred earlier for faces (around 180ms) than for IAPS pictures (around 550ms), after the extraction of emotional cues as indexed by visual ERP components. This is consistent with emotion related re-allocation of attentional resources occurring after emotional cue extraction rather than being linked to a time-fixed shifting process. PMID:25818682

  16. Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV-Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement of Protoporphyrin IX Production.

    PubMed

    Rollakanti, Kishore R; Anand, Sanjay; Davis, Scott C; Pogue, Brian W; Maytin, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    Better noninvasive techniques are needed to monitor protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels before and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Our aim was to evaluate (1) multispectral fluorescent imaging of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cancer and precancer in a mouse model of SCC and (2) multispectral imaging and probe-based fluorescence detection as a tool to study vitamin D (VD) effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced PpIX synthesis. Dorsal skin of hairless mice was imaged weekly during a 24-week UV carcinogenesis protocol. Hot spots of PpIX fluorescence were detectable by multispectral imaging beginning at 14 weeks of UV exposure. Many hot spots disappeared after cessation of UV at week 20, but others persisted or became visible after week 20, and corresponded to tumors that eventually became visible by eye. In SCC-bearing mice pretreated with topical VD before ALA application, our optical techniques confirmed that VD preconditioning induces a tumor-selective increase in PpIX levels. Fluorescence-based optical imaging of PpIX is a promising tool for detecting early SCC lesions of the skin. Pretreatment with VD can increase the ability to detect early tumors, providing a potential new way to improve efficacy of ALA-PDT. PMID:26223149

  17. Hybrid use of early and quasi-continuous wave photons in time-domain tomographic imaging for improved resolution and quantitative accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Niedre, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of early-photons (EPs) from a pulsed laser source has been shown to improve imaging resolution versus continuous wave (CW) systems in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and fluorescence mediated tomography (FMT). However, EP systems also have reduced noise performance versus CW systems since EP measurements require temporal rejection of large numbers of transmitted photons. In this work, we describe a ‘hybrid data set’ (HDS) image reconstruction approach, the goal of which was to produce a final image that retained the resolution and noise advantages of EP and CW data sets, respectively. Here, CW data was first reconstructed to produce a quantitatively accurate ‘initial guess’ intermediate image, and then this was refined with EP data to yield a higher resolution final image. We performed a series of studies with simulated data to test the resolution, quantitative accuracy and detection sensitivity of the approach. We showed that in principle it was possible to produce final images that retained the bulk of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of EP and CW images, respectively, but the HDS approach did not improve the instrument sensitivity compared to EP data alone. PMID:21412471

  18. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P.; Smith, Brian J.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann; Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent; McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  19. Ultrasound Targeted Apoptosis Imaging in Monitoring Early Tumor Response of Trastuzumab in a Murine Tumor Xenograft Model of Her-2–Positive Breast Cancer11

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Xiujun; Luo, Yi; Gao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to monitor the trastuzumab therapy response of murine tumor xenograft model with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2)–positive breast cancer using ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging. METHODS: We prepared targeted apoptosis ultrasound probes by nanobubble (NB) binding with Annexin V. In vitro, we investigated the binding rate of NB–Annexin V with breast cancer apoptotic cells after the trastuzumab treatment. In vivo, tumor-bearing mice underwent ultrasound targeted imaging over 7 days. After imaging was completed, the tumors were excised to determine Her-2 and caspase-3 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlation between parameters of imaging and histologic results was then analyzed. RESULTS: For seeking the ability of targeted NB binding with apoptotic tumor cells (Her-2 positive), we found that binding rate in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group in vitro (P = .001). There were no differences of tumor sizes in all groups over the treatment process in vivo (P = .98). However, when using ultrasound imaging to visualize tumors by targeted NB in vivo, we observed that the mean and peak intensities from NBs gradually increased in the treatment group after trastuzumab therapy (P = .001). Furthermore, these two parameters were significantly associated with caspase-3 expression of tumor excised samples (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging can be a non-invasive technique to evaluate the early breast tumor response to trastuzumab therapy. PMID:24685547

  20. FDG-MicroPET and Diffusion-Weighted MR Image Evaluation of Early Changes After Radiofrequency Ablation in Implanted VX2 Tumors in Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Tomohiro Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the early changes after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in VX2 rabbit tumors implanted into the back muscles by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET). Percutaneous CT-guided RFA was conducted in seven rabbits with implanted VX2 tumors. VX2 tumors on the other side were untreated and served as the control. MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5-T instrument 2 days after RFA, and FDG-PET, using a high-resolution PET scanner for small animals, was obtained 3 days after the procedure. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and radioactivity count of untreated and ablated tumors were calculated. Untreated VX2 tumors showed hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted MR images, ring-enhanced on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, and ring-shaped FDG accumulation on FDG-PET. Ablated VX2 tumors showed slight hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighed images, slight enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and low accumulation on FDG-PET. The ADC value of ablated VX2 tumors (1.52 {+-} 0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that of untreated tumors (1.09 {+-} 0.12 x 10{sup -3}; p < 0.05). The tumor/muscle ratio of ablated tumors (0.5 {+-} 0.3) was significantly lower than that of untreated tumors (11.6 {+-} 3.2; p < 0.05). Histopathological examination confirmed the lack of viable tumor cells in the ablated lesions. The results indicate that both ADC value and FDG-PET are potentially useful markers for monitoring the early effects of RFA.

  1. Enhanced detection of early photons in time-domain optical imaging by running in the "dead-time" regime.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Lagnojita; Brankov, Jovan G; Tichauer, Kenneth M

    2016-07-15

    Optical tomography can yield anatomical and molecular information about biological tissue. However, its spatial resolution is poor in thick samples owing to high scatter. Early photon approaches, where photon arrival times are measured with time-resolved detectors, provide one means of improving spatial resolution through selection of photons that travel a straighter path. Here, a novel approach to significantly enhance detection of early photons in time-correlated single photon counting with avalanche photodiodes has been discussed. Results suggest that the early photon detection rate can be increased by about 10 orders of magnitude by running the detector in a dead-time regime. PMID:27420501

  2. A Porcine Animal Model for Early Meniscal Degeneration – Analysis of Histology, Gene Expression and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Six Months after Resection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Dinter, Dietmar; Attenberger, Ulrike; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective The menisci of the mammalian knee joint balance the incongruence between femoral condyle and tibial plateau and thus menisci absorb and distribute high loads. Degeneration processes of the menisci lead to pain syndromes in the knee joint. The origin of such degenerative processes on meniscal tissue is rarely understood and may be described best as an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. A standardized animal model of meniscal degeneration is needed for further studies. The aim of the current study was to develop a porcine animal model with early meniscal degeneration. Material and Methods Resection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) was performed on the left knee joints of eight Göttingen minipigs. A sham operation was carried out on the right knee joint. The grade of degeneration was determined 26 weeks after the operation using histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the expression of 14 genes which code for extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and inflammation mediators were analyzed. Results Degenerative changes were detected by a histological analysis of the medial meniscus after ACLR. These changes were not detected by MRI. In terms of their gene expression profile, these degenerated medial menisci showed a significantly increased expression of COL1A1. Conclusion This paper describes a new animal model for early secondary meniscal degeneration in the Göttingen minipig. Histopathological evidence of the degenerative changes could be described. This early degenerative changes could not be seen by NMR imaging. PMID:27434644

  3. Traumatic axonal injury: Relationships between lesions in the early phase and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kent Gøran; Vik, Anne; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Eikenes, Live

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients investigates fractional anisotropy (FA) from chronic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in areas corresponding to persistent and transient traumatic axonal injury (TAI) lesions detected in clinical MRI from the early phase. Thirty-eight patients (mean 24.7 [range 13-63] years of age) with moderate-to-severe TBI and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Patients underwent 1.5-T clinical MRI in the early phase (median 7 days), including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2* gradient echo (T2*GRE) sequences. TAI lesions from the early phase were characterized as nonhemorrhagic or microhemorrhagic. In the chronic phase (median 3 years), patients and controls were imaged at 3 T with FLAIR, T2*GRE, T1, and DTI sequences. TAI lesions were classified as transient or persistent. The FLAIR/T2*GRE images from the early phase were linearly registered to the FA images from the chronic phase and lesions manually segmented on the FA-registered FLAIR/T2*GRE images. For regions of interest (ROIs) from both nonhemorrhagic and microhemorrhagic lesion, we found a significant linear trend of lower mean FA from ROIs in healthy controls to ROIs in patients without either nonhemorrhagic or microhemorrhagic lesions and further to transient and finally persistent lesion ROIs (P < 0.001). Histogram analyses showed lower FA in persistent compared with transient nonhemorrhagic lesion ROIs (P < 0.001), but this was not found in microhemorrhagic lesion ROIs (P = 0.08-0.55). The demonstrated linear trend of lower FA values from healthy controls to persistent lesion ROIs was found in both nonhemorrhagic and microhemorrhagic lesions and indicates a gradual increasing disruption of the microstructure. Lower FA values in persistent compared with transient lesions were found only in nonhemorrhagic lesions. Thus, clinical MRI techniques are able to depict important aspects of white matter pathology across the

  4. Development and clinical applications of digitized fluorescence endoscopic imaging system for the detection of early neoplasms in the oral cavity and uterine-cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Tay, Sun K.; Soo, K. C.; Olivo, Malini

    2002-05-01

    A digitized fluorescence endoscopic imaging (DFEI) system combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was developed for the detection of neoplasms in the oral cavity and uterine-cervix. The system has the capability of producing both the digital and video fluorescence images in real time, and also quantifying the fluorescence images. The results show that using the DFEI system associated with the fluorescence image quantification method, both high sensitivity and specificity can be achieved during the head and neck, and obstetric and gynaecology clinical trials. The red fluorescence intensity distribution in the lesion area can also be obtained after digital image processing to better understand the situation of PPIX accumulation in the tissues. Furthermore, applying the intensity ratio IR/IB at red and blue wavelength regions of the tissue targeted, where IR includes the intensity of PPIX fluorescence and red tissue autofluorescence, and IB is the intensity of diffusely back-scattered excitation blue light, different histopathological grades of lesions can be classified by the DEFI system, suggesting a significant potential of the noninvasive optical biopsy for the early cancer detection.

  5. Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Sellers, Jeffery C.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; George, James F.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Early pancreatic cancer response following cetuximab and/or irinotecan therapies was measured by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) before and during therapy. Groups 1 to 4 (n = 6/group) of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts expressing luciferase were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, irinotecan, or cetuximab combined with irinotecan, respectively, twice weekly for 3 weeks. DCE-MRI was performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after therapy initiation, whereas anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 13. Bioluminescence imaging was performed on days 0 and 21. At day 21, all tumors were collected for further histologic analyses (Ki-67 and CD31 staining), whereas tumor dimensions were measured by calipers. The Ktrans values in the 0.5 mm–thick peripheral tumor region were calculated, and the changes in Ktrans during the 3 days posttherapy were compared to tumor volume changes, bioluminescent signal changes, and histologic findings. The Ktrans changes in the peripheral tumor region after 3 days of therapy were linearly correlated with 21-day decreases in tumor volume (p < .001), bioluminescent signal (p = .050), microvessel densities (p = .002), and proliferating cell densities (p = .001). This study supports the clinical use of DCE-MRI for pancreatic cancer patients for early assessment of an anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:21496446

  6. Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings After Autologous Osteochondral Plug Grafts For Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Humeral Capitellum

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Takahara, Masatoshi; Harada, Mikio; Satake, Hiroshi; Uno, Tomohiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although good clinical outcomes of autologous osteochondral plug grafts for capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) have been reported, the timing of return to sports was various and still controversial. The period of graft incorporation and the lesion healing at repair site is important to establish the rehabilitation protocol, however there is little information. The aim of this study was to investigate early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical outcomes after autologous osteochondral plug grafts for capitellar OCD. Methods: Fifteen young baseball players with advanced lesions of capitellar OCD underwent a procedure using autologous osteochondral plug grafts and underwent MRI (1.5 T) scan at 3 and 6 months, postoperatively. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 13.5 years (range, 13-15 years). Four lesions were classified as International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) OCD III and 11 lesions as OCD IV. The mean size of the lesions (sagittal × coronal) was 16 × 14 mm and the mean surface area was 181 mm2. One to two osteochondral plug grafts, with a mean diameter of 7 mm (range, 6-8 mm), were harvested from the lateral femoral condyle and transplanted to the defects. The mean reconstruction rate was 41% (range, 12%-65%), which was calculated as (total surface area of the grafts × 100%)/ (surface area of the lesion). Patients were allowed to begin throwing after 3 months and to return to sports after 6 months. The mean follow-up was 21 months (range, 12-36 months). The MRI findings were assessed graft incorporation, which was indicated by no T1-low-signal-intensity at the graft and no fluid surrounding the graft on T2-weighted fat-suppression (Figure 1), and the lesion healing according to the scoring system of Henderson (4, complete healing; 16, no healing). MRI were blinded and randomized, and two observers reviewed independently and conferred when they differed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated as elbow pain

  7. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Koki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hirase, Tetsuaki; Node, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  8. Early cervical carcinoma and fertility-sparing treatment options: MR imaging as a tool in patient selection and a follow-up modality.

    PubMed

    Noël, Patricia; Dubé, Mireille; Plante, Marie; St-Laurent, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of cytologic screening programs in industrialized nations, cervical carcinoma is being diagnosed in younger patients and at an earlier stage. The traditional therapy for early-stage disease is radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy, which leads to infertility. In the past 20 years, fertility-sparing therapies, such as cervical conization and radical trachelectomy, have emerged and show good oncologic and obstetric outcomes. The selection criteria for vaginal radical trachelectomy include stages IA2 and IB1, a tumor that is smaller than 2 cm, distance from the internal os of at least 1 cm, limited stromal invasion, and no nodal or extracervical extension. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging accurately depicts these criteria and is a necessary tool in the preoperative evaluation of patients with cervical carcinoma who are eligible for fertility-sparing surgery. The MR imaging report must provide the following pieces of information for adequate surgical planning: tridimensional diameters of the lesion, uterine and cervical lengths, the degree of stromal invasion, distance from the internal os, and the presence of extracervical or nodal involvement. Because patients also undergo follow-up MR imaging, radiologists must be familiar with the postoperative imaging appearance of the cervix. After trachelectomy, the uterovaginal anastomosis may appear end-to-end or with a neoposterior vaginal fornix. Vaginal wall thickening, hematomas, lymphoceles, and hematometra secondary to isthmic stenosis may be seen. The normal postoperative appearance must be differentiated from recurrent disease, which is seen as a mass with intermediate to high signal intensity in the vaginal vault or parametrium on T2-weighted images. Functional imaging, including diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, may help characterize recurrence. PMID:25019444

  9. In vivo nonlinear spectral imaging as a tool to monitor early spectroscopic and metabolic changes in a murine cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Giju; van Voskuilen, Johan; Truong, Hoa; Song, Ji-Ying; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Timely detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with non-invasive modalities like nonlinear spectral imaging (NLSI) can ensure efficient preventive or therapeutic measures for patients. In this study, in vivo NLSI was used to study spectral characteristics in murine skin treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. The results show that NLSI could detect emission spectral changes during the early preclinical stages of skin carcinogenesis. Analyzing these emission spectra using simulated band-pass filters at 450-460 nm and 525-535 nm, gave parameters that were expressed as a ratio. This ratio was increased and thus suggestive of elevated metabolic activity in early stages of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25574438

  10. Investigating Early/Middle Bronze Age copper and bronze axes by micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and neutron imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Elin; Pereira, Marco A. Stanojev; Lopes, Filipa; Marques, José G.; Santos, Joana P.; Araújo, M. Fátima; Silva, Rui J. C.; Senna-Martinez, João C.

    2016-08-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) analysis and neutron imaging techniques, namely 2D radiography and 3D tomography, have been applied for the study of four metal axes from the Early/Middle Bronze Age in Western Iberia, a period characterized by a metallurgical change in the use of copper to bronze. Micro-XRF analysis has shown that one of the axes was produced in copper with some arsenic while the other three were produced in a copper-tin alloy (bronze) with variable tin contents and some arsenic and lead. Neutron radiography and tomography were applied to study internal heterogeneities of the axes in a non-invasive way since the specificities of neutron interaction with matter allow a suitable penetration of these relatively thick copper-based objects when compared to the use of a conventional X-ray radiography. Neutron imaging allowed the visualization of internal fissures and pores and the evaluation of their distribution, size and shape. Relevant information for the reconstruction of ancient manufacturing techniques was gathered, revealing that one ax was produced with the mold in an angle of ≈ 25°, probably to facilitate gas escape during metal pouring. Also, information regarding physical weaknesses of the axes was collected, providing relevant data for their conservation. The combination of these non-destructive techniques allowed the evaluation of the metal composition and the internal structure of the axes. Micro-XRF allowed the distinction among copper and bronze axes, and provided data about the composition of early bronzes for which data is scarce. The neutron imaging study allowed for the first time the visualization of internal heterogeneities in early bronze axes, namely pores and large voids, providing relevant information for the reconstruction of ancient manufacturing techniques and raising pertinent information regarding physical weaknesses of these types of objects.

  11. Astrophysics. Multiple images of a highly magnified supernova formed by an early-type cluster galaxy lens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick L; Rodney, Steven A; Treu, Tommaso; Foley, Ryan J; Brammer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Kasper B; Zitrin, Adi; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Graur, Or; Filippenko, Alexei V; Jha, Saurabh W; Riess, Adam G; Bradac, Marusa; Weiner, Benjamin J; Scolnic, Daniel; Malkan, Matthew A; von der Linden, Anja; Trenti, Michele; Hjorth, Jens; Gavazzi, Raphael; Fontana, Adriano; Merten, Julian C; McCully, Curtis; Jones, Tucker; Postman, Marc; Dressler, Alan; Patel, Brandon; Cenko, S Bradley; Graham, Melissa L; Tucker, Bradley E

    2015-03-01

    In 1964, Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova whose light traversed multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens could be used to measure the rate of cosmic expansion. We report the discovery of such a system. In Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we have found four images of a single supernova forming an Einstein cross configuration around a redshift z = 0.54 elliptical galaxy in the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster. The cluster's gravitational potential also creates multiple images of the z = 1.49 spiral supernova host galaxy, and a future appearance of the supernova elsewhere in the cluster field is expected. The magnifications and staggered arrivals of the supernova images probe the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the galaxy and cluster lenses. PMID:25745167

  12. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  13. The sharp slowdown in growth of medical imaging: an early analysis suggests combination of policies was the cause.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Levy, Frank

    2012-08-01

    The growth in the use of advanced imaging for Medicare beneficiaries decelerated in 2006 and 2007, ending a decade of growth that had exceeded 6 percent annually. The slowdown raises three questions. Did the slowdown in growth of imaging under Medicare persist and extend to the non-Medicare insured? What factors caused the slowdown? Was the slowdown good or bad for patients? Using claims file data and interviews with health care professionals, we found that the growth of imaging use among both Medicare beneficiaries and the non-Medicare insured slowed to 1-3 percent per year through 2009. One by-product of this deceleration in imaging growth was a weaker market for radiologists, who until recently could demand top salaries. The expansion of prior authorization, increased cost sharing, and other policies appear to have contributed to the slowdown. A meaningful fraction of the reduction in use involved imaging studies previously identified as having unproven medical value. What has occurred in the imaging field suggests incentive-based cost control measures can be a useful complement to comparative effectiveness research when a procedure's ultimate clinical benefit is uncertain. PMID:22842655

  14. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  15. CT Perfusion Imaging Can Predict Patients' Survival and Early Response to Transarterial Chemo-Lipiodol Infusion for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei-Fu; Cheng, De-Lei; Zhou, Chun-Ze; Ni, Ming; Lu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the performance of computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in predicting the early response to transarterial chemo-lipiodol infusion (TACLI) and survival of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). Materials and Methods Computed tomography perfusion imaging was performed before and 1 month after TACLI in 61 consecutive patients. Therapeutic response was evaluated on CT scans 1 month and 4 months after TACLI; the patients were classified as responders and non-responders based on 4-month CT scans after TACLI. The percentage change of CTPI parameters of target lesions were compared between responders and non-responders at 1 month after TACLI. The optimal parameter and cutoff value were determined. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to the cutoff value. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates of the 2 subgroups. Results Four-month images were obtained from 58 patients, of which 39.7% were responders and 60.3% were non-responders. The percentage change in hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) 1 month after TACLI was the optimal predicting parameter (p = 0.003). The best cut-off value was -21.5% and patients who exhibited a ≥ 21.5% decrease in HAP had a significantly higher overall survival rate than those who exhibited a < 21.5% decrease (p < 0.001). Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion imaging can predict the early response to TACLI and survival of patients with CRLM. The percentage change in HAP after TACLI with a cutoff value of -21.5% is the optimal predictor. PMID:26175580

  16. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  17. Design and validation of a near-infrared fluorescence endoscope for detection of early esophageal malignancy using a targeted imaging probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterhouse, Dale J.; Joseph, James; Neves, Andre A.; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Brindle, Kevin M.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2016-03-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition that predisposes patients to esophageal cancer. Early detection of cancer in these patients can be curative, but is confounded by a lack of contrast in white light endoscopy (WLE). Application of fluorescently-labeled lectins to the esophagus during endoscopy can more accurately delineate dysplasia emerging within Barrett's than WLE1, but strong tissue autofluorescence has limited sensitivity and dynamic range of this approach. To overcome this challenge, we synthesized a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent lectin and have constructed a clinically translatable endoscope for simultaneous WLE and NIR imaging. An imaging fiber bundle, shielded from patient contact using a disposable catheter, relays collected light into an optical path that splits the WL reflectance and NIR emission onto two cameras for simultaneous video-rate recording. The captured images are co-registered and the honeycomb artifact arising from the fiber bundle is removed using interpolation between image points derived from individual fibers. A minimum detectable concentration of 110 nM was determined using a dilution series of IRDye800CW-lectin in black well plates. We have demonstrated the ability to use our endoscope to distinguish between different tissue types in ex vivo mouse stomachs. Future work using human ex vivo tissue specimens will determine safe illumination limits and sensitivity for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus, prior to commencing clinical trials.

  18. Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Delong; Jung, Yookyung; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Umulis, David M

    2012-04-01

    Lipid droplets are complex organelles that exhibit highly dynamic behavior in early Drosophila embryo development. Imaging lipid droplet motion provides a robust platform for the investigation of shuttling by kinesin and dynein motors, but methods for imaging are either destructive or deficient in resolution and penetration to study large populations of droplets in an individual embryo. Here we report real-time imaging and quantification of droplet motion in live embryos using a recently developed technique termed "femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss" microscopy. We captured long-duration time-lapse images of the developing embryo, tracked single droplet motion within large populations of droplets, and measured the velocity and turning frequency of each particle at different apical-to-basal depths and stages of development. To determine whether the quantities for speed and turning rate measured for individual droplets are sufficient to predict the population distributions of droplet density, we simulated droplet motion using a velocity-jump model. This model yielded droplet density distributions that agreed well with experimental observations without any model optimization or unknown parameter estimation, demonstrating the sufficiency of a velocity-jump process for droplet trafficking dynamics in blastoderm embryos. PMID:22500767

  19. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  20. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  1. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: −259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: −4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: −13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  2. Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Siersema, Peter D.; Stamp, Gordon W. H.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endoscopic technique should combine a wide-field, “red flag” screening technique with an optical contrast or microscopy method for characterization and staging, all simultaneously available during the procedure. In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo “optical biopsy.” These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients. However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology. This review describes some of the most recent applications of biophotonics in endoscopic optical imaging and metrology, along with their fundamental principles and the clinical experience that has been acquired in their deployment as tools for the endoscopist. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging. PMID:26528489

  3. Early-time observations of gamma-ray burst error boxes with the Livermore optical transient imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G G

    2000-08-01

    Despite the enormous wealth of gamma-ray burst (GRB) data collected over the past several years the physical mechanism which causes these extremely powerful phenomena is still unknown. Simultaneous and early time optical observations of GRBs will likely make an great contribution t o our understanding. LOTIS is a robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical afterglows from gamma-ray bursts. LOTIS began routine operations in October 1996 and since that time has responded to over 145 gamma-ray burst triggers. Although LOTIS has not yet detected prompt optical emission from a GRB its upper limits have provided constraints on the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, can detect emission 100 times fainter than LOTIS is capable of detecting. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs under bright skies from the grounds of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Super-LOTIS provided its first upper limits on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. This dissertation provides a summary of the results from LOTIS and Super-LOTIS through the time of writing. Plans for future studies with both systems are also presented.

  4. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  5. Assessing early therapeutic response to bevacizumab in primary breast cancer using magnetic resonance imaging and gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shaveta; Hughes, Nicholas P; Buffa, Francesca M; Li, Sonia P; Adams, Rosemary F; Adwani, Asha; Taylor, N Jane; Levitt, Nicola C; Padhani, Anwar R; Makris, Andreas; Harris, Adrian L

    2011-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of breast cancer. In practice, however, only a subset of patients who receive antiangiogenic drugs demonstrate a significant response. A key challenge, therefore, is to discover biomarkers that are predictive of response to antiangiogenic therapy. To address this issue, we have designed a window-of-opportunity study in which bevacizumab is administered as a short-term first-line treatment to primary breast cancer patients. Central to our approach is the use of a detailed pharmacodynamic assessment, consisting of pre- and post-bevacizumab multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging scans and core biopsies for exon array gene expression analysis. Here, we illustrate three intrinsic patterns of response to bevacizumab and discuss the molecular mechanisms that may underpin each. Our results illustrate how the combination of dynamic imaging data and gene expression profiles can guide the development of biomarkers for predicting response to antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:22043045

  6. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Buffington, Andrew; Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul; Smith, Aaron C.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R approx. 10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  7. Validating Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Catherine K.; Pritz, Jakub; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Forster, Kenneth M.; Harris, Eleanor E.R.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) may be beneficial for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The goal was to validate the use of intraparenchymal textured gold fiducials in patients receiving APBI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients were enrolled on this prospective study that had three or four textured gold intraparenchymal fiducials placed at the periphery of the lumpectomy cavity and were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal APBI. Free-breathing four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were obtained pre- and posttreatment, as were daily online megavoltage (MV) orthogonal images. Intrafraction motion, variations in respiratory motion, and fiducial marker migration were calculated using the 3D coordinates of individual fiducials and a calculated center of mass (COM) of the fiducials. We also compared the relative position of the fiducial COM with the geometric center of the seroma. Results: There was less than 1 mm of intrafraction respiratory motion, variation in respiratory motion, or fiducial marker migration. The change in seroma position relative to the fiducial COM was 1 mm {+-} 1 mm. The average position of the geometric seroma relative to the fiducial COM pretreatment compared with posttreatment was 1 mm {+-} 1 mm. The largest daily variation in displacement when using bony landmark was in the anteroposterior direction and two standard deviations (SD) of this variation was 10 mm. The average variation in daily separation between the fiducial pairs from daily MV images was 3 mm {+-} 3 mm therefore 2 SD is 6 mm. Conclusion: Fiducial markers are stable throughout the course of APBI. Planning target volume margins when using bony landmarks should be 10 mm and can be reduced to 6 mm if using fiducials.

  8. MR Imaging Biomarkers to Monitor Early Response to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 in Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Martinez, Gary V.; Cornnell, Heather H.; Hart, Charles P.; Baker, Amanda F.; Gillies, Robert

    2016-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug known to activate selectively under the hypoxic conditions commonly found in solid tumors. It is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, including two trials in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas (PDAC). The current study was undertaken to evaluate imaging biomarkers for prediction and response monitoring of TH-302 efficacy in xenograft models of PDAC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor vasculature and cellularity, respectively. Three human PDAC xenografts with known differential responses to TH-302 were imaged prior to, and at 24 h and 48 hours following a single dose of TH-302 or vehicle to determine if imaging changes presaged changes in tumor volumes. DW-MRI was performed at five b-values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) maps. For DCE-MRI, a standard clinically available contrast reagent, Gd-DTPA, was used to determine blood flow into the tumor region of interest. TH-302 induced a dramatic decrease in the DCE transfer constant (Ktrans) within 48 hours after treatment in the sensitive tumors, Hs766t and Mia PaCa-2, whereas TH-302 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of resistant SU.86.86 tumors. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADC, was significantly increased 24 and 48 hours after treatment in Hs766t, but was not observed in the Mia PaCa-2 and SU.86.86 groups. Notably, growth inhibition of Hs766t was observed immediately (day 3) following initiation of treatment, but was not observed in MiaPaCa-2 tumors until 8 days after initiation of treatment. Based on these preclinical findings, DCE-MRI measures of vascular perfusion dynamics and ADC measures of cell density are suggested as potential TH-302 response biomarkers in clinical trials. PMID:27227903

  9. Can we develop an early warning system for patients after cell transplantation therapy using X-ray imaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Menk, R.-H.; Stampanoni, M.; Arfelli, F.; Astolfo, A.; Hall, C.; Pinzer, B.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decades, several new therapeutic concepts which include the transplantation of cells have been developed for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The migration of implanted cells away from the intended transplantation site as well as tumour formation from unchecked cell proliferation are potential risks of such therapeutic approaches. In order to follow cell migration and possibly proliferation we have developed a technique that allows detection and tracking of implanted cells which have been marked with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prior to implantation into the host organism. The GNP-loaded cells provide sufficient contrast to be detected with synchrotron X-ray imaging methods. Very small cell clusters and even individual cells can be detected. The price for the high spatial resolution is the exposure of implanted cells and host organism to comparably high radiation doses during the imaging procedures. Therefore, before advocating use of the technique to follow up larger series of transplantation experiments in small animal models of CNS disease it is absolutely mandatory to obtain experimental evidence regarding the threshold X-ray dose above which single or repeated imaging would interfere with the functionality of GNP-loaded cells. Only once this question has been answered should the possibility to develop this method towards clinical application be considered.

  10. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Smith, M. W. L.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh–Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  11. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  12. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (<10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 Jcm(-2)). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of >97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no

  13. LAT1 targeted delivery of methionine based imaging probe derived from M(III) metal ions for early diagnosis of proliferating tumours using molecular imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Puja Panwar; Prakash, Surbhi; Meena, Virendra K; Jaswal, Ambika; Khurana, Harleen; Mishra, Surabhi Kirti; Bhonsle, Hemanth Kumar; Singh, Lokendra; Mishra, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential of DTPA-bis(Methionine), a target specific amino acid based probe for detection of L-type amino acid transporters (LAT1) known to over express in proliferating tumours using multimodality imaging. The ligand, DTPA-bis(Met) was readily converted to lanthanide complexes and was found capable of targeting cancer cells using multimodality imaging. DTPA-bis(Met) complexes were synthesized and characterized by mass spectroscopy. MR longitudinal relaxivity, r₁ = 4.067 ± 0.31 mM⁻¹s⁻¹ and transverse relaxivity, r₂ = 8.61 ± 0.07 mM⁻¹s⁻¹ of Gd(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) were observed at pH 7.4 at 7 T. Bright, localized fluorescence of Eu(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) was observed with standard microscopy and displacement studies indicated ligand functionality. K(D) value determined for Eu(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) on U-87 MG cells was found to be 17.3 pM and showed appreciable fluorescence within the cells. Radio HPLC showed a radiochemical purity more than 95% (specific activity = 400-500 MBq/μmol, labelling efficiency 78 %) for ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met). Pre-treatment of xenografted U-87 MG athymic mice with ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) following unlabelled L-methionine administration reduced tumour uptake by 10-folds in Micro PET. These data support the specific binding of ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) to the LAT1 transporter. To summarize, this agent possesses high stability in biological environment and exhibits effective interaction with its LAT1 transporters giving high accumulation in tumour area, excellent tumour/non-tumour ratio and low non-specific retention in vivo. PMID:25329672

  14. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, Nina A.; Huang Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon S.; Fan, Joline M.; Grecula, John C.; Sammet, Steffen; Sammet, Christina L.; Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2-9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results: Before and during therapy at 2-2.5 and 4-5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2-5 weeks

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis reveals a high prevalence of erosions at four months after symptom onset

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, F.; Stewart, N.; Crabbe, J.; Robinson, E.; Yeoman, S.; Tan, P.; McLean, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist in detecting early joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—MRI was performed on 42 patients with early RA (median symptom duration of four months). Scans were scored separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists using a newly devised scoring system, which was validated. MRI findings were compared with plain radiography, clinical measures, and HLA-DRB*01/04 genotyping.
RESULTS—Interobserver reliability for the overall MRI score was high (r = 0.81) as was intraobserver reliability (r = 0.94 for observer 1 and 0.81 for observer 2). There was more variation in scoring synovitis (interobserver reliability: r = 0.74). Erosions were detected in 45% of scans (19 of 42), compared with 15% of plain radiographs. The most common site for erosions was the capitate (39%), for synovitis the ulnar aspect of the radiocarpal joint, and for tendonitis, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The total MRI score and MRI synovitis score correlated most significantly with C reactive protein (r = 0.40 and 0.42 respectively, p<0.01). The MRI erosion score was highly correlated with MRI bone marrow oedema (r = 0.83) as well as the Ritchie score and disease activity score (r = 0.32, p<0.05). HLA-DRB1*04 or *01 (shared epitope +ve) was found in 76% of patients; 84% of those with MRI erosions and 69% of those without (NS, p = 0.3).
CONCLUSIONS—A high proportion of RA patients develop MRI erosions very early in their disease, when plain radiography is frequently normal. MRI of the dominant wrist may identify those requiring early aggressive treatment.

 Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; carpus; rheumatoid arthritis PMID:9771209

  16. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE) was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was <1.2 mm. Concerning reproducibility and stability over a period of 1 year, deviations from reference were found <0.3 ± 0.2% for linac output, <0.1% for homogeneity, similarly to symmetry. Rotational accuracy of the entire gantry-portal imager system showed a maximum deviation from nominal 0.0 of <1.2 mm. Pre treatment quality assurance of RapidArc plans resulted with a Gamma Agreement Index (fraction of points passing the gamma criteria) of 97.0 ± 1.6% on the first 182 arcs verified. Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans. PMID:21961830

  17. High Content Imaging of Early Morphological Signatures Predicts Long Term Mineralization Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells upon Osteogenic Induction.

    PubMed

    Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bellayr, Ian H; Godil, Saniya A; Puri, Raj K; Bauer, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), represent an attractive cell source for many regenerative medicine applications due to their potential for multi-lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine factor secretion. A major complication for current MSC-based therapies is the lack of well-defined characterization methods that can robustly predict how they will perform in a particular in vitro or in vivo setting. Significant advances have been made with identifying molecular markers of MSC quality and potency using multivariate genomic and proteomic approaches, and more recently with advanced techniques incorporating high content imaging to assess high-dimensional single cell morphological data. We sought to expand upon current methods of high dimensional morphological analysis by investigating whether short term cell and nuclear morphological profiles of MSCs from multiple donors (at multiple passages) correlated with long term mineralization upon osteogenic induction. Using the combined power of automated high content imaging followed by automated image analysis, we demonstrated that MSC morphology after 3 days was highly correlated with 35 day mineralization and comparable to other methods of MSC osteogenesis assessment (such as alkaline phosphatase activity). We then expanded on this initial morphological characterization and identified morphological features that were highly predictive of mineralization capacities (>90% accuracy) of MSCs from additional donors and different manufacturing techniques using linear discriminant analysis. Together, this work thoroughly demonstrates the predictive power of MSC morphology for mineralization capacity and motivates further studies into MSC morphology as a predictive marker for additional in vitro and in vivo responses. Stem Cells 2016;34:935-947. PMID:26865267

  18. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Early After Chemoradiotherapy to Monitor Treatment Response in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecaveye, Vincent; Dirix, Piet; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de Beeck, Katya; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hauben, Esther; Lambrecht, Maarten; Nuyts, Sandra; Hermans, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessment of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) three weeks after the end of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients with HNSCC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to and 3 weeks after CRT, including T{sub 2}-weighted and pre- and postcontrast T{sub 1}-weighted sequences and an echo-planar DWI sequence with six b values (0 to 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}), from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated. ADC changes 3 weeks posttreatment compared to baseline ( Increment ADC) between responding and nonresponding primary lesions and adenopathies were correlated with 2 years locoregional control and compared with a Mann-Whitney test. In a blinded manner, the Increment ADC was compared to conventional MRI 3 weeks post-CRT and the routinely implemented CT, on average 3 months post-CRT, which used size-related and morphological criteria. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were compared between the Increment ADC and anatomical imaging. Results: The Increment ADC of lesions with later tumor recurrence was significantly lower than lesions with complete remission for both primary lesions (-2.3% {+-} 0.3% vs. 80% {+-} 41%; p < 0.0001) and adenopathies (19.9% {+-} 32% vs. 63% {+-} 36%; p = 0.003). The Increment ADC showed a PPV of 89% and an NPV of 100% for primary lesions and a PPV of 70% and an NPV of 96% for adenopathies per neck side. DWI improved PPV and NPV compared to anatomical imaging. Conclusion: DWI with the Increment ADC 3 weeks after concluding CRT for HNSCC allows for early assessment of treatment response.

  19. Wide-field lifetime-based FRET imaging for the assessment of early functional distribution of transferrin-based delivery in breast tumor-bearing small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Targeted drug delivery is a critical aspect of successful cancer therapy. Assessment of dynamic distribution of the drug provides relative concentration and bioavailability at the target tissue. The most common approach of the assessment is intensity-based imaging, which only provides information about anatomical distribution. Observation of biomolecular interactions can be performed using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Thus, FRET-based imaging can assess functional distribution and provide potential therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we used wide-field lifetime-based FRET imaging for the study of early functional distribution of transferrin delivery in breast cancer tumor models in small animals. Transferrin is a carrier for cancer drug delivery. Its interaction with its receptor is within a few nanometers, which is suitable for FRET. Alexa Fluor® 700 and Alexa Fluor® 750 were conjugated to holo-transferrin which were then administered via tail vein injection to the mice implanted with T47D breast cancer xenografts. Images were continuously acquired for 60 minutes post-injection. The results showed that transferrin was primarily distributed to the liver, the urinary bladder, and the tumor. The cellular uptake of transferrin, which was indicated by the level of FRET, was high in the liver but very low in the urinary bladder. The results also suggested that the fluorescence intensity and FRET signals were independent. The liver showed increasing intensity and increasing FRET during the observation period, while the urinary bladder showed increasing intensity but minimal FRET. Tumors gave varied results corresponding to their FRET progression. These results were relevant to the biomolecular events that occurred in the animals.

  20. The ATLAS3D project - XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the ATLAS3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multiband images of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We present here a catalogue of 92 galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample, which are located in low- to medium-density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, which achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey are compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB-optimized surveys at detecting new prominent structures that change the apparent morphology of galaxies. The intrinsic limitations of deep imaging observations are also discussed, among those, the contamination of the stellar haloes of galaxies by extended ghost reflections, and the cirrus emission from Galactic dust. The detection and systematic census of fine structures that trace the present and past mass assembly of ETGs are one of the prime goals of the project. We provide specific examples of each type of observed structures - tidal tails, stellar streams and shells - and explain how they were identified and classified. We give an overview of the initial results. The detailed statistical analysis will be presented in future papers.

  1. Properties of distant galaxies and QSO absortion line systems: A deep multicolor imaging survey of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahata, Noriaki

    2001-03-01

    I present a study on statistical properties of faint galaxy population identified in the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs). The broad-band imaging observations of the HDFs present the deepest images of the universe ever obtained. Based on the available optical and near-infrared space- and ground-based imaging data of the HDFs, I conducted photometry and photometric redshift measurements of all the objects detected in the HDFs. First, I developed and improved three kinds of techniques that allowed to optimally determine the photometry and redshift of faint galaxies identified in the HDFs. They are (1) optimal photometry technique, (2) non-negative least-squares image reconstruction technique, and (3) photometric redshift technique. Using these techniques, I constructed a catalog of 5,318 galaxies and 47 stars across ˜12 arcmin2 of the total survey area of the HDFs. The redshift range of the galaxies spans 0 < z < 10 and beyond. Next, based on the HDF observations, I studied a history of cosmic star formation toward high redshifts (0 < z < 10). The study was motivated by previous measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity density by other groups. Previous conclusions were that the UV luminosity density increases with increasing redshift up to z ˜ 1--2 and then decreases or remains constant (e.g., Madau et al. 1996, 1998). On the other hand, previous work neglected the effect of cosmological surface brightness dimming, that could dominate the measurements at high redshifts. I revisited this problem by considering the distribution of star formation rate intensity (calculated from the rest-frame 1500 A luminosity of galaxies) and thereby making explicit the surface brightness threshold of the HDF observations. The results of the analysis include (1) by neglecting cosmological surface brightness dimming effects, previous measurements have missed a dominant fraction of the UV luminosity density at z ≳ 2, (2) the UV luminosity density plausibly increases monotonically

  2. Early diagnosis and follow-up of chronic active Epstein–Barr-virus-associated cardiovascular complications with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu; Li, Xiao; Cao, Jian; Wu, Di; Kong, Lingyan; Lin, Lu; Jin, Zhengyu; An, Jing; Wang, Yining

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized as chronic or recurrent mononucleosis-like symptoms and elevated EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) copies. Cardiovascular complications have high morbidity and mortality. The treatment regimen for CAEBV has not been established yet, resulting in poor prognoses. Herein, we present a case of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) evaluation with a series of sequences for CAEBV-associated cardiovascular involvement, which has never been reported. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female (body weight, 55 kg) developed a persistent fever and a positive EBV-DNA level of 28,000 copies/mL. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed aneurysms involving the aorta and its major branches, as well as multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary arteries. CMRI of the coronary arteries depicted the dilution and stenosis of the arterial lumen as well as the thickening of the arterial wall. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) showed subendocardial and transmural delayed enhancement of the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial infarction. CAEBV and associated cardiovascular complications were diagnosed. After treatment with Medrol and Leflunomide, the clinical manifestation and serological parameters reversed to normal. However, the EBV-DNA level increased again to 13,900 copies/mL 2 months later. A follow-up with aorta CTA showed that the arterial walls of the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms were thicker with new-onset mural thrombi. The aorta CTA also showed new-onset occlusion of the right coronary artery, but a follow-up of CMRI at the same day did not find new-onset delayed enhancement lesion. Conclusion: This case reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications. With cine imaging, coronary artery imaging, LGE imaging, and other novel techniques, CMRI can effectively and

  3. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: differential diagnosis from other liver tumors in a special reference to vascular imaging - importance of early drainage vein.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kudoh, Kazuhiro; Hiroshima, Yuko; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Funaoka, Masato; Yamamoto, Yuzo

    2015-12-01

    A 51-year-old female had been diagnosed with a hemangioma in the hepatic segment 6 (S6). After a 6-year follow-up, enlargement of the tumor was detected. The tumor was clearly enhanced in the arterial phase, and the enhancement remained in the portal phase on computed tomography (CT). Although the primary differential diagnosis on CT was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we worried about the possibility of other vessel system tumors because the tumor remained to be enhanced at the portal phase for HCC and all tumor markers of HCC were negative. We performed angiography to determine the tumor nature and to seek other tumors. Angiography showed tumor stain at the hepatic S6 with an early obvious drainage vein from the tumor flowing through the right hepatic vein into the inferior vena cava. In addition to tumor stain and the drainage vein, there were many small poolings of contrast medium in the whole liver, which were suspected as dilatation of the hepatic peripheral artery. We suspected the tumor as a benign tumor such as hepatocellular adenoma or focal nodular hyperplasia, but the possibility of HCC could not be ruled out. Hepatic posterior sectionectomy was done to completely remove the drainage vein with the tumor. Intraoperative histological examination revealed the tumor as not malignant and not HCC. Later, immunohistochemical analysis uncovered that the tumor had high expression of HMB-45 and, therefore, the final diagnosis was angiomyolipoma. We think that detecting an early drainage vein from the tumor would be a key point for diagnosing hepatic angiomyolipoma. PMID:26943379

  4. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  5. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component.

    PubMed

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  6. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations. PMID:25952562

  7. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran; Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-10-01

    We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations. PMID:25952562

  8. White matter 'potholes' in early-onset schizophrenia: a new approach to evaluate white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus; Karatekin, Canan

    2009-11-30

    There is considerable evidence implicating white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many of the recent studies examining white matter have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using either region of interest (ROI) or voxel-based approaches. Both voxel-based and ROI approaches are based on the assumption that the abnormalities in white matter overlap spatially. However, this is an assumption that has not been tested, and it is possible that aberrations in white matter occur in non-overlapping regions. In order to test for the presence of non-overlapping regions of aberrant white matter, we developed a novel image processing technique that evaluates for white matter 'potholes,' referring to within-subject clusters of white matter voxels that show a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy. We applied this algorithm to a group of children and adolescents with schizophrenia compared to controls and found an increased number of 'potholes' in the patient group. These results suggest that voxel-based and ROI approaches may be missing some white matter differences that do not overlap spatially. This algorithm may be also be well suited to detect white matter abnormalities in disorders such as substance abuse, head trauma, or specific neurological conditions affecting white matter. PMID:19853414

  9. Tissue damage within normal appearing white matter in early multiple sclerosis: assessment by the ratio of T1- and T2-weighted MR image intensity.

    PubMed

    Beer, A; Biberacher, V; Schmidt, P; Righart, R; Buck, D; Berthele, A; Kirschke, J; Zimmer, C; Hemmer, B; Mühlau, M

    2016-08-01

    Histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown white matter (WM) damage in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) beyond the apparent T2-hyperintense lesions. These changes in normal appearing WM (NAWM) are important with regard to the clinical picture and prognosis. However, the detection of changes within NAWM has so far required special imaging techniques commonly not available in clinical routine and, hence, at large scale. The purpose of this study was to detect MS-related damage of NAWM by conventional MRI. As, within NAWM, the myelin content mainly drives the T1-weighted (T1w) signal, we scaled it by the T2w signal. We tested the hypothesis that the mean T1w/T2w ratio of NAWM is decreased in MS compared to healthy controls (HC) and that it correlates with clinical measures. We developed a pipeline to determine the individual mean values of this ratio within NAWM. We studied 244 patients in early disease stages of MS (mean age 37 ± 10 years, mean disease duration 3.1 ± 2.3, Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.3 ± 1), and 78 HC (mean age 31 ± 8 years). Compared to HC, the mean T1w/T2w ratio was lowered in the patient group (P < 0.001). The difference remained significant after restricting the analysis to patients with a disease duration of 5 years or less and without disease modifying drugs. Our measures also correlated with clinical scores. We believe that the mean T1w/T2w ratio is a promising candidate to assess MS-related tissue damage within NAWM at large scale. PMID:27178000

  10. Early breast cancer detection method based on a simulation study of single-channel passive microwave radiometry imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A.; Savva, Andonis D.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikolopoulos, Christos D.; Capsalis, Christos N.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a methodology for detecting temperature alterations in human breast, based on single channel microwave radiometer imaging. Radiometer measurements were simulated by modelling the human breast, the temperature distribution, and the antenna characteristics. Moreover, a simulated lesion of variable size and position in the breast was employed to provide for slight temperature changes in the breast. To detect the presence of a lesion, the temperature distribution in the breast was reconstructed. This was accomplished by assuming that temperature distribution is the mixture of distributions with unknown parameters, which were determined by means of the least squares and the singular value decomposition methods. The proposed method was validated in a variety of scenarios by altering the lesion size and location and radiometer position. The method proved capable in identifying temperature alterations caused by lesions, at different locations in the breast.

  11. Early detection of colonic dysplasia by magnetic resonance molecular imaging with a contrast agent raised against the colon cancer marker MUC5AC.

    PubMed

    Rossez, Yannick; Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Gosset, Pierre; Léonard, Renaud; Gonzalez, Walter; Ballet, Sébastien; Raynal, Isabelle; Rousseaux, Olivier; Dugué, Timothée; Vander Elst, Luce; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Muller, Robert N; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Human gastric mucin MUC5AC is secreted in the colonic mucus of cancer patients and is a specific marker of precancerous lesions called aberrant crypt foci. Using MUC5AC as a specific marker can improve sensitivity in the detection of early colorectal cancer. Here we demonstrated that the accumulation of MUC5AC in xenograft and mouse stomach can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIOs) conjugated with disulfide constrained heptapeptide that were identified using a screening phage display. To accomplish this, we employed positive selection of the phage display library on MUC5AC purified from fresh human colonic adenomas in combination with negative selection of the phage library on purified human MUC2, which is predominantly found in normal colorectal tissues. This conjugate was tested on human colorectal cancer cell lines that were either able or unable to secrete MUC5AC, both in vitro and in vivo. MUC5AC-USPIO contrast agent and USPIOs alone were not detected in cell lines unable to secrete MUC5AC. A combination of MRI and microscopy studies was performed to detect a specific accumulation of the contrast agent in vivo. Thus, the MUC5AC contrast agent enabled non-invasive detection of precancerous lesions and colorectal cancer, highlighting its potential use in diagnostics, in the early detection of colorectal cancer recurrences after treatment and in mechanistic studies implicating MUC5AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26762591

  12. Early detection and classification of powdery mildew-infected rose leaves using ANFIS based on extracted features of thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mehrnoosh; Minaei, Saeid; Safaie, Naser; Torkamani-Azar, Farah

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in surface temperature of infected and non-infected rose plant (Rosa hybrida cv. 'Angelina') leaves were visualized using digital infrared thermography. Infected areas exhibited a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature up to 2.3 °C. In this study, two experiments were conducted: one in the greenhouse (semi-controlled ambient conditions) and the other, in a growth chamber (controlled ambient conditions). Effect of drought stress and darkness on the thermal images were also studied in this research. It was found that thermal histograms of the infected leaves closely follow a standard normal distribution. They have a skewness near zero, kurtosis under 3, standard deviation larger than 0.6, and a Maximum Temperature Difference (MTD) more than 4. For each thermal histogram, central tendency, variability, and parameters of the best fitted Standard Normal and Laplace distributions were estimated. To classify healthy and infected leaves, feature selection was conducted and the best extracted thermal features with the largest linguistic hedge values were chosen. Among those features independent of absolute temperature measurement, MTD, SD, skewness, R2l, kurtosis and bn were selected. Then, a neuro-fuzzy classifier was trained to recognize the healthy leaves from the infected ones. The k-means clustering method was utilized to obtain the initial parameters and the fuzzy "if-then" rules. Best estimation rates of 92.55% and 92.3% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 8 clusters. Results showed that drought stress had an adverse effect on the classification of healthy leaves. More healthy leaves under drought stress condition were classified as infected causing PPV and Specificity index values to decrease, accordingly. Image acquisition in the dark had no significant effect on the classification performance.

  13. Measurement of TLR-Induced Macrophage Spreading by Automated Image Analysis: Differential Role of Myd88 and MAPK in Early and Late Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Jens; Held, Christian; Palmisano, Ralf; Teufel, Stefan; David, Jean-Pierre; Wittenberg, Thomas; Lang, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Sensing of infectious danger by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages causes not only a reprogramming of the transcriptome but also changes in the cytoskeleton important for cell spreading and motility. Since manual determination of cell contact areas from fluorescence micrographs is very time-consuming and prone to bias, we have developed and tested algorithms for automated measurement of macrophage spreading. The two-step method combines identification of cells by nuclear staining with DAPI and cell surface staining of the integrin CD11b. Automated image analysis correlated very well with manual annotation in resting macrophages and early after stimulation, whereas at later time points the automated cell segmentation algorithm and manual annotation showed slightly larger variation. The method was applied to investigate the impact of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of known TLR signaling components. Deficiency in the adapter protein Myd88 strongly reduced spreading activity at the late time points, but had no impact early after LPS-stimulation. A similar effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of MEK1, the kinase activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 mediates Myd88-dependent macrophages spreading. In contrast, macrophages lacking the MAPK p38 were impaired in the initial spreading response but responded normally 8–24 h after stimulation. The dichotomy of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK effects on early and late macrophage spreading raises the question which of the respective substrate proteins mediate(s) cytoskeletal remodeling and spreading. The automated measurement of cell spreading described here increases the objectivity and greatly reduces the time required for such investigations and is therefore expected to facilitate larger throughput analysis of macrophage spreading, e.g., in siRNA knockdown screens. PMID:22028692

  14. Early Changes in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient From Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Park, Won; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Kim, Bohyun

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) as an early and reproducible change indicator in patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven PC underwent DWI at 3T. All patients who received external-beam radiotherapy had four serial MR scans, as follows: before therapy (PreTx); after 1 week of therapy (PostT1); after 3 weeks of therapy (PostT2); and 1 month after the completion of therapy (PostT3). At each time, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in tumors and normal tissues. For reproducibility of the ADC measurement, five patients also had two separate pretreatment DWI scans at an interval of <2 weeks. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated at the same time as MR scans. Results: Thirteen tumors (peripheral zone = 10; transition zone = 3) were found. The mean ADC values for the tumors from PreTx to PostT3 were 0.86, 1.03, 1.15, and 1.26 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Compared with PreTx, PostT1 (p = 0.005), PostT2 (p = 0.003), and PostT3 (p < 0.001) showed a significant increase in ADC values. The mean ADC values of the benign tissues from PreTx to PostT3 were 1.60, 1.58, 1.47, and 1.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Reproducibility of ADC measurements was confirmed with a mean difference in ADC of -0.04 in peripheral zone and -0.017 in transition zone between two separate pretreatment MR scans. The mean PSA levels from PreTx to PostT3 were 9.05, 9.18, 9.25, and 4.11 ng/mL in sequence, respectively. Conclusions: DWI, as a reproducible biomarker, has the potential to evaluate the early therapeutic changes of PC to radiotherapy.

  15. The When and Where of Working Memory Dysfunction in Early-Onset Schizophrenia-A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Robert A; Linden, David E J; Roebroeck, Alard; Härtling, Fabian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Maurer, Konrad; Goebel, Rainer; Singer, Wolf; Haenschel, Corinna

    2015-09-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is already impaired at the encoding stage. However, the neurophysiological basis of this primary deficit remains poorly understood. Using event-related fMRI, we assessed differences in brain activation and functional connectivity during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval stages of a visual WM task with 3 levels of memory load in 17 adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 17 matched controls. The amount of information patients could store in WM was reduced at all memory load levels. During encoding, activation in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and extrastriate visual cortex, which in controls positively correlated with the amount of stored information, was reduced in patients. Additionally, patients showed disturbed functional connectivity between prefrontal and visual areas. During retrieval, right inferior VLPFC hyperactivation was correlated with hypoactivation of left VLPFC in patients during encoding. Visual WM encoding is disturbed by a failure to adequately engage a visual-prefrontal network critical for the transfer of perceptual information into WM. Prefrontal hyperactivation appears to be a secondary consequence of this primary deficit. Isolating the component processes of WM can lead to more specific neurophysiological markers for translational efforts seeking to improve the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:24675869

  16. A study comparing ultrasound images of tongue movements between open bite children and normal children in the early mixed dentition period.

    PubMed

    Kikyo, T; Saito, M; Ishikawa, M

    1999-09-01

    The tongue surface movement of young patients with or without open bite was evaluated by ultrasound images taken on the posterior part of the tongue on the frontal plane to determine whether there is any relationship between the tongue movement and open bite malocclusion in the early mixed dentition period. The standardized reproducible ultrasound images were obtained using ultrasound diagnostic equipment that was fabricated in a cephalostat unit having a probe stabilizer. At the central portion of the tongue, no significant differences were detected in the duration or the momentum of tongue surface movement on a frontal plane was detected between the patients with and without open bite during swallowing. The farther the region was from the central portion, however, the longer the duration and the bigger the momentum of the tongue surface movement was found in the open bite group. Based on this evidence, it is suggested that an open-bite child swallows by using a tongue thrust motion that forms using a large depressed area in the tongue, whereas a normal child without tongue thrust forms a rather narrow groove in the central portion of the tongue when swallowing. PMID:12160259

  17. Direct Extraction of Tumor Response Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for Image Reconstruction of Early Breast Cancer Detection by UWB.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwei; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Liang; Song, Hang; Kono, Hayato; Liu, Peifang; Lu, Hong; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2015-10-01

    A direct extraction method of tumor response based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed for early breast cancer detection by ultra-wide band (UWB) microwave imaging. With this approach, the image reconstruction for the tumor detection can be realized with only extracted signals from as-detected waveforms. The calibration process executed in the previous research for obtaining reference waveforms which stand for signals detected from the tumor-free model is not required. The correctness of the method is testified by successfully detecting a 4 mm tumor located inside the glandular region in one breast model and by the model located at the interface between the gland and the fat, respectively. The reliability of the method is checked by distinguishing a tumor buried in the glandular tissue whose dielectric constant is 35. The feasibility of the method is confirmed by showing the correct tumor information in both simulation results and experimental results for the realistic 3-D printed breast phantom. PMID:26552095

  18. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M.; Pérez-Bueno, María L.; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding

  19. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M; Pérez-Bueno, María L; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding

  20. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of a paint cross section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden.

    PubMed

    Keune, Katrien; Boon, Jaap J

    2004-03-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is introduced as an analytical technique for the examination of paint cross sections to obtain simultaneous information about the nature and distribution of pigments and the binding medium from a single sample. A sample taken from the virgin's blue robe in the panel painting The Descent from the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid) of the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464) was selected for investigation. Data were compared with reference compounds and reference lead white linseed oil paint and egg tempera paint. The static SIMS technique gave position-sensitive mass spectra that were used to image the elemental distribution of pigments and the molecular signature of components of the oleaginous binding medium. SIMS ion images of sodium and aluminum superimposed with the blue pigment ultramarine and those of copper, lead, and calcium with the position of the mineral pigments of azurite, lead white, and chalk, respectively. Preserved monocarboxylic acids of palmitic and stearic acids present as fatty acids and fatty acid lead soaps pointed to the use of linseed oil as a binding medium. Images from the oleaginous binding medium fatty acids show a correlation with the three main paint layers. The observed palmitic/stearic acid ratios for the two ultramarine layers and azurite layers are 1.3, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively. Fatty acids and fatty acid soaps show highest ion yields near lead white, a mineral pigment that serves as a natural chemical drier and is proposed to act as a template for the initial grafting of the polyunsaturated triglycerides of the linseed oil. Almost no fatty acids were detected in other layers visible by light microscopy. The fatty acid lead soaps point toward a mature ionomeric oil paint system that developed over centuries. SIMS evidence for egg tempera, still used in the 15th century, is not detected in the paint cross section. SIMS images correlate well with SEM/EDX, FT

  1. Posterior Circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score Using Hypointense Vessels on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging Independently Predicts Outcome in Patients with Basilar Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Mundiyanapurath, S.; Möhlenbruch, M.; Ringleb, P. A.; Bösel, J.; Wick, W.; Bendszus, M.; Radbruch, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Appearance of hypointense vessels on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) has been reported to correlate with outcome in patients with ischemia of the anterior circulation. This study investigates the correlation between the appearance of hypointense vessels on SWI after recanalization therapy and outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Methods Patients with basilar artery occlusion who were treated with endovascular recanalization or intravenous alteplase and received an MRI including SWI after therapy were retrieved from the hospital database for retrospective analysis. Posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score (pcASPECTS) was calculated based on regions displaying hypointense vessels on SWI and compared to lesions on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Subsequently, SWI based pcASPECTS was correlated with outcome determined with modified Rankin Scale (mRS), categorized as favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) or unfavorable outcome (3-6). Results Twenty-two MRI of patients with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. In seven out of eight areas of the pcASPECTS hypointense vessels on SWI were significantly correlated to areas of restricted diffusion on DWI. In univariate analysis median pcASPECTS on SWI was significantly higher in patients with favorable outcome (7.5 vs. 5, p=0.02). In a multivariate analysis pcASPECTS on SWI was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (OR 2.02; CI [1.02;3,99]; p=0.04). Conclusion pcASPECTS based on hypointense vessels on SWI after therapy predicts outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion and might potentially be used as an additional imaging biomarker in the management of patients with stroke in the posterior circulation. This needs to be confirmed in larger prospective clinical trials. PMID:26176682

  2. Early Detection of Ventilation-Induced Brain Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: An In Vivo Study in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Skiöld, Béatrice; Wu, Qizhu; Hooper, Stuart B.; Davis, Peter G.; McIntyre, Richard; Tolcos, Mary; Pearson, James; Vreys, Ruth; Egan, Gary F.; Barton, Samantha K.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Polglase, Graeme R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim High tidal volume (VT) ventilation during resuscitation of preterm lambs results in brain injury evident histologically within hours after birth. We aimed to investigate whether magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and/or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used for early in vivo detection of ventilation-induced brain injury in preterm lambs. Methods Newborn lambs (0.85 gestation) were stabilized with a “protective ventilation” strategy (PROT, n = 7: prophylactic Curosurf, sustained inflation, VT 7 mL/kg, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cmH2O) or an initial 15 minutes of “injurious ventilation” (INJ, n = 10: VT 12 mL/kg, no PEEP, late Curosurf) followed by PROT ventilation for the remainder of the experiment. At 1 hour, lambs underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (Siemens, 3 Tesla). For measures of mean/axial/radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), 30 direction DTI was performed. Regions of interests encompassed the thalamus, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and the cerebellar vermis. MRS was performed using a localized single-voxel (15×15×20 mm3, echo time 270 ms) encompassing suptratentorial deep nuclear grey matter and central white matter. Peak-area ratios for lactate (Lac) relative to N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were calculated. Groups were compared using 2-way RM-ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's correlations. Results No cerebral injury was seen on structural MR images. Lambs in the INJ group had higher mean FA and lower mean RD in the thalamus compared to PROT lambs, but not in the other regions of interest. Peak-area lactate ratios >1.0 was only seen in INJ lambs. A trend of higher mean peak-area ratios for Lac/Cr and Lac/Cho was seen, which correlated with lower pH in both groups. Conclusion Acute changes in brain diffusion measures and metabolite peak-area ratios were observed after injurious ventilation. Early MRS/DTI is

  3. Contrasting Networks for Recognition Memory and Recency Memory Revealed by Immediate-Early Gene Imaging in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used to compare networks of activity associated with recency memory (temporal order memory) and recognition memory. In Experiment 1, rats were first familiarized with sets of objects and then given pairs of different, familiar objects to explore. For the recency test group, each object in a pair was separated by 110 min in the time between their previous presentations. For the recency control test, each object in a pair was separated by less than a 1 min between their prior presentations. Temporal discrimination of the objects correlated with c-fos activity in the recency test group in several sites, including area Te2, the perirhinal cortex, lateral entorhinal cortex, as well as the dentate gyrus, hippocampal fields CA3 and CA1. For both the test and control conditions, network models were derived using structural equation modeling. The recency test model emphasized serial connections from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex and then to the CA1 subfield. The recency control condition involved more parallel pathways, but again highlighted CA1 within the hippocampus. Both models contrasted with those derived from tests of object recognition (Experiment 2), because stimulus novelty was associated with pathways from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex that then involved both the dentate gyrus (and CA3) and CA1 in parallel. The present findings implicate CA1 for the processing of familiar stimuli, including recency discriminations, while the dentate gyrus and CA3 pathways are recruited when the perirhinal cortex signals novel stimuli. PMID:24933661

  4. Ultrafast electronic response of Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces: From early excitonic transients to saturated image potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkin, V. M.; Lazić, P.; Došlić, N.; Petek, H.; Gumhalter, B.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of attosecond to femtosecond screening and emergent potentials that govern the dynamics and energetics of electrons and holes excited in the various stages of multiphoton photoemission processes and control the photoelectron yield in recently reported experiments [X. Cui, C. Wang, A. Argondizzo, S. Garrett-Roe, B. Gumhalter, and H. Petek, Nat. Phys. 10, 505 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2981]. The study is focused on the dynamical screening of holes created in preexistent quasi-two-dimensional Shockley state bands on Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces and of electrons excited to the intermediate and emerging screened states. Using the formalism of self-consistent electronic response, we analyze first the effects of screening on the dynamics of photoexcited electrons and holes and then of the Coulomb correlated photoexcited pair. Special attention is paid to the correlated primary electron-hole states, which commence as transient surface excitons and develop in the course of screening into uncorrelated electrons and holes propagating in the image potential and surface state bands, respectively. The obtained results enable to establish a consistent picture of transient electron dynamics at Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces that are becoming accessible by the time-, energy-, and momentum-resolved pump-probe multiphoton photoelectron spectroscopies.

  5. Early detection of microcirculatory perfusion changes with a high resolution, real time laser doppler imaging camera–frostbite case study

    PubMed Central

    Erba, Paolo; Harbi, Pascal; Thacher, Tyler; Pries, Axel; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Raffoul, Wassim

    2011-01-01

    A 41-year-old male presented with severe frostbite that was monitored clinically and with a new laser Doppler imaging (LDI) camera that records arbitrary microcirculatory perfusion units (1–256 arbitrary perfusion units (APU’s)). LDI monitoring detected perfusion differences in hand and foot not seen visually. On day 4–5 after injury, LDI showed that while fingers did not experience any significant perfusion change (average of 31±25 APUs on day 5), the patient’s left big toe did (from 17±29 APUs day 4 to 103±55 APUs day 5). These changes in regional perfusion were not detectable by visual examination. On day 53 postinjury, all fingers with reduced perfusion by LDI were amputated, while the toe could be salvaged. This case clearly demonstrates that insufficient microcirculatory perfusion can be identified using LDI in ways which visual examination alone does not permit, allowing prognosis of clinical outcomes. Such information may also be used to develop improved treatment approaches. PMID:22679257

  6. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    PubMed

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term. PMID:27021492

  7. Assessment of the Early Effects of 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid Using Macromolecular Contrast Media-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Ectopic Versus Orthotopic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, Mukund Bellnier, David A.; Cheney, Richard T.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the early effects of a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) in ectopic and orthotopic tumors by using macromolecular contrast media (MMCM)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MMCM-MRI). Methods and Materials: The MMCM-MRI of ectopic and orthotopic MCA205 murine fibrosarcomas was performed using the intravascular contrast agent albumin-(gadopentetate dimeglumine){sub 35}. Change in longitudinal relaxation rate ({delta}R1) was measured 24 hours after treatment with 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA; 30 mg/kg) and used to compute tumor vascular volume and permeability. Correlative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation was carried out, along with measurement of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in whole tumor extracts using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Orthotopic tumors showed higher vascular volume (p < 0.05) than ectopic tumors before treatment. Twenty-four hours after DMXAA treatment, a significant (p < 0.0001), but differential, decrease in {delta}R1 (70% in ectopic and 50% in orthotopic tumors) was observed compared with baseline estimates. Consistent with this observation, greater levels of tumor necrosis factor {alpha}, an important mediator of the antivascular activity of DMXAA, were measured in ectopic tumors 3 hours posttreatment compared with orthotopic tumors (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical (CD31) and histologic (hematoxylin and eosin) sections of ectopic and orthotopic tumors showed highly tumor-selective vascular damage after treatment with the presence of viable surrounding normal tissue. Conclusions: The MMCM-MRI provided early quantitative estimates of change in tumor perfusion after VDA treatment that showed good correlation with cytokine induction. Differences in the response of ectopic and orthotopic tumors highlight the influence of the host microenvironment in modulating the activity of VDAs.

  8. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is more accurate for determination of horizontal extent of early gastric cancers than chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Kodashima, Shinya; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Shichijo, Satoki; Matsuzaka, Keisuke; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Although magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) is reported to be useful for delineating the horizontal extent of early gastric cancers (EGCs), there are few reports which have objectively demonstrated the superiority of ME-NBI over chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine for this purpose. We conducted an exploratory comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of both modalities for the delineation of EGCs using prospectively collected data, and clarified the clinicopathological features related to inaccurate evaluation of the horizontal extent of EGCs. Patients and methods: EGCs were assigned to the oral narrow-band imaging (O-NBI) group or the oral chromoendoscopy (O-CE) group before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The oral border was observed according to assignment, and the anal border with the other modality. The horizontal extent of the tumor was evaluated by each modality and a marking dot was placed on the visible delineation line. After ESD, the marking dots were identified pathologically and defined as “accurate evaluation” if they were located within 1 mm of the pathological tumor border. We compared the rate of accurate evaluation of ME-NBI and chromoendoscopy, and analyzed the clinicopathological features related to inaccurate evaluation. Results: A total of 113 marking dots evaluated by ME-NBI and 116 evaluated by chromoendoscopy were analyzed. The rate of accurate evaluation by ME-NBI was significantly higher than that by chromoendoscopy (89.4 % vs 75.9 %, P = 0.0071). The EGCs with flat borders and large EGCs were significantly related to inaccurate evaluation using ME-NBI. There were no significant factors related to inaccurate evaluation with chromoendoscopy. Conclusions: The accurate evaluation rate of the horizontal extent of EGCs by ME-NBI is significantly higher than that by chromoendoscopy. Study registration: UMIN000007641 PMID:27556080

  9. State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by

  10. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bracci, S; Caruso, O; Galeotti, M; Iannaccone, R; Magrini, D; Picchi, D; Pinna, D; Porcinai, S

    2015-06-15

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  11. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): Combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracci, S.; Caruso, O.; Galeotti, M.; Iannaccone, R.; Magrini, D.; Picchi, D.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  12. Multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D magnetic resonance imaging between normal aging and early Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Huang-Jing; Zhou, Lu-Ping; Zeng, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xing; Ning, Xin-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Applications of multifractal analysis to white matter structure changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently received increasing attentions. Although some progresses have been made, there is no evident study on applying multifractal analysis to evaluate the white matter structural changes on MRI for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. In this paper, to explore multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D MRI volumes between normal aging and early AD, we not only extend the traditional box-counting multifractal analysis (BCMA) into the 3D case, but also propose a modified integer ratio based BCMA (IRBCMA) algorithm to compensate for the rigid division rule in BCMA. We verify multifractal characteristics in 3D white matter MRI volumes. In addition to the previously well studied multifractal feature, Δα, we also demonstrated Δf as an alternative and effective multifractal feature to distinguish NC from AD subjects. Both Δα and Δf are found to have strong positive correlation with the clinical MMSE scores with statistical significance. Moreover, the proposed IRBCMA can be an alternative and more accurate algorithm for 3D volume analysis. Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of multifractal analysis, which may contribute to clarify some aspects of the etiology of AD through detection of structural changes in white matter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271079), the Vice Chancellor Research Grant in University of Wollongong, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  13. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  14. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion-Magnetic Resonance Imaging as an Early Predictor of Treatment Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Youping; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yunbin; Chen, Ying; He, Zhuangzhen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early predicting the treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-eight patients with locoregionally advanced NPC were imaged with IVIM-MRI (14 b-factors, 0 – 1000 s/mm2) on a 3.0-T Magnetic resonance system, at the baseline, and repeatedly at the third and 21st day after NAC started. The IVIM-derived parameters (D, pure diffusion coefficient; f, perfusion fraction; and D∗, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were calculated with the Interactive Data Language version 6.3 software. The baseline parameters and their corresponding changes (Δparameter(day)) during NAC were compared using the Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Variation analyses of IVIM-derived parameters were tested with intraclass correlation coefficient. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to estimate the best diagnostic accuracy. Statistical analyses were performed on the SPSS 18.0 software, with a 2-tailed probability value, P < 0.05 was considered significant. Among recruited patients, 37 cases were categorized as responders and 11 cases as nonresponders after NAC completed. The intra- and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of IVIM-derived parameters were excellent, which ranged from 0.858 to 0.971. Compared with the baseline value, at the third and 21st day, the D value was significantly higher and the D∗ value significantly lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, f parameter only changed slightly (P > 0.05). Compared with nonresponders, responders presented a notably lower baseline D value and higher ΔD3, ΔD21, ΔD3∗, ΔD21∗, and Δf21 (P < 0.05), but no significant change in Δf3 was observed (P > 0.1). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that the threshold of

  15. Quantitative T2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compared to Morphological Grading of the Early Cervical Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: An Evaluation Approach in Asymptomatic Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhihua; Shao, Lixin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Hongkui; Ren, Aijun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. Methods Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18–25 years) underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE) and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I–V)) and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo). T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350) and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700) were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. Findings Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P<0.000). The NP, anterior AF and posterior AF values did not differ significantly between genders at the same anatomic level (P>0.05). T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000) but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854). However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II) showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms), grade II (54.60–62.03 ms), grade III (<54.60 ms). Conclusions T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults. PMID:24498384

  16. Value of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Early Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Maarten; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Roels, Sarah; Penninckx, Freddy; Van Cutsem, Eric; Filip, Claus; Haustermans, Karin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for response prediction before and response assessment during and early after preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients receiving RCT for LARC underwent MRI including DWI before RCT, after 10-15 fractions and 1 to 2 weeks before surgery. Tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; b-values: 0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}) were determined at all time points. Pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, tumor ADC change ( Increment ADC), and volume change ( Increment V) between pretreatment and follow-up examinations were compared with histopathologic findings after total mesorectal excision (pathologic complete response [pCR] vs. no pCR, ypT0-2 vs. ypT3-4, T-downstaging or not). The discriminatory capability of pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, Increment ADC, and Increment V for the detection of pCR was compared with receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Pretreatment ADC was significantly lower in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in mm{sup 2}/s: 0.94 {+-} 0.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} vs. 1.19 {+-} 0.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, p = 0.003), yielding a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86% for detection of pCR. The volume reduction during and after RCT was significantly higher in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}V{sub during}: -62 {+-} 16 vs. -33 {+-} 16, respectively, p = 0.015; and {Delta}V{sub post}: -86 {+-} 12 vs. -60 {+-} 21, p = 0.012), yielding a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% for the {Delta}V{sub during} and, respectively, 83% and 86% for the {Delta}V{sub post}. The Increment ADC during ({Delta}ADC{sub during}) and after RCT ({Delta}ADC{sub post}) showed a significantly higher value in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}ADC{sub during}: 72 {+-} 14 vs. 16 {+-} 12, p = 0.0006; and {Delta}ADC{sub post}: 88

  17. New insights into the star formation histories of candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies from K'-band imaging of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the age and metallicity distributions of bright globular clusters (GCs) in the candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 using a combination of new Gemini's Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer K'-band imaging and existing optical VI photometry from Hubble Space Telescope data. The V-I versus I-K' colour-colour diagram is found to break the age-metallicity degeneracy present in optical colours and spectroscopy, as I-K' primarily measures a population's metallicity. In addition, it is relatively insensitive to the effect of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars that are known to be present in massive old GCs. By interpolation between simple stellar population model tracks, we derive photometric cluster ages, metallicities and masses. In general, we find that 'metal-poor' GCs with [Z/H] ≲-0.7 dex are older than more metal rich GCs. For the most massive GCs (?) in NGC 3610 with available spectroscopic data, the photometric ages are older by ˜2 Gyr, and this difference is more pronounced for the metal-poor GCs. However, the photometric and spectroscopic metallicities are in good agreement. We suggest that this indicates the presence of a hot HB in these massive clusters, which renders spectroscopic ages from Balmer line strengths to be underestimated. To support this suggestion, we show that all Galactic GCs with ? feature hot HBs, except 47 Tuc. Using a recent observational relation between the luminosity of the most massive GC and the galaxies' star formation rate (SFR) at a given age, we find that the galaxies' peak SFR was attained at the epoch of the formation of the oldest (metal-poor) GCs. The age and [Z/H] distributions of the metal-rich GCs are broad, indicating prolonged galaxy star formation histories. The peak ages of the metal-rich GCs in the sample galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 are 3.7, 5.9 and 8.9 Gyr, respectively. The peak value of the age and metallicity distributions of the GCs is correlated with the host

  18. Monitoring Early Response to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Volume Measurements in Colon Carcinoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Moritz Jörg; Cyran, Clemens Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Hirner, Heidrun; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Dietrich, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and volume measurements for early monitoring of antiangiogenic therapy in an experimental tumor model. Materials and Methods 23 athymic nude rats, bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts (HT-29) were examined before and after 6 days of treatment with regorafenib (n = 12) or placebo (n = 11) in a clinical 3-Tesla MRI. For DW-MRI, a single-shot EPI sequence with 9 b-values (10–800 s/mm2) was used. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated voxelwise and its median value over a region of interest, covering the entire tumor, was defined as the tumor ADC. Tumor volume was determined using T2-weighted images. ADC and volume changes between first and second measurement were evaluated as classifiers by a receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis individually and combined using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). Results All ADCs and volumes are stated as median±standard deviation. Tumor ADC increased significantly in the therapy group (0.76±0.09×10−3 mm2/s to 0.90±0.12×10−3 mm2/s; p<0.001), with significantly higher changes of tumor ADC than in the control group (0.10±0.11×10−3 mm2/s vs. 0.03±0.09×10−3 mm2/s; p = 0.027). Tumor volume increased significantly in both groups (therapy: 347.8±449.1 to 405.3±823.6 mm3; p = 0.034; control: 219.7±79.5 to 443.7±141.5 mm3; p<0.001), however, the therapy group showed significantly reduced tumor growth (33.30±47.30% vs. 96.43±31.66%; p<0.001). Area under the curve and accuracy of the ADC-based ROC analysis were 0.773 and 78.3%; and for the volume change 0.886 and 82.6%. The FLDA approach yielded an AUC of 0.985 and an accuracy of 95.7%. Conclusions Regorafenib therapy significantly increased tumor ADC after 6 days of treatment and also significantly reduced tumor growth. However, ROC analyses using each parameter individually revealed a lack of accuracy in discriminating between therapy and control

  19. Value of Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging in the Assessment of Early Cerebral Alterations in Neurologically Asymptomatic HIV-1-Positive and HCV-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bladowska, Joanna; Knysz, Brygida; Zimny, Anna; Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Kołtowska, Anna; Szewczyk, Paweł; Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Furdal, Michał; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in the early stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It has been documented that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can replicate in the CNS. The aim of the study was to evaluate early disturbances in cerebral microcirculation using magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in asymptomatic HIV-1-positive and HCV-positive patients, as well as to assess the correlation between PWI measurements and the clinical data. Materials and Methods Fifty-six patients: 17 HIV-1-positive non-treated, 18 HIV-1-positive treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 7 HIV-1/HCV-positive non-treated, 14 HCV-positive before antiviral therapy and 18 control subjects were enrolled in the study. PWI was performed with a 1.5T MR unit using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) method. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements relative to cerebellum (rCBV) were evaluated in the posterior cingulated region (PCG), basal ganglia (BG), temporoparietal (TPC) and frontal cortices (FC), as well as in white matter of frontoparietal areas. Correlations of rCBV values with immunologic data and liver histology activity index (HAI) were analyzed. Results Significantly lower rCBV values were found in the right TPC and left FC as well as in PCG in HIV-1-positive naïve (p = 0.009; p = 0.020; p = 0.012), HIV-1 cART treated (p = 0.007; p = 0.009; p = 0.033), HIV-1/HCV-positive (p = 0.007; p = 0.027; p = 0.045) and HCV-positive patients (p = 0.010; p = 0.005; p = 0.045) compared to controls. HIV-1-positive cART treated and HIV-1/HCV-positive patients demonstrated lower rCBV values in the right FC (p = 0.009; p = 0.032, respectively) and the left TPC (p = 0.036; p = 0.005, respectively), while HCV-positive subjects revealed lower rCBV values in the left TPC region (p = 0.003). We found significantly elevated rCBV values in

  20. Piramal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dinkelborg, Ludger

    2015-08-01

    Piramal Imaging, a division of Piramal Enterprises Ltd, is a global radiopharmaceutical company that is actively developing novel PET radiotracers for use in molecular imaging. The company focuses on developing innovative products that improve early detection and characterization of chronic and life-threatening diseases, leading to better therapeutic outcomes and improved quality of life. PMID:26295720

  1. Enhancements to and Characterization of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) Prototype Instrument and Applications to Shallow Subsurface Imaging at Sites in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Chew, W.C.

    2000-12-01

    Field tests and deployments of VETEM is a flexible and highly effective new system for electromagnetic imaging that offers significant new 3D electromagnetic imaging capabilities in the shallow subsurface. Important new numerical modeling techniques have been produced, which are applicable to electromagnetic subsurface imaging, and suggest further research and development. In addition, this research has also produced a flexible, fast, and fully functional prototype VETEM system that has produced some remarkable subsurface images, has bridged the gap between pure research and applications, and is now available for use at DOE sites that have shallow subsurface imaging needs.

  2. Distributed Coseismic and Early Postseismic Dip-Slip from the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake: A Unique Image of Near-Trench Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Newman, A. V.; Fritz, H.

    2008-12-01

    We estimate the spatial distribution of dip-slip in the 1 April 2007 magnitude MW=8.1 Solomon earthquake, which created a locally large tsunami with runup heights up to 12 m. The event is unique in that involved the rupture of at least two subducting plates, and that land occurs very close to the trench on the hanging wall side. The occurrence of islands extremely proximal to the trench allowed for the collection of near-shore uplift and subsidence information from costal areas (including the exposure and subsidence of corals), hence giving a unique well-resolved image of the near-trench geodetically derived slip. Two surveys, taken between 1 week and 1 month after the event primarily across the southern portion of the slip zone, comprise a dataset of approximately 100 measurements of between +3.6 and -1.5 m of vertical displacements [Fritz and Kalligeris, 2008; Taylor et al., 2008]. We use the Okada [1992] elastic dislocation model, to explore the distribution of dip-slip on discrete patches. To maintain a realistic distribution of slip we smooth the solution by attempting to minimize the second-order spatial derivative of slip, hence minimizing the stress change across the system. Because data are only vertical in nature and the expected strike-slip component of the thrust is small, only the dip-slip component of rupture was considered. Early results show highly variable dip-slip both along-strike and down- dip, with a significant focus of slip in the shallow near trench area. If real, this near-trench focusing may explain the locally high runup on portions of Simbo Island. Because it is not certain how much of the modeled slip occurred due to coseismic versus post-seismic recovery and afterslip, we explore the variability of solutions between the two surveys and compare results with the available spatial distribution of co-seismic finite-slip model of C. Ji [unpublished, 2007].

  3. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer Using a Linear Accelerator Outside of the Operative Suite: An “Image-Guided” Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Simões Dornellas de Barros, Alfredo Carlos; Martins de Andrade, Felipe Eduardo; Barbosa Bevilacqua, Jose Luiz; Morales Piato, José Roberto; Lopes Pelosi, Edilson; Martella, Eduardo; Fernandes da Silva, João Luis; Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To present local control, complications, and cosmetic outcomes of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for early breast cancer, as well as technical aspects related to the use of a nondedicated linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: This prospective trial began in May of 2004. Eligibility criteria were biopsy-proven breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma, age >40 years, tumor <3 cm, and cN0. Exclusion criteria were in situ or lobular types, multicentricity, skin invasion, any contraindication for surgery and/or radiation therapy, sentinel lymph node involvement, metastasis, or another malignancy. Patients underwent classic quadrantectomy with intraoperative sentinel lymph node and margins evaluation. If both free, the patient was transferred from operative suite to linear accelerator room, and IORT was delivered (21 Gy). Primary endpoint: local recurrence (LR); secondary endpoints: toxicities and aesthetics. Quality assurance involved using a customized shield for chest wall protection, applying procedures to minimize infection caused by patient transportation, and using portal films to check collimator-shield alignment. Results: A total of 152 patients were included, with at least 1 year follow-up. Median age (range) was 58.3 (40-85.4) years, and median follow-up time was 50.7 (12-110.5) months. The likelihood of 5-year local recurrence was 3.7%. There were 3 deaths, 2 of which were cancer related. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year actuarial estimates of overall, disease-free, and local recurrence-free survivals were 97.8%, 92.5%, and 96.3%, respectively. The overall incidences of acute and late toxicities were 12.5% and 29.6%, respectively. Excellent, good, fair, and bad cosmetic results were observed in 76.9%, 15.8%, 4.3%, and 2.8% of patients, respectively. Most treatments were performed with a 5-cm collimator, and in 39.8% of the patients the electron-beam energy used was ≥12 MeV. All patients underwent portal film evaluation, and the shielding was

  4. [Early rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic joint disease which if untreated leads to permanent structural damage and disability. Early diagnosis and therapy are the main requests for good clinical practice. Early diagnosis tools include specific clinical assesment, serological, immunogenetic and radiological evaluation. Disease activity score is cornerstone in clinical assesment, rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) are very specific serological parameters. The shared epitope containing HLA-DRB1* alleles represent the most significant genetic risk for RA. Magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging are very sensitive methods in early phase of disease. PMID:19024271

  5. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood. PMID:26481852

  6. Comparison of 18F-FES, 18F-FDG, and 18F-FMISO PET Imaging Probes for Early Prediction and Monitoring of Response to Endocrine Therapy in a Mouse Xenograft Model of ER-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, ZhongYi; Zhang, JianPing; Zhang, YongPing; Luo, JianMin; Zhang, YingJian

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to characterize biological processes for early prediction and monitoring of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer using multiple positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes. However, use of more than two PET tracers in a single clinical trial is quite challenging. In this study we carried out a longitudinal investigation of 18F-FES, 18F-FDG, and 18F-FMISO PET imaging probes for early prediction and monitoring of response to endocrine therapy in a mouse xenograft model of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Method ER+ human breast cancer ZR-75-1 models were established in female mice that were then randomly assigned to a treatment (fulvestrant, 5.0 mg/week for 21 days) or vehicle group. Micro-PET/CT imaging with 18F-FES, 18F-FDG, and 18F-FMISO was performed on days 0, 3, 14, and 21 after treatment. The uptake value (percentage injected dose per gram, %ID/g) for each probe in tumor (T) tissue and contralateral muscle (M) was measured for quantitative analysis and T/M calculation. Tumor volume was measured to record tumor growth at each time point. Tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemical staining of ER expression. Correlations for tumor volume and ERα levels with uptake data for the probe were tested. Results Uptake data for 18F-FES in ZR-75-1 tumor tissues corresponded well with tumor response to endocrine therapy, but not for 18F-FDG and 18F-FMISO, according to longitudinal micro-PET/CT imaging and quantitative correlation analysis. There was a significant positive correlation between 18F-FES uptake and ER levels (%ID/gmax r2 = 0.76, P< 0.05; T/M r2 = 0.82, P<0.05). Notably, 18F-FES uptake on day 3 was significantly correlated with the day 21/baseline tumor volume ratio (%ID/gmax r2 = 0.74, P < 0.05; T/M r2 = 0.78, P < 0.05). Conclusions Comparison of 18F-FES, 18F-FDG, and 18F-FMISO probes revealed that 18F-FES PET/CT molecular imaging can provide a precise early prediction of tumor

  7. Early years.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Healthcare professionals in Scotland who are involved in early years work now have an additional resource in the shape of NHS Scotland's Maternal and Early Years website, aimed at practitioners at all levels. The site includes evidence updates, news and events, and can be accessed at www.maternal-and-early-years.org.uk. PMID:27368523

  8. [Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service Coordination: Families,…

  9. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Brian, Ed.; McConnell, Scott, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on early intervention with handicapped children, with an emphasis on: Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education), an early intervention research project initiated in 1968; strategies for developing family-friendly early intervention services; and progress reports from various states and programs.…

  10. Early On-Orbit Performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Changyong; DeLuccia, Frank J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Weng, Fuzhong

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key environmental remote-sensing instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership spacecraft, which was successfully launched on October 28, 2011 from the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Following a series of spacecraft and sensor activation operations, the VIIRS nadir door was opened on November 21, 2011. The first VIIRS image acquired signifies a new generation of operational moderate resolution-imaging capabilities following the legacy of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer series on NOAA satellites and Terra and Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for NASA's Earth Observing system. VIIRS provides significant enhancements to the operational environmental monitoring and numerical weather forecasting, with 22 imaging and radiometric bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 12.5 microns, providing the sensor data records for 23 environmental data records including aerosol, cloud properties, fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, sea surface temperature, ocean color, and nigh-time visible-light-related applications. Preliminary results from the on-orbit verification in the postlaunch check-out and intensive calibration and validation have shown that VIIRS is performing well and producing high-quality images. This paper provides an overview of the onorbit performance of VIIRS, the calibration/validation (cal/val) activities and methodologies used. It presents an assessment of the sensor initial on-orbit calibration and performance based on the efforts from the VIIRS-SDR team. Known anomalies, issues, and future calibration efforts, including the long-term monitoring, and intercalibration are also discussed.

  11. ENHANCEMENTS TO & CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT & APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Illinois propose to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to 5 m) subsurface in conductive media with potential applications to subsurface characterization, landfill stabilization, decontaminatio...

  12. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  13. Encouraging Early Clinical Outcomes With Helical Tomotherapy-Based Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Residual, Recurrent, and/or Progressive Benign/Low-Grade Intracranial Tumors: A Comprehensive Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Tejpal

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report early clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy (HT)-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in brain tumors of varying shape, size, and location. Materials and Methods: Patients with residual, recurrent, and/or progressive low-grade intracranial and skull-base tumors were treated on a prospective protocol of HT-based IMRT and followed clinicoradiologically. Standardized metrics were used for plan evaluation and outcome analysis. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 30 lesions were treated to a median radiotherapy dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All HT plans resulted in excellent target volume coverage with steep dose-gradients. The mean (standard deviation) dose homogeneity index and conformity index was 0.07 (0.05) and 0.71 (0.08) respectively. At first response assessment, 20 of 30 lesions were stable, whereas 9 showed partial regression. One patient with a recurrent clival chordoma though neurologically stable showed imaging-defined progression, whereas another patient with stable disease on serial imaging had sustained neurologic worsening. With a median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-26 months), the 2-year clinicoradiological progression-free survival and overall survival was 93.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Careful selection of radiotherapy technique is warranted for benign/low-grade brain tumors to achieve durable local control with minimum long-term morbidity. Large or complex-shaped tumors benefit most from IMRT. Our early clinical experience of HT-based IMRT for brain tumors has been encouraging.

  14. The Potential Role of Respiratory Motion Management and Image Guidance in the Reduction of Severe Toxicities Following Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Patients with Centrally Located Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Lung Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2014-01-01

    Image guidance allows delivery of very high doses of radiation over a few fractions, known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). This treatment is associated with excellent outcome for early stage non-small cell lung cancer and metastases to the lungs. In the delivery of SABR, central location constantly poses a challenge due to the difficulty of adequately sparing critical thoracic structures that are immediately adjacent to the tumor if an ablative dose of radiation is to be delivered to the tumor target. As of current, various respiratory motion management and image guidance strategies can be used to ensure accurate tumor target localization prior and/or during daily treatment, which allows for maximal and safe reduction of set up margins. The incorporation of both may lead to the most optimal normal tissue sparing and the most accurate SABR delivery. Here, the clinical outcome, treatment related toxicities, and the pertinent respiratory motion management/image guidance strategies reported in the current literature on SABR for central lung tumors are reviewed. PMID:25009800

  15. Early experience in the use of quantitative image quality measurements for the quality assurance of full field digital mammography x-ray systems.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N W

    2007-09-21

    Quantitative image quality results in the form of the modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented for nine full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems. These parameters are routinely measured as part of the quality assurance (QA) programme for the seven FFDM units covered by our centre. Just one additional image is required compared to the standard FFDM protocol; this is the image of an edge, from which the MTF is calculated. A variance image is formed from one of the flood images used to measure the detector response and this provides useful information on the condition of the detector with respect to artefacts. Finally, the NNPS is calculated from the flood image acquired at a target detector air kerma (DAK) of 100 microGy. DQE is then estimated from these data; however, no correction is currently made for effects of detector cover transmission on DQE. The coefficient of variation (cov) of the 50% point of the MTF for five successive MTF results was 1%, while the cov for the 50% MTF point for an a-Se system over a period of 17 months was approximately 3%. For four a-Se based systems, the cov for the NNPS at 1 mm(-1) for a target DAK of 100 microGy was approximately 4%; the same result was found for four CsI based FFDM units. With regard to the stability of NNPS over time, the cov for four NNPS results acquired over a period of 12 months was also approximately 4%. The effect of acquisition geometry on NNPS was also assessed for a CsI based system. NNPS data acquired with the antiscatter grid in place showed increased noise at low spatial frequency; this effect was more severe as DAK increased. DQE results for the three detector types (a-Se, CsI and CR) are presented as a function of DAK. Some reduction in DQE was found for both the a-Se and CsI based systems at a target DAK of 12.5 microGy when compared to DQE data acquired at 100 microGy. For the CsI based systems, DQE at 1 mm

  16. Objective methods for achieving an early prediction of the effectiveness of regional block anesthesia using thermography and hyper-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Landman, Mattijs; de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2011-03-01

    An objective method to measure the effectiveness of regional anesthesia can reduce time and unintended pain inflicted to the patient. A prospective observational study was performed on 22 patients during a local anesthesia before undergoing hand surgery. Two non-invasive techniques thermal and oxygenation imaging were applied to observe the region affected by the peripheral block and the results were compared to the standard cold sensation test. The supraclavicular block was placed under ultrasound guidance around the brachial plexus by injecting 20 cc Ropivacaine. The sedation causes a relaxation of the muscles around the blood vessels resulting in dilatation and hence an increase of blood perfusion, skin temperature and skin oxygenation in the lower arm and hand. Temperatures were acquired with an IR thermal camera (FLIR ThermoCam SC640). The data were recorded and analyzed with the ThermaCamTMResearcher and Matlab software. Narrow band spectral images were acquired at selected wavelengths with a CCD camera either combined with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420-730 nm) or a tunable hyper-wavelength LED light source (450-880nm). Concentration changes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the dermis of the skin were calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Both imaging methods showed distinct oxygenation and temperature differences at the surface of the skin of the hand with a good correlation to the anesthetized areas. A temperature response was visible within 5 minutes compared to the standard of 30 minutes. Both non-contact methods show to be more objective and can have an earlier prediction for the effectiveness of the anesthetic block.

  17. Combination of ToF-SIMS imaging and AFM to study the early stages of corrosion in Al-Cu thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Seyeux, A.; Missert, Nancy; Frankel, Gerald; Unocic, Kinga A; Klein, L. H.; Galtayries, A.; Marcus, P

    2011-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of Al-Cu thin film alloys was investigated using samples that were heat treated in air to form through-thickness Al2Cu particles within an Al-0.5%Cu matrix. Time-of-Flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS) analysis revealed Cu-rich regions 250 - 800 nm in lateral extent near the metal/oxide interface. Following exposure that generated pitting corrosion, secondary electron, secondary ion, and AFM images showed pits with size and density similar to those of the Cu-rich regions. The role of the Cu-rich regions is addressed.

  18. Detailed Characterization of the Early Response of Head-Neck Cancer Xenografts to Irradiation Using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Chunta, John L.; Amin, Mitual; Lee, David Y.; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Yan Di; Marples, Brian; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the metabolic information provided by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) during the early response of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts to radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low-passage HNSCC cells (UT14) were injected into the rear flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors grew to 400-500 mm{sup 3}, they were treated with either 15 Gy in one fraction (n = 18) or sham RT (n = 12). At various time points after treatment, tumors were assessed with 2-h dynamic FDG-PET and immediately harvested for direct histological correlation. Different analytical parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data: kinetic index (Ki), standard uptake value (SUV), sensitivity factor (SF), and retention index (RI). Tumor growth was assessed using the specific growth rate (SGR) and correlated with PET parameters using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to test PET parameters for their ability to predict for radiation necrosis and radiation change. Results: Tumor growth was arrested for the first 20 days after RT and recovered thereafter. Histologically, radiation change was observed in the peripheral regions of tumors between days 7 and 23 after RT, and radiation necrosis were observed in the central regions of tumors between days 7 and 40. Ki provided the best correlation with SGR (r = 0.51) and was the optimal parameter to predict for early radiation necrosis (AUC = 0.804, p = 0.07). SUV{sub 30min} was the strongest predictor for late radiation necrosis (AUC = 0.959, p = 0.004). Both RI{sub 30-60min} and SF{sub 12-70min} were very accurate in predicting for radiation change (AUC = 0.891 and 0.875, p = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Dynamic FDG-PET analysis (such as Ki or SF) may provide informative assessment of early radiation necrosis or radiation change of HNSCC

  19. Utility of PET/CT Imaging Performed Early After Surgical Resection in the Adjuvant Treatment Planning for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shintani, Stephanie A.; Foote, Robert L. Lowe, Val J.; Brown, Paul D.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Kasperbauer, Jan L.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) early after surgical resection and before postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We studied a prospective cohort of 91 consecutive patients referred for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after complete surgical resection. Tumor histologies included 62 squamous cell and 29 non-squamous cell cancers. Median time between surgery and postoperative PET/CT was 28 days (range, 13-75 days). Findings suspicious for persistent/recurrent cancer or distant metastasis were biopsied. Correlation was made with changes in patient care. Results: Based on PET/CT findings, 24 patients (26.4%) underwent biopsy of suspicious sites. Three patients with suspicious findings did not undergo biopsy because the abnormalities were not easily accessible. Eleven (45.8%) biopsies were positive for cancer. Treatment was changed for 14 (15.4%) patients (11 positive biopsy and 3 nonbiopsied patients) as a result. Treatment changes included abandonment of radiation therapy and switching to palliative chemotherapy or hospice care (4), increasing the radiation therapy dose (6), extending the radiation therapy treatment volume and increasing the dose (1), additional surgery (2), and adding palliative chemotherapy to palliative radiation therapy (1). Treatment for recurrent cancer and primary skin cancer were significant predictors of having a biopsy-proven, treatment-changing positive PET/CT (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Even with an expectedly high rate of false positive PET/CT scans in this early postoperative period, PET/CT changed patient management in a relatively large proportion of patients. PET/CT can be recommended in the postoperative, preradiation therapy setting with the understanding that treatment-altering PET/CT findings should be biopsied for confirmation.

  20. Early Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Gazette, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted are articles related to the early years of The Mathematical Association of Great Britain. Some of the topics include reports from curriculum committees, tributes to persons associated with The Mathematical Association, and the teaching of mathematics. (CT)

  1. White matter ‘potholes’ in early-onset schizophrenia: a new approach to evaluate white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus; Karatekin, Canan

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence implicating white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many of the recent studies examining white matter have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using either region of interest (ROI) or voxel based approaches. Both voxel-based and ROI approaches are based on the assumption that the abnormalities in white matter overlap spatially. However, this is an assumption that has not been tested and it is possible that aberrations in white matter occur in non-overlapping regions. In order to test for the presence of non-overlapping regions of aberrant white matter, we developed a novel image processing technique that evaluates for white matter ‘potholes,’ referring to within-subject clusters of white matter voxels that show a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy. We applied this algorithm to a group of children and adolescents with schizophrenia compared to controls and found an increased number of ‘potholes’ in the patient group. These results suggest that voxel-based and ROI approaches may be missing some white matter differences that do not overlap spatially. This algorithm may be also be well suited to detect white matter abnormalities in disorders such as substance abuse, head trauma, or specifc neurological conditions affecting white matter. PMID:19853414

  2. Association between brain imaging signs, early and late outcomes, and response to intravenous alteplase after acute ischaemic stroke in the third International Stroke Trial (IST-3): secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Brain scans are essential to exclude haemorrhage in patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke before treatment with alteplase. However, patients with early ischaemic signs could be at increased risk of haemorrhage after alteplase treatment, and little information is available about whether pre-existing structural signs, which are common in older patients, affect response to alteplase. We aimed to investigate the association between imaging signs on brain CT and outcomes after alteplase. Methods IST-3 was a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg) versus control within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was independence at 6 months (defined as an Oxford Handicap Scale [OHS] score of 0–2). 3035 patients were enrolled to IST-3 and underwent prerandomisation brain CT. Experts who were unaware of the random allocation assessed scans for early signs of ischaemia (tissue hypoattenuation, infarct extent, swelling, and hyperattenuated artery) and pre-existing signs (old infarct, leukoaraiosis, and atrophy). In this prespecified analysis, we assessed interactions between these imaging signs, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (a secondary outcome in IST-3) and independence at 6 months, and alteplase, adjusting for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and time to randomisation. This trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN25765518. Findings 3017 patients were assessed in this analysis, of whom 1507 were allocated alteplase and 1510 were assigned control. A reduction in independence was predicted by tissue hypoattenuation (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·55–0·81), large lesion (0·51, 0·38–0·68), swelling (0·59, 0·46–0·75), hyperattenuated artery (0·59, 0·47–0·75), atrophy (0·74, 0·59–0·94), and leukoaraiosis (0·72, 0·59–0·87). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was predicted by old infarct (odds ratio 1·72, 95% CI 1·18–2·51), tissue

  3. Potential role of the posterior cruciate ligament synovio-entheseal complex in joint effusion in early osteoarthritis: a magnetic resonance imaging and histological evaluation of cadaveric tissue and data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Binks, D.A.; Bergin, D.; Freemont, A.J.; Hodgson, R.J.; Yonenaga, T.; McGonagle, D.; Radjenovic, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective This study explored posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) synovio-entheseal complex (SEC) microanatomy to determine whether it may participate in the early osteoarthritis (OA) disease process. Methods SEC microanatomy and OA features were evaluated in 14 non-arthritic cadaveric knees (mean age = 69.9) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. MRI images of 49 subjects selected from the progression cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist using an original semi-quantitative method for features associated with OA at the PCL tibial enthesis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate associations between SEC configuration and OA features. Results The PCL formed a SEC-like structure encompassing bone- and ligament-lining intra-articular cartilages to which the posterior root of the medial meniscus contributed. Degenerative features at the PCL-SEC included: neovascularisation (44%), enthesis chondrocyte clustering (44%), collagen matrix fissuring at the enthesis (56%) and in the PCL itself (67%), tidemark duplication (44%), bone remodelling (44%) and microscopic inflammatory changes (33%). In the OAI cohort, SEC-related pathology included bone marrow lesions (BMLs) (69%) and osteophytosis (94%) at locations that corresponded to SEC-related cartilages. Posterior joint recess effusion (49%) was linked to MRI abnormalities at PCL-SEC cartilages (χ2 = 7.27, P = 0.007). Conclusions The PCL has a prominent SEC configuration that is associated with microscopic OA changes in aged clinically non-diseased joints. MRI determined knee OA commonly exhibited pathological features at this site which was associated with adjacent joint effusion. Thus, the PCL-SEC could play a hitherto unappreciated role in the early OA disease process. PMID:25008208

  4. Metformin, an Adjunct Antineoplastic Therapy, Divergently Modulates Tumor Metabolism and Proliferation, Interfering with Early Response Prediction Using 18F-FDG PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Habibollahi, Peiman; van den Berg, Nynke S.; Kuruppu, Darshini; Loda, Massimo; Mahmood, Umar

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years epidemiological data has emerged which suggests that the anti-diabetic drug metformin (MET), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, improves progression free survival in multiple cancers; more than 30 clinical trials are underway to confirm this finding. We postulated that the role of AMPK as a central cellular energy sensor would result in opposite effects on glucose uptake and proliferation, suggesting different roles for 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT in assessing its effectiveness as an anti-neoplastic agent. Methods Colon cancer cell lines HT29 (human) and MC26 (murine) were treated for 24 or 72hrs with a range of MET (0–10mM). Western blotting was used to study the activation of AMPK after MET treatment. Glucose uptake and cell proliferation were measured by cell retention studies with either 18F-FDG or 18F-FLT. EdU (a thymidine analogue) and Annexin-Propidium Iodine flow cytometry were performed to determine cell cycle S-phase and apoptotic changes. In vivo 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET images were acquired before and 24hrs after MET treatment on HT29 tumor bearing mice. Results After 24hrs of MET incubation, phosphorylated AMPK increased several fold in both cell lines while total AMPK was unchanged. In cell retention studies, 18F-FDG uptake increased whereas 18F-FLT retention decreased significantly in both cell lines. Cells in S-phase decreased 36% in HT29 and 33% in MC26 cells following MET therapy. Apoptosis increased 10.5× and 5.8×, in HT29 and MC26 cells, respectively after 72hrs of incubation with MET. PET imaging showed increased 18F-FDG uptake (mean SUV: 0.71±0.03 and 1.29±0.11 pre and post MET therapy, p<0.05) and decreased 18F-FLT uptake (mean SUV: 1.18±0.05 and 0.89±0.01 pre and post MET therapy, p<0.05) in HT29 tumor bearing mice. Conclusion MET, through activation of the AMPK pathway, exerts a dose dependent increase in tumor glucose uptake while decreasing cell proliferation in human and murine colon cancer cells

  5. Delayed early developmental trajectories of white matter tracts of functional pathways in preterm-born infants: Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Akazawa, Kentaro; Yamakawa, Robyn; Hayama, Sara; Buchthal, Steven; Alicata, Daniel; Andres, Tamara; Castillo, Deborrah; Oishi, Kumiko; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic maps of white matter pathways related to motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and limbic functions, and major white matter tracts (the corpus callosum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle) were applied to evaluate the developmental trajectories of these tracts, using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) obtained in term-born and preterm-born healthy infants. Nineteen term-born and 30 preterm-born infants completed MR scans at three time points: Time-point 1, 41.6±2.7 postmenstrual weeks; Time-point 2, 46.0±2.9 postmenstrual weeks; and Time-point 3, 50.8±3.7 postmenstrual weeks. The DTI-derived scalar values (fractional anisotropy, eigenvalues, and radial diffusivity) of the three time points are available in this Data article. PMID:26958632

  6. Age-effects in white matter using associated diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer ratio during late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Kempton, Matthew; Barker, Gareth; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Amaro, Edson; Rohde, Luis Augusto; McGuire, Philip; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Sato, João Ricardo; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes. PMID:26708037

  7. Iron-Sensitive Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction of Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk in Patients with Chronic Myocardial Infarction: Early Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cokic, Ivan; Kali, Avinash; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Yee, Raymond; Tang, Richard; Tighiouart, Mourad; Wang, Xunzhang; Jackman, Warren S.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; White, James A.; Dharmakumar, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent canines studies have shown that iron deposition within chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) influences the electrical behavior of the heart. To date, the link between the iron deposition and malignant ventricular arrhythmias (mVA) in humans with CMI is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS CMI patients (n=94) who underwent late-gadolinium-enhanced CMR prior to ICD implantation for primary and secondary prevention were retrospectively analyzed. The predictive values of hypointense cores (HIC) in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) images and conventional CMR and ECG mVA parameters for the prediction of primary combined outcome (appropriate ICD therapy, survived cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death) were studied. The use of HIC within CMI on bSSFP as a marker of iron deposition was validated in a canine MI model (n=18). Nineteen patients met the study criteria with events occurring at a median of 249 (interquartile range (IQR) of 540) days after ICD placement. Of the 19 patients meeting the primary endpoint, 18 were classified as HIC+, while only 1 was HIC−. Among the cohort in whom the primary endpoint was not met, there were 28 HIC+ and 47 HIC− patients. ROC analysis demonstrated an additive predictive value of HIC for mVAs with an increased AUC to 0.87 when added to LVEF (LVEF alone 0.68). Both CMR and histological validation studies performed in canines demonstrated that HIC regions in bSSFP images within CMI likely result from iron depositions. CONCLUSIONS Hypointense cores within CMI on bSSFP CMR can be used as a marker of iron deposition and yields incremental information toward improved prediction of mVA. PMID:26259581

  8. Early Dementia Screening.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, Peter K; Berry, Renee; Burchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination assaying Aβ1-42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history-hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia. PMID:26838803

  9. Early knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Marta; Ramonda, Roberta; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Concepts regarding osteoarthritis, the most common joint disease, have dramatically changed in the past decade thanks to the development of new imaging techniques and the widespread use of arthroscopy that permits direct visualisation of intra-articular tissues and structure. MRI and ultrasound allow the early detection of pre-radiographic structural changes not only in the peri-articular bone but also in the cartilage, menisci, synovial membrane, ligaments and fat pad. The significance of MRI findings such as cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions, synovial inflammation/effusions and meniscal tears in patients without radiographic signs of osteoarthritis is not fully understood. Nevertheless, early joint tissue changes are associated with symptoms and, in some cases, with progression of disease. In this short review, we discuss the emerging concept of early osteoarthritis localised to the knee based on recently updated knowledge. We highlight the need for a new definition of early osteoarthritis that will permit the identification of patients at high risk of osteoarthritis progression and to initiate early treatment interventions. PMID:26557380

  10. Early Dementia Screening

    PubMed Central

    Panegyres, Peter K.; Berry, Renee; Burchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia. PMID:26838803

  11. Imaging methods for the local lymphatic system of the axilla in early breast cancer in patients qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Polkowski, Wojciech; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in well-developed countries. Despite a constant increase in its incidence, the percentage of patients diagnosed with the disease in the non-invasive stage is also rising. This allows more frequently for the use of breast-preserving surgical techniques, involving the breast and the regional lymphatic system. According to current guidelines of expert panels and research societies, the recommended method of identifying the sentinel lymph node is the use of an isotope marker with a dye (a combined isotope and dye method). Cooperation with a nuclear medicine unit is essential (performing a preoperative lymphoscintigraphic scan to identify the lymphatic drainage basin and sentinel lymph node). In the case of smaller centers treating breast cancer, it can be associated with a number of difficulties, including organizational ones, and also increasing general treatment costs. A possible solution to these problems is to use alternative techniques of visualizing the sentinel lymph node, which do not require a radiotracer. In this paper we discuss the currently available methods of mapping the lymphatic system of the axillary region in patients with early breast cancer. The review is limited to reporting on methods of proven (based on clinical research) high diagnostic value. PMID:27095960

  12. Imaging the early stages of phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase activity on vesicles containing coexisting ordered-disordered and gel-fluid domains[S

    PubMed Central

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J.; Montes, L.-Ruth; Sot, Jesús; Vasil, Adriana I.; Vasil, Michael L.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The binding and early stages of activity of a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) have been monitored using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Both the lipids and the enzyme were labeled with specific fluorescent markers. GUV consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol in equimolar ratios, to which 5–10 mol% of the enzyme end-product ceramide and/or diacylglycerol were occasionally added. Morphological examination of the GUV in the presence of enzyme reveals that, although the enzyme diffuses rapidly throughout the observation chamber, detectable enzyme binding appears to be a slow, random process, with new bound-enzyme-containing vesicles appearing for several minutes. Enzyme binding to the vesicles appears to be a cooperative process. After the initial cluster of bound enzyme is detected, further binding and catalytic activity follow rapidly. After the activity has started, the enzyme is not released by repeated washing, suggesting a “scooting” mechanism for the hydrolytic activity. The enzyme preferentially binds the more disordered domains, and, in most cases, the catalytic activity causes the disordering of the other domains. Simultaneously, peanut- or figure-eight-shaped vesicles containing two separate lipid domains become spherical. At a further stage of lipid hydrolysis, lipid aggregates are formed and vesicles disintegrate. PMID:21252263

  13. Imaging methods for the local lymphatic system of the axilla in early breast cancer in patients qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kurylcio, Andrzej; Polkowski, Wojciech; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in well-developed countries. Despite a constant increase in its incidence, the percentage of patients diagnosed with the disease in the non-invasive stage is also rising. This allows more frequently for the use of breast-preserving surgical techniques, involving the breast and the regional lymphatic system. According to current guidelines of expert panels and research societies, the recommended method of identifying the sentinel lymph node is the use of an isotope marker with a dye (a combined isotope and dye method). Cooperation with a nuclear medicine unit is essential (performing a preoperative lymphoscintigraphic scan to identify the lymphatic drainage basin and sentinel lymph node). In the case of smaller centers treating breast cancer, it can be associated with a number of difficulties, including organizational ones, and also increasing general treatment costs. A possible solution to these problems is to use alternative techniques of visualizing the sentinel lymph node, which do not require a radiotracer. In this paper we discuss the currently available methods of mapping the lymphatic system of the axillary region in patients with early breast cancer. The review is limited to reporting on methods of proven (based on clinical research) high diagnostic value. PMID:27095960

  14. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Eric E.; Price, Julie C.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Paljug, William R.; Debnath, Manik L.; Cohen, Anne D.; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11

  15. Spine and sacroiliac joints on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: prevalence of lesions and association with clinical and disease activity indices from the Italian group of the SPACE study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzin, M; Ortolan, A; Frallonardo, P; Vio, S; Lacognata, C; Oliviero, F; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of spine and sacroiliac joint (SIJ) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and their correlation with disease activity indices. Sixty patients with low back pain (LBP) (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years), attending the SpA-clinic of the Unità Operativa Complessa Reumatologia of Padova [SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE) study], were studied following a protocol including physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and spine and SIJ MRI. Positive spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays images were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC method, modified Stoke ankylosing spondylitis spine score and New York criteria. The axial pain and localization of MRI-lesions were referred to 4 sites: cervical/thoracic/lumbar spine and SIJ. All patients were classified into three groups: patients with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA), patients without signs of r-axSpA but with signs of sacroiliitis on MRI (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+), patients without signs of sacroiliitis on MRI and X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-). The median age at LBP onset was 29.05±8.38 years; 51.6% of patients showed bone marrow edema (BME) in spine-MRI and 56.7% of patients in SIJ-MRI. Signs of enthesitis were found in 55% of patients in the thoracic district. Of the 55% of patients with BME on spine-MRI, 15% presented presented a negative SIJMRI. There was a significant difference between these cohorts with regard to the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ score. The site of pain correlated statistically with BME lesions in thoracic and buttock districts. Since positive spine-MRI images were observed in absence of sacroiliitis, we can hypothesize that this finding could have a diagnostic significance in axSpA suspected axSpA. PMID:27608795

  16. The utility of high-resolution intraoperative MRI in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas: early experience in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating suite

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Hasan A.; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Litvack, Zachary N.; Bi, Wenya Linda; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Dunn, Ian F.; Laws, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endoscopic skull base surgery has become increasingly popular among the skull base surgery community, with improved illumination and angled visualization potentially improving tumor resection rates. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used to detect residual disease during the course of the resection. This study is an investigation of the utility of 3-T iMRI in combination with transnasal endoscopy with regard to gross-total resection (GTR) of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic transsphenoidal operations performed in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite from November 2011 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients harboring presumed pituitary macroadenomas with optic nerve or chiasmal compression and visual loss, operated on by a single surgeon. Results Of the 27 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection in the AMIGO suite, 20 patients met the inclusion criteria. The endoscope alone, without the use of iMRI, would have correctly predicted 13 (65%) of 20 cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients (60%) prior to MRI. Intraoperative MRI helped convert 1 STR and 4 NTRs to GTRs, increasing the number of GTRs from 12 (60%) to 16 (80%). Conclusions Despite advances in visualization provided by the endoscope, the incidence of residual disease can potentially place the patient at risk for additional surgery. The authors found that iMRI can be useful in detecting unexpected residual tumor. The cost-effectiveness of this tool is yet to be determined. PMID:26926058

  17. Evaluation of microscopic tumor extension in early-stage cervical cancer: quantifying subclinical uncertainties by pathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Sanuki, Naoko; Urabe, Shogo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ono, Asami; Komatsu, Eiji; Kamei, Noritaka; Maeda, Toru

    2013-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of hysterectomy specimens of uterine cervical cancer to determine the appropriate length of uterine body to include within the clinical target volume. Between 2008 and 2011, 54 patients with uterine cervical carcinoma underwent hysterectomy. Those with quality pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were included for analysis. Tumor sizes measured by MRI and microscopy were compared with regard to brachytherapy-oriented parameters. Detailed descriptive analysis focusing on the extent of tumor involvement was also performed. A total of 31 specimens were analyzed. The median maximal tumor length measured by MRI was slightly shorter than microscopic length (19 vs. 24 mm, respectively), while the maximal radius was almost identical. No tumors with a maximal size <2 cm by MRI (n = 6) extended to the uterine body ≥ 1/3. The majority of maximal tumor length underestimation on MRI was within 1 cm. Precise tumor delineation can be made by MRI. For patients with tumors <2 cm on MRI, treating the entire uterine body length may not be necessary. A 1-cm margin around an MRI-based gross tumor seems to be adequate to cover the actual tumor involvement. PMID:23381955

  18. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Prochaska, J.X.; Pooley, D.; Blake, C.W.; Foley, R.J.; Jha, S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Filippenko, A.V.; Sigurdsson, S.; Barth, A.J.; Chen, H.-W.; Cooper, M.C.; Falco, E.E.; Gal, R.R.; Gerke, B.F.; Gladders, M.D.; Greene, J.E.; Hennanwi, J.; Ho, L.C.; Hurley, K.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /UC, Irvine /MIT, MKI /UC, Davis /UC, Berkeley /Carnegie Inst. Observ. /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /Michigan U. /LBL, Berkeley /Spitzer Space Telescope

    2005-06-07

    The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. Never before had a member of this mysterious subclass of classic GRBs been rapidly and precisely positioned in a sky accessible to the bevy of ground-based follow-up facilities. Thanks to the nearly immediate relay of the GRB position by Swift, we began imaging the GRB field 8 minutes after the burst and have continued during the 8 days since. Though the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) discovered an X-ray afterglow of GRB050509b, the first ever of a short-hard burst, thus far no convincing optical/infrared candidate afterglow or supernova has been found for the object. We present a re-analysis of the XRT afterglow and find an absolute position of R.A. = 12h36m13.59s, Decl. = +28{sup o}59'04.9'' (J2000), with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 3.68'' in R.A., 3.52'' in Decl.; this is about 4'' to the west of the XRT position reported previously. Close to this position is a bright elliptical galaxy with redshift z = 0.2248 {+-} 0.0002, about 1' from the center of a rich cluster of galaxies. This cluster has detectable diffuse emission, with a temperature of kT = 5.25{sub -1.68}{sup +3.36} keV. We also find several ({approx}11) much fainter galaxies consistent with the XRT position from deep Keck imaging and have obtained Gemini spectra of several of these sources. Nevertheless we argue, based on positional coincidences, that the GRB and the bright elliptical are likely to be physically related. We thus have discovered reasonable evidence that at least some short-duration, hard-spectra GRBs are at cosmological distances. We also explore the connection of the properties of the burst and the afterglow, finding that GRB050509b was underluminous in both of these relative to long-duration GRBs. However, we also demonstrate that the ratio of the blast-wave energy to the {gamma}-ray energy is consistent with that of long-duration GRBs. We thus find plausible

  19. Hippocampus-precuneus functional connectivity as an early sign of Alzheimer's disease: a preliminary study using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoe; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by structural atrophies in the hippocampus (HP) and aberrant patterns of functional connectivities (FC) between the hippocampus and the rest of the brain. However, the relationship between cortical atrophy levels and corresponding degrees of aberrant FC patterns has not been systematically examined. In this study, we investigated whether there was an explicit link between structural abnormalities and corresponding functional aberrances associated with AD using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. To this end, brain regions with cortical atrophies that are associated with AD were identified in the HP in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres using structural MRI data from volume analyses (p<0.03 for L-HP; p<0.04 for R-HP) and voxel-based morphometry analyses (p<4×10(-4) for L-HP; p<2×10(-3) for R-HP). Aberrantly reduced FC levels between the HP (with atrophy) and precuneus were also consistently observed in fMRI data from AD than HC brains that were analyzed by the Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<3×10(-4) for L-HP; and p<8×10(-5) for R-HP). In addition, the substantial negative FC levels from the HC brains between the precuneus and post central gyrus (PoCG) without structural atrophy were also significantly diminished from the AD brains (p<5×10(-5) for L-PoCG; and p<6×10(-5) for R-PoCG). The effect sizes of these aberrant FC levels associated with AD were greater than that of cortical atrophy levels when comparing using normalized Z score and Cohen's d measures, which indicates that an aberrant FC level may precede cortical atrophy. PMID:23247063

  20. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  1. Early Walking of Geriatric Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Devas, M. B.

    1971-01-01

    After amputation geriatric patients have been enabled to get up and walk with the help of a prosthesis, an “early walking aid.” The physiotherapist measures the patient, fits the early walking aid, and instructs him in walking. The prosthesis is simple to make, easy to apply, and allows early walking with the use of a walking frame or sticks. Thus the geriatric amputee can walk as soon after operation as his general condition allows and the surgeon wishes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:5100378

  2. The potential of Sentinel 2 and PROBA-V images for supporting early warnings of particulate matter pollution episodes in Ploiesti urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunea, Daniel; Iordache, Stefania; Pohoata, Alin; Lungu, Emil; Ianache, Cornel; Ianache, Radu

    2016-04-01

    One of the major air quality stressors in the urban area is particulate matter (PM). PM includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets emitted into the air by various sources such as vehicles, factories, and construction activities. PM has been linked to asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Inner-city residents need timely access to air quality synthetic indicators for protecting their respiratory health. Access to air quality forecasts and real-time data can allow residents, especially children and elders, to reduce their exposure when PM levels in conjunction with other pollutants are of potential concern. Ploiesti city is an important industrial center, which experienced a rapid economic growth in the last decade. Its industrial activity is concentrated especially on the oil production and refining industry. Ploiesti is the only city in Europe surrounded by four oil refineries. Monitoring campaigns were carried out in 12 sampling points during the "rush" hours (7.00-12.00 a.m. and 3.00-7.00 p.m.) to assess the potential exposure to high PM levels using an optical portable monitoring system, which is measuring fine and submicrometric fractions with a laser beam (DusttrakTM DRX 8533EP with environmental enclosure). Inverse distance weighting algorithm was used to obtain potential isolines of concentrations at town's scale in GIS environment. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT), respectively the backward trajectory type, was used to overview the contribution of long range transport from the most probable source region of the significant episodes characterized by PM rising of concentrations. Extraction of radiometric indicators from historical databases with multispectral images allowed the spatiotemporal characterization of land use and cloud distribution i.e. Sentinel 2 and PROBA-V (allowing specific characterization of NDVI, which provided canopy and surface reflectance in the pilot area). Resulted data were

  3. Assessing the Early Response of Advanced Cervical Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Chun; Hu, Dao-Yu; Hu, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ya-Qi; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Hao; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model has shown promising results for providing both diffusion and perfusion information in cervical cancer; however, its use to predict and monitor the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in cervical cancer is relatively rare. The study aimed to evaluate the use of DWI with IVIM and monoexponential models to predict and monitor the efficacy of NACT in cervical cancer. Methods: Forty-two patients with primary cervical cancer underwent magnetic resonance exams at 3 time points (pre-NACT, 3 weeks after the first NACT cycle, and 3 weeks after the second NACT cycle). The response to treatment was determined according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors 3 weeks after the second NACT treatment, and the subjects were classified as two groups: responders and nonresponders groups. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion-related pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) values were determined. The differences in IVIM-derived variables and ADC between the different groups at the different time points were calculated using an independent samples t-test. Results: The D and ADC values were all significantly higher for the responders than for the nonresponders at all 3 time points, but no significant differences were observed in the D* and f values. An analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that a D value threshold <0.93 × 10−3 mm2/s and an ADC threshold <1.11 × 10−3 mm2/s could differentiate responders from nonresponders at pre-NACT time point, yielding area under the curve (AUC) of which were 0.771 and 0.806, respectively. The ROC indicated that the AUCs of D and ADC at the 3 weeks after the first NACT cycle and 3 weeks after the second NACT cycle were 0.823, 0.763, and 0.787, 0.794, respectively. The AUC values of D and ADC at these 3 time points were not

  4. Applications of Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, Craig; Galbán, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

  5. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  6. The Inquiring Eye: Early Modernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisotzki, Paula

    This teaching guide introduces students to early 20th century European and American art. Through critically viewing and discussing art images and participating in related activities, students are encouraged to explore the historical and cultural context within which the art was created. This guide includes background information and an overview…

  7. ASPIC: STARLINK image processing package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, A. C.; Hartley, Ken F.; Penny, Alan J.; Kelly, B. D.; King, Dave J.; Lupton, W. F.; Tudhope, D.; Pike, C. D.; Cooke, J. A.; Pence, W. D.; Wallace, Patrick T.; Brownrigg, D. R. K.; Baines, Dave W. T.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; McNally, B. V.; Bell, L. L.; Jones, T. A.; Terrett, Dave L.; Pearce, D. J.; Carey, J. V.; Currie, Malcolm J.; Benn, Chris; Beard, S. M.; Giddings, Jack R.; Balona, Luis A.; Harrison, B.; Wood, Roger; Sparkes, Bill; Allan, Peter M.; Berry, David S.; Shirt, J. V.

    2015-10-01

    ASPIC handled basic astronomical image processing. Early releases concentrated on image arithmetic, standard filters, expansion/contraction/selection/combination of images, and displaying and manipulating images on the ARGS and other devices. Later releases added new astronomy-specific applications to this sound framework. The ASPIC collection of about 400 image-processing programs was written using the Starlink "interim" environment in the 1980; the software is now obsolete.

  8. [News in Retinal Imaging].

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, R; Schmidl, D; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2015-09-01

    New developments in retinal imaging have revolutionised ophthalmology in recent years. In particular, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides highly resolved and well reproducible images and has rung in a new era in ophthalmological imaging. The technology was introduced in the early 1990 s, and has rapidly developed. There have been improvements in resolution, sensitivity and processing speed. There have also been developments in functional processing. OCT angiography is the first application in routine clinical work. PMID:26372783

  9. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  10. Value of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) and dual focus narrow-band imaging (dNBI) in diagnosing early squamous cell neoplasms in esophageal Lugol’s voiding lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Lugol’s chromoendoscopy provides excellent sensitivity for the detection of early esophageal squamous cell neoplasms (ESCN), but its specificity is suboptimal. An endoscopy technique for real-time histology is required to decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. This study aimed to compare the ESCN diagnostic capability of probed-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) and dual focus narrow-band imaging (dNBI) in Lugol’s voiding lesions. Patients and methods: Patients with a history of head and neck cancer without dysphagia were recruited. Lugol’s voiding lesions larger than 5 mm were sequentially characterized by dNBI and pCLE by two independent operators. Finally, all lesions larger than 5 mm were biopsied followed by histological analysis, which is considered to be the gold standard in cancer diagnosis. The primary outcomes were the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of the two techniques. Results: In total, 44 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 60 years; 80 % were male. Twenty-one Lugol’s voiding lesions larger than 5 mm were detected in 12 patients. Seven lesions (33 %) from four patients were histologically diagnosed as ESCNs (four with high grade dysplasia and three with low grade dysplasia). The other 14 lesions were histologically confirmed as non-neoplastic: active esophagitis, glycogenation with inflammation, acute ulcer, inlet patch, and unremarkable changes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of pCLE vs. dNBI were 83 % vs. 85 %, 92 % vs. 62 %, 83 % vs. 54 %, 92 % vs. 89 %, and 89 % vs. 70 %, respectively (NS). Conclusions: Asymptomatic patients with a history of head and neck cancer underwent Lugol’s chromoendoscopy based ESCN surveillance. Further characterization of the Lugol’s voiding lesions by advanced imaging showed that both pCLE and dNBI provided good sensitivity in

  11. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  12. Early Childhood Education: A Projection for 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVasseur, Natalie P.

    This paper projects an image of the future from the present to early in the next century and provides a scenario of a day spent in a school for young children in 2001. The image of the future is based on a chronicle of events which might conceivably happen. The scenario, set in one particular time and place in the future, describes what early…

  13. The imaging of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh, Sufi; Mankad, Kshitij; Kapse, Nikhil; Rajeswaran, Gajan

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults. Imaging plays a crucial role in establishing a timely diagnosis and guiding early management, with the aim of reducing long-term complications. Recognition of the imaging features of osteomyelitis requires a good understanding of its pathogenesis. In this review, the key imaging findings in osteomyelitis are correlated with the underlying pathological processes. There is a particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the best available imaging modality owing to its high sensitivity for detecting early osteomyelitis, excellent anatomical detail and superior soft tissue resolution. However, other modalities such as nuclear medicine and computed tomography (CT) are also useful in many clinical contexts, and will also be described in this review. PMID:27190771

  14. Simpler images, better results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    1999-03-01

    The very rapid development of optical technology has followed a pattern similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance: first, spectroscopy and then imaging. The accomplishments in spectroscopy have been significant--among them, early detection of hematomas and quantitative oximetry (assuming that time and frequency domain instruments are used). Imaging has progressed somewhat later. The first images were obtained in Japan and USA a few years ago, particularly of parietal stimulation of the human brain. Since then, rapid applications to breast and limb, together with higher resolution of the brain now make NIR imaging of functional activation and tumor detection readily available, reliable and affordable devices. The lecture has to do with the applications of imaging to these three areas, particularly to prefrontal imaging of cognitive function, of breast tumor detection, and of localized muscle activation in exercise. The imaging resolution achievable in functional activation appears to be FWHM of 4 mm. The time required for an image is a few seconds or even much less. Breast image detection at 50 microsecond(s) ec/pixel results in images obtainable in a few seconds or shorter times (bandwidths of the kHz are available). Finally, imaging of the body organs is under study in this laboratory, particularly in the in utero fetus. It appears that the photon migration theory now leads to the development of a wide number of images for human subject tissue spectroscopy and imaging.

  15. Image registration by parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalermwat, Prachya; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    In spite of the large number of different image registration techniques, most of these techniques use the correlation operation to match spatial image characteristics. Correlation is known to be one of the most computationally intensive operations and its computational needs grow rapidly with the increase in the image sizes. In this article, we show that, in many cases, it might be sufficient to determine image transformations by considering only one or several parts of the image rather than the entire image, which could result in substantial computational savings. This paper introduces the concept of registration by parts and investigates its viability. It describes alternative techniques for such image registration by parts and presents early empirical results that address the underlying trade-offs.

  16. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  17. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Nout, Remi A.; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Westerveld, Henrike; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up time of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal morbidity

  18. Icebergs on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  19. Imaging and Analytics: The changing face of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Thomas

    There have been significant technological advances in imaging capability over the past 40 years. Medical imaging capabilities have developed rapidly, along with technology development in computational processing speed and miniaturization. Moving to all-digital, the number of images that are acquired in a routine clinical examination has increased dramatically from under 50 images in the early days of CT and MRI to more than 500-1000 images today. The staggering number of images that are routinely acquired poses significant challenges for clinicians to interpret the data and to correctly identify the clinical problem. Although the time provided to render a clinical finding has not substantially changed, the amount of data available for interpretation has grown exponentially. In addition, the image quality (spatial resolution) and information content (physiologically-dependent image contrast) has also increased significantly with advances in medical imaging technology. On its current trajectory, medical imaging in the traditional sense is unsustainable. To assist in filtering and extracting the most relevant data elements from medical imaging, image analytics will have a much larger role. Automated image segmentation, generation of parametric image maps, and clinical decision support tools will be needed and developed apace to allow the clinician to manage, extract and utilize only the information that will help improve diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity. As medical imaging devices continue to improve in spatial resolution, functional and anatomical information content, image/data analytics will be more ubiquitous and integral to medical imaging capability.

  20. Early Clinical Signs and Symptoms of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miedzinski, Lil J.

    1992-01-01

    Early clinical signs and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection are protean and can reflect the effects of the virus or represent early manifestations of an illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Knowledge of a patient's potential risk for HIV infection and of the natural history of the illness allow early signs and symptoms to be recognized. Early intervention can delay progression to AIDS. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21221397

  1. Early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Early detection and surgical resection is essential for the treatment of lung cancer. Although the introduction of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is considered to be one of the most promising clinical research developments, CT screening is used for detecting small peripheral lesions. Tumors arising in the central airways require other techniques for early detection. Centrally arising squamous cell carcinoma of the airway, especially in heavy smokers, is thought to develop through multiple stages from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia, followed by carcinoma in situ (CIS), progressing to invasive cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and CIS before progressing to invasive cancer. Great efforts have been made to develop new mucosal imaging techniques. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques capable of detecting preinvasive lesions and currently available in clinical practice include autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), high magnification ronchovideoscope, and narrow band imaging (NBI). For a more precise evaluation of newly detected preinvasive lesions, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. PMID:20172431

  2. Aerial photographs and satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Because photographs and images taken from the air or from space are acquired without direct contact with the ground, they are referred to as remotely sensed images. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has used remote sensing from the early years of the 20th century to support earth science studies and for mapping purposes.

  3. Image Gallery

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Image Gallery Share: The Image Gallery contains high-quality digital photographs available from ... Select a category below to view additional thumbnail images. Images are available for direct download in 2 ...

  4. Cancer Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & Events News and Announcements Events – Meetings ...

  5. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  6. High compression image and image sequence coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunt, Murat

    1989-01-01

    The digital representation of an image requires a very large number of bits. This number is even larger for an image sequence. The goal of image coding is to reduce this number, as much as possible, and reconstruct a faithful duplicate of the original picture or image sequence. Early efforts in image coding, solely guided by information theory, led to a plethora of methods. The compression ratio reached a plateau around 10:1 a couple of years ago. Recent progress in the study of the brain mechanism of vision and scene analysis has opened new vistas in picture coding. Directional sensitivity of the neurones in the visual pathway combined with the separate processing of contours and textures has led to a new class of coding methods capable of achieving compression ratios as high as 100:1 for images and around 300:1 for image sequences. Recent progress on some of the main avenues of object-based methods is presented. These second generation techniques make use of contour-texture modeling, new results in neurophysiology and psychophysics and scene analysis.

  7. Early Beginnings: Early Literacy Knowledge and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Early Literacy Panel was convened in 2002 to conduct a synthesis of the most rigorous scientific research available on the development of early literacy skills in children from birth to age 5. The primary purpose of the panel was to identify research evidence that would contribute to decisions in educational policy and practice that…

  8. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  9. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  10. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  11. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  12. Functional imaging and endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

  13. Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

    2008-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

  14. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  15. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  16. Tooth decay - early childhood

    MedlinePlus

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... chap 304. Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . ...

  17. Early Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Son, Ji Y.; Byrge, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Bhatt and Quinn (2011) present a compelling case that human learning is "early" in two very different, but interacting, senses. Learning is "developmentally" early in that even infants show strikingly robust adaptation to the structures present in their world. Learning is also early in an information processing sense because infants adapt their…

  18. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  19. Early-Onset Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Early-Onset Alzheimer’s What is early-onset Alzheimer’s disease? Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease is when Alzheimer’s affects a person younger than 65 years of age. People ...

  20. Early Childhood Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan; Woolums, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood centers have become a common and necessary part of millions of Americans' lives. More women in the workforce, longer workweeks, and educational research supporting the importance of early education have all contributed to the rise of early childhood centers throughout the United States. Today, more than 30 percent of children under…

  1. Early Learning Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The early learning content standards describe essential concepts and skills for young children. Based on research, these achievable indicators emerge as the result of quality early learning experiences regardless of the setting (e.g., nursery school, preschool, family care, etc.). In addition, the early learning content indicators are aligned to…

  2. WE-G-BRD-06: Variation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelada, O; Decker, R; Rockwell, S; Carlson, D; Zheng, M; Huang, Y; Xia, Y; Gallezot, J; Liu, C; Carson, R; Oelfke, U

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia is correlated with treatment failure. To date, there are no published studies investigating hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing SBRT. We aim to use 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to non-invasively quantify the tumor hypoxic volume (HV), to elucidate potential roles of reoxygenation and tumor vascular response at high doses, and to identify an optimal prognostic imaging time-point. Methods: SBRT-eligible patients with NSCLC tumors >1cm were prospectively enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Computed Tomography and dynamic PET images (0–120min, 150–180min, and 210–240min post-injection) were acquired using a Siemens BiographmCT PET/CT scanner. 18F-FMISO PET was performed on a single patient at 3 different time points around a single SBRT delivery of 18 Gy and HVs were compared using a tumor-to-blood ratio (TBR)>1.2 and rate of influx (Ki)>0.0015 (Patlak). Results: Results from our first patient showed substantial temporal changes in HV following SBRT. Using a TBR threshold >1.2 and summed images 210–240min, the HVs were 19%, 31% and 13% of total tumor volume on day 0, 2 (48 hours post-SBRT), and 4 (96 hours post-SBRT). The absolute volume of hypoxia increased by nearly a factor of 2 after 18 Gy and then decreased almost to baseline 96 hours later. Selected imaging timepoints resulted in temporal changes in HV quantification obtained with TBR. Ki, calculated using 4-hour dynamic data, evaluated HVs as 22%, 75% and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: ith the results of only one patient, this novel pilot study highlights the potential benefit of 18F-FMISO PET imaging as results indicate substantial temporal changes in tumor HV post-SBRT. Analysis suggests that TBR is not a robust parameter for accurate HV quantification and heavily influenced by imaging timepoint selection. Kinetic modeling parameters are more sensitive and may aid in future treatment individualization

  3. Imaging medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journeau, P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents progress on imaging the research field of Imaging Informatics, mapped as the clustering of its communities together with their main results by applying a process to produce a dynamical image of the interactions between their results and their common object(s) of research. The basic side draws from a fundamental research on the concept of dimensions and projective space spanning several streams of research about three-dimensional perceptivity and re-cognition and on their relation and reduction to spatial dimensionality. The application results in an N-dimensional mapping in Bio-Medical Imaging, with dimensions such as inflammatory activity, MRI acquisition sequencing, spatial resolution (voxel size), spatiotemporal dimension inferred, toxicity, depth penetration, sensitivity, temporal resolution, wave length, imaging duration, etc. Each field is represented through the projection of papers' and projects' `discriminating' quantitative results onto the specific N-dimensional hypercube of relevant measurement axes, such as listed above and before reduction. Past published differentiating results are represented as red stars, achieved unpublished results as purple spots and projects at diverse progress advancement levels as blue pie slices. The goal of the mapping is to show the dynamics of the trajectories of the field in its own experimental frame and their direction, speed and other characteristics. We conclude with an invitation to participate and show a sample mapping of the dynamics of the community and a tentative predictive model from community contribution.

  4. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image