ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hanlon, Angela L.
2011-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of pacing and scheduling of algebra coursework on assigned 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for pre-algebra instruction and same course 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for standard algebra instruction. Students were selected based on completion of first-year…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harootunian, Alen
2012-01-01
In this study, relationships were examined between students' perception of their cognition, behavior, environment, and motivation. The purpose of the research study was to explore the extent to which 9th and 10th grade students' perception of environment, cognition, and behavior can predict their motivation in Algebra and Geometry…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gewertz, Catherine
2009-01-01
For big urban districts, it can be slippery work to catch and hold students who are falling off track at a point that derails too many graduations: the transition from 8th to 9th grade. This article reports that the Chicago school district is putting a suite of new data reports into the hands of those who teach and counsel its 30,000 freshmen this…
Study Probes Enrollment "Bulge" in 9th Grade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viadero, Debra
2004-01-01
Three decades of mounting academic and testing requirements are snagging growing numbers of students in the 9th grade. "The bulge" is the name education researchers give to the percentage increase in students in the 9th grade over the same period. This article reports on factors that might explain the growing 9th grade bottleneck and sliding…
Help Us Make the 9th Grade Transition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cushman, Kathleen
2006-01-01
New 9th graders reflect on the worries they had as middle school students about moving into high school. They also suggest ways of easing the transition and providing support in 9th grade. Teens want teachers to connect middle school students regularly with high school students, give them more responsibility in middle school, and focus on…
Indiana's Academic Standards: 9th Grade English/Language Arts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should be able to do in Grade 9 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and comes accompanied with a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…
A Summative Program Evaluation of a Comprehensive 9th Grade Transition Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roybal, Victoria M.
2011-01-01
The transition from 8th grade to 9th grade is one that is replete with challenges for students, especially for minority students who live in economically disadvantaged communities. One low-income, high minority comprehensive high school in the western United States implemented five separate strategies to create a freshman transition program to aid…
The Effectiveness of the New 9th Grade Biology Curriculum on Students' Environmental Awareness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetin, Gulcan; Nisanci, Seda Hilal
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new 9th grade biology curriculum on students' environmental awareness. Participants included 91 ninth grade students in a high school in Balikesir during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. Two classrooms, including 22 and 24 students respectively, were randomly assigned…
Problem-Based Learning in 9th Grade Chemistry Class: "Intermolecular Forces"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarhan, Leman; Ayar-Kayali, Hulya; Urek, Raziye Ozturk; Acar, Burcin
2008-01-01
This research study aims to examine the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) on 9th grade students' understanding of intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding). The student's alternate conceptions about intermolecular bonding and their beliefs about PBL were also measured. Seventy-eight…
The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ergin, Serap
2016-01-01
In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…
A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian
2006-01-01
The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others
This study explored teachers' behavior as related to effective teaching practices in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade English classrooms in Jordan. The study also examined some variables that could predict teachers' implementation of effective teaching practices and aimed at finding an estimate of the percentage of students in 8th, 9th, and 10th grades…
Analysis of the New Physics Textbook for the 9th Grade of the Greek Schools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kountouriotis, Georgios
2010-01-01
In the following paper we analyze the new textbook of Physics for the 9th grade (last year of compulsory education) of Greek schools. For this analysis, we use the framework that was developed by Koulaidis, B., Dimopoulos, K., Sklaveniti S., Xristidou B. (2002) The emphasis of this analysis is not in the content of the book, but in the transformation of scientific knowledge to school knowledge, the way the distinction of scientific and everyday knowledge is presented in the book and the pedagogic relations between teachers and students that the book implies. A limited comparison with the previous textbook is also presented.
The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy
2015-01-01
Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela
2015-01-01
Ninth grade is a pivotal year for students. Numerous studies find that academic performance in 9th grade often sets the student's trajectory throughout the high school years, as well as the probability of graduation. The Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) model is a comprehensive approach that addresses developmental, academic, and school…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albin, Edward F.
2014-11-01
Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA (USA) offers instruction in planetary science and astronomy to gifted 9th grade students within a program called "Scientific Tools and Techniques" (STT). Although STT provides a semester long overview of all sciences, the planetary science / astronomy section is innovative since students have access to instruction in the Center's Zeiss planetarium and observatory, which includes a 0.9 m cassegrain telescope. The curriculum includes charting the positions of planets in planetarium the sky; telescopic observations of the Moon and planets; hands-on access to meteorites and tektites; and an introduction to planetary spectroscopy utilizing LPI furnished ALTA reflectance spectrometers. In addition, students have the opportunity to watch several full dome planetary themed planetarium presentations, including "Back to the Moon for Good" and "Ring World: Cassini at Saturn." An overview of NASA's planetary exploration efforts is also considered, with special emphasis on the new Orion / Space Launch System for human exploration of the solar system. A primary goal of our STT program is to not only engage but encourage students to pursue careers in the field of science, with the hope of inspiring future scientists / leaders in the field of planetary science.
Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraknoi, Andrew
1998-05-01
We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.
A complete set of behavioral objectives for first-year algebra taught in any of grades 8 through 12 is presented. Three to six sample test items and answers are provided for each objective. Objectives were determined by surveying the most used secondary school algebra textbooks. Fourteen major categories are included: (1) whole numbers--operations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niemi, Richard G.; Chapman, Chris
This report provides an extensive picture of factors often thought to be associated with promoting good citizenship among youth. In particular, it focuses on the civic development of 9th- through 12th-grade students. Broadly speaking, student characteristics, family influences, the role of schools, media factors, and the possible benefits of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pilav, Salim
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which each of the three types of instruction (authentic, where, differentiated) engages 9th grade high school students in achieving language proficiency. The paper examines the features of these models of instructions and teachers? opinion about them. It includes a descriptive research in survey…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Grant; Cleven, Brian
2005-01-01
The purposes of this study were to determine the physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district, to identify which activities students felt should be offered in coeducation or gender separate formats, and to determine whether physical education is one of their favorite classes. Results…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Üstten, Aliye Uslu
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to identify the sources of reading difficulties and to evaluate reading fluency of 9th grade students which aims to improve students' reading and their understanding of complex literary texts. The sample is composed of 120 students selected from 9th grade of 10 different high schools in central province of Ankara…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuhair, Ahmad
2015-01-01
This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…
Improving Student Achievement: Can 9th Grade Academies Make a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Styron, Ronald Anthony; Peasant, Eddie J.
2010-01-01
This study focused on student achievement in ninth grade schools or academies compared to ninth grade students enrolled in traditional high schools. Student achievement was measured by standardized test scores. Other variables tested were gender and ethnicity. All students used in this study were enrolled in the ninth grade during the 2005-2006…
Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.
2007-07-27
Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207
Using Population Data to Create Fun in the 9th-Grade Geography Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smalley, Elizabeth
2010-01-01
How can teachers encourage their geography students to make sense of big numbers? The key math skills geography students need to apply are ones they learned long ago in fifth grade: estimation and place value. However, in order to recognize the size of a city, or strength of a country's per capita income, or value of a birth rate, they need…
Evaluation of an Energy Conservation Program for 9th Grade Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osbaldiston, Richard; Schmitz, Hannah
2011-01-01
The Energy Challenge is an environmental education program that is administered to ninth grade students in the public schools of a small Midwestern city in the United States. The program is sponsored and administered by the two local electric utilities, and it has been going on for seven years. To determine the effectiveness of the program, a…
Water: How Good is Good Enough? Teacher's Guide. Science Module (9th-10th Grade Chemistry).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Education.
This is a teacher's guide for a module designed to integrate environmental education into ninth- and tenth-grade chemistry classes. The module, pilot tested in Gwinnett County, Georgia in classes of students, many of whom had learning disabilities, emphasizes activity learning and considerable review. The module is divided into four parts. Part…
Pre-Vocational Curriculum (Career Education) for 9th and 10th Grade Levels. (Teacher Guide).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arman, Ruby L.; Arman, Mohammad R.
This curriculum guide consists of 17 units of study for use in a prevocational career education course geared toward ninth and tenth grade students. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: assessing personal characteristics, completing a personal aptitude inventory, assessing personal interests, using the Dictionary of…
Finite-dimensional simple graded algebras
Bahturin, Yu A; Zaicev, M V; Sehgal, S K
2008-08-31
Let R be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field F graded by an arbitrary group G. In the paper it is proved that if the characteristic of F is zero or does not divide the order of any finite subgroup of G, then R is graded simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a matrix algebra over a finite-dimensional graded skew field. Bibliography: 24 titles.
Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades K-2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Rotz, Leyani; Burns, Marilyn
Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help K-2 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silva, F. M.; Furtado, W. W.
2012-10-01
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of using hypertext and pedagogic mediation in search of a Meaningful Learning Process in Sciences. We investigate the usage of hypertext in the teaching and learning methods of Astronomy modules. A survey was conducted with students from the 9th grade of Primary School of a public school in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. We have analyzed the possibilities that hypermedia can offer in the teaching and learning process, using as reference David Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning. The study was divided into four phases: application of an initial questionnaire on students, development of didactic material (hypertext), six classes held in a computer lab with the use of hypermedia and a final questionnaire applied in the lab after classes. This research indicated that the use of hypertext linked to pedagogical mediation processes is seen as a motivational tool and has potential to foster to Meaningful Learning.
Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J
2015-01-01
To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Andrew
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document is the second volume of a state curriculum guide on vocational agriculture for use in the 9th and 10th grades in Louisiana. Four instructional areas are profiled in this volume: environmental protection, career information, energy conservation, and agricultural mechanics. The environmental protection unit covers safe use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shabatat, Kawthar; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed
2016-01-01
This study aimed at recognizing the impact of teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of female students of 9th grade in chemistry, to accomplish the goal of this study the researchers designed instruments of: instructional plans, pre achievement and past achievement exams to use them for the study-validity and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document is the first volume of a state curriculum guide on vocational agriculture for use in the 9th and 10th grades in Louisiana. Three instructional areas are profiled in this volume: orientation to vocational agriculture, agricultural leadership, and soil science. The three units of the orientation area cover introducing beginning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kocakaya, F.; Gönen, S.
2014-01-01
Main aim of this study is to examine the influence of computer-assisted roundhouse diagrams on high school 9th grade students' academic achievements in the subjects of "Force and Motion". The study was carried out in a public high school in Diyarbakir the province in the Southeast of Turkey. In the study, the…
A Comparison of 9th and 10th Grade Boys' and Girls' Bullying Behaviors in Two States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isernhagen, Jody; Harris, Sandy
This study examined the incidences of bullying behaviors among male and female 9th and 10th graders in rural Nebraska and suburban Texas schools. Nebraska students were predominantly Caucasion, and Texas students were African American, Hispanic American, and Caucasion. Student surveys examined such issues as how often bullying occurred, where it…
The Use of ICT Tools in Mathematics: A Case-Control Study of Best Practice in 9th Grade Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Vavik, Lars; Salomon, Gavriel
2012-01-01
Results are reported from a study in which teachers' views of highly achieving ninth grade classes in Norway (KappAbel national competition winners) were compared with teachers' views of average achievement classes with regard to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and pedagogical practices. The main purpose of the study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacza, Gerald L.; And Others
The result of a curriculum development project known as Project Open, this curriculum guide offers a course on communication technology to ninth graders who are participating in the Career Exploration in Technology program and have completed the eighth grade course. Nineteen units form the subject matter of the guide: an introduction, visual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Education.
This learning module is designed to integrate environmental education into ninth- and tenth-grade chemistry classes. This module and a companion social studies module were pilot tested in Gwinnett County, Georgia in classes of students, many of whom had learning disabilities. It emphasizes activity learning. The module is divided into four parts.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinojosa, T.; Bos, J.; O'Brien, B.; Park, S.; Liu, F.; Jerabek, A.
2016-01-01
Students beginning high school commonly experience increased stress and behavior problems alongside declines in grades, attendance, interest in school, and perceptions of academic competence and self-esteem (Alvidrez & Weinstein, 1993; Reyes et al., 2000). Moreover, research indicates that, relative to students who graduate from high school,…
Pre-Vocational Curriculum (Career Education) for 9th and 10th Grade Levels. (Student Study Guide).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arman, Ruby L.; Arman, Mohammad R.
This student guide consists of 17 units of study for use in a prevocational career education course geared toward ninth and tenth grade students. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: assessing personal interests, using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, identifying occupational choices, identifying vocational and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Education.
This learning module is designed to integrate environmental education into ninth- and tenth-grade social studies courses. The module and a parallel module designed for chemistry classes were pilot tested in Gwinnett County, Georgia in 1975-76. The module is divided into four parts. The first part alerts students to the serious problems that growth…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgia Univ., Athens. Coll. of Education.
This learning module is designed to integrate environmental education into ninth- and tenth-grade chemistry classes. This module and a companion social studies module were pilot tested in Gwinnett County, Georgia in 1975-76. The module is divided into four parts. Part one provides a broad overview of unit content and proposes questions to…
Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 3-5.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wickett, Maryann; Kharas, Katharine; Burns, Marilyn
Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 3-5 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…
Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 6-8.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Ann; Hennessy, Charlie
Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 6-8 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…
Infinitesimal deformations of naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.
2014-12-01
In the present paper we describe infinitesimal deformations of complex naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras. It is known that any n-dimensional filiform Lie algebra can be obtained by a linear integrable deformation of the naturally graded algebra Fn3(0) . We establish that in the same way any n-dimensional filiform Leibniz algebra can be obtained by an infinitesimal deformation of the filiform Leibniz algebras Fn1,Fn2and Fn3(α) . Moreover, we describe the linear integrable deformations of the above-mentioned algebras with a fixed basis of HL2 in the set of all n-dimensional Leibniz algebras. Among these deformations one new rigid algebra has been found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longo, Palma Joni
2001-12-01
An experimental and interview-based design was used to test the efficacy of visual thinking networking (VTN), a new generation of metacognitive learning strategies. Students constructed network diagrams using semantic and figural elements to represent knowledge relationships. The findings indicated the importance of using color in VTN strategies. The use of color promoted the encoding and reconstruction of earth science knowledge in memory and enhanced higher order thinking skills of problem solving. Fifty-six ninth grade earth science students (13--15 years of age) in a suburban school district outside New York City were randomly assigned to three classes with the same instructor. Five major positive findings emerged in the areas of problem solving achievement, organization of knowledge in memory, problem solving strategy dimensionality, conceptual understanding, and gender differences. A multi-covariate analysis was conducted on the pre-post gain scores of the AGI/NSTA Earth Science Examination (Part 1). Students who used the color VTN strategies had a significantly higher mean gain score on the problem solving criterion test items than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .003) and the writing strategies for learning science (p < .001). During a think-out-loud problem solving interview, students who used the color VTN strategies: (1) significantly recalled more earth science knowledge than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .021) and the writing strategies (p < .001); (2) significantly recalled more interrelated earth science knowledge than students who used black/white VTN strategies (p = .048) and the writing strategy (p < .001); (3) significantly used a greater number of action verbs than students who used the writing strategy (p = .033). Students with low abstract reasoning aptitude who used the color VTNs had a significantly higher mean number of conceptually accurate propositions than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .018) and the
C-Graded vertex algebras and conformal flow
Laber, Rob; Mason, Geoffrey
2014-01-15
We consider C-graded vertex algebras, which are vertex algebras V with a C-grading such that V is an admissible V-module generated by “lowest weight vectors.” We show that such vertex algebras have a “good” representation theory in the sense that there is a Zhu algebra A(V) and a bijection between simple admissible V-modules and simple A(V)-modules. We also consider pseudo vertex operator algebras (PVOAs), which are C-graded vertex algebras with a conformal vector such that the homogeneous subspaces of V are generalized eigenspaces for L(0); essentially, these are VOAs that lack any semisimplicity or integrality assumptions on L(0). As a motivating example, we show that deformation of the conformal structure (conformal flow) of a strongly regular VOA (e.g., a lattice theory, or Wess-Zumino-Witten model) is a path in a space whose points are PVOAs.
Curricular Pathways to Algebra I in Eighth Grade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Melinda Rose
2014-01-01
Nationwide, schools are pushing for more students to take Algebra I in eighth grade, prior to formally entering high school. The algebra-for-all movement has been intended to alleviate equity issues which held minority and low-income students back from entering a college-preparatory path in high school. Students with the needed content,…
Some "Big Ideas" of Algebra in the Middle Grades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Thomas G.
2000-01-01
Identifies big ideas for the informal study of algebra-related topics in the middle grades including notation, variable, function, and properties of number. Suggests meaningful ways to accomplish them. (YDS)
2011-01-01
Background Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of violence and contributes greatly to the global burden of premature death, injury and disability. Methods The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), State of Lara, Venezuela (GSHS-Lara) is a school-based surveillance system. It comprises a repeated, cross-sectional, self-administered survey drawn from a representative sample of 7th to 9th grade students, performed in the school years 2003-2004 (GSHS-Lara 2004) and 2007-2008 (GSHS-Lara 2008). It explores, among other things, a general violence indicator such as school absenteeism due to feeling unsafe at school or on the way to or from school for any reason; and more specific indicators of violence such as robbery, bullying, physical fights and use of weapons, as well as exposure to lectures on how to prevent violence. Results are given in terms of prevalence percentage. Results Absenteeism doubled between the two study periods (10.8% to 20.8%). The number of students that were a victim of robbery remained high and without change both outside (14.2% and 14.8%) and inside school (21.7% and 22.0%). The number of victims of bullying was high and increasing (33.4% and 43.6%). Bullying associated with being physically attacked decreased (18.5% to 14.3%). Physical attacks without active participation and not associated with bullying were frequent (21.5%). Physical fighting with active participation prevalence remained high and without change (27.5% and 28.2%). Carrying a weapon almost doubled (4.3% to 7.1%). Less than 65% reported classes for violence prevention. Conclusions The GSHS-Lara shows that violence is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed by the community and its authorities. PMID:22958602
A Cohomology Theory of Grading-Restricted Vertex Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi-Zhi
2014-04-01
We introduce a cohomology theory of grading-restricted vertex algebras. To construct the correct cohomologies, we consider linear maps from tensor powers of a grading-restricted vertex algebra to "rational functions valued in the algebraic completion of a module for the algebra," instead of linear maps from tensor powers of the algebra to a module for the algebra. One subtle complication arising from such functions is that we have to carefully address the issue of convergence when we compose these linear maps with vertex operators. In particular, for each , we have an inverse system of nth cohomologies and an additional nth cohomology of a grading-restricted vertex algebra V with coefficients in a V-module W such that is isomorphic to the inverse limit of the inverse system . In the case of n = 2, there is an additional second cohomology denoted by which will be shown in a sequel to the present paper to correspond to what we call square-zero extensions of V and to first order deformations of V when W = V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Andrew
The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study was guided by the assumption that there are a limited number of experiences in which teachers engage throughout their career that contribute in significant ways to the development of their knowledge. The primary sources of data were observations of an entire unit of instruction on energy and a series of four stimulated-recall interviews throughout the unit of instruction. The stimulated recall interviews focused on the participants' instruction and knowledge regarding the representations used throughout the energy unit. These data sources were supported by interviews focused on the participants' work history and professional development as well interviews focused on their unit/lesson plans. The results of the phenomenographic analysis revealed that nine categories of experiences informed the development of the three participant's PCK for using representations to teach the energy topics. The categories included: 1) teaching experience, 2) Physics First professional development, 3) other school district-supported professional development 4) collaboration with current colleagues, 5) past collaboration with experienced teachers, 6) academic experiences as a learner of science, 7) school district expectations, 8) collaboration with university faculty and other university professional development, and 9) non-academic life experiences. The analysis also revealed that as a result of engaging in the nine experiences, the participants developed more integrated knowledge for using representations in their instruction, which included understandings regarding the essential features of specific representations, knowledge of barriers to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reents, Jennifer Newton
2002-01-01
Argues that creating separate schools for ninth-grade students improves their academic and social transition to high school. Supports argument with research results and personal anecdotes. Describes school district experiences in developing and operating ninth-grade centers. (PKP)
Eighth Grade Algebra Course Placement and Student Motivation for Mathematics
Simzar, Rahila M.; Domina, Thurston; Tran, Cathy
2016-01-01
This study uses student panel data to examine the association between Algebra placement and student motivation for mathematics. Changes in achievement goals, expectancy, and task value for students in eighth grade Algebra are compared with those of peers placed in lower-level mathematics courses (N = 3,306). In our sample, students placed in Algebra reported an increase in performance-avoidance goals as well as decreases in academic self-efficacy and task value. These relations were attenuated for students who had high mathematics achievement prior to Algebra placement. Whereas all students reported an overall decline in performance-approach goals over the course of eighth grade, previously high-achieving students reported an increase in these goals. Lastly, previously high-achieving students reported an increase in mastery goals. These findings suggest that while previously high-achieving students may benefit motivationally from eighth grade Algebra placement, placing previously average- and low-performing students in Algebra can potentially undermine their motivation for mathematics. PMID:26942210
Pittsburgh Building "Nation" of 9th Graders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gewertz, Catherine
2007-01-01
Bitter experience has shown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that if students are going to leave school, they are most likely to do it between the 8th and 9th grades. To combat that problem, the school district has launched a full-on campaign to get its rising freshmen into high school and keep them there. Two weeks before school opened, the district…
The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You
2016-05-01
We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.
(I,q)-graded Lie algebraic extensions of the Poincaré algebra, constraints on I and q
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wills Toro, Luis Alberto
1995-04-01
The constraints on the index set I and on the function q of the (I,q)-graded Lie algebras over K containing the Poincaré Lie algebra are studied. By using the single-grading model, particular choices for I and q consistent with the found constraints are determined for K=C. Gradings are then found for which I⊆I=Z2×(Z4N×Z4N)×Gre, with N∈N and Gre an Abelian group. These gradings provide a way for algebraic extensions of the Poincaré Lie algebra beyond the Z2-gradings of supersymmetry and supergravity. In these algebraic extensions, each other commuting space-time parameter can either commute or anticommute with the further parameters of the (I,q)-graded (super) manifold. Different field representations can have—with each other—generalized commutative behavior beyond commutativity and anticommutativity.
Ternary Z3 -graded generalization of Heisenberg's algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerner, Richard
2015-04-01
We investigate a ternary, Z3-graded generalization of the Heisenberg algebra. It turns out that introducing a non-trivial cubic root of unity, j = e 2πi/3, one can define two types of creation operators instead of one, accompanying the usual annihilation operator. The two creation operators are non-hermitian, but they are mutually conjugate. Together, the three operators form a ternary algebra, and some of their cubic combinations generate the usual Heisenberg algebra. A cubic analogue of Hamiltonian operator is constructed by analogy with the usual harmonic oscillator. A set of eigenstates in coordinate representation is constructed in terms of functions satisfying linear differential equation of third order.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erickson, Toby
In this interdisciplinary curriculum unit intended for ninth grade students, students explore in groups in a role playing format public policy questions related to rain forests. Examined in the lessons are political, economic, and ecological issues from which students are expected to make recommendations on what policy course should be followed.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.
This curriculum guide, the third volume of the series, outlines the basic program of vocational agriculture for Louisiana students in the ninth and tenth grades. Covered in the five units on plant science are growth processes of plants, cultural practices for plants, insects affecting plants, seed and plant selection, and diseases that affect…
The Impact of New State Accountability Standards on Algebra I Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heath, Kyle G.
2013-01-01
The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to determine if a new Algebra I curriculum resulted in improved student performance on the state Algebra I exam. The treatment group consisted of 383 9th grade Algebra I students who received the college-ready standards-based (CRSB) curricula. The control group consisted of 338 9th…
Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.; Ragan, Daniel T.
2015-01-01
Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents’ friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion. PMID:25943034
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanton, Maria; Stephens, Ana; Knuth, Eric; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Isler, Isil; Kim, Jee-Seon
2015-01-01
This article reports results from a study investigating the impact of a sustained, comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade. Participants included 106 students; 39 received the early algebra intervention, and 67 received their district's regularly planned mathematics instruction. We share and discuss students' responses to…
Early-Algebra Push Seen to Be Flawed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viadero, Debra
2010-01-01
Spurred by a succession of reports pointing to the importance of algebra as a gateway to college, educators and policymakers embraced "algebra for all" policies in the 1990s and began working to ensure that students take the subject by 9th grade or earlier. A trickle of studies suggests that in practice, though, getting all students past the…
Implications of Eighth Grade Algebra I on High School Mathematics Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bayard, Robert
2012-01-01
As of 2008, approximately 40% of eighth grade students in the United States enroll in Algebra I (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008). Although research has shown that students have more opportunities to take advanced mathematics courses by taking eighth grade Algebra I, in the United States, approximately only one-third to one-half…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Jill P.
2012-01-01
Many students enter large comprehensive high schools without having the necessary social and academic skills or understanding of what will be expected of them as they move through the high school curriculum. To help a higher number of students experience success, schools must help them develop academic, social, and self-management skills.…
Outcomes of Placing Low Performing Eighth Grade Students in Algebra Content Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Donald Joseph
2011-01-01
In California, Algebra I is the 8th grade math content standard. The United States Department of Education found the annual 8th grade General Math California Standards Test to be out of compliance with the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 since it assesses 6th and 7th grade math standards and not Algebra I math content. In response to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to analyze 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula started to be implemented in 2007 with regard to concepts and attainments addressing to environmental education. In this regard, 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula were analyzed using content-analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods. 9th-12th grade…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buckner, Barbara Renee
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TI-Nspire graphing calculator use on student achievement and on teacher behavior variables of planning, teaching, and assessing. This study investigated the teaching of functions by teachers using the TI-Nspire graphing calculator versus teachers using a non-graphing scientific calculator. …
Aiming High and Falling Short: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra-for-All Effort
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Domina, Thurston; McEachin, Andrew; Penner, Andrew; Penner, Emily
2015-01-01
The United States is in the midst of an effort to intensify middle school mathematics curricula by enrolling more 8th graders in Algebra. California is at the forefront of this effort, and in 2008, the state moved to make Algebra the accountability benchmark test for 8th-grade mathematics. This article takes advantage of this unevenly implemented…
Automorphisms and Derivations of the Insertion-Elimination Algebra and Related Graded Lie Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ondrus, Matthew; Wiesner, Emilie
2016-07-01
This paper addresses several structural aspects of the insertion-elimination algebra {mathfrak{g}}, a Lie algebra that can be realized in terms of tree-inserting and tree-eliminating operations on the set of rooted trees. In particular, we determine the finite-dimensional subalgebras of {mathfrak{g}}, the automorphism group of {mathfrak{g}}, the derivation Lie algebra of {mathfrak{g}}, and a generating set. Several results are stated in terms of Lie algebras admitting a triangular decomposition and can be used to reproduce results for the generalized Virasoro algebras.
Aiming Higher: Is Your 9th Grader on Track for College?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New Visions for Public Schools, 2008
2008-01-01
A teenager's future starts on 9th grade with the safe and welcoming environment, excellent teachers, and challenging instruction provided at this school. Believe it or not, college begins in 9th grade. If parents dream of their son or daughter going to college, they should not put off planning until their junior or senior year in high school--it…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.
2015-01-01
Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…
Multipoint Lax operator algebras: almost-graded structure and central extensions
Schlichenmaier, M
2014-05-31
Recently, Lax operator algebras appeared as a new class of higher genus current-type algebras. Introduced by Krichever and Sheinman, they were based on Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These algebras are almost-graded Lie algebras of currents on Riemann surfaces with marked points (in-points, out-points and Tyurin points). In a previous joint article with Sheinman, the author classified the local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions in the case of one in-point and one out-point. It was shown that the almost-graded extension is essentially unique. In this article the general case of Lax operator algebras corresponding to several in- and out-points is considered. As a first step they are shown to be almost-graded. The grading is given by splitting the marked points which are non-Tyurin points into in- and out-points. Next, classification results both for local and bounded cocycles are proved. The uniqueness theorem for almost-graded central extensions follows. To obtain this generalization additional techniques are needed which are presented in this article. Bibliography: 30 titles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atnafu, Mulugeta
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…
The Effects of Online Homework on High School Algebra Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schubert, Daniel Joseph
2012-01-01
Technology is changing the way students are able to learn and access mathematics. This study explored the effects that technology can have on 9th grade Integrated Algebra students through computer-assisted instruction. In hopes of raising students' New York State Regents scores, ninety-five high school freshmen from a Title I school in New…
Student Strategy Choices on a Constructed Response Algebra Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, Dan; Reys, Robert; Chavez, Oscar; McNaught, Melissa D.; Grouws, Douglas A.
2011-01-01
A central goal of secondary mathematics is for students to learn to use powerful algebraic strategies appropriately. Research has demonstrated student difficulties in the transition to using such strategies. We examined strategies used by several thousand 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students in five different school systems over three consecutive…
Access to Algebra I, Gateway to Success: The Impact of Eighth-Grade Algebra I
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darling, Emily Jean Skelton
2010-01-01
An understanding of Algebra I and the role that this foundational course plays as an entry to the college preparatory pathway in secondary education and its influence on mathematical achievement is an integral component for the education of American youth in the global world of science and technology. Achievements in high school curricula are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raymond, Roger A.
In the second year of a study to compare and evaluate programed and conventional instruction in algebra for the ninth and tenth grades, comparisons of the control and experimental groups in each grade were again based on scores from the Lankton First-Year Algebra Test and the California Study Methods Survey (CSMS). Although there was a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal
2012-01-01
In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kok Seng
2010-01-01
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the errors made by 265 Form 2 male students in simplifying algebraic expressions. Method: A total of 265 Form 2 (Grade 7) male students were selected for this study. 10 high, medium and low ability students in each group were selected for the interviews. 40 items were administered to the respondents to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jin, Haiyue; Wong, Khoon Yoong
2015-01-01
Conceptual understanding is a major aim of mathematics education, and concept map has been used in non-mathematics research to uncover the relations among concepts held by students. This article presents the results of using concept map to assess conceptual understanding of basic algebraic concepts held by a group of 48 grade 8 Chinese students.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln
This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…
8th Grade Algebra Teachers in Arkansas to Need State Nod
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
Lindsay E. Carlton has taught mathematics to students at different grades, with different ability levels. Now, the young educator's state wants to recognize her ability to work with one group in particular: 8th graders enrolled in introductory algebra. Carlton is one of many math educators across Arkansas who plan to acquire a new, unusual state…
Review of "The Misplaced Math Student: Lost in Eighth-Grade Algebra"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burris, Carol Corbett
2008-01-01
The Brookings Institution report questions the efficacy of increasing the number of students who take algebra in eighth grade. Although this policy has resulted in more equitable access to advanced math study, the report argues that a subgroup of students enrolled lack the basic mathematical skills needed to succeed. The report further argues that…
Course Placement Series: Spotlight on Eighth Grade Algebra I. Policy Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennessee Department of Education, 2015
2015-01-01
The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on eighth grade Algebra I enrollment, which can propel students to take more rigorous math…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bunrasi, John Bosco Tuptip
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine constructivist-based algebra lessons and a cooperative construct to address the achievement gap between White (non-Hispanic) and Mexican American 8th grade students at a southern California middle school. The lessons were designed to facilitate social interdependence which promoted peer-to-peer interaction…
Predicting Eighth-Grade Algebra Students with Individualized Education Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faulkner, Valerie N.; Crossland, Cathy L.; Stiff, Lee V.
2013-01-01
This study investigated the extent to which student performance and teacher perception of student performance affect placement in eighth-grade mathematics classes for students with disabilities. Authors used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten dataset to investigate how each of the following factors predicted placement in…
The 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium.
Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi
2012-07-15
This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology". PMID:22766039
Algebra for All: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.; Conley, AnneMarie
2014-01-01
Background/Context: Across the United States, secondary school curricula are intensifying as a growing proportion of students enroll in high-level academic math courses. In many districts, this intensification process occurs as early as eighth grade, where schools are effectively constraining their mathematics curricula by restricting course…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others
In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shoecraft, Paul Joseph
Three instructional approaches on translating selected types of algebra word problems were investigated: direct translations, high imagery with materials, and high imagery with drawings. Participating were 366 seventh grade and 336 ninth grade students. Treatment effects by grade used multivariate analysis of covariance for student scores and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grandau, Laura
2013-01-01
This study of fourth-grade students and teachers explores mathematics teaching and learning that focuses on discovering and modeling algebraic relationships. The study has two parts: an investigation of how students learn to construct algebraic statements and models for comparisons and measurement situations in the multiplicative domain, and an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.
Official instructional materials for the second three years (grades 7-9) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program are presented. These materials, intended for teachers, consist of units of instruction for each year, which contain notes for the teacher, suggestions for class activities, materials for student use, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Falcon, Raymond
2009-01-01
Teachers use action research in order to improve their teaching and student learning. This action research will analyze students' algebraic reasoning in finding values of variables in systems of equations pictorially and algebraically. This research will look at students solving linear systems of equations without knowing the algebraic algorithms.…
The Impact of Teachers' Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students' Algebra Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cope, Liza M.
2013-01-01
This study examined the impact of teachers' characteristics and self-reported practices on students' Algebra achievement while controlling for students' characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…
Eaton, Danice K; Foti, Kathryn; Brener, Nancy D; Crosby, Alex E; Flores, Glenn; Kann, Laura
2011-01-01
The objective of this study was to identify factors that may account for the disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina youth by examining whether associations of health risk behaviors with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts vary by race/ethnicity among female students. Data from the school-based 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Analyses were conducted among female students in grades 9 through 12 and included 21 risk behaviors related to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus; physical activity; obesity and weight control; and perceived health status. With the exception of physical activity behaviors and obesity, all risk behaviors examined were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Associations of risk behaviors with suicidal ideation varied by race/ethnicity for 5 of 21 behaviors, and for 0 of 21 behaviors for suicide attempts. Stratified analyses provided little insight into factors that may account for the higher prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students. These results suggest that the increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students cannot be accounted for by differential associations with these selected risk behaviors. Other factors, such as family characteristics, acculturation, and the socio-cultural environment, should be examined in future research. PMID:21541858
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walston, Jill; McCarroll, Jill Carlivati
2010-01-01
This Brief is intended to provide descriptive statistics about various aspects of algebra enrollment in the eighth grade. The first analyses describe who is taking algebra in the eighth grade; findings compare eighth-grade course enrollment percentages for students with different demographic, family, geographic, and school characteristics (table…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egodawatte, Gunawardena; Stoilescu, Dorian
2015-01-01
The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate grade 11 university/college stream mathematics students' difficulties in applying conceptual knowledge, procedural skills, strategic competence, and algebraic thinking in solving routine (instructional) algebraic problems. A standardized algebra test was administered to thirty randomly…
Teaching Algebra without Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalman, Richard S.
2008-01-01
Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…
9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the team from Lafayette County High school in Higginsville, Missouri, designated Lafayette County team #1, races through the course to cross the finish line to win the high school division. The team beat out 26 other teams representing high schools from 9 states. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.
9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. This photograph shows the Cornell #2 team driving their vehicle through the course. The team finished the race in second place in the college division. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle, that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.
9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. In this photograph, the Cornell #1 team, the collegiate first place winner, maneuvers their vehicle through the course. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a humanpowered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.
9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the New Orleans area schools team #2 from New Orleans, Louisiana maneuvers through an obstacle course. The team captured second place in the high school division competition. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.
A Chemistry Course for High Ability 8th, 9th, and 10th Graders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilker, Richard, Jr.
1985-01-01
Describes a chemistry course designed, in cooperation with local public school districts, to intellectually challenge a group of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade students. Organic chemistry and biochemistry are integrated into the course (titled Chemistry and Everyday Life) to emphasize practical applications of chemistry. The course syllabus is included.…
The Illinois 9th Grade Adolescent Health Survey. Full Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
A survey was conducted in Illinois to identify the risk of certain health problems among adolescents; to determine the health status of Illinois youth in relation to the Surgeon General's "Healthy People 2000 Objectives" and monitor progress toward national and state goals; and to help those working at national, state, and local levels develop…
Introduction to Marketing for 9th Grade Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krotosky, Paul; Johnson, Jeannie G.
Designed to enable students to develop knowledge of personal strengths and weaknesses and to be able to understand the relationship of these characteristics to educational and vocational choices, this guide presents an introductory program on vocations using a thematic interdisciplinary approach to career awareness. It is suggested that the…
Safety Pharmacology Society: 9th Annual Meeting.
Cavero, Icilio
2010-03-01
The keynote presentation of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society 9th Annual Meeting addressed the urgency, for pharmaceutical organizations, to implement strategies for effectively communicating drug risks to all concerned stakeholders and, in particular, the general public. The application of chronobiology to SP investigational protocols can improve the search of drug-induced adverse effects. The Distinguished Service Award Lecture reviewed a life-long journey through trials and tribulations in the quest of the ever-distant scientific truth. The revision process of Directive 86/609/EC for improving animal welfare should be conducted with the purpose of maintaining a fair balance among animal protection, human health and research imperatives in order to prevent the migration of pharmaceutical activities outside Europe. Additional topics of interest were the behavioral, metabolic and cardiovascular problems experienced by small animals housed at the standard laboratory temperature. A technology for the automated collection of blood and urine samples in rats implanted with telemetry sensors was presented. Non-clinical, clinical, regulatory and legal aspects of abuse liability were expertly reviewed. The 'degradability' of pharmaceuticals into environment-friendly chemicals should be an actively searched and optimized feature of future pharmaceuticals in order to prevent drug pollution of ecosystems. Transgenic and diseased animal models should be selected whenever they can facilitate the determination of drug-induced adverse effects. SP strategies to investigate the safety of drug combination products were exemplified and analyzed in depth. The future of SP was proposed to lie not in the performance of regulatory studies of pharmacodynamic nature but in developing and early applying an array of screening assays for clearing clinical candidates against known drug-induced organ function injuries. In conclusion, the 2009 SP Society annual meeting offered a wealth of
Different Grade Students' Use and Interpretation of Literal Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Celik, Derya; Gunes, Gonul
2013-01-01
The aim of the study was to determine and compare 7th, 8th, and 9th grades students' level of use and interpret the literal symbols. In addition, students' responses to questions that require use of different roles of literal symbol were examined to identify the errors. For this purpose, Chelsea Diagnostics Algebra test developed by The…
An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf
2013-01-01
This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raymond, Roger A.
Ninth and tenth grade students from two schools were placed in experimental and conventional instruction classes to compare the two methods in teaching algebra by means of achievement test and time needed to complete the course. Pre- and posttests measured aptitude; teachers and students in the experimental groups recorded personal reactions to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sher, Stephen Korb
2011-01-01
This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…
Paradoxes and Paradigms in an Eighth Grade Pre-Algebra Class: A Case Study of a "Good" Math Teacher.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gregoire, Michele
Evidence is presented from an ethnographic study of an eighth grade pre-algebra teacher's classroom in support of the idea that teachers' beliefs about the ontology and epistemology of math profoundly influence how they teach and thus what students learn. Specifically, beliefs based on a traditional view of mathematics as procedurally-based are…
Delivering the Promise to 9th Graders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Margaret May
2002-01-01
Principal describes experience in establishing and operating the Minne Howard School, a separate school for ninth-grade students in Alexandria, Virginia. Describes keys to success: Create a teacher advisor component, eliminate inschool suspension, teach five classes, and institute a school support team. (PKP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Yanghee; Lim, Jae Hoon
2013-01-01
This study examined whether or not embodied-agent-based learning would help middle-grade females have more positive mathematics learning experiences. The study used an explanatory mixed methods research design. First, a classroom-based experiment was conducted with one hundred twenty 9th graders learning introductory algebra (53% male and 47%…
Twisted Quantum Toroidal Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Liu, Rongjia
2014-09-01
We construct a principally graded quantum loop algebra for the Kac-Moody algebra. As a special case a twisted analog of the quantum toroidal algebra is obtained together with the quantum Serre relations.
A Comparison Study of 9th Graders in the U.S. and Albania
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garo, Sofokli
2008-01-01
The purpose of this research is to compare American and Albanian students' achievement in Algebra 1 and to identify the educational practices that influence students' achievement in each country. The study compared algebraic solving abilities of 242 ninth-grade American students in Grand Forks (U.S.) and 219 students in Durres (Albania). The data…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rickles, Jordan; Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo
2014-01-01
Between 1990 and 2012, the percentage of 13-year-olds (most of whom are 8th graders) taking algebra more than doubled, from 15% to 34% (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). Yet recent education policy changes suggest that this movement to encourage algebra-taking in 8th grade has begun to reverse course. Existing research suggests that…
Teacher Quality and Teaching Quality of 7th-Grade Algebra I Honors Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perez, Barbara
2013-01-01
With more and more focus on accountability, algebra achievement has become a major focus of math curriculum developers. In many states, students are expected to pass standardized Algebra achievement tests in order to satisfy graduation requirements. The purpose of this study was to identify teacher qualities and teaching qualities linked to…
Examining Heterogeneity in the Effect of Taking Algebra in Eighth Grade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rickles, Jordan H.
2013-01-01
Increased access to algebra was a focal point of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel's 2008 report on improving mathematics learning in the United States. Past research found positive effects for early access to algebra, but the focus on average effects may mask important variation across student subgroups. The author addresses whether…
The Effect of Online Tasks for Algebra on Student Achievement in Grade 8
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drijvers, Paul; Doorman, Michiel; Kirschner, Paul; Hoogveld, Bert; Boon, Peter
2014-01-01
Online resources are widely used for educational purposes, such as the training of skills. For algebra education in particular, online resources are expected to contribute to skill mastery in an efficient and effective way. However, studies that underpin these claims through a randomized experiment are scarce. To experimentally investigate the…
Updating Algebra for All?: Evidence of a Middle-Grades Math Acceleration Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua; Hill, Darryl; Litke, Erica; Page, Lindsay
2014-01-01
The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in North Carolina recently addressed the issue of advancement in and equitable access to advanced mathematics. Under a recent policy, WCPSS uses a SAS-generated predicted probabilities of students' success in obtaining a passing score on the NC Algebra I End-of-Course (EOC) exam, to determine…
NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1934-01-01
Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.
[Treat Princes in Cordoue (9th-10th centuries)].
Ricordel, Joëlle
2016-03-01
It is proposed, through biographic notes and historical reports, to observe the physicians/power relationships in one hand, and power/medical institutions relationships on the other, in Cordoue, during omeyades' emirate and caliphate, between the 9th and 10th centuries. The gathered information allows to describe the social position of physicians who received marks of favor from princes, but also served the power in place for various responsabilities. These documents are also able to make an evaluation of the role of princes for the development of medico-pharmaceutical subjects and give indications on the health of great figures, on their diseases and the conditions of their death. PMID:27281934
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, D. J.; Barabaschi, P.; Bécoulet, M.; Federici, G.; Hellsten, T.; Loarte, A.; Pautasso, G.; Wilson, H.
2003-04-01
The 9th EFPW took place in December 2001 at Saariselka in Finland, hosted by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and the Helsinki University, and sponsored by the European Commission. Within an overall theme of `transient events, their mitigation and their implications for plasma facing components in ITER', four topics of importance to the future development of magnetically confined fusion were discussed in detail. In addition, the key issues for the ITER design which are associated with transient events and a review of the JET scientific and technical programme under EFDA were presented. The main issues discussed and the areas identified as requiring further study are summarized here.
Pre-Algebra. Grade 7A-B. Curriculum Bulletin 82CBM34.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doucet, Flores J.
This guide for teachers in the Houston schools provides plans for teaching over 80 objectives in the mathematics program for grade 7. For each lesson, the objectives are specified, teaching activities are given, and supplementary materials are listed. Practice exercises, answer keys, and mathematical background comprise the bulk of the guide, and…
General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...
General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street ...
1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street (west) facade (long side). North of the D Street facade is the Edward Abner Building (413-415 9th Street) and north of it is the Ferree Building (417 9th Street). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Alissa Beth
2012-01-01
The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…
Introduction to the Proceedings of the 9th ISDH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Riskin, Seth
2013-02-01
The Proceedings As co-chairs of the 9th International Symposium on Display Holography, we welcome readers of this collection of papers and posters presented at the event. We hope that both attendees of the event and others pursuing the art, science, and business of holography and 3D imaging will find the authors' contributions of lasting interest and importance. The Event Since its creation at Lake Forest College in 1982 by Professor Tung H Jeong, ISDH has followed a model that differentiates it from other scientific conferences. The 9th ISDH continued this history, fully occupying a floor of the MIT Media Lab for five days. The single-track conference opened with reports on the state of holography in the various nations represented by the attendees, followed by a series of presentations on Education and Holography. One and one-half days of papers on Art and Holography followed, then sessions on Techniques and Materials, Digital Techniques, and Commercial and Applied Holography. A poster session permitted more in-depth discussion between authors and the audience. Two exhibitions of holographic works opened at ISDH: an informal display area at the symposium, and a 15-month-long MIT Museum exhibition, The Jeweled Net: Views of Contemporary Holography. The success of an event of this sort requires the help of many people and organizations. We wish especially to recognize our Honorary Conference Chairs: Tung H Jeong and Joseph W Goodman; our Technical Program Committee: Hans I Bjelkhagen, Frank Fan, Nasser Peyghambarian, and Hiroshi Yoshikawa; and our Arts and Exhibition Committee: Betsy Connors-Chen, Melissa Crenshaw, John Durant, Dieter Jung, Linda Law, Martin Richardson, Jonathan Ross, and Sally Weber. Betsy also coordinated the on-site exhibition. Kristin Hall at the MIT Media Lab made local arrangements, while registration was handled by MIT Conference Services. We also gratefully acknowledge support from Lake Forest College, holographer.org, and authentibrand
NANOTR9: 9th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Conference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2014-11-01
The conference series NanoTR is the major conference on nanoscience and nanotechnology in Turkey. It brings together leading scientists and engineers in nanotechnology to exchange information on their latest research progress. An exhibition of the companies working in the related field is also organized as a part of the event. With intensive international participation, NanoTR conference series has spread outside the national border and has become an international event in this field. Among international contributions, a wide interest from the countries around Turkey should be emphasized. 9th in the series was organized by Atatürk University in Erzurum-Turkey on June 24-28, 2013 with more than 900 scientists, researchers, private sector representatives from around the world. Conference program included 6 plenary speakers, 35 invited speakers (18 of them were from outside the country), 116 oral presentations, and 340 poster presentations. In addition to 6 plenary sessions, 17 oral and 4 poster sessions created very lively discussion forums covering a vast range of current and emerging sciences from nano-materials, nanoscience, nanofabrication, nano-engineering, nano-electronics, nano-biotechnology, to ethical and social issues of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Also, panel discussions about industrial applications, tutorial sessions have been organized for students, new-comers and company employees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ascher, Carol; Maguire, Cindy
2011-01-01
This report describes a follow-up qualitative study, conducted in 2006 by the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, of a small group of New York City high schools that were "beating the odds" in preparing low-performing 9th-grade students for timely high school graduation and college going. The 13 schools included two long-established…
FOREWORD: 9th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovacevic, Ahmed, Prof
2015-08-01
The 9th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems will be held in London from 5th - 9th September 2015, and as its Chairman, it is my pleasure to welcome you. This series of conferences started in 1999 organised by the Fluid Machinery Group of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) but since 2009 it has been managed by City University London in conjunction with the IMechE and the Institute of Refrigeration, both of which have been very proactive in promoting it. The Organising committee is grateful for their support and continued encouragement. This year, after rigorous reviewing, we have accepted over 80 technical papers for publication, the highest number in the conference history. On behalf of the organising committee I would like to thank the reviewers for their hard work and assistance. In addition to the main technical sessions, this year we have introduced a third day, specifically for Industry, to consider technology, business and market drivers on compressor developments. The traditional series of the short courses is this year continuing prior to the main event with the second short course/forum on Computational Fluid Dynamics in rotating positive displacement machines. I would like to extend my special thanks to our main sponsors, Holroyd PTG, Howden and Kapp Niels for their continuing support for the conference. With their generous contributions we have managed to keep the conference fees at the same level as in 2013, despite extending it to 3 days and holding it outside the University this year. The welcome reception on Sunday 6th September 2015 is dedicated to the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Centre for Positive Displacement Compressors Technology which was formed at City University in 1995 with support from the Royal Academy of Engineering and Holroyd; its main aim being to assist British manufacturers of screw compressors. The Centre has since made a significant impact on the screw compressor world, far beyond
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanton, Maria; Levi, Linda; Crites, Terry; Dougherty, Barbara; Zbiek, Rose Mary
2011-01-01
Like algebra at any level, early algebra is a way to explore, analyze, represent, and generalize mathematical ideas and relationships. This book shows that children can and do engage in generalizing about numbers and operations as their mathematical experiences expand. The authors identify and examine five big ideas and associated essential…
PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, M.; Müller, A.
2015-12-01
It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!
PREFACE: 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials (NSPM 2009)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Aidy; Salit, Sapuan
2010-07-01
NSPM 2009 is the formal proceedings of the 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials held in Residence Hotel Uniten Bangi on 14-16 December 2009. It is also organised with The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia PRIM. The symposium proceedings consists of 94 papers covering a large number of issues on experimental and analytical studies of polymeric materials. The objectives of the symposium are to review the state-of-the art, present and latest findings and exchange ideas among engineers, researchers and practitioners involved in this field. We strongly hope the outcomes of this symposium will stimulate and enhanced the progress of experimental and analytical studies on polymeric materials as well as contribute to the fundamental understanding in related fields. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 15 papers were selected for publications in this issue. Another 20 papers were selected for publication in Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology (PJST). The content of the material and its rapid dissemination was considered to be more important than its form. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this symposium. They are also the ones who help make this symposium possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We are indeed honoured to associate this event with Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, and Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Finally, we appreciate the sponsor support provided by Faculty of Engineering, The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia (PRIM) and PETRONAS Malaysia. Thank you all. Editors: Aidy Ali and S M Sapuan
Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.
2015-12-01
In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…
Teaching Arithmetic and Algebraic Expressions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, K.; Banerjee, Rakhi
2004-01-01
A teaching intervention study was conducted with sixth grade students to explore the interconnections between students' growing understanding of arithmetic expressions and beginning algebra. Three groups of students were chosen, with two groups receiving instruction in arithmetic and algebra, and one group in algebra without arithmetic. Students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppen, Jessica; Allensworth, Elaine; Walters, Kirk; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Kurki, Anja; Nomi, Takako; Sorensen, Nicholas
2012-01-01
This study is an efficacy trial funded by a grant from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) National Center for Education Research (NCER). Fifteen CPS high schools are receiving funding to implement two Algebra I credit recovery courses during the summer sessions of 2011 and 2012--one online and one face-to-face (f2f). These courses allow…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malik, Ishan Z.
2011-01-01
Urban African American students lack an abstract understanding of algebra and are below their academic level in comparison to other ethnic groups, and this is a pervasive problem (McKinney, Chappell, Berry, & Hickman, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study using a quasi-experimental design was to determine whether the use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ralston, Nicole C.
2013-01-01
Elementary school students often exhibit a wide variety of different conceptions associated with algebraic thinking that their teachers fail to recognize or understand (Smith, diSessa, & Roschelle, 1994). It is crucial that elementary school teachers possess knowledge of the variety of different student conceptions and also boast abilities to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ilona, Haapasalo; Raili, Valimaa; Lasse, Kannas
2012-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between students' perceptions of the psychosocial school environment, health-compromising behaviours, and selected family factors. The analyses were based on data provided for the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2006). Design/methodology/approach: The data were obtained…
Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Technology Discovery (9th Grade). CIP: 00.0253.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which is intended for technology educators in Mississippi, outlines a technology discovery course in which a modular instruction approach allows ninth graders to experience various workplace technologies within four career cluster areas: agriculture/natural resources technology, business/marketing technology, health/human services…
The 8th and 9th Grades Students' Attitude towards Teaching and Learning Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stefan, Monica; Ciomos, Florentina
2010-01-01
The students' interest and attitude towards Physics have been the object of international testing, the most recent of which is the PISA testing from 2006. The students' attitude towards sciences is considered to be a significant predictor of their school results in science, respectively of pursuing a career in areas related to Science. The present…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Susanne; Hopf, Martin
2012-01-01
One basis of good teaching is to know about your students' preconceptions. Studies about typical ideas that students bring to the science classroom have been and continue to be a major field in science education research. This study aims to explore associations and ideas that students have regarding "radiation", a term widely used in various…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, Susanne; Hopf, Martin
2012-12-01
One basis of good teaching is to know about your students' preconceptions. Studies about typical ideas that students bring to the science classroom have been and continue to be a major field in science education research. This study aims to explore associations and ideas that students have regarding `radiation', a term widely used in various fields and necessary to understand fundamental ideas in science. In an explorative study, the perceptions of 50 high school students were examined using semi-structured interviews. The students were 14-16 years old and were chosen from 7 different high schools in an urban area in Austria. Following an interview guideline, students were asked about their general associations with the term `radiation' as well as about their general understanding of different types of radiation. A qualitative analysis of these interviews following the method of Flick (2009) revealed that the students' associations were, to a great extent, very different from the scientific use of the term. Several conceptions that could inhibit students' learning processes could be identified. Consequences for the teaching of the topic `radiation' in science lessons, which are based on these preconceptions, are presented in the conclusion.
General Shop Competencies in Vocational Agriculture for 9th and 10th Grade Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novotny, Ronald; And Others
The document presents unit plans which offer list of experiences and competencies to be learned for general shop occupations in vocational agriculture. The units include: (1) arc welding, (2) oxy-acetylene welding, (3) flat concrete, (4) concrete block, (5) lumber patterns and wood building materials, (6) metal fasteners, (7) wood adhesives, (8)…
DG Poisson algebra and its universal enveloping algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, JiaFeng; Wang, XingTing; Zhuang, GuangBin
2016-05-01
In this paper, we introduce the notions of differential graded (DG) Poisson algebra and DG Poisson module. Let $A$ be any DG Poisson algebra. We construct the universal enveloping algebra of $A$ explicitly, which is denoted by $A^{ue}$. We show that $A^{ue}$ has a natural DG algebra structure and it satisfies certain universal property. As a consequence of the universal property, it is proved that the category of DG Poisson modules over $A$ is isomorphic to the category of DG modules over $A^{ue}$. Furthermore, we prove that the notion of universal enveloping algebra $A^{ue}$ is well-behaved under opposite algebra and tensor product of DG Poisson algebras. Practical examples of DG Poisson algebras are given throughout the paper including those arising from differential geometry and homological algebra.
General view of underground showing the 9th street segment where ...
General view of underground showing the 9th street segment where it intersect with the east end of the J street segment (on the left). View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skrypnyk, T.
2016-09-01
We consider quantum integrable models based on the Lie algebra gl(n) and non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices associated with Z 2-gradings of gl(n) of the following type: {gl}(n)={gl}{(n)}\\bar{0}+{gl}{(n)}\\bar{1}, where {gl}{(n)}\\bar{0}={gl}({n}1)\\oplus {gl}(n-{n}1). Among the considered models are Gaudin-type models with an external magnetic field, used in nuclear physics to produce proton–neutron Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieer-type models, n-level many-mode Jaynes–Cummings–Dicke-type models of quantum optics, matrix generalization of Bose–Hubbard dimers, etc. We diagonalize the constructed models by means of the ‘generalized’ nested Bethe ansatz.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loveless, Tom
2008-01-01
This new study is being released as an advance excerpt of the 2008 Brown Center Report on American Education. This new report finds that the nation's push to challenge more students by placing them in advanced math classes in eighth grade has had unintended and damaging consequences, as some 120,000 middle-schoolers are now struggling in advanced…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Irving A.; Davis, Trina J.; Kulm, Gerald
2011-01-01
This article presents our plans and initial work to explore how mathematics teacher education programs can prepare teachers for diverse middle grades classrooms. It describes the start-up of a five-year National Science Foundation project to design, develop, and test technology-enriched teacher preparation strategies to address equity in algebra…
The PRIME Partnership: 9th Graders, Graduate Students and Integrated, Inquiry-Based Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaffney, A. M.; Miguelez, S.
2001-12-01
The PRIME program (Partnership for Research in Inquiry-based Math, science and engineering Education) is a collaboration between the UW Colleges of Education and Engineering and several Seattle-area school districts. This project, funded by the NSF GK-12 program, pairs UW graduate students from math, science and engineering disciplines with local middle school teachers. The graduate student spends a year working with the teacher, on projects designed to meet the needs and interests of the specific partnership and classroom. In the partnership, the graduate student spends 15 hours per week in the classroom, interacting with the students, as well as additional planning time outside of the classroom. Goals of the PRIME program are enriched learning by middle school students, professional development for middle school teachers, improved communication and teaching skills for the graduate students, and strengthened partnerships between the University of Washington and local school districts. The goal of our partnership was to develop an inquiry-based, 9th grade unit that integrates the pre-existing Earth Science and Chemistry units, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching Chemistry in the context of Earth Science. We have observed that students often become engaged and excited when they do hands-on activities that utilize the intrinsic understanding that they have of concepts that draw upon experiences in their daily lives. When science is taught and learned in one such context - in the context of the natural world - the students may gain a more solid fundamental understanding of the science that they learn. The day-to-day activities for this unit vary widely. We started each topic with a question designed to get the students thinking independently and to identify the preconceptions that the students brought into the classroom. Discussions of students' preconceptions served as a justification and springboard for the subsequent activities and experiments. Examples of
20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...
20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Global perspectives on poisonous plants: The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held from 15th-21st July, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilin...
5. West side of State Steeet looking down 9th Steeet. ...
5. West side of State Steeet looking down 9th Steeet. Immediatly to the west lie the Illinois and Michigan Canal, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Des Plaines River. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL
Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ertem, Ümit
2016-06-01
We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases.
UCSMP Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
2007-01-01
"University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra," designed to increase students' skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7-10, depending on the students' incoming knowledge. This one-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and…
Build an Early Foundation for Algebra Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knuth, Eric; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Gardiner, Angela
2016-01-01
Research tells us that success in algebra is a factor in many other important student outcomes. Emerging research also suggests that students who are started on an algebra curriculum in the earlier grades may have greater success in the subject in secondary school. What's needed is a consistent, algebra-infused mathematics curriculum all…
The Importance of the Ninth Grade on High School Graduation Rates and Student Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCallumore, Kyle Megan; Sparapani, Ervin F.
2010-01-01
Researchers target 9th grade as the make or break year for completing high school. During the 9th-grade year, many students for the first time have to earn passing grades in core courses, and these core courses are typically some of the toughest and most rigorous academic classes a student must take in high school. Furthermore, the rising use of…
Higher level twisted Zhu algebras
Ekeren, Jethro van
2011-05-15
The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by {Gamma}/Z for some subgroup {Gamma} of R containing Z, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V)-modules and the irreducible {Gamma}-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is ({Gamma}, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra Vir{sup c} and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V{sup k}(g) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.
Low Performers Found Unready to Take Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
As state and school leaders across the country push to have more students take algebra in 8th grade, a new study argues that middle schoolers struggling the most in math are being enrolled in that course despite being woefully unprepared. "The Misplaced Math Student: Lost in Eighth Grade Algebra," scheduled for release by the Brookings Institution…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SAME ADDRESS--> Nader Sadeghi,
The Use of Ninth-Grade Early Warning Indicators to Improve Chicago Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allensworth, Elaine
2013-01-01
Chicago has been in the forefront of the country in its use of 9th-grade indicators of dropout. Catalyzed by the development of the freshman on-track indicator and research around it, Chicago school administrators, central office personnel, and external partners have developed a number of mechanisms using 9th-grade indicators to stimulate school…
Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra
Wu, Henan Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing
2014-01-15
The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.
Ternary generalization of Heisenberg's algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerner, Richard
2015-06-01
A concise study of ternary and cubic algebras with Z3 grading is presented. We discuss some underlying ideas leading to the conclusion that the discrete symmetry group of permutations of three objects, S3, and its abelian subgroup Z3 may play an important role in quantum physics. We show then how most of important algebras with Z2 grading can be generalized with ternary composition laws combined with a Z3 grading. We investigate in particular a ternary, Z3-graded generalization of the Heisenberg algebra. It turns out that introducing a non-trivial cubic root of unity, , one can define two types of creation operators instead of one, accompanying the usual annihilation operator. The two creation operators are non-hermitian, but they are mutually conjugate. Together, the three operators form a ternary algebra, and some of their cubic combinations generate the usual Heisenberg algebra. An analogue of Hamiltonian operator is constructed by analogy with the usual harmonic oscillator, and some properties of its eigenfunctions are briefly discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavalluzzo, Linda; Lowther, Deborah L.; Mokher, Christine; Fan, Xitao
2012-01-01
The 2006-11 Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia at CNA conducted a rigorous evaluation of the Kentucky Virtual Schools hybrid algebra I curriculum. The curriculum combines traditional face-to-face instruction with an online program. This study used a two-cohort sample with 25 high schools in year 1 (SY 07/08: 13 treatment and 12 control)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newbold, Anthony J.
2014-01-01
An achievement gap exists in mathematics between low-income African American male students and their European American counterparts. Although this problem has been approached using different interventions with minimal results, the impact of homogenous grouping is not well understood in spite of its use. As a result, this study was conducted to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arkansas State Univ., State University.
This curriculum package contains materials for teaching the career orientation course in the junior high schools of Arkansas. Following the introduction, which describes the course and provides a rationale for it, along with instructions to teachers for conducting the course, the package is divided into 35 units organized under five major…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sears, Bill
This curriculum unit requires students to use science, geography, and language arts skills in studying the weather. Students are asked to report on weather anomalies and are provided with background information, detailed instructions, online resources, and reflection questions. The teacher's guide describes the unit's purpose, correlation to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson-Moore, Brenda
This paper discusses a practicum designed to address young teen mothers' lack of knowledge, experience, and skills needed to appropriately care for their infants. It documents that increased knowledge, enhanced interpersonal relationships, and augmented parenting skills made a difference in the teen mothers' approach to parenting. Parenting…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fried, Lise E.; Williams, Sandra; Cabral, Howard; Hacker, Karen
2013-01-01
The purpose of the study is to assess the relationship between timing of adolescent development and risk factors for suicide. Nationally representative data from the Add Health survey were used. The relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, known risk factors, and physical developmental timing and cognitive developmental style to suicide…
The Impact of the Early College High School Model on Core 9th and 10th Grade Student Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Unlu, Fatih; Glennie, Elizabeth; Arshavsky, Nina
2011-01-01
To address concerns about low graduation rates and a lack of workforce readiness, states and districts have been experimenting with different models of high school reform. One of the most popular models has been the Early College High School (ECHS) model, small schools that blur the line between high school and college. Since 2002, over 200 ECHSs…
A Better 9th Grade: Early Results from an Experimental Study of the Early College High School Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
SERVE Center at University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010
2010-01-01
To increase the number of students graduating from high school prepared for college, North Carolina has established the largest number of Early College High Schools (ECHS) in the United States. Early results from a rigorous, independent study of North Carolina's initiative have shown that these schools have substantial positive impacts on student…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Degner, Kate M.
2013-01-01
This study uses data from the National Center of Education Statistics (NCES) High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HLS:09). Parent responses to the Parent Involvement survey, given as part of the NCES study were considered, along with their child's socio-economic status (SES) and self-reported level of mathematics course enrollment during…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayden, Harvey; And Others
To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing knowledge, skill and attitude activities into…
Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klapp, Alli
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…
Calif. Laws Shift Gears on Algebra, Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robelen, Erik W.
2012-01-01
New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemphill, David C.
2011-01-01
The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…
A case of unilateral coronal synostosis from Medieval Hungary (9th century A.D.).
Évinger, Sándor; Hajdu, Tamás; Biró, Gergely; Zádori, Péter; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Wolff, Katalin
2016-01-01
A unique single suture craniosynostosis case from the 9(th) century is presented in this paper. Although craniosynostosis is a fairly common pediatric anomaly nowadays, its occurrence in archaeological collections is an uncommon precedent. Since the diagnosis and treatment of premature cranial suture closure usually happens at an early age, evaluation of the whole developmental process is a rare opportunity. The right-sided coronal suture synostosis of this 30-35 years old woman gives an interesting opportunity to observe the effect of this phenomenon in adulthood. Only slight distortion of the viscerocranium and no bony signs of elevated intracranial pressure can be seen on the skull. The women suffered remarkable bending of the whole face and cranial base of the midsagittal plane. Besides the aesthetic disorder, the condition might have contributed to a chronic headache and visual disturbances. The lack of any other typical symptom suggests the diagnosis of isolated craniosynostosis or a milder type of syndromic craniosynostosis, the possibility of an underlying causative mutation cannot be ruled out. PMID:26555924
F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.
1991-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.
Fish from Head to Tail: The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo.
Griffiths, Gareth; Müller, Ferenc; Ledin, Johan; Patton, E Elizabeth; Gjøen, Tor; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Winther-Larsen, Hanne Cecilie; Mullins, Mary; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Press, Charles McLean; Aleström, Peter
2016-04-01
The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting took place recently in Oslo (June 28-July 2, 2015). A total of 650 participants came to hear the latest research news focused on the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and to its distant evolutionary relative medaka, Oryzias latipes. The packed program included keynote and plenary talks, short oral presentations and poster sessions, workshops, and strategic discussions. The meeting was a great success and revealed dramatically how important the zebrafish in particular has become as a model system for topics, such as developmental biology, functional genomics, biomedicine, toxicology, and drug development. A new emphasis was given to its potential as a model for aquaculture, a topic of great economic interest to the host country Norway and for the future global food supply in general. Zebrafish husbandry as well as its use in teaching were also covered in separate workshops. As has become a tradition in these meetings, there was a well-attended Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and ZFIN workshop focused on Zebrafish Genome Resources on the first day. The full EZM 2015 program with abstracts can be read and downloaded from the EZM 2015 Web site zebrafish2015.org . PMID:26859625
Report on the 9th EONS Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 18–19 September 2014: nursing highlights
Lichosik, D; Caruso, R
2014-01-01
The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS), in partnership with the Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey (TONA), organised the 9th EONS Congress in Istanbul, Turkey, 18–19 September 2014. The Congress venue was in Harbiye Cultural Centre and Istanbul Military Museum and offered two days of unprecedented scientific, educational, and networking opportunities for all stakeholders active in the field of oncology nursing around the world. EONS is a pan-European organisation dedicated to the support and development of cancer nurses. Through individual members and national societies EONS engages in projects to help nurses develop their skills, network with each other, and raise the profile of cancer nursing across Europe. This biennial Congress brings together cancer nurses across the globe from many fields of expertise to ‘Celebrate Excellence in Cancer Nursing’ through interactive sessions, lectures, and collegial networking. The format was specifically designed to meet the needs of nurses working in the field of cancer care, education, and research. PMID:25435909
Should College Algebra be a Prerequisite for Taking Psychology Statistics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.
2008-01-01
In order to consider whether a course in college algebra should be a prerequisite for taking psychology statistics, we recorded students' grades in elementary psychology statistics and in college algebra at a 4-year university. Students who earned credit in algebra prior to enrolling in statistics for the first time had a significantly higher mean…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.
2014-01-01
Algebra is often considered as a gateway for later achievement. A recent report by the Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) underscores the importance of improving algebra learning in secondary school. Today, a growing number of states and districts require algebra for all students in ninth grade or earlier. Chicago is at the forefront of this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browne, Jeffrey C.; Schmidt, Jeffrey K.; Lemke, Melissa
2007-01-01
This is the 9th annual report on conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District RUSD). Over the past decade, the conditions affecting the district as well as the school outcomes have changed in some ways and remained stable in others. This analysis compares RUSD to nine peer school districts and the state of Wisconsin. RUSD peer…
9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS 2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Huajiang
2011-07-01
Dear Delegates We would like to welcome you to the 9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures. This series of conferences has been held as a biannual event since 1995. The previous venues were Pescara (Italy, 1995), Sheffield (UK, 1997), Dublin (Ireland, 1999), Cardiff (UK, 2001), Southampton (UK, 2003), Gdansk (Poland, 2005), Torino (Italy, 2007) and Beijing (China, 2009). The conference will cover all research topics relevant to damage assessment of engineering structures and systems including signal processing of sensor measurements and theoretical techniques as well as experimental case studies, and numerical simulations. It has established itself as a major international forum for the above research areas. Typically over 100 papers are presented at each conference. It is thought appropriate to keep the conference at this size to facilitate knowledge exchange. DAMAS Conferences have had support from other learned societies and industry. These include the Technical Division of Vibration and Acoustics of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the British Society for Strain Measurement, to name a few. There are exhibitors at some conferences. The venue of DAMAS2011, Oxford, is a world-renowned university town. Oxford is also located in the Cotswolds, an area of outstanding natural beauty. And July is arguably the best month of the year in UK. It is hoped that all delegates will enjoy the conference and continue to support DAMAS conferences in the future. Huajiang Ouyang On behalf of the Organising Committee: Professor Huajiang Ouyang, University of Liverpool, UK (Conference Chair) Professor Vadim Silberschmidt, University of Loughborough, UK Professor Fulei Chu, Tsinghua University, China Professor Wieslaw Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Science, Poland Professor Cecilia Surace, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oishi, Lindsay
2011-01-01
"Solve for x." While many people first encountered this enigmatic instruction in high school, the last 20 years have seen a strong push to get students to take algebra in eighth grade or even before. Today, concerns about the economy highlight a familiar worry: American eighth-graders trailed their peers in five Asian countries on the 2007 TIMSS…
Contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daboul, J.; Daboul, C.; de Montigny, M.
2008-08-01
I review our recent work on contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras (KMA) and present new results. We study generalized contractions of KMA with respect to their twisted and untwisted KM subalgebras. As a concrete example, we discuss contraction of D(1)4 and D(3)4, based on Z3-grading. We also describe examples of 'level-dependent' contractions, which are based on Z-gradings of KMA. Our work generalizes the Inönü-Wigner contraction of P. Majumdar in several directions. We also give an algorithm for constructing Kac-Moody-like algebras hat g for any Lie algebra g.
Algebraic Apect of Helicities in Hadron Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Murat; Ji, Chueng
2015-04-01
We examined the relation of polarization vectors and spinors of (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of Lorentz group in Clifford algebra Cl1 , 3 , their relation with standard algebra, and properties of these spinors. Cl1 , 3 consists of different grades:e.g. the first and the second grades represent (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) representation of spin groups respectively with 4 and 6 components. However, these Clifford numbers are not the helicity eigenstates and thus we transform them into combinations of helicity eigenstates by expressing them as spherical harmonics. We relate the spin-one polarization vectors and (1 , 0) ⊕(0 , 1) spinors under one simple transformation with the spin operators. We also link our work with Winnberg's work of a superfield of a spinors of Clifford algebra by giving a physical meaning to Grassmann variables and discuss how Grassman algebra is linked with Clifford algebra.
I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra and Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2009
2009-01-01
The I CAN Learn[R] Education System is an interactive, self-paced, mastery-based software system that includes the I CAN Learn[R] Fundamentals of Math (5th-6th grade math) curriculum, the I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra curriculum, and the I CAN Learn[R] Algebra curriculum. College algebra credit is also available to students in participating schools…
Pay-Offs from Expanding Summer Credit Recovery in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allensworth, Elaine; Nomi, Takako; Heppen, Jessica
2013-01-01
The consequences of failing core academic courses during the first year are dire. In Chicago, over a quarter of students fail at least one semester of algebra in their ninth grade year, and only 13% of students who fail both semesters of Algebra I in ninth grade graduate in 4 years. Offering credit recovery options is one strategy to deal with…
Effects of Expanding Summer Credit Recovery in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allensworth, Elaine; Michelman, Valerie; Nomi, Takako; Heppen, Jessica
2014-01-01
In Chicago, over a quarter of students fail at least one semester of algebra in their ninth grade year, and only 13% of students who fail both semesters of Algebra I in ninth grade graduate in 4 years. Offering credit recovery options is one strategy to deal with high failure rates. The primary goal of credit recovery programs is to give students…
Relational Thinking: Learning Arithmetic in Order to Promote Algebraic Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Napaphun, Vishnu
2012-01-01
Trends in the curriculum reform propose that algebra should be taught throughout the grades, starting in elementary school. The aim should be to decrease the discontinuity between the arithmetic in elementary school and the algebra in upper grades. This study was conducted to investigate and characterise upper elementary school students…
Lax operator algebras and integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheinman, O. K.
2016-02-01
A new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, called Lax operator algebras, is presented, along with a related unifying approach to finite-dimensional integrable systems with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface such as the Calogero-Moser and Hitchin systems. In particular, the approach includes (non-twisted) Kac-Moody algebras and integrable systems with a rational spectral parameter. The presentation is based on quite simple ideas about the use of gradings of semisimple Lie algebras and their interaction with the Riemann-Roch theorem. The basic properties of Lax operator algebras and the basic facts about the theory of the integrable systems in question are treated (and proved) from this general point of view. In particular, the existence of commutative hierarchies and their Hamiltonian properties are considered. The paper concludes with an application of Lax operator algebras to prequantization of finite-dimensional integrable systems. Bibliography: 51 titles.
The Great Debate: Should All 8th Graders Take Algebra?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKibben, Sarah
2009-01-01
While 8th grade algebra was once reserved as a course for the gifted, today, more U.S. 8th graders take algebra than any other math course. This article discusses a report from the Brookings Institution which chronicles the history of the 8th-grade algebra surge and its impact on today's low-performing students. The report indicates that many of…
Special Issue for the 9th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere
Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Puxbaum, H.
2009-12-11
Carbonaceous particles are a minor constituent of the atmosphere but have a profound effect on air quality, human health, visibility and climate. The importance of carbonaceous particles has been increasingly recognized and become a mainstream topic at numerous conferences. Such was not the case in 1978, when the 1st International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere (ICCPA), or ''Carbon Conference'' as it is widely known, was introduced as a new forum to bring together scientists who were just beginning to reveal the importance and complexity of carbonaceous particles in the environment. Table 1 lists the conference dates, venues in the series as well as the proceedings, and special issues resulting form the meetings. Penner and Novakov (Penner and Novakov, 1996) provide an excellent historical perspective to the early ICCPA Conferences. Thirty years later, the ninth in this conference series was held at its inception site, Berkeley, California, attended by 160 scientists from 31 countries, and featuring both new and old themes in 49 oral and 83 poster presentations. Topics covered such areas as historical trends in black carbon aerosol, ambient concentrations, analytic techniques, secondary aerosol formation, biogenic, biomass, and HULIS1 characterization, optical properties, and regional and global climate effects. The conference website, http://iccpa.lbl.gov/, holds the agenda, as well as many presentations, for the 9th ICCPA. The 10th ICCPA is tentatively scheduled for 2011 in Vienna, Austria. The papers in this issue are representative of several of the themes discussed in the conference. Ban-Weiss et al., (Ban-Weiss et al., accepted) measured the abundance of ultrafine particles in a traffic tunnel and found that heavy duty diesel trucks emit at least an order of magnitude more ultrafine particles than light duty gas-powered vehicles per unit of fuel burned. Understanding of this issue is important as ultrafine particles have been shown to
Spontaneous Meta-Arithmetic as a First Step toward School Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caspi, Shai; Sfard, Anna
2012-01-01
Taking as the point of departure the vision of school algebra as a formalized meta-discourse of arithmetic, we have been following five pairs of 7th grade students as they progress in algebraic discourse during 24 months, from their informal algebraic talk to the formal algebraic discourse, as taught in school. Our analysis follows changes that…
Al-Habib, Amro
2015-01-01
The 9th Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery (9th SANS) Annual Meeting was held in the Sheraton Dammam Hotel and Towers, Dammam, Saudi Arabia on March 3-5, 2015, organized by the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Dammam with a theme of “Research is the Bridge to the Future.” The meeting was preceded by a Public Awareness Campaign on March 2, 2015 held at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and several pre-conference workshops that were highly beneficial for neurosurgery today. The scientific program was loaded with innovative and interactive presentations from respected and reputable speakers from different parts of the world. Abstracts were carefully selected and reviewed based on their scientific value and relevance to the clinical, surgical, academic, and research aspects of neurosurgery in the Kingdom, and the world.
Ninth Grade Repeaters--Why They Did Better in Summer School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Helen
A widely held perception is that public schools are failing American children and society. Some research indicates that 9th-graders are more at risk for school failure than are students in other grades. This paper presents findings of a study that examined 9th-graders in the Durham Public School System (North Carolina) who were enrolled in a Basic…
2002-05-01
Antiretroviral research presented recently at the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections demonstrates that investigators and pharmaceutical companies continue to strive for the next highly potent and easily tolerated anti-HIV drug. Among the new approaches are entry inhibitor drug and second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. New studies also looked into potency against multidrug-resistant virus and medication regimens that are simpler to take and have fewer side effects. PMID:12030213
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eissa, Mourad Ali
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a self regulated learning intervention program on cognitive and metacognitive EFL reading comprehension of 9th graders with reading disabilities. The participants in this study were 40 9th Graders with reading disabilities, selected from two schools located in Baltim Educational Edara. A…
Determining Faculty Grading Variation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Demerjian, Marlene D.
A study was undertaken at the College of the Canyons, in California, to assess the variation of grades given by mathematics instructors teaching intermediate algebra. A sample was drawn from all instructors who taught Math 070 repeatedly from fall 1990 to fall 1994, resulting in the examination of the grades of at least 200 students from classes…
Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borinsky, Michael
2016-04-01
The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.
Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borinsky, Michael
2016-07-01
The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.
Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-12-01
Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.
Experimental Course Report/Grade Nine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Robert B.
Described is the development of an approach to the algebra of real numbers which includes three areas of mathematics not commonly found in grade 9--the theory of limits of infinite sequences, a frequent use of Cartesian co-ordinates, and algebra of matrices. Seventy per cent of the course is abstract axiomatic algebra and the remaining portion…
Algebraic vs physical N = 6 3-algebras
Cantarini, Nicoletta; Kac, Victor G.
2014-01-15
In our previous paper, we classified linearly compact algebraic simple N = 6 3-algebras. In the present paper, we classify their “physical” counterparts, which actually appear in the N = 6 supersymmetric 3-dimensional Chern-Simons theories.
Computer animation in teaching science: Effectiveness in teaching retrograde motion to 9th graders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klenk, Kristin Elmstrom
The purpose of this study is to determine whether an instructional approach which includes computer animations is more effective than a traditional textbook-only approach in helping ninth grade students learn an abstract concept, in this case planetary retrograde motion. This investigation uses a quasi-experimental design with convenient sampling. The independent variable is the type of instruction provided to students; traditional text-based instruction (control group) compared to traditional instruction which also includes the viewing of 4 computer animations (treatment). Two conditions of the treatment examine the relative advantage of the order of the presentation of the animations and text-based instruction, as well as the quality of understanding and the retention of the learning over time. The dependent variable is student achievement which is measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Comparison of the independent variable to the dependent variable based upon the results from a Repeated Measure Factorial Design in ANOVA indicates that the treatment is an effective instructional technique. The posttest1 mean score of the treatment groups was significantly greater than the posttest1 mean score of the control group. Further posthoc tests indicate that there was no significant difference between the two treatments (1 and 2); read/animation versus animation/read. However, there was a significant difference in the mean score depending on the pathway, students enrolled in the A pathway achieved a significantly higher mean score after the treatment than students in the B pathway. The A pathway (n = 185) represent the larger heterogeneous population of students as compared to the B pathway (n=16) which includes students with lower cognitive abilities and special needs. When all of the students are included in the analysis the results indicate that students do not retain their understanding of the concept. However, when the students in the B
Awaad, Rania; Ali, Sara
2016-01-01
Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5. PMID:26741063
Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.
2013-12-01
Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.
This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…
Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel
2009-11-15
We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.
Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of The Nature of Scientific Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…
Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras
Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.
2014-01-01
A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marion, F.; Mours, B.
2005-09-01
The yearly Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) is now a well established meeting. As usual, the scope of the meeting covered the status of ground-based and space-based detectors, sources and population modelling, detector characterization, event searches, multi-detector analysis and new analysis methods. The 9th GWDAW followed the trend observed in previous years: more presentations that included real data and more sophisticated analysis techniques. However, the biggest change observed was a significant increase in the number of presentations dealing with the analysis of data coming from multiple detectors. Our field needs to combine these data to best extract the astrophysical information. This yearly meeting, bringing together all the worldwide players in the field, is a chance for us to make progress in this direction, and we will certainly see more results in future GWDAW meetings. The importance of the 9th GWDAW meeting can be assessed not only by the record attendance and number of submitted contributions, but also by looking at the work schedules of the various groups. People are now using the GWDAW dates to set deadlines for their activities in order to present their results at the next GWDAW. This special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity contains the most up-to-date papers on the topics covered by the meeting. Besides being a good reference that will fit proudly into the series of previous GWDAW proceedings, it provides valuable details about current work. As organizers of this workshop, we would like to thank not only the sponsors that made this meeting possible, but also all the participants for coming, sharing their results and enjoying the event with us. The following institutions have sponsored the 9th GWDAW: Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP) European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) Université de Savoie Groupement de Recherche: Phénomènes cosmiques de haute énergie (GDR-PCHE) Institut National de
High School Algebra Readiness Program: A Quasi-Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birnbohm, Carol L.
2010-01-01
This quasi-experimental study measured the effectiveness of a locally created summer Algebra readiness program in a large suburban high school district in New Jersey. Incoming ninth grade students who were not ready for high school algebra were invited to participate in the summer program. The program was designed to provide access to more…
The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from District Policy Initiatives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.
2014-01-01
In 2008, the California State Board of Education voted to require all students to enroll in algebra by 8th grade. This policy initiative, yet to be actually implemented, represents the culmination of a decades-long movement toward offering algebra instruction before the traditional high school years. Nationally, the proportion of 8th grade…
Learning Beginning Algebra with Spreadsheets in a Computer Intensive Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tabach, Michal; Hershkowitz, Rina; Arcavi, Abraham
2008-01-01
This study is part of a large research and development project aimed at observing, describing and analyzing the learning processes of two seventh grade classes during a yearlong beginning algebra course in a computer intensive environment (CIE). The environment includes carefully designed algebra learning materials with a functional approach, and…
Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana
2016-01-01
Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań. PMID:26558656
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Mary Margaret; Joffrion, Heather
2006-01-01
Using symbolic algebra to represent and solve linear equations is one of the expectations within the "Algebra" content standard for the 6-8-grade band in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000). Students' understanding of these concepts, even before a formal algebra course,…
The Development of Writing Proficiency as a Function of Grade Level: A Linguistic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crossley, Scott A.; Weston, Jennifer L.; McLain Sullivan, Susan T.; McNamara, Danielle S.
2011-01-01
In this study, a corpus of essays stratified by level (9th grade, 11th grade, and college freshman) are analyzed computationally to discriminate differences between the linguistic features produced in essays by adolescents and young adults. The automated tool Coh-Metrix is used to examine to what degree essays written at various grade levels can…
Programed Instruction in Elementary Algebra: An Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lial, Margaret L.
1970-01-01
Report of an experiment which investigated the use of a programed elementary algebra text as a teaching method. The method was evaluated on the basis of student evaluation of the course and the percentage of students achieving a grade of C or better. Results indicated that the use of programed texts was superior to the traditional approach using…
Using Technology to Balance Algebraic Explorations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurz, Terri L.
2013-01-01
In 2000, the "National Council of Teachers of Mathematics" recommended that Algebra Standards, "instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships." In this article, the authors suggest the "Balance"…
Introduction to Algebra (Part 2). Preliminary Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haag, V. H.; And Others
This is part two of a two-part SMSG algebra text for ninth-grade students. The text was written for those students whose mathematical talent is underdeveloped. Chapter topics include the real numbers, addition of real numbers, multiplication of real numbers, properties of order, and subtraction and division for real numbers. (MP)
Learning Algebra in a Computer Algebra Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drijvers, Paul
2004-01-01
This article summarises a doctoral thesis entitled "Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment, design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter" (Drijvers, 2003). It describes the research questions, the theoretical framework, the methodology and the results of the study. The focus of the study is on the understanding of…
Realizations of Galilei algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterenko, Maryna; Pošta, Severin; Vaneeva, Olena
2016-03-01
All inequivalent realizations of the Galilei algebras of dimensions not greater than five are constructed using the algebraic approach proposed by Shirokov. The varieties of the deformed Galilei algebras are discussed and families of one-parametric deformations are presented in explicit form. It is also shown that a number of well-known and physically interesting equations and systems are invariant with respect to the considered Galilei algebras or their deformations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iachello, Franco
1995-01-01
An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.
Orientation in operator algebras
Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.
1998-01-01
A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457
Developing Thinking in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue
2005-01-01
This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…
Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.
2010-01-01
Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…
Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.
This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…
Profiles of Algebraic Competence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.
2008-01-01
The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…