The optimal conversion ratio between Dysport and Botox--the two botulinum neurotoxin type A products (BoNT-As) supported by the larger bulk of evidence-has been extensively debated, because of its broad medical and economic implications. The article discusses the available evidence on the conversion ratio between Dysport and Botox in adults affected by spasticity, cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, with a focus on clinical trials that specifically addressed this issue. In addition, some suggestions on the conversion ratio between Dysport and Xeomin can be extrapolated, since Xeomin has the same efficacy and safety profile as Botox and is exchangeable with Botox with a 1:1 conversion ratio. Taken together, the findings retrieved from this literature research suggest that a conversion ratio of 3:1 (Dysport:Botox)--or even lower--can be considered appropriate for the treatment of the above-mentioned conditions. Higher conversion ratios may lead to an overdosing of Dysport, with a potential increased incidence of adverse events. Therefore, we recommend that physicians using both products consider using a lower conversion factor as a guide, adjusting it upwards as required based on the specific characteristics and response to treatment of each patient. PMID:23576131
Ravenni, Roberta; De Grandis, Domenico; Mazza, Alberto
Background. Two preparations of botulinum A toxin (BTX-A) are commercially available for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH): Botox (Allergan; 100?U/vial) and Dysport (Ipsen Limited; 500?U/vial), which are not bioequivalent. Results regarding an appropriate conversion factor between them are controversial. Objectives. This paper aims to compare the efficacy of Botox and Dysport in PPH using a conversion factor of 1?:?2.5. Methods. Eight patients with severe PPH received intradermal injections of Botox in one palm and Dysport in the other in the same session. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline and posttreatment for 8 months using Minor's iodine starch test, Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) test. Results. At 3 weeks, a significant decrease in sweating for both preparations was noted which was more pronounced with Dysport compared with Botox. At 8 weeks, this difference turned insignificant. Continued evaluation showed similar improvement in both palms with a nonsignificant difference. Patients with longer disease duration were more liable to relapse. Conclusion. The efficacy and safety of Botox and Dysport injections were similar using a conversion factor of 1?:?2.5. There was a trend towards a more rapid action after Dysport treatment but without significant importance.
El Kahky, Hanan Mohamed; Diab, Heba Mahmoud; Aly, Dalia Gamal; Farag, Nehal Magdi
Treatment with botulinum toxin-A is recommended as first-line treatment for cervical dystonia (CD). In clinical practice many factors appear to influence dose adjustment and the retreatment regimen; however, there is little information available in the literature regarding the evolution of dosing over treatment cycles. We report on two similarly designed, long-term, multicenter, open-label extension studies of Dysport for the treatment of CD, which followed 500 U fixed-dose placebo-controlled trials. Both studies specified a fixed 500 U dose for the first open-label treatment cycle, with dose adjustment in subsequent treatment cycles according to the clinical response. These analyses include 218 patients who entered the two studies; doses in the subsequent treatment cycles ranged between 250 and 1,000 U. During open-label treatment, all treatment cycles resulted in improvements in mean Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total scores. However, increasing the dose of Dysport above the initial 500 U dose was not observed to result in an incremental improvement in response as measured by the TWSTRS. No individual patient characteristic was found to reliably predict the use of higher doses at each treatment cycle. Dysport was generally well tolerated with no major differences in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) observed with different doses. Dysphagia was considered an AE of special interest and dysphagia data from the open-label studies were combined with two Phase II studies. Analysis of this enhanced database indicates that unilateral injections of >150 U into the sternocleidomastoid muscle is associated with a higher dysphagia risk. Thus, limiting the dose in the sternocleidomastoid may help reduce the incidence of dysphagia. PMID:22878514
Hauser, Robert A; Truong, Daniel; Hubble, Jean; Coleman, Chandra; Beffy, Jean-Luc; Chang, Stephen; Picaut, Philippe
OBJECTIVETo define a safe and effective dose of Dysport for treating hip adductor spasticity.METHODSPatients with definite or probable multiple sclerosis, and disabling spasticity affecting the hip adductor muscles of both legs, were randomised to one of four treatment groups. Dysport (500, 1000, or 1500 Units), or placebo was administered by intramuscular injection to these muscles. Patients were assessed at entry,
N Hyman; M Barnes; B Bhakta; A Cozens; M Bakheit; B Kreczy-Kleedorfer; W Poewe; J Wissel; P Bain; S Glickman; A Sayer; A Richardson; C Dott
Objectives It remains to be determined whether the benefits of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on cervical dystonia (CD) motor symptoms extend to improvements in patient's quality of life (QoL). This analysis of a large, multicentre study was conducted with the aim of investigating changes in QoL and functioning among de novo patients receiving 500?U BoNT-A (abobotulinumtoxinA; Dysport) for the treatment of the two most frequent forms of CD, predominantly torticollis and laterocollis. Design A prospective, open-label study of Dysport (500?U; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd) administered according to a defined intramuscular injection algorithm. Setting German and Austrian outpatient clinics. Participants 516 male and female patients (aged ?18?years) with de novo CD. The majority of patients had torticollis (78.1%). 35 patients had concomitant depression (MedDRA-defined). Main outcome measures Change from baseline to weeks 4 and 12 in Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24) total and subscale scores, patient diary items (‘day-to-day capacities and activities’, ‘pain’ and ‘duration of pain’) and global assessment of pain. Results Significant improvements were observed in CDQ-24 total and subscale scores at week 4 and were sustained up to week 12 (p<0.001). Changes in CDQ-24 scores did not significantly differ between the torticollis and laterocollis groups or between patients with or without depression. There were also significant reductions in patient diary item scores for activities of daily living, pain and pain duration at weeks 4 and 12 (p<0.001). Pain relief (less or no pain) was reported by 66% and 74.1% of patients at weeks 4 and 12, respectively. Changes in pain parameters demonstrated a positive relationship with change in Tsui score. Conclusions After standardised open-label treatment with Dysport 500?U, improvements in QoL and pain intensity up to 12?weeks in patients with CD were observed.
Hefter, H; Benecke, R; Erbguth, F; Jost, W; Reichel, G; Wissel, J
Efficacy and safety of a single botulinum type A toxin complex treatment (Dysport ®) for the relief of upper back myofascial pain syndrome: Results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study
Botulinum type A toxin (BoNT-A) has antinociceptive and muscle-relaxant properties and may help relieve the symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of BoNT-A (Dysport®) in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper back. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, multicentre study. Patients with moderate-to-severe myofascial pain syndrome affecting cervical
Hartmut Göbel; Axel Heinze; Gerhard Reichel; Harald Hefter; Reiner Benecke
Objectives This randomised controlled crossover trial examined the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection, plus an exercise programme, to remediate chronic anterior knee pain (AKP) associated with quadriceps muscle imbalance. Methods 24 individuals with refractory AKP received either BoNT-A (500 U Dysport) or the same volume saline injection to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and performed home exercises focusing on re-training the vastus medialis (VM) muscle. All subjects were offered open-label injection at 12 weeks. Knee-related disability (anterior knee pain scale; AKPS) and activity-induced pain (10 cm visual analogue scale) at 12 weeks were the primary outcomes. Peak isometric extensor force was recorded and normalised VL:VM ratios were derived from simultaneous surface electromyography. Selfreported pain and disability measures were collected at six time points to a mean of 20±8 months. Results 14 subjects received BoNT-A and 10 placebo injection. Improvement at 12 weeks was significantly greater for BoNT-A compared with placebo-injected subjects for the AKPS (p<0.03), pain on kneeling (p<0.004), squatting (p<0.02) and level walking (p<0.04). At week 12, five placebo subjects crossed over to open-label injection. At 24 weeks, 16 of 19 BoNT-A-injected and two of the remaining five placeboinjected subjects were either satisfied or very satisfied with treatment outcomes. Improvements were maintained in 11 of 14 BoNT-A-injected and two of five placebo subjects available at longer-term follow-up. Conclusion BoNT-A injection produced a greater reduction in pain and disability than placebo injection in carefully selected patients with chronic AKP related to quadriceps muscle imbalance.
Singer, Barbara J; Silbert, Peter L; Song, Swithin; Dunne, John W; Singer, Kevin P
... NICHD Publications Scientific Research Planning Scientific Resources Research Clinical Trials & Clinical Research Skip sharing on social media links ... their behavior or samples of their tissue. A clinical trial is one type of clinical research that follows ...
Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...
With the December issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, I announce the launch of a new category of manuscript called “Clinical Medicine,” along with new editorial board members to adjudicate the peer-review process. With this initiative, the journal aims to publish the highest quality human research that reports early-stage, effective new therapies that impact disease outcomes.
Rockman, Howard A.
The Mayo Clinic Web site helps users to gain a better understanding of their personal condition and to promote quality communication with their health care provider. Short, easily understandable articles are provided on a variety of health and wellness related topics. A unique feature is the Mayo Clinic Health Manager, which is an online personal health record.
Clinical semiotics is defined and discussed as the discipline having to do with the interrelation between specifically human methods of communicating and processing information and specifically human psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. (Author/RM)
Shands, Harley C.; Meltzer, James D.
Although creatine supplementation (CS) is typically considered in the context of sports supplementation, a continually expanding\\u000a body of research literature is examining the potential clinical and therapeutic potential of CS. Aspects of clinical use seem\\u000a obvious, to enhance muscle performance in conditions of sarcopenia, for muscular rehabilitation following injury, and for\\u000a inborn errors of metabolism. In addition, the effects of
Joseph P. Weir
Human clinical myiasis is a rare entity in temperate zones, but it is of frequent occurrence among indigenous populations in tropical countries. The physician in practice in temperate zones, especially in urban areas, will generally see cases in those who have returned from rural travel or duty tours in tropical countries. Temperate zone physicians by training and clinical services frequently are not prepared to accurately diagnose and treat cases of myiasis. This paper is a report of experiences and records of cases of myiasis and is intended to alert temperate zone physicians to the possibilities of myiasis among a limited number of their patients.
Poindexter, Hildrus A.
The choice of standard drugs to be used in clinical trials must be based on consideration of human absorption data, in vitro characteristics, possible interactions, comparative efficacy and safety, previous data regarding the standard in relation to the syndrome to be studied, and correlation of blood levels, effectiveness and safety.
Garnham, J. C.
This patient education program explains clinical trials and answers some frequently asked questions. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.
Designed for practicing neurologists and neurosurgeons, this reference focuses on the newest techniques in computed assisted tomography. Text material covers basic principles of computed tomography, as well as the clinical advantages and disadvantages of each modality. The anatomical and/or physiological processes measured by XCT, PET, SPECT and MRI are first discussed in terms of the normal patient, and then applied to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological disease (primarily of the brain). Emphasis is placed on areas of difficult diagnosis, such as differentiating recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis, early diagnosis of dementia, selection of patients for extracranial-intracranial bypass procedures, and localization of epileptic foci.
Gilman, S.; Mazziotta, J.C.
This Journal feature begins with a case vignette highlighting a common clinical problem. Evidence supporting various strategies is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines, when they exist. The article ends with the author’s clinical recommendations. A 62-year-old healthy woman presents for routine care. She has no history of fracture, but she is worried about osteoporosis because her mother had a hip fracture at 72 years of age. She exercises regularly and has taken over-the-counter calcium carbonate at a dose of 1000 mg three times a day since her menopause at 54 years of age. This regimen provides 1200 mg of elemental calcium per day. She eats a healthy diet with multiple servings of fruits and vegetables and consumes one 8-oz serving of low-fat yogurt and one glass of low-fat milk almost every day. She recently heard that calcium supplements could increase her risk of cardiovascular disease and wants your opinion about whether or not she should receive them. What would you advise?
Bauer, Douglas C.
The commonly followed definition of dementia is the one described by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10, World Health Organization) or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V, American Psychiatric Association). The most important aspect in the diagnosis of dementia is the assessment of overall mental and functions, including living environment, activities of daily living, cognition, mental status, and behavior. Physicians should diagnose dementia on the basis of not only cognitive test results or radiological findings but also other available information, including that obtained from the families or caregivers. Tests for the quantitative evaluation of cognitive function and dementia include the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDS-R), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). PMID:24796095
Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Kamada, Maki; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki
Sometimes, people coming into specialist palliative care units unexpectedly improve with simple, compassionate care. Is this a mystery? Or does compassion directly affect human biology in ways we are only just beginning to understand? There is a widespread belief that kindness and compassion matter. They are what we would want for ourselves, or our loved ones; central, across religions and across cultures; taken as "given" by patients and families; and required by NHS constitution. Yet they are often absent, education and policy documents, and from clinical care settings. Educating for compassion remains an uncertain art. A Masters thesis, (awarded a distinction by the University of Oxford, 2010) explores the biological impact of compassion on the brain and the body, including its effects on the ?-opioid receptor system and the autonomic nervous system, as well as its observable effects on distress. Compassion switches on the ?-opioid receptor system. Compassion directly affects the human body in ways that are conducive to healing and wellbeing. Moreover, the neural circuits of compassion are contagious via the mirror neuron system and they can be trained and developed using the brains inherent capacity to remodel its neural circuits with practice (neuroplasticity). A simple model of the neural basis of the primary compassion pathway, and its positive and negative modulators gives a starting point for developing more effective educational and organisational strategies for compassion. One promising approach to developing compassion is by using mindfulness training, such as mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT). A small pilot study of MBCT training for Hospice at Home nurses shows acceptability, and measurable impact on wellbeing, self compassion and clinical empathy. Could this be one way of re-prioritising compassion in healthcare systems? PMID:24653311
IncobotulinumtoxinA has not produced a single case of antibody-induced therapy failure after 8 years of worldwide usage. We are reporting a patient with progressive hereditary juvenile onset generalised dystonia who was pretreated with abobotulinumtoxinA for 15 years, before she received incobotulinumtoxinA. To the fifth and sixth applications, she responded with complete therapy failure. Mouse hemidiaphragm assay testing revealed a maximal botulinum toxin antibody titre. Improved specific biological activity and lack of complexing proteins seem to reduce the antigenicity of incobotulinumtoxinA. However, this first ever report indicates that it does not eliminate it entirely. PMID:24639202
Dressler, Dirk; Adib Saberi, Fereshte; Bigalke, Hans
A clinical practice guideline can be implemented using a guideline execution engine. The engine can interpret the clinical practice guideline, obtain medical data stored in a clinical information system (CIS), and implement an action in response to execut...
B. Wu C. Taunk D. R. Berg J. M. Thrun P. Ram R. M. Abarbanel
When evaluating the appropriate use of new genetic tests, clinicians and health care policymakers must consider the accuracy with which a test identifies a patient's clinical status (clinical validity) and the risks and benefits resulting from test use (clinical utility). Genetic tests in current use vary in accuracy and potential to improve health outcomes, and these test properties may be influenced by testing technology and the clinical setting in which the test is used. This unit defines clinical validity and clinical utility, provides examples, and considers the implications of these test properties for clinical practice. Curr. Protoc. Hum. Genet. 81:9.15.1-9.15.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24763995
What is it like to be a clinical educator? How do clinical educators experience and describe their continuing journey of becoming a clinical educator? Within the model developed in this research, dimensions of being a clinical educator were identified. These dimensions include (a) having a sense of self (and the impact of bringing self into the…
Higgs, Joy; Mcallister, Lindy
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems.
Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark
Since direct patient care is only one of the many fields of clinical pharmacologists world wide, the contribution of the discipline to the provision of healthcare is frequently underestimated. Besides therapeutic monitoring and pharmacogenetic services, particularly drug information services run by clinical pharmacology departments have been established in many countries. Despite the fact that electronic prescribing support may prevent physicians from major medication errors due to drug-drug interactions and inadequate dosages, a substantial number of questions addressed to drug information services include clinical expertise and judgement. Furthermore, a high number of requests deal with adverse drug interactions and involve requests for alternative drugs in the individual clinical context. Using information technology, an international web-based clinical pharmacology service using existing knowledge databases seems to be a promising option to demonstrate the excellence of the discipline. PMID:23640193
Thürmann, Petra A
PET in clinical neurology is most useful when complemented by meticulous clinical information and other investigational modalities\\u000a such as MRI. Its major applications in clinical neurology are localization of seizure foci in potential candidates for epilepsy\\u000a surgery, especially where other imaging findings are negative or inconclusive, and as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis in\\u000a equivocal cases of dementia and Parkinsonian
Yen F. Tai; Paola Piccini
This paper presents recommendations deriving from the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, concerning the clinical diagnosis of dementia. There are currently no universally accepted biological or radiological markers of dementia. In the absence of these, the diagnosis of dementia remains a clinical exercise aiming to integrate all available clinical and laboratory information. It is
Perhaps you are thinking about participating in a clinical trial. Or maybe you have a friend or family member with cancer and are wondering if a clinical trial is right for them. This section contains basic information about clinical trials, things to think about when deciding to take part and questions to ask your doctor.
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective
Peter A Singer; Edmund D Pellegrino; Mark Siegler
It was in the course of one particular clinical encounter that I came to realize the power of narrative, especially for expressing clinically presented ethical matters. In Husserlian terms, the mode of evidence proper to the unique and the singular is the very indirection that is the genius of story-telling. Moreover, the clinical consultant is unavoidably changed by his or her clinical involvement. The individuals whose situation is at issue have their own stories that need telling. Clinical ethics is in this sense a way of helping patients, families, and, yes, health providers to discover and give voice to those stories. In this way, clinical ethics is an evoking of meaning. Kierkegaard understood this well: Indirect communication is the language for the unique and the otherwise inexpressible. PMID:17162733
Zaner, Richard M
An interoperable clinical trial information technology platform can facilitate the reporting, analysis, and sharing of clinical trial data across sites. Clinical trials using consistent Common Data Elements and standard Case Report Forms modules will improve study start-up times and facilitate data collection. A widely recognized credentialing system can eliminate the need to reestablish credentials for personnel and sites each time a trial is initiated.
Like other types of clinical trials an imaging clinical trial is a research study conducted with people who volunteer to take part. Each study answers specific scientific questions that will determine the value of imaging procedures for detecting, diagnosing, guiding, or monitoring the treatment of disease. Volunteers who take part in cancer-related imaging clinical trials have an opportunity to contribute to knowledge of, and progress against, cancer.
The US Department of Health and Human Services offers information on the clinical trials studying HIV and AIDS at this website. Visitors can search the clinical trials by category or keywords. For each study, users can discover the purpose, conditions, eligibility, publications, and additional information. Students and educators can find an overview of the components of an AIDS clinical trial. The website supplies the latest clinical trials news and links to related websites. Frequent visitors can quickly browse the trials that have been listed at the website in the last 30 days.
Discusses important issues concerning the design of student health clinics, including convenient access, privacy and security, showers and sinks, durability and safety, and special considerations. (EV)
Jelliffe, James H.; Schipp, Michael K.
Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials Related
Find Alzheimer's Disease and Related Clinical Trials To find clinical trials near you: Click on a state in the ... 4380. See all clinical trials currently recruiting Featured Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial: ...
ClinicalTrials.gov provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases and conditions. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its National Library of Medi...
Hypnosis has been demonstrated to reduce analogue pain, and studies on the mechanisms of laboratory pain reduction have provided useful applications to clinical populations. Studies showing central nervous system activity during hypnotic procedures offer preliminary information concerning possible physiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia. Randomized controlled studies with clinical populations indicate that hypnosis has a reliable and significant impact on acute
David R. Patterson; Mark P. Jensen
NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care
Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard
The Clinical Imaging Steering Committee (CISC) was established in December of 2010. CISC members include Cooperative Groups and other NCI sponsored networks imaging representatives, as well as other clinicians, translational scientists, biostatisticians, patient advocates, and NCI staff who support or are involved with cancer clinical imaging research.
Choose one of the following cancer types to view the clinical trials actively enrolling participants in studies to prevent that type of cancer. All studies are supported by NCI, but not all originate from the Division of Cancer Prevention. Not every cancer type will have active trials at all times. For cancer types not listed here, visit NCI's Clinical Trials information webpage.
In order to make thermal imaging a universally acceptable clinical technique, one must try to understand what is being observed, and what the observation signifies. One must also prove the validity of hypotheses about underlying causes of a given local hyper or hypothermia. Such an understanding is absolutely necessary before one can adapt the available technology to meet given clinical
Until the early 1950s, no effective pharmacological treatment existed for bipolar affective disorder. By the early 1960s, specialty clinics were being set up to dispense lithium carbonate to bipolar patients. By the late 1980s, a new body of knowledge was influencing the perception of bipolar disorder and how the disease should be treated. The authors’ lithium clinic from 1974 has
Yamima Osher; Yuly Bersudsky; R. H. Belmaker
The complexity and cost of health care, along with a greater need for accountability calls for a new style of clinical leadership. The new clinical leader will lead reform by putting the needs of the patient first and foremost, looking at current and planned services from the patient's point of view as well as the clinician's. Excellent clinical skills will remain essential but will be supplemented by a focus on team work and mentoring, patient safety, clear communication and reduction in waste and inefficiency, leading to better financial outcomes. The new clinical leaders will understand the importance of consulting widely and engaging colleagues in creating change to improve patient care. They will develop trusting and mutually respectful relationships with health service management and be able to negotiate the delicate balance between clinical judgement, resource constraints and personal loyalties by keeping the best outcome for the patient at the forefront of their thinking. PMID:22690934
In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms. PMID:22521022
Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S
Role theory was utilized in this descriptive study to investigate clinical faculty in baccalaureate nursing programs. The Clinical Faculty Role Questionnaire was developed and employed to study 134 full-time and part-time clinical faculty members. Theory derivation was used and the concept of role engagement was empirically supported. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships among the variables. T-test results identified differences between full-time and part-time faculty members on role variables of status, role conception, and role engagement. The relationships between study concepts and areas of educational content related to the teaching role were explored and identified as supportive of the clinical educator role. Ancillary qualitative investigation resulted in the identification of several themes: the need for clinical competence; for part-time faculty, a desire to be included in program planning. PMID:16646941
Kelly, Ruth E
Clinical leadership has been acclaimed widely as a major factor influencing the quality of patient care but research has revealed a paucity of preparation for this significant role. Leadership literature has rarely addressed clinical leadership specifically or referred to the difficulties in characterizing effective clinical leaders. The research informing this paper focused on clinical leadership and identified five attributes of effective clinical leaders: creativity, highlighting, influencing, respecting, and supporting. Effective clinical leaders adopted a transformational leadership style and improved care, through others, by including transformational (soft) knowledge as an integral part of their effective practice repertoire. Phronesis is introduced as practical wisdom that is gained through immersion in relevant experience, and as an essential element of preparation for clinical nursing leadership practice. It is argued, that learning to transform care requires opportunities to work within an environment that engenders and supports aspiring leaders. The paper describes the research process, elucidates the attributes through illustrative examples from the research data, and discusses an emergent educational strategy for the development of these attributes by clinicians in their practice environments. The paper also describes the application of this research through an interdisciplinary programme for staff leading teams in both health and social services sectors. PMID:15509273
Cook, Michael J; Leathard, Helen L
Subject report identifies the research activities conducted by Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center investigators through protocols approved by the Institutional Review Committee for registration with the Department of Clinical Investigation during...
K. M. Plowman
The Division of Cancer Prevention supports clinical trials funded by investigator-initiated grants. Investigators using this funding mechanism need to refer to requirements from NCI's Division of Extramural Activities including their publication The Grants Process Book.
This document describes the logistical considerations for voluntary, large-scale, post-event smallpox vaccination clinics. This example model may be used to supplement other state and local vaccination planning considerations for responding to a smallpox ...
The author introduces several critical questions to help nurse administrators evaluate whether a structured clinical ladder system is a good means of improving nurse recruitment and retention and increasing job satisfaction. Discusses salary, initial level placement, implementation, and maintenance. (CT)
del Bueno, Dorothy J.
Researchers from a diverse array of scientific disciplines have focused and continue to focus on opportunities and areas for responsible clinical research involving the possible beneficial health effects of “probiotics.” Investigators and researchers should be aware that not all clinical research involving probiotics reasonably falls within the requirements of the “investigational new drug” (IND) rubric administered and enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In determining whether an IND application is required before a clinical study may lawfully commence, investigators and researchers as well as institutional review boards should consider the regulatory classification, e.g., “drug,” “new drug,” “food,” “food additive,” “dietary supplement,” etc. that applies to the substance under investigation. A potential probiotic product can fall along a continuum of regulatory classifications, each having implications on the nature and degree of regulatory requirements for clinical research and, ultimately, for claim substantiation and market access.
Degnan, Fred H.
Regardless of its vital role of providing quality of patients care and optimizing overall healthcare costs, a clinical testing in Japan bears too strong cost containment pressures, which lead to too economically driven cost reduction initiatives. As a result, there is a risk of hampering infrastructure of appropriate medical services in Japan, including accuracy of tests, speed of tests, adoptation of new IVD technology, quality of information, adding value information, risk management, etc. In order to maintain a proper clinical testing in Japan, people/organizations associated with IVD and clinical testing should take more proactive PR actions to appeal the importance and value addition of clinical testing to patients, media, governments, hospital management, and other medical professionals. PMID:15796048
An attempt to assess the first decade of clinical biofeedback research and practice is presented. Scientifically, there are three major problems which the field must address: first, the problem of models or theoretical orientations; second, the problem of...
W. J. Ray
A pilot project (1967-1968) to establish a regional outpatient rehabilitation center in New England for clinical care and teaching of patients with abdominal stomas and as a professional resource center provided comprehensive medical and social aid to 88 ...
Noxiptilin (Elronon) proved to be a good bipolar thymoleptic agent in the clinical test at 3 special clinics. Its stimulating effect on the psychomotor function is more pronounced than its sedative action. Therefore, in cases with the anxious, agitated depressive syndrome the additional therapy with a neuroleptic agent or a sedative tranquilizer may be favourable. N. is well tolerated even at a higher age. The side effects are the same as those of other known thymoleptics. PMID:947276
König, L; Lange, E; Rossner, M; Liefke, T; Uhlig, B; Kursawe, H K; Lungwitz, J
Zonisamide is currently licensed in Europe and the USA for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures (with or without secondary generalization) in adults, based on the results of four pivotal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. It is also licensed in Europe as monotherapy for adults with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy, based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Because clinical trials are conducted under tightly controlled conditions, using rigid dosing schedules and employing strict exclusion/exclusion criteria, there is a need for 'real-world' evidence of an antiepileptic drug's effectiveness and tolerability in clinical practice, where patients are much more diverse in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment is tailored to the individual's specific needs. Several studies have demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with zonisamide is effective when administered under everyday clinical practice conditions, with a favourable safety/tolerability profile similar to that observed in clinical trials. In the Zonisamid im Alltag Der Epilepsiepatienten (ZADE) study, almost 80% of patients showed a reduction in seizure frequency of ?50% over a median follow-up of 18 weeks, and over one-third of patients became seizure free. Data from these clinical practice studies also indicate that zonisamide is effective and generally well tolerated when administered as a first-line adjunctive treatment and is associated with high retention rates and improvements in quality of life. Evidence from these clinical practice studies therefore complements data from zonisamide's clinical trial programme, providing pragmatic information on the likely benefits and risks of treatment under real-life conditions. PMID:23106523
Dupont, S; Stefan, H
During the first year of a children's monthly wheelchair clinic 29 out of 34 chairs supplied in the past were found to be unsatisfactory. The advantages of a central clinic for a region where clinicians and technical officers can meet are emphasized, as is also the need for wider dispersal of knowledge about wheelchairs for disabled children. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5
Holt, K. S.; Darcus, H.; Brand, H. Lorna
As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced\\u000a to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies\\u000a between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing\\u000a company. The compound
Various views of clinical supervision are analyzed and examined. The "process" definition of clinical supervision emphasizes an eight-step cycle of supervision. Clinical supervision as "concept" is also considered and seven conceptual elements are examined. (JN)
Krajewski, Robert J.
The Clinical Protocol Information System (CPIS) supports the clinical research and patient care objectives of the SouthEastern Cancer Study Group (SEG). The information system goals are to improve the evaluability of clinical trials, decrease the frequency of adverse patient events, implement drug toxicity surveillance, improve the availability of study data and demonstrate the criteria for computer networks that can impact on the general medical care of the community. Nodes in the network consist of Data General MicroNova MP-100 minicomputers that drive the interactive data dialogue and communicate with the network concentrator (another DG MicroNova) in Birmingham. Functions supported include: source data editing, care “advice,” care “audit,” care “explanation,” and treatment note printing. The complete database is updated nightly and resides on UAB's IBM 370/158-AP.
Wirtschafter, David D.; Gams, Richard; Ferguson, Carol; Blackwell, William; Boackle, Paul
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen, [18F]-FPS; Adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Belatacept, bortezomib; C340, caspofungin acetate, clazosentan sodium, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, DB-289, decitabine, dronedarone hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eletriptan, entecavir, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib; Gaboxadol, gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, gemifloxacin mesilate, glutamine; Human insulin; I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, indiplon, inhaled insulin, isatoribine; L-Arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Magnesium sulfate; Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, omapatrilat, OncoVEX (GM-CSF); rDNA insulin, rupatadine fumarate; Sorafenib; Tadalafil, teduglutide, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tiotropium bromide; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate. PMID:16357953
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
I call attention to the metapsychology of sense, and the role sense plays-phenomenologically and symbolically-in the life of the clinician and the group. Each group member asserts influence in taking a role as the perceiver and the perceived, the senser and the sensed. We reach for sense, for without sense reference, we cannot grasp or even talk about psychic reality. It serves as sign and symbol, as metaphor, analogy, illustration, and model. Sense fixes experience yet may fixate experience and interfere with developing abstract thoughts. Clinical vignettes illustrate how the leader may utilize his or her particular clinical sensibility to reach the group and focus attention, to link sense to psychic qualities: to the personality of the members, the group culture and process, and the live clinical interaction. PMID:24004010
Billow, Richard M
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issues focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, 101M, AAV-AADC, AGN-201904-Z; Agomelatine, AN-0128, AN-2690, Arginine butyrate, Asenapine maleate; Belinostat, Bortezomib, BQ-123, BQ-788; Bucindolol hydrochloride; Certolizumab pegol; Dasatinib, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate; Ecogramostim, Esomeprazole magnesium; Homoharringtonine; huN901-DM1, Hyaluronic acid; Incyclinide; L-Arginine hydrochloride; Mepolizumab; Nematode anticoagulant protein c2, Nilotinib; Oblimersen sodium; R-115866, Raltegravir potassium, Retapamulin, Romidepsin, Rusalatide acetate; Sarcosine, SCIO-469, Soblidotin, Sorivudine; Tilarginine hydrochloride, Tipifarnib; Uracil; Vildagliptin. PMID:17609744
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to Ã¯Â¿Â½sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.Ã¯Â¿Â½ Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.
Suler, John R., 1955-
Although magnesium is involved in a wide spectrum of vital functions in normal human physiology, the significance of hypomagnesemia and necessity for its treatment are under-recognized and underappreciated in clinical practice. In the current review, we first present an overview of the clinical significance of hypomagnesemia and normal magnesium metabolism, with a focus on renal magnesium handling. Subsequently, we review the literature for both congenital and acquired hypomagnesemic conditions that affect the various steps in normal magnesium metabolism. Finally, we present an approach to the routine evaluation and suggested management of hypomagnesemia.
Pham, Phuong-Chi T; Pham, Phuong-Anh T; Pham, Son V; Pham, Phuong-Truc T; Pham, Phuong-Mai T; Pham, Phuong-Thu T
This resource was developed by Lansing Community College (LCC) to educate first responders, technicians, and the general public on the operation, technology, and safety concerns related to electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs). The materials included were used in three separate clinics hosted at LCC and were developed with seed funding from the CAAT. Included materials are four presentations, an EV/HEV identification lab, and two additional documents relating to electricity and EV/HEV batteries. The titles of the three clinics are as follows: (1) Hybrid and Electric Vehicle First Responder Procedures, (2) Service Hybrid Vehicles Safely, and (3) Hybrid and Electric Drive Trains and Types of Batteries.
College, Lansing C.
Quality clinical learning is increasingly challenging, yet essential for aspiring nurses. Creativity is needed to optimize scarce clinical experiences, maximize faculty talents, and ensure direct student engagement with clinical experts. The authors discuss a clinical academic partner project designed to address these issues. PMID:20173589
Hegge, Marge; Bunkers, Sandra; Letcher, Deb; Craig, Gloria; Klawiter, Ruth; Olson, Roberta; Tschetter, Lois; Winterboer, Venita
Background Clinical scholarship has been conceptualised and theorised in the nursing literature for over 30 years but no research has captured nurses’ clinicians’ views on how it differs or is the same as clinical expertise and clinical leadership. The aim of this study was to determine clinical nurses’ understanding of the differences and similarities between the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. Methods A descriptive interpretative qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with 18 practising nurses from Australia, Canada and England. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholarship as described by the participants. These themes were then compared and contrasted and the essential elements that characterise the nursing roles of the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar were identified. Results Clinical experts were seen as linking knowledge to practice with some displaying clinical leadership and scholarship. Clinical leadership is seen as a positional construct with a management emphasis. For the clinical scholar they linked theory and practice and encouraged research and dissemination of knowledge. Conclusion There are distinct markers for the roles of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. Nurses working in one or more of these roles need to work together to improve patient care. An ‘ideal nurse’ may be a blending of all three constructs. As nursing is a practice discipline its scholarship should be predominantly based on clinical scholarship. Nurses need to be encouraged to go beyond their roles as clinical leaders and experts to use their position to challenge and change through the propagation of knowledge to their community.
The clinical utility of genetic tests is determined by the outcomes following test use. Like other measures of value, it is often contested. Stakeholders may have different views about benefits and risks and about the importance of social versus health outcomes. They also commonly disagree about the evidence needed to determine whether a test is effective in achieving a specific
W. Burke; A.-M. Laberge
Psychiatric day hospitalization is an evolving and innovative alternative to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. While the deinstitutionalization of some psychiatric patients is therapeutically and financially advantageous, treatment or rehabilitation programs have not effectively kept pace. Many acute and chronic patients do not require in-hospital supervision, but they do require intensive interdisciplinary care. The Basava Day Clinic in Richmind, Virginia, was developed
Rebecca L. Gusich; A. Lynne Silverman
The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)
Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center is an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. It was one of the first cancer centers to receive the NCI designation in 1971. In addition to the main campus in Minnesota, there are Mayo campuses in Jacksonville, Florida and Phoenix, Arizona.
Clinical definitions of melioidosis and inhalation-acquired melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei infection) are described together with the evidence used to develop these definitions. Such definitions support accurate public health reporting, preparedness planning for deliberate B. pseudomallei release, design of experimental models, and categorization of naturally acquired melioidosis. PMID:23468355
Cheng, Allen C; Currie, Bart J; Dance, David A B; Funnell, Simon G P; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Simpson, Andrew J H; Peacock, Sharon J
Neuroprotection is a therapeutic approach that aims to prevent neuronal degeneration and loss of function. Research has focused on developing neuroprotective agents for the therapy of various degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma. Clinical trials for the evaluation of neuroprotective agents pose unique challenges in terms of experimental design and data interpretation. In order
Scott M. Whitcup
Recent importance placed upon efficacy research has spawned the development of the Communication Sciences and Disorders Clinical Trials Research Group (CSDRG). This group, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), was organized by the American Speech Language and Hearing Association to address the need for more treatment efficacy research…
Logemann, Jeri A.
Hypnosis is an increasingly popular clinical intervention. The number of training courses in hypnosis is growing each year. Research on hypnosis training appears to show that limited exposure to training, as is typical in the common 3 to 5 day format of mass training, produces limited results. Only when training is extended over time do the…
Horevitz, Richard P.
This paper reviews the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic sarcoidosis. The indications for measuring serum angiotensin converting enzyme and for performing pulmonary function tests, bronchiolo-alveolar lavage and gallium scans are discussed and the modern indications for performing a Kveim Siltzbach test are also considered. The main treatment available for patients with sarcoidosis is systemic steroids and the indications in
This article proposes a synergistic, interactive model of cluttering, a fluency disorder manifested in rapid or erratic speech rates, reduced intelligibility, and language deviations. Clinical strategies are presented in a framework of several working assumptions about cluttering. Despite encouraging reports, further research into the nature and…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Myers, Florence L.
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
An analysis of the normal tissue effects of irradiation of the kidney is presented. Various clinical syndromes resulting from treatment are described as well as the potential cellular basis for these findings. Effects of concurrent and\\/or sequential treatment with irradiation and various chemotherapeutic agents are discussed and the impact of these agents on toxicity presented. Adverse consequences of renal treatment
J. Robert Cassady
Pharmacogenetics encompasses the involvement of genes in an individual's response to drugs. As such, the field covers a vast area including basic drug discovery research, the genetic basis of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, new drug development, patient genetic testing and clinical patient management. Ultimately, the goal of pharmacogenetics is to predict a patient's genetic response to a specific drug as a
Brian B Spear; Margo Heath-Chiozzi; Jeffrey Huff
Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical finding and is frequently benign. Warning signs suggestive of a malig- nant etiology include lymph nodes >2 cm in size, supra- clavicular location, and generalized lymphadenopathy associated with hepatosplenomegaly or systemic symp- toms. A metastatic solid tumor is always in the differential diagnosis of localized lymphadenopathy, particularly in older individuals. In the case of more
JENNIFER R. BROWN; ARTHUR T. SKARIN
Ghrelin as a human natural hormone is involved in fundamental regulatory processes of eating and energy balance. Ghrelin signals the nutrient availability from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, up-regulates food intake and lowers energy expenditure mainly through hypothalamic mediators acting both centrally and peripherally including the gastrointestinal tract (motility, epithelium), promotes both neuro-endocrine and inflammatory signals to increase skeletal muscle growth and decrease protein breakdown, and increases lipolysis while body fat utilization is reduced. Ghrelin does more to exert its probably sentinel role around "human energy": it influences through mainly extra-hypothalamic actions the hedonic and incentive value of food, mood and anxiety, sleep-wake regulation, learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Recently numerous ghrelin gene-derived peptides were discovered, demonstrating the complexity within the ghrelin/ghrelin receptor axis. For clinical applications, not only the natural ghrelin and its slice variants, but also several modified or artificial molecules acting at ghrelin-associated receptors were and are developed. Current clinical applications are limited to clinical studies, focusing mainly on cachexia in chronic heart failure, COPD, cancer, endstage- renal-disease or cystic fibrosis, but also on frailty in elderly, gastrointestinal motility (e.g., gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, postoperative ileus), after curative gastrectomy, anorexia nervosa, growth hormone deficient patients, alcohol craving, sleep-wake regulation (e.g. major depression), or sympathetic nervous activity in obesity. The results of completed, preliminary studies support the clinical potential of ghrelin, ghrelin gene-derived peptides, and artificial analogues, suggesting that larger clinical trials are demanded to move ghrelin towards an available and reimbursed pharmaceutical intervention. PMID:22632860
The field of Psychiatry encompasses the study of both nomothetic (i.e. submitted to a lawfulness) and idiographic (i.e. unpredictable, submitted to the free will or decisions of the individuals) phenomena. Clinical-diagnostic investigations function at three different speeds: -Adagio: slow gathering of diversified data, pertaining to: .history of malady (or psychological maladjustment); .personal history of the patient; .opinion of members of the family; .opinion of the referring practitioner; .last but not least: opinion of the nursing staff. -Allegro: selective grouping of the most significant symptoms; the putative syndrome is then compared with classical well-recognized diagnostic entities (inferential diagnosis). -Presto: the immediate primal impression; this type of perception deals mainly with a tentative and almost reflex appraisal of the personality; it is based on disputable data. This type of unconscious guess is actually more emotional than rational. Psychiatry cannot rely upon "hard symptoms" (such as a cardiac murmur), nor on images (if the latter are convincing they actually contribute to a diagnosis of organic brain impairment), or on chemical evidence of an underlying metabolic disorder. Dexamethazone suppression test did not hold its promises. Only the shortening of the latency time of the paradoxical (R.E.M.) sleep might be useful. All this contributes to the use of psychotropic drugs as a diagnostic tool. It is legitimate because what is known of the action of these drugs on various neuro-transmitters has given us some insight. Nevertheless simplistic ideas which flourished some twenty of thirty years ago, have not been entirely validated. PMID:7598358
The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines) changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (AMATYC) has compiled a collection of mathematics resources related to various subjects and disciplines. Ã¢ÂÂMath Across the Community College CurriculumÃ¢ÂÂ is the title of the collection, which includes great math resources and applications for educators and students alike. This resource, from Darlene Winnington, Catherine Keenan, Joan Wolf, and Ruth Collins of Delaware Technical and Community College, focuses on the application of math to the health sciences, and specifically clinical nursing. A course overview outlines the goals of the course, and learning outcome. A link to the course website provides videos and resources to help Ã¢ÂÂpre-clinical nursing students understand conceptual math they will be utilizing in dosage calculations.Ã¢ÂÂ This is a great resource for students and teachers, and can be easily implemented in the classroom.
Collins, Ruth; Keenan, Catherine; Winnington, Darlene; Wolf, Joan
Much more is known about attitudes toward mental illness and social stigma, the viscious cycle of its consequences and how to fight the social stigma in public, but much less is known about how to combat the stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. Stigma theories have not been enough to understand the feelings and experience of people with mental illness. Conceptual framework that understands stigma as consisting of difficulties of knowledge (ignorance or misinformation), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination) have not o been enough to understand stigma dynamics in the patient therapist interaction. Understanding the psychodynamic aspects of internalized stereotype of mental illness in the patient- therapist relationship may improve our competency to deal with stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. PMID:23995176
This paper reports the proceedings of the discussion panel assigned to look at clinical aspects of quality in emergency medicine. One of the seven stated objectives of the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on quality in emergency medicine was to educate emergency physicians regarding quality measures and quality improvement as essential aspects of the practice of emergency medicine. Another topic of interest was a discussion of the value of information technology in facilitating quality care in the clinical practice of emergency medicine. It is important to note that this is not intended to be a comprehensive review of this extensive topic, but instead is designed to report the discussion that occurred at this session of the consensus conference. PMID:12414456
Cone, David C; Nedza, Susan M; Augustine, James J; Davidson, Steven J
This paper reviews the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic sarcoidosis. The indications for measuring serum angiotensin converting enzyme and for performing pulmonary function tests, bronchiolo-alveolar lavage and gallium scans are discussed and the modern indications for performing a Kveim Siltzbach test are also considered. The main treatment available for patients with sarcoidosis is systemic steroids and the indications in the various systems for using these drugs are discussed.
Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms which, when ingested, exert a positive influence on the health or physiology of\\u000a the host. Their mechanisms of action and effects are now studied using the same pharmacological approach as for drugs. This\\u000a article summarizes and comments on evidence for the positive effects of probiotics in various clinical situations. Substantial\\u000a evidence can be achieved when randomized
Philippe R. Marteau
Decision-support systems based on clinical practice guidelines can support physicians and other health- care personnel in the process of following best prac- tice consistently. A knowledge-based approach to represent guidelines makes it possible to encode computer-interpretable guidelines in a formal man- ner, perform consistency checks, and use the guide- lines directly in decision-support systems. Decision-support authors and guideline users require
Henrik Eriksson; Samson W. Tu; Mark Musen
Latex allergy is one of the most interesting allergic diseases to present in the past two decades. It emerged explosively\\u000a in the late 1980’s with rapid and widespread clinical problems for patients with neural tube defects, multiple surgeries,\\u000a healthcare workers and others. It appears to be the one disease that is a consequence of medical recommendations (Universal\\u000a precautions) made to
Kevin J. Kelly; Brian T. Kelly
Exposure to plants is very common, through leisure or professional activity. In addition, plant products and botanic extracts are increasingly present in the environment. Cutaneous adverse reactions to plants and their derivatives occur fairly frequently, and establishing the correct diagnosis is not always easy. The astute clinician relies on a detailed history and a careful skin examination to substantiate his opinion. This article reviews the characteristic clinical patterns of phyto- and phytophotodermatitis and some less common presentations. PMID:19580924
\\u000a Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer benefit from neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by either a sphincter-sparing\\u000a operation or abdominoperineal resection. Clinical decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and type of surgical approach rely\\u000a on accurate preoperative staging. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) are the\\u000a main modalities used for staging rectal cancer. While each has its own advantages and
Hueylan Chern; W. Douglas Wong
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 166Ho-DOTMP 5A8; A-179578, abetimus sodium, adefovir dipivoxil, AGI-1067, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, AK-602, alefacept alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, ALVAC vCP1433, ALVAC vCP1452, anecortave acetate, arzoxifene hydrochloride, atazanavir sulfate, atlizumab, avasimibe; Binodenoson, BMS-488043; Choriogonadotropin alfa, ciclesonide, COL-1621, CVT-3146, CVT-E002, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darunavir, D-D4FC, deferasirox, desloratadine, desmoteplase, duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-5564, efalizumab, emfilermin, emivirine, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, estradiol acetate, ezetimibe; Frovatriptan; Gallium maltolate, gefitinib; HIV-1 Immunogen, human insulin; Iguratimod, IL-4/IL-13 Trap, imatinib mesylate, inhaled insulin, insulin glargine, irofulven, ISS-1018, ivabradine hydrochloride; Lutropin alfa; Melatonin; Nesiritide; O6-Benzylguanine, omapatrilat, oritavancin, ospemifene; Parecoxib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate, prasterone sulfate PT-141; Rasburicase, razaxaban hydrochloride, recombinant malaria vaccine, rhBMP-2/ACS, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride, rotavirus vaccine; SCH-D, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate; Targinine hydrochloride, taxus, TER-199, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vatalanib succinate, VEG Trap(R1R2); Ximelagatran; Yttrium Y90 Epratuzumab. PMID:15319808
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, ademetionine, agalsidase alfa, agalsidase beta, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, AMG-162, androgel, anidulafungin, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bazedoxifene acetate, bevacizumab, bosentan; Caldaret hydrate, canfosfamide hydrochloride, choriogonadotropin alfa, ciclesonide, combretastatin A-4 phosphate, CY-2301; Darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, degarelix acetate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, enclomiphene citrate, eplerenone, epratuzumab, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, ezetimibe; Fingolimod hydrochloride, FP-1096; HMR-3339A, HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy, human insulin, HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); Idursulfase, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, InnoVax C insulin glargine, insulin glulisine, irofulven; Labetuzumab, lacosamide, lanthanum carbonate, LyphoDerm, Lyprinol; Magnesium sulfate, metelimumab, methylphenidate hydrochloride; Natalizumab, NO-aspirin; OROS(R); PC-515, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, posaconazole, pregabalin, PT-141, pyridoxamine; R-744, ramelteon, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rebimastat, repinotan hydrochloride, rhC1, rhGAD65, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Sardomozide, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, telavancin, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, testosterone transdermal patch, tetomilast, tirapazamine, torcetrapib; Valspodar, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin; Yttrium Y90 epratuzumab; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:15672123
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-chTNT; Abatacept, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, APC-8015, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan, buserelin; Caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, ChAGCD3, ciclesonide, clopidogrel, curcumin, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, dapoxetine hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, denosumab, DMXB-Anabaseine, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edodekin alfa, efaproxiral sodium, elaidic acid-cytarabine, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etonogestrel/testosterone decanoate, exenatide; Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, glycine, GVS-111; Homoharringtonine; ICC-1132, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, i.v. gamma-globulin; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, lintuzumab, liposomal nystatin, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Manitimus, mapatumumab, melatonin, micafungin sodium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Oblimersen sodium, OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), pasireotide, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranolazine, rosuvastatin calcium, rubitecan, rupatadine fumarate; Sardomozide, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, testosterone transdermal patch, TH-9507, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole. PMID:16395422
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-chlorotoxin; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, albumin interferon alfa, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, AR-C126532, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cangrelor tetrasodium, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, collagen-PVP, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, dasatinib, denosumab, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (lung cancer), dexrazoxane, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, eel calcitonin, efalizumab, entecavir, etoricoxib; Falciparum merozoite protein-1/AS02A, fenretinide, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, ghrelin (human); hLM609; Icatibant acetate, imatinib mesylate, ipsapirone, irofulven; LBH-589, LE-AON, levocetirizine, LY-450139; Malaria vaccine, mapatumumab, motexafin gadolinium, muraglitazar, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; nab-paclitaxel, nelarabine; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, orbofiban acetate; Panitumumab, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, pleconaril, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranolazine, rebimastat, recombinant malaria vaccine, rosuvastatin calcium; SQN-400; Taxus, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, troxacitabine; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, VNP-40101M, vorinostat. PMID:16845450
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in the current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-NGFbeta, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; beta-Methyl-6-chloromelatonin, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, CEA-TRICOM, cetuximab, ciclesonide, clofarabine, Cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, desloratadine, Dexamet, drospirenone, drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone; Fenretinide; Gefitinib, gestodene, ghrelin (human); hMaxi-K, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, iodine (i131) tositumomab, irofulven, ISS-1018; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, liposomal doxorubicin; Nemifitide ditriflutate, nesiritide; Omalizumab; Pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride; Satraplatin, St. John's Wort extract, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tanaproget, Taxus, tiotropium bromide, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zileuton. PMID:16258596
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3-AP, Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AeroDose albuterol inhaler, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anidulafungin, anthrax vaccine, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B; Caspofungin acetate, ceftobiprole, certolizumab pegol, CG-53135, cilansetron; Darbepoetin alfa, degarelix acetate, dimethylfumarate, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, eletriptan, entecavir, esomeprazole magnesium, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fontolizumab; Gefitinib, gepirone hydrochloride; Human insulin; IDEA-070, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab; Lanthanum carbonate, lubiprostone; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, melatonin; NC-531, nemifitide ditriflutate, neridronic acid, nolatrexed dihydrochloride; Oral insulin; Palifermin, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranibizumab, renzapride hydrochloride, RSD-1235; Sabarubicin hydrochloride, semapimod hydrochloride, Semax, SHL-749; Tegaserod maleate, tenatoprazole, tetrodotoxin, tolevamer sodium, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol; Valdecoxib, visilizumab, Xcellerated T cells, XP-828L; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:16082427
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AdGVVEGF121.10, anastrozole, anecortave acetate, aripiprazole, asulacrine isethionate, atazanavir, ATL-962, 16-Aza-epothilone B; Bevacizumab, bicalutamide, blonanserin, BMS-188667, bosentan; Celecoxib, celmoleukin, cetuximab, cilomilast, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CNTF(Ax15), colesevelam hydrochloride; Daclizumab, delavirdine mesilate, desogestrel, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, emtricitabine, epalrestat, escitalopram oxalate, examorelin, exendin-4, ezetimibe; Fidarestat, frovatriptan; HIV-1 Immunogen; Iloperidone, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, irinotecan hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levetiracetam, levormeloxifene, levosimendan, lumiracoxib, LY-307161 SR; Memantine hydrochloride, MEN-10755, metformin hydrochloride, metreleptin, motexafin gadolinium; Naratriptan hydrochloride, natalizumab, nesiritide, nicotine, NN-2211, NN-414; Olanzapine, omalizumab; Pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate prasterone, pregabalin; Quetiapine fumarate; Rabeprazole sodium, raloxifene hydrochloride, raltitrexed, rDNA insulin, rFGF-2, risedronate sodium, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate; SN-22995; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, tiotropium bromide, tomoxetine hydrochloride, trastuzumab, trimegestone; Voglibose, Voriconazole; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:12616707
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses, which has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the world's first drug discovery and development portal, providing information on study design, treatments, conclusions and references. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate; abciximab; abetimus sodium; adalimumab; aldesleukin; almotriptan; alteplase; amisulpride; amitriptyline hydrochloride; amoxicillin trihydrate; atenolol; atorvastatin calcium; atrasentan; Beclometasone dipropionate; bosentan; Captopril; ceftriaxone sodium; cerivastatin sodium; cetirizine hydrochloride; cisplatin; citalopram hydrobromide; Dalteparin sodium; darusentan; desirudin; digoxin; Efalizumab; enoxaparin sodium; ertapenem sodium; esomeprazole magnesium; estradiol; ezetimibe; Famotidine; farglitazar; fluorouracil; fluticasone propionate; fosamprenavir sodium; Glibenclamide; glucosamine sulfate; Heparin sodium; HSPPC-96; hydrochlorothiazide; Imatinib mesilate; implitapide; Lamivudine; lansoprazole; lisinopril; losartan potassium; l-Propionylcarnitine; Melagatran; metformin hydrochloride; methotrexate; methylsulfinylwarfarin; Nateglinide; norethisterone; Olmesartan medoxomil; omalizumab; omapatrilat; omeprazole; oseltamivir phosphate; oxatomide; Pantoprazole; piperacillin sodium; pravastatin sodium; Quetiapine hydrochloride; Rabeprazole sodium; raloxifene hydrochloride; ramosetron hydrochloride; ranolazine; rasburicase; reboxetine mesilate; recombinant somatropin; repaglinide; reteplase; rosiglitazone; rosiglitazone maleate; rosuvastatin calcium; Sertraline; simvastatin; sumatriptan succinate; Tazobactam sodium; tenecteplase; tibolone; tinidazole; tolterodine tartrate; troglitazone; Uniprost; Warfarin sodium; Ximelagatran. PMID:11980386
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, adalimumab, AERx morphine sulphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, amprenavir, aripiprazole, atenolol, atorvastatin calcium; BSYX-A110; Cantuzumab mertansine, capravirine, CDP-571, CDP-870, celecoxib; Delavirdine mesilate, docetaxel, dofetilide, donepezil hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride, dydrogesterone; Efavirenz, emtricitabine, enjuvia, enteryx, epristeride, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etanercept, etonogestrel, etoricoxib; Fesoterodine, finasteride, flt3ligand; Galantamine hydrobromide, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, genistein, gepirone hydrochloride; Indinavir sulfate, infliximab; Lamivudine, lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, leteprinim potassium, levetiracetam, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, losartan potassium; MCC-465, MRA; Nebivolol, nesiritide, nevirapine; Olanzapine, OROS(R)-Methylphenidate hydrochloride; Peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, Pimecrolimus, polyethylene glycol 3350, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Risedronate sodium, risperidone, ritonavir, rituximab, rivastigmine tartrate, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium; Saquinavir mesilate, Stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, telmisartan, tomoxetine hydrochloride, treprostinil sodium, trimegestone, trimetrexate; Valdecoxib, venlafaxine hydrochloride; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:12616965
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AdGVVEGF121.10, anakinra, andolast, anidulafungin, APC-2059, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arzoxifene hydrochloride, asimadoline; Bexarotene, bimatoprost, bimosiamose, bizelesin, BMS-188667, botulinum toxin type B, bromfenac sodium, bryostatin 1; Cannabidiol, cariporide mesilate, CCI-1004, CDP-571, cerivastatin sodium, clevudine; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deligoparin sodium, diethylnorspermine, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine; E-5564, eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, etaquine, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Fesoterodine, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan, fulvestrant; Gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, ghrelin (human), glufosfamide; Homoharringtonine; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, INS-37217; KRN-7000; L-651582, lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, lenercept, levetiracetam, lusupultide; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, mepolizumab, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride, mozavaptan; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OPC-51803, oregovomab, oritavancin; Peginterferon alfa-2(a), pleconaril, plevitrexed, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranibizumab, Ro-31-7453, roxifiban acetate, rubitecan; SCV-07, SHL-749, sho-saiko-to, soblidotin, solifenacin succinate; Tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenecteplase, theraCIM, tipifarnib, travoprost; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, ZYC-00101. PMID:12851663
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-510, adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMG-531, anakinra, armodafinil, asenapine maleate, atazanavir sulfate, atorvastatin; Bortezomib, bosentan; CEB-1555, cetuximab, ciclesonide, clodronate, CT-011; Darifenacin hydrobromide, desloratadine; E-7010, ecallantide, eculizumab, efalizumab, eltrombopag, erlotinib hydrochloride, eslicarbazepine acetate, eszopiclone, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fosamprenavir calcium, fulvestrant; Gefitinib, genistein; Haemophilus influenzae B vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, insulin glargine; Lenalidomide, liposomal cisplatin; MAb G250, mapatumumab, midostaurin, MP4, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, neridronic acid, NSC-330507; Oblimersen sodium, ofatumumab, omalizumab, oral insulin, oregovomab; Paliperidone, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, prasterone, pregabalin, pumosetrag hydrochloride; Recombinant malaria vaccine, retigabine, rivaroxaban, Ro-26-9228, romidepsin, rosuvastatin calcium, rotavirus vaccine; SGN-30, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate, sorafenib, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, temsirolimus, TER-199, tifacogin, tiludronic acid, tiotropium bromide; Vildagliptin, VNP-40101M, vorinostat; YM-150, yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zanolimumab, zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:16810345
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.
Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 2F5, 2G12, abetimus sodium, ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, alefacept, altropane, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, aminopterin, anakinra, aprinocarsen sodium, atazanavir, atlizumab, atomoxetine hydrochloride; B7-1 vaccine, bevacizumab, biricodar dicitrate, BMS-188667, brasofensine sulfate, bryostatin 1; cantuzumab mertansine, CHS-828, cinacalcet hydrochloride, cipamfylline, creatine, CVT-3146; darbepoetin alfa, DITPA, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; edatrexate, efalizumab, ENMD-0997, epoetin, erlosamide, esomeprazole magnesium, etiprednol dicloacetate, etoricoxib, everolimus, ezetimibe; fampridine, fenretinide, FTY-720; IGF-I/IGFBP-3, IL-1 cytokine trap, ilodecakin, interferon beta, ISIS-104838, ISIS-2503, ISIS-5132, ivabradine hydrochloride; lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, l-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lerdelimumab, levetiracetam, levobupivacaine hydrochloride, levosimendan, lopinavir; melagatran, mibefradil hydrochloride, miglustat, morphine-6-glucuronide; nesiritide; omalizumab, omapatrilat; p24-VLP, parecoxib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pitavastatin calcium, plevitrexed, prasterone, pregabalin, PRO-2000, prucalopride; rapacuronium bromide, rebimastat, RGA-0853, rubitecan, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate, RWJ-67657; S-16020-2, sarizotan, SLV-306, stiripentol; TA-CIN, tenecteplase, teriparatide, tezacitabine, tipifarnib, trabectedin, troglitazone; valdecoxib, vardenafil; Z-338, ziconotide. PMID:12808477
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Botulism is a paralyzing disease caused by the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. The toxin produces skeletal muscle paralysis by producing a presynaptic blockade to the release of acetylcholine. Recent studies have pinpointed the site of action of the several types of botulinum neurotoxin at the nerve terminal. Since the discovery of the toxin about 100 years ago, five clinical forms of botulism have been described: 1) classic or foodborne botulism; 2) wound botulism; 3) infant botulism; 4) hidden botulism; 5) inadvertent botulism. A clinical pattern of descending weakness is characteristic of all five forms. Almost all human cases of botulism are caused by one of three serotypes (A, B, or E). Classic and wound botulism were the only two forms known until the last quarter of this century. Wound botulism was rare until the past decade. Now there are increasing numbers of cases of wound botulism in injecting drug users. Infant botulism, first described in 1976, is now the most frequently reported form. In infant botulism spores of Clostridium botulinum are ingested and germinate in the intestinal tract. Hidden botulism, the adult variant of infant botulism, occurs in adult patients who usually have an abnormality of the intestinal tract that allows colonization by Clostridium botulinum. Inadvertent botulism is the most recent form to be described. It occurs in patients who have been treated with injections of botulinum toxin for dystonic and other movement disorders. Laboratory proof of botulism is established with the detection of toxin in the patient's serum, stool, or wound. The detection of Clostridium botulinum bacteria in the stool or wound should also be considered evidence of clinical botulism. Electrophysiologic studies can provide presumptive of botulism in patients with the clinical signs of botulism. Electrophysiologic testing can be especially helpful when bioassay studies are negative. The most consistent electrophysiologic abnormality is a small evoked muscle action potential in response to a single supramaximal nerve stimulus in a clinically affected muscle. Posttetanic facilitation can be found in some affected muscles. Single-fiber EMG studies typically reveal increased jitter and blocking, which become less marked following activation. The major treatment for severe botulism is advance medical and nursing supportive care with special attention to respiratory status. PMID:9585323
Caring Practices of Clinical CRNA Instructors Caring and the ability to demonstrate caring behavior within a teacher-student relationship is deemed necessary in nursing education today. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which clinical ...
A plan was developed to assure equivalency of clinical education among the medical laboratory technician (MLT) programs affiliated with Sandhills Community College. The plan was designed by faculty to monitor the quality of clinical courses offered by the clinical affiliates. The major strategies were to develop competencies, slide/tape modules, a…
Davis, Judith A.
As a first step in the development of a competency-based clinical toxicology clerkship, a set of terminal behavioral objectives were developed that reflect the anticipated role that clinical pharmacists should play as part of the clinical toxicology team. The evaluation approaches used at the University of Utah are presented. (LBH)
Veltri, Joseph C.; And Others
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M; Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, adenosine triphosphate, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, autologous renal tumor vaccine, azimilide hydrochloride; Bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; C340, cantuzumab mertansine, caspofungin acetate, CGP-36742, CHAMPION everolimus-eluting coronary stent, cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Efalizumab, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, everolimus, ezetimibe; Flesinoxan hydrochloride, fosamprenavir calcium, FR-901228, frovatriptan; Gadofosveset sodium, gadomer-17, galiximab, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib; HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); IDN-6556, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, iseganan hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; LB-80380, levocetirizine, liposomal doxorubicin, LMB-9, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Mecasermin, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, nelfinavir, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; Olcegepant, omalizumab, oregovomab; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, perospirone hydrochloride, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, prinomastat; Resiquimod, rhIGFBP-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, ritanserin, ro-31-7453, rosuvastatin calcium; SCIO-469, SDZ-SID-791, SU-11248, suberanilohydroxamic acid; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TER-286, tezosentan disodium, TH-9507, tipifarnib, tipranavir, tolvaptan, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, travoprost, treprostinil sodium, tucaresol; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, val-mCyd, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vinflunine, voriconazole; Ximelagatran, XTL-002; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:15319815
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, posaconazole, prasterone, pregabalin; R-112, ramelteon, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, rebimastat, roflumilast, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rupatadine fumarate; S-3013, S-3304, semustine, sitaxsentan sodium, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, tamoxifen, Taxus, Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, TH-9507, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, tolvaptan, torcetrapib, TR-14035, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, treprostinil diethanolamine, troglitazone, troxacitabine; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, VAS-991, veglin, vinflunine, voriconazole; White sweet potato extract; Ximelagatran. PMID:16273137
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV1/SERCA2a, Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Ambrisentan, Aripiprazole, AT-7519, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Azacitidine, Azelnidipine; Besifloxacin hydrochloride, Bevacizumab, Bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Budesonide/formoterol fumarate; CAIV-T, Carisbamate, Casopitant mesylate, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone, CTCE-9908; Dalcetrapib, Darunavir, Deferasirox, Desloratadine, Disitertide, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTA-H19, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Efalizumab, Emtricitabine, Eribulin mesilate, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, EUR-1008, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide; Fampridine, Fluticasone furoate, Formoterol fumarate/fluticasone propionate, Fosamprenavir calcium, Fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, GS-7904L; HPV-6/11/16/18, Human Secretin, Hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Indacaterol maleate, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Ixabepilone; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liraglutide, Lisdexamfetamine mesilate, Lopinavir, Loratadine/montelukast sodium, Lutropin alfa; MeNZB, Mepolizumab, Micafungin sodium, Morphine hydrochloride; Nabiximols, Nikkomycin Z; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Perifosine, PF-489791, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; QAX-576; Raltegravir potassium, Ramelteon, Rasagiline mesilate, Recombinant human relaxin H2, rhGAD65, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine; Saxagliptin, SCH-530348, Sirolimus-eluting stent, SLIT-amikacin, Sorafenib, Sotrastaurin, SR-16234, Sulforaphane; Tadalafil, Tanespimycin, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Teriparatide, Tesofensine, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tirapazamine, TMC-207, Tocilizumab, Tolvaptan, Tosedostat, Treprostinil sodium; Ustekinumab; Varespladib methyl, Vicriviroc, Vildagliptin, Vildagliptin/metformin hydrochloride, Volociximab, Voriconazole; Ziconotide, Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:19907722
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: A-007, A6, adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AllerVax Ragweed, amphora, anakinra, angiotensin-(1-7), anidulafungin, apomine, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, avanafil; BAL-8557, becatecarin, bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, certolizumab pegol, cetuximab, CG-0070, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide, cryptophycin 52, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, darapladib, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deferasirox, desloratadine, dexanabinol, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, DMF, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, estradiol valerate/dienogest, eszopiclone, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gefitinib, gestodene, GYKI-16084; Hyaluronic acid, hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine; Juzen-taiho-to; Lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, L-arginine hydrochloride, lasofoxifene tartrate, L-BLP-25, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lexatumumab, lidocaine/prilocaine, lubiprostone, lumiracoxib; MAb-14.18, mitoquidone; Natalizumab, neridronic acid, neuradiab; Olpadronic acid sodium salt, omalizumab; p53-DC vaccine, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, perifosine, pimecrolimus, prasterone, prasugrel, PRO-2000, Pseudostat; R24, rasburicase, RHAMM R3 peptide, rilonacept, rosuvastatin calcium, rotavirus vaccine, rufinamide; Sabarubicin hydrochloride, SHL-749, sirolimus-eluting stent, SLx-2101, sodium butyrate, sorafenib, SU-6668; TachoSil, tadalafil, taxus, tegaserod maleate, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tetramethylpyrazine, teverelix, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, tolvaptan, TransvaxTM hepatitis C vaccine, treprostinil sodium; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, valsartan/amlodipine, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vatalanib succinate, veglin, voriconazole; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zileuton, zotarolimus, zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:17003851
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-510, adalimumab, alefacept, ambrisentan, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, armodafinil, aselizumab, asenapine maleate, azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, bexarotene, bimosiamose, biphasic insulin aspart, bortezomib, bosentan, BQ-123; C340, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, certolizumab pegol, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cilansetron, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (melanoma), dimethyl fumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Efalizumab, eglumetad hydrate, emoxipin hydrochloride, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol; Garenoxacin mesilate, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib; H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, human growth hormone-(177-191), human insulin; Indacaterol, INKP-100, INKP-102, insulin glargine, i.v. gamma-globulin; KLH; Lapatinib, L-arginine hydrochloride, lasofoxifene tartrate, levocetirizine, licochalcone A, LMI vaccine, lomefloxacin, lubiprostone, lumiracoxib; Miglustat, mycograb; Natalizumab, NCX-4016, nortopixantrone hydrochloride; Olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, oral insulin, OrM3; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PCK-3145, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, pemetrexed disodium, pexelizumab, photochlor, pimecrolimus, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, polyphenon E; R-126638, R-411, resveratrol, roflumilast, RS-86, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate, rupatadine fumarate; Sipuleucel-T, somatropin, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, Taxus, telbivudine, telithromycin, temsirolimus, teriparatide, teverelix, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tolterodine, tolvaptan, treprostinil sodium, typhoid vaccine; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Zanolimumab, zileuton. PMID:16541195
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Know- ledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, adefovir dipivoxil, AdPEDF.11, AES-14, albumex, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvimopan hydrate, aAminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anti-IL-12 MAb, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan, avanafil; Banoxantrone, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, CBT-1, ciclesonide, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CpG-7909, C-Vax, Cypher; DA-8159, DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eculizumab, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, ETC-642, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Gefitinib, IV gamma-globulin; Human insulin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium; IDN-6556, iguratimod, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, ixabepilone; Laquinimod, LB-80380, lidocaine/prilocaineliraglutide, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lucinactant; MAb-14.18, melatonin, MLN-591-DM1; NC-531, neridronic acid, nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, niacin/lovastatin; Oblimersen sodium, olcegepant, oral Insulin, ORV-105; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAmAb, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, pegvisomant, perifosine, pexelizumab, phenoxodiol, phenserine tartrate, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-542, prostate cancer vaccine, PT-141; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, reslizumab, rh-Lactoferrin, ribamidine hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium; S-8184l, SC-1, sorafenib, St. John's Wort extract, SU-11248; Taxus, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, testosterone gel, tezosentan disodium, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol, treprostinil sodium; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Xcellerated T cells, XR-5944; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Ziconotide. PMID:15349141
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abiraterone acetate, Ad5CMV-p53, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, ambrisentan, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atrasentan; BCH-10618, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, BMS-275183, BMS-387032, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1, BR96-Doxorubicin; Capravirine, caspofungin acetate, cinacalcet hydrochloride; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, DJ-927, duloxetine hydrochloride; Elacridar, emtricitabine, eplerenone, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, ESP-24217, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe; Ferumoxtran-10, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; GS-7904L, GW-5634; HMN-214, human insulin; IC-14, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine, insulinotropin, iseganan hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, L-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lenalidomide, LE-SN38, lestaurtinib, L-MDAM, lometrexol, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir; Magnesium sulfate, maraviroc, mepolizumab, metreleptin, milataxel, MNA-715, morphine hydrochloride; Nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, NK-911; Olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ortataxel, oxycodone hydrochloride/ibuprofen; Panitumumab, patupilone, PC-515, PD-MAGE-3 Vaccine, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, prasugrel, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Rosuvastatin calcium, RPR-113090; sabarubicin hydrochloride, safinamide mesilate, SB-715992, sitaxsentan sodium, soblidotin, synthadotin; Tadalafil, taltobulin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, testosterone gel, tigecycline, tipranavir, tirapazamine, trabectedin, travoprost; UCN-01; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; XB-947; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:15605126
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (PE)HRG214, 1E10, 21-Aminoepothilone B; Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Ad100-B7.1/HLA, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMD-070, anhydrovinblastine, aripiprazole, asimadoline, atrasentan, AVE-5883; Bimatoprost, BNP-7787, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1; Canfosfamide hydrochloride, ciclesonide, curcumin, cypher; D0401, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, D-D4FC, dendritic cell-based vaccine, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, dolastatin 10, drospirenone drospirenone/estradiol, DS-992, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; E-7010, efalizumab, eletriptan, EM-1421, enfuvirtide, entecavir, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide, ezetimibe; Favid, fidarestat, fingolimod hydrochloride, FK-352; Gefitinib, gemifloxacin mesilate, gepirone hydrochloride, gimatecan; HE-2000; Imatinib mesylate, indisulam, insulin detemir, irofulven, ISIS-5132; Lapatinib, levocetirizine, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Metformin/Glyburide, methionine enkephalin, MK-0431, morphine hydrochloride, motexafin gadolinium, mycobacterium cell wall complex; Naturasone, neridronic acid, nesiritide; Oblimersen sodium, olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oral insulin; Paclitaxel poliglumex, PC-515, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pegvisomant, pexelizumab, picoplatin, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Quercetin; Ramelteon, ranirestat, RG228, rhGAD65, roflumilast, rubitecan; Sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, tipifarnib, tolevamer sodium, topixantrone hydrochloride; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin, voriconazole; XTL-001; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15632957
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin; Tadalafil, tesmilifene hydrochloride, theratope, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, topixantrone hydrochloride, trabectedin, traxoprodil, Tri-Luma; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vinflunine; Ximelagatran; Ziconotide. PMID:15148527
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 81C6; Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase alfa, AGM-1470, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alosetron hydrochloride, anakinra, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir; BAY-43-9006, BBR-3438, beta-L-Fd4C, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentanBR96-doxorubicin; Caspofungin acetate, ciclesonide, cilengitide, cilomilast, COL-1621, COL-3, CpG-7909, cyclosporine; DCVax-Brain, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, dexosome vaccine (melanoma), donepezil hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTI-015, [99Tc]-DTPA-mannosyldextran, duloxetine hydrochloride; Emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, epothilone B, estradiol-MNP, etonogestrel/etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol, etoricoxib; Febuxostat, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GVS-111; Heparinase I, HspE7, human alpha-glucosidase, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, INGN-241, interferon alfa B/D hybrid, interferon alfa Biphasix, ISIS-14803; Lanicemine hydrochloride, 1311-lipiodol, liposome-encapsulated mitoxantrone, lixivaptan, lumiracoxib, lupus-AHP, LY-466700; Marimastat, MEN-10755, micafungin sodium; Nitronaproxen, NSC-683864 Omalizumab, oral insulin; Palonosetron hydrochloride, peginterferon alfa-2a, pimecrolimus, pralnacasan, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, pyrazoloacridine; R-165335, ranolazine, risperidone, RPR-109881;, RSD-1235, Satraplatin, seocalcitol, sertindole, SMART anti-interferon gamma antibody, sulfasalazine; T-138067, TAK-013, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, TP-38; Valdecoxib, vatalanib succinate, voriconazole; ZD-9331. PMID:12690708
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abatacept, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Aleglitazar, Aliskiren fumarate, AM-103, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Axitinib; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Bortezomib, Bupropion/naltrexone; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Certolizumab pegol, Ciclesonide, CYT-997; Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride cogramostim; Eltrombopag olamine, Emtricitabine, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Fenretinide, Filibuvir, Fludarabine; Golimumab; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, HEV-239, HP-802-247, HPV-16/18 AS04, HPV-6/11/16/18, Human albumin, Human gammaglobulin; Imatinib mesylate, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Invaplex 50 vaccine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, Lopinavir, Lumiliximab, LY-686017; Maraviroc, Mecasermin rinfabate; Narlaprevir; Ocrelizumab, Oral insulin, Oritavancin, Oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Pregabalin, Prucalopride succinate; Raltegravir potassium, Ranibizumab, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salclobuzic acid sodium salt, SCY-635, Selenate sodium, Semapimod hydrochloride, Silodosin, Siltuximab, Silybin, Sirolimus-eluting stent, SIR-Spheres, Sunitinib malate; Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tocilizumab, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Trabectedin, TransVax™ hepatitis C vaccine; Ustekinumab; V-260, Valspodar, Varenicline tartrate, VCL-IPT1, Vildagliptin, VRC-HIVADV014-00-VP, VRC-HIVDNA009-00-VP, VRC-HIVDNA016-00-VP; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Yttrium Y90 Epratuzumab; Zibotentan, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:21225019
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abarelix, ABX-EGF, ademetionine, agomelatine, AMGN-0007, 9-aminocamptothecin, AN-9, anecortave acetate, anidulafungin, AOD-9604, apolizumab, apomate, L-arginine hydrochloride, arzoxifene hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BP-897, BufferGel; Capravirine, carboxyamidotriazole, carnosine, CC-4047, CEP-701, cerivastatin sodium, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CP-461, CS-003; Daptomycin, darifenacin, decitabine, deferasirox, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eberconazole, Ecyd, efalizumab, eglumegad hydrate, EMD-72000, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, exatecan mesilate, exenatide; Fampridine, fenretinide, ferumoxtran-10; Gadofosveset sodium, garenoxacin mesilate, genistein, glutamine, GPI-15715; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, HYB-165; Indisulam, irofulven; KRN-5500, L-796568, laurocapram, lidocaine/prilocaine, lonafarnib, lotrafiban; Melagatran, melatonin, 2-methoxyestradiol, metreleptin, motexafin gadoliniu, motexafin lutetium; Natalizumab, nelarabine, NO-aspirin, NSC-683864; ONO-6126; Pemetrexed disodium, pexelizumab, pirfenidone, PncCRM9, polyglutamate paclitaxel, pramlintide acetate pregabalin, PRO-2000; Ragaglitazar, ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84), reolysin RG228, roflumilast, roxifiban acetate, RPI-4610, rubitecan; Safinamide mesilate, solifenacin succinate, SRL-172; T-138067, tafenoquine succinate, tecadenoson, TER-286, tesaglitazar, tetrathiomolybdate, tezosentan disodium, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, trabectedin, tributyrin, trimegestone, troxacitabine; UCN-01, urokinase alfa; Vinflunine, viscum fraxini 2; Xcellerated T cells, ximelagatran. PMID:14685303
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, 9-aminocamptothecin; AdPEDF.11, AE-37, albumin interferon alfa, alicaforsen sodium, alvocidib hydrochloride, AMG-706, arginine butyrate, avanafil, axitinib, azimilide hydrochloride; BAY-579352, belagenpumatucel-L, beta-lapachone, BHT-3009, BIBW-2992, bremelanotide, BX-471; Casopitant mesylate, cediranib, certolizumab pegol, CH-1504, ChimeriVax-West Nile, clofazimine, CpG-7909, curcumin, Cypher; Dapoxetine hydrochloride, darusentan, diflomotecan, D-methionine, dnaJP1, D-serine, DTPw-HB Hib-MenAC, DTPw-HepB-Hib; E-7010, ecogramostim, edodekin alfa, EGFRvlll peptide vaccine, elcometrine, elcometrine/ethinylestradiol, elsilimomab, enrasentan, ertumaxomab, etalocib sodium, exisulind; Fenretinide, fesoterodine, fingolimod hydrochloride, fontolizumab; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, ghrelin (human), GV-1001; HTU-PA, human papillomavirus vaccine; Indacaterol, indiplon, interleukin-21, intranasal insulin, irinotecan hydrochloride/floxuridine, ISIS-301012, ispinesib mesylate, ixabepilone; K562/GM-CSF; Lapatinib, L-BLP-25, linezolid, liposome encapsulated paclitaxel, LY-2124275; MC-1, MC-1/lisinopril, MDX-066, melanoma vaccine, MMR-V, multivalent (ACYW) meningitis vaccine; Nilotinib, nobori, nociceptin; Oblimersen sodium, orbofiban acetate, ospemifene; Paliperidone, panitumumab, PEG-filgrastim, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perflubutane, pertuzumab, phenserine tartrate, phVEGF-A165, pleconaril, prasugrel, prednisolone sodium metasulfobenzoate; R-411, recombinant malaria vaccine, rhGM-CSF, roflumilast, romidepsin, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Sirolimus-eluting stent, SR-4554, St. John's Wort extract; Talabostat, Taxus, TGN-255, tifacogin, tiotropium bromide, tolevamer sodium, trabectedin, tretinoin LF; Vatalanib succinate; Yellow fever vaccine, YM-155. PMID:17235418
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M, 166Ho-DOTMP, 3-AP; Abatacept, abetimus sodium, ACR-16, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, AMD-070, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, anatumomab mafenatox, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, AP-12009, AP-23573, APC-8024, aripiprazole, ATL-962, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clofazimine, colchicine, cold-adapted influenza vaccine trivalent, CRM197; Desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diethylhomospermine; Edodekin alfa, efalizumab, elcometrine, eletriptan, enfuvirtide, entecavir, EP-2101, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, etoricoxib, everolimus, exherin, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fluorescein lisicol, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; Hemoglobin raffimer, HSPPC-96, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, IRX-2, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ixabepilone; Kahalalide F; L-759274, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, licofelone, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lurtotecan, LY-156735; MAb G250, mecasermin, melatonin, midostaurin, muraglitazar; Nesiritide, nitronaproxen; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parecoxib sodium, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, PG-CPT, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, posaconazole; Rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, RG228, rimonabant hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; S-3304, safinamide mesilate, salcaprozic acid sodium salt, SDZ-SID-791, SGN-30, soblidotin, squalamine; Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, testosterone gel, TF(c)-KLH conjugate vaccine, TH-9507, theraloc, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, travoprost; ValboroPro, valdecoxib, veglin, voriconazole; Ximelagatran. PMID:15538546
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-Chlorotoxin, 423557; Abatacept, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Adalimumab, AE-941, Ambrisentan, AMR-001, Anacetrapib, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate; BAY-639044, Bazedoxifene acetate, Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam, Bucindolol hydrochloride; Carfilzomib, Carisbamate, CCX-282, CD20Bi, Ceftobiprole, Certolizumab pegol, CF-101, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cypher; Darifenacin hydrobromide, Degarelix acetate, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexlansoprazole, Dexverapamil, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Efalizumab, EPs-7630, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fospropofol disodium; Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir, HIV gp120/NefTat/AS02A, HPV-6/11/16/18; INCB-18424, Incyclinide, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin detemir; KNS-760704, KW-0761; Lacosamide, Lenalidomide, Levetiracetam, Licofelone, Lidocaine/prilocaine; mAb 216, MEDI-528, Men ACWY, Meningococcal C-CRM197 vaccine, Methylnaltrexone bromide; Nemifitide ditriflutate, Nicotine conjugate vaccine, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Octaparin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), Pegaptanib octasodium, Pitrakinra, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasagiline mesilate, Retigabine, Rimonabant, RTS,S/AS02D; Sarcosine, Sitaxentan sodium, Solifenacin succinate, Sunitinib malate; Taranabant, Taxus, Teduglutide, Teriparatide, Ticagrelor, Travoprost, TRU-015; USlipristal acetate, Urocortin 2; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; YM-155, Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zanolimumab, Zoledronic acid monohydrate, Zotarolimus, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:18560631
Moral, M A; Tomillero, A
Over the last 25 years, clinical neurophysiology has made many advances for the understanding, diagnosis and even treatment for different movement disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been the biggest technical advance. Progress in pathophysiology includes improved knowledge about bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease, loss of inhibition and increased plasticity in dystonia, abnormal startle in hyperekplexia, and various features of psychogenic movement disorders that can aid diagnosis. Studies have been done looking at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for therapy, but effects are generally small.
Hallett, Mark; Rothwell, John
The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India. PMID:17391981
Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra
Monitoring tests form an increasing proportion of the workload in clinical biochemistry and biochemists can help by providing clinicians with information about the variability and precision of tests, the time frame for pharmacodynamic stabilisation after a treatment change, and the frequency of testing. This paper outlines the phases of monitoring, and how to decide if monitoring is beneficial, which test to use for monitoring, when a change in the test result indicates a need for the change in treatment and the length of testing intervals. We conclude with some recommendations for biochemists for future areas of research and advice that can be given to clinicians.
Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul
Tonsillopharyngitis is an extremely common infection seen in adults and children. Although the symptoms and signs of this disease are usually sufficient to make a diagnosis, it is often difficult to make a distinction between bacterial and viral etiology on clinical grounds alone. The complications of tonsillopharyngitis may be classified into suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. The nonsuppurative complications include scarlet fever, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Suppurative complications include peritonsillar, parapharyngeal, and retropharyngeal cellulites and/or abscess. Features suggestive of viral bacterial (GABHS) etiologies, the medical and surgical guidelines for managing tonsillopharyngitis, and its complications are highlighted in this article. PMID:16089240
Tewfik, Ted L; Al Garni, Mohamed
Several tables are presented giving left ventricular (LV) data for normal patients and patients with heart disease of varied etiologies, pointing out the salient features. Graphs showing LV pressure-volume relationships (compliance) are presented and discussed. The method developed by Rackley et al. (1964) for determining left ventricular mass in man is described, and limitations to the method are discussed. Some clinical methods for determining LV oxygen consumption are briefly described, and the relation of various abnormalities of ventricular performance to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease is characterized.
Dodge, H. T.; Sandler, H.
CDRP Program Update UPMC McKeesport Program Steering Committee RTOG Meeting Toronto, Canada June 23rd, 2006 Overview Multi-modality & RT trials clinical trials UPMC Cancer Center Initiatives Clinical trials accrual Navigators update TELESYNERGY update Mentors
This paper reviews the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, setbacks, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use.
Ibbott, Geoffrey S.
... on Florida's Atlantic Coast Vero Beach, Florida Indian River Medical Center Diabetes & Endocrinology - Toronto and all its attractions! Toronto, Ontario LMC Diabetes & Endocrinology Clinical Endocrinologist Rapid City, South Dakota Regional Health Clinical Endocrinologist Toledo, Ohio Endocrine ...
This manuscript highlights the role that clinical engineering can play to minimize the risk of problems associated with clinical alarms. AAMI held a town meeting on clinical alarm management and integration during its 2005 Annual Conference & Expo. The meeting highlighted some excellent suggestions on how the whole concept of improving clinical alarm design and implementation must be addressed in a systematic way. Examples of how the clinical engineering profession can contribute to this effort include participation in more AAMI town hall meetings and other conferences, providing design suggestions to medical device manufacturers, and participation in the development of alarm-related standards. PMID:16544791
Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT) had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV) is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice. PMID:23961476
Satya Krishna, Surabhi Venkata; Kota, Sunil K; Modi, Kirtikumar D
Our group provides clinical image processing services to various institutes at NIH. We develop or adapt image processing programs for a variety of applications. However, each program requires a human operator to select a specific set of images and execute the program, as well as store the results appropriately for later use. To improve efficiency, we design a parallelized clinical image processing engine (CIPE) to streamline and parallelize our service. The engine takes DICOM images from a PACS server, sorts and distributes the images to different applications, multithreads the execution of applications, and collects results from the applications. The engine consists of four modules: a listener, a router, a job manager and a data manager. A template filter in XML format is defined to specify the image specification for each application. A MySQL database is created to store and manage the incoming DICOM images and application results. The engine achieves two important goals: reduce the amount of time and manpower required to process medical images, and reduce the turnaround time for responding. We tested our engine on three different applications with 12 datasets and demonstrated that the engine improved the efficiency dramatically.
Han, Wei; Yao, Jianhua; Chen, Jeremy; Summers, Ronald
Information about imaging clinical trials and clinical trials in general is available from the Cancer Information Service (CIS). Information specialists at the CIS use PDQ, the NCI's cancer information database, to identify and provide detailed information about specific ongoing clinical trials.
In 1998, during the Second World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) held in Evian, France, a clinical classification of PH was proposed. The aim of the Evian classification was to individualize different categories sharing similarities in pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and therapeutic options. The Evian classification is now well accepted and widely used in clinical practice, especially in specialized centers.
Gerald Simonneau; Nazzareno Galiè; Lewis J Rubin; David Langleben; Werner Seeger; Guido Domenighetti; Simon Gibbs; Didier Lebrec; Rudolf Speich; Maurice Beghetti; Stuart Rich; Alfred Fishman
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-labetuzumab; Abacavir sulfate, abatacept, adalimumab, ademetionine, adjuvanted influenza vaccine, alefacept, alemtuzumab, amlodipine, amphotericin B, anakinra, aripiprazole, aspirin, axitinib; Betamethasone dipropionate, bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123; Calcium folinate, canertinib dihydrochloride, carboplatin, carmustine, cetirizine hydrochloride, cetuximab, cholecalciferol, ciclesonide, ciclosporin, cinacalcet hydrochloride, cisplatin, clarithromycin, clofazimine, cold-adapted influenza vaccine trivalent, CpG-7909; Darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, DB-289, desloratadine, Dexamet, dicycloverine hydrochloride, dimethyl fumarate, docetaxel, dolastatin 10, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, edotecarin, efaproxiral sodium, enalapril maleate, epoetin beta, epoprostenol sodium, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, estradiol, etanercept; Fluconazole, fludarabine phosphate, fluorouracil; Gefitinib, gemcitabine, Ghrelin (human), glibenclamide, glimepiride, GTI-2040; Haloperidol, human insulin, hydrocortisone probutate; Imatinib mesylate, indisulam, influenza vaccine, inhaled insulin, insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, insulin lispro, irinotecan, ispronicline; Lamivudine, lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, lapatinib, letrozole, levocetirizine, lomustine, lonafarnib, lumiracoxib;Magnesium sulfate, MD-1100, melphalan, metformin hydrochloride, methotrexate, metoclopramide hydrochloride, mitiglinide calcium hydrate, monophosphoryl lipid A, montelukast sodium, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nitisinone; Omalizumab, omapatrilat, ONYX-015, oxaliplatin; Paclitaxel, paclitaxel nanoparticles, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pertuzumab, phosphatidylcholine-rich phospholipid mixture, pimecrolimus, pioglitazone hydrochloride, pramlintide acetate, prasterone; QR-333; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, ribavirin, rifabutin, risperidone, rituximab, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride, rotavirus vaccine; S-236, salmeterol xinafoate, sarizotan hydrochloride, sildenafil, sildenafil citrate, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, temozolomide, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, trabectedin, treprostinil sodium; Vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vatalanib succinate, vinflunine, virosome influenza vaccine, voriconazole; Zidovudine. PMID:16636723
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960
Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Perillyl alcohol, Perphenazine 4-aminobutyrate, PeviPRO/breast cancer, PF-03814735, PHA-739358, Pimecrolimus, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride, PRX-08066; rAAV2-TNFR:Fc, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, rCD154-CLL, Retapamulin, RTS,S/SBAS2, rV-PSA-TRICOM/rF-PSA-TRICOM; SG-2000, Sinecatechins, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, SP-1640, Strontium malonate, Succinobucol, Sunitinib malate; Taxus, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tocilizumab; Ustekinumab; V-5 Immunitor, Voriconazole, Vorinostat; Xience V, XL-184, XL-647, XL-765; Y-39983, Zibotentan. PMID:18985183
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
Maraviroc belongs to the family of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonists that prevent the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into host CD4+ T cells by blocking the CCR5 co-receptor R5. Maraviroc is currently the only CC5R co-receptor inhibitor that has been approved for clinical use in HIV-1-infected patients carrying the CCR5 tropism who are antiretroviral-naïve or have experienced therapeutic failure following traditional antiretroviral therapies. This article is a review of the main characteristics of maraviroc and the latest data regarding its clinical application. Maraviroc is effective and well tolerated in pre-treated and antiretroviral-naïve patients with HIV-1 infections carrying the CCR5 tropism. Data from the phase III programme of maraviroc, which includes the MOTIVATE 1 and 2 studies and the MERIT study, indicate that maraviroc significantly (p?0.001) increases CD4+ cell counts compared with placebo in pre-treated patients and to a similar extent as efavirenz in antiretroviral-naïve patients. Even in cases where viral load is not completely suppressed, maraviroc improves immunological response compared with placebo. In addition, promising research suggests that maraviroc has favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with high cardiovascular risk or those co-infected with tuberculosis or hepatitis and could be considered an option for treatment of HIV-infected patients with these co-morbidities. Resistance to maraviroc is low and mainly related to the presence of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) tropism HIV-1-infections or to mutations in the V3 region of glycoprotein (gp) 120; however, the exact mechanisms by which resistance is acquired and their genotypic and phenotypic pattern have not yet been established. It is recommended that a tropism test should be performed when considering maraviroc as an alternate drug in HIV-1-infected patients. Current tropism assays have increased sensitivity to reliably detect CXCR4 HIV with rapid turn-around and at a low cost. Improved detection together with positive data on the drug's efficacy and safety profiles should help physicians to identify more accurately the appropriate candidates for commencement of treatment with maraviroc. In summary, maraviroc improves immunological response and has shown favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with high cardiovascular risk or in those co-infected with tuberculosis or hepatitis. Long-term studies are needed to confirm whether therapeutic expectations resulting from clinical trials with maraviroc translate into a real benefit for HIV-1-infected patients for whom traditional antiretroviral therapies have failed or are not suitable. PMID:21595497
Parra, Jorge; Portilla, Joaquín; Pulido, Federico; Sánchez-de la Rosa, Rainel; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Berenguer, Juan; Blanco, José L; Domingo, Pere; Dronda, Fernando; Galera, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Félix; Kindelán, José M; Knobel, Hernando; Leal, Manuel; López-Aldeguer, Jose; Mariño, Ana; Miralles, Celia; Moltó, José; Ortega, Enrique; Oteo, José A
Assessment of adherence within AIDS clinical trials is a critical component of the successful evaluation of therapeutic outcomes. Poor medication adherence can result in the misinterpretation of clinical trial data. Research on factors affecting adherence in AIDS clinical trials has been scarce, and few investigations have evaluated strategies for enhancing patient participation. One reason may be the absence of a
Jeannette R. Ickovics; Andrew W. Meisler
Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations. The majority of these patients reject wearing labial fixed appliances and are looking instead to more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and Invisalign appliances. Since Align Technology introduced the Invisalign appliance in 1999 in an extensive public campaign, the appliance has gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The transparency of the Invisalign appliance enhances its esthetic appeal for those adult patients who are averse to wearing conventional labial fixed orthodontic appliances. Although guidelines about the types of malocclusions that this technique can treat exist, few clinical studies have assessed the effectiveness of the appliance. A few recent studies have outlined some of the limitations associated with this technique that clinicians should recognize early before choosing treatment options. PMID:17439714
Phan, Xiem; Ling, Paul H
New doctors and those studying to practice medicine may need a bit of assistance as they prepare to administer direct care to patients. The Clinical Skills Online website was created to offer some helpful videos for such persons, and was funded by the United Kingdom's Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The thirteen videos are all available at no cost. They cover topics like History Taking, Thyroid Examination, and Abdominal Examination. The videos contain precise language and are designed to complement existing formal medical training. Needless to say, there is a disclaimer on the website that highlights the terms under which these videos should be used. It's a nice resource for those entering a range of health care professions, and it's worth sharing with others in the field.
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic syndrome defined by core symptoms of widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Other common symptoms include cognitive difficulty, headache, paresthesia, and morning stiffness. Fibromyalgia is increasingly understood as 1 of several disorders that are referred to as central sensitivity syndromes; these disorders share underlying causes and clinical features. Tender points are often detected in patients with fibromyalgia and were formerly required for diagnosis. Newly proposed criteria, however, rely on patients' reports of widespread pain and other somatic symptoms to establish the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The management of fibromyalgia requires a multidimensional approach including patient education, cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy. The present review provides an update on these various aspects of treating a patient with fibromyalgia. PMID:24005088
Hawkins, Robert A
Oxymorphone (14-hydroxydihydromorphinone), a pyridine ring unsubstituted pyridomorphinan, a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from thebaine, first developed in the year 1914 and has been available as oxymorphone hydrochloride parenteral forms in the United States since 1959, when the US Food and Drug Administration approved it. Over the years, it has been used for the alleviation of moderate-to-severe pain. Pharmacological considerations, new and traditional formulations, clinical indications, and recent study populations are examined in this review. Specific considerations for oxymorphone interactions are focused on as well as specific side effects and end organ considerations. Although discovered many decades ago and used as parenteral formulation, the newer oral preparations of oxymorphone (immediate release and extended release) that were approved in 2006 can provide additional options for customizing therapy to accommodate various patient needs. This newer oral formulation could make this powerful agent an important drug in the armamentarium of the healthcare provider caring for patients with pain. PMID:24481932
Vadivelu, Nalini; Maria, Monisa; Jolly, Suneil; Rosenbloom, Julia; Prasad, Arun; Kaye, Alan David
Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3 that is approved in the US and several other countries for treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of one prior systemic therapy. The recommended clinical starting dose of axitinib is 5 mg twice daily, taken with or without food. Dose increase (up to a maximum of 10 mg twice daily) or reduction is permitted based on individual tolerability. Axitinib pharmacokinetics are dose-proportional within 1-20 mg twice daily, which includes the clinical dose range. Axitinib has a short effective plasma half-life (range 2.5-6.1 h), and the plasma accumulation of axitinib is in agreement with what is expected based on the plasma half-life of the drug. Axitinib is absorbed relatively rapidly, reaching maximum observed plasma concentrations (C max) within 4 h of oral administration. The mean absolute bioavailability of axitinib is 58 %. Axitinib is highly (>99 %) bound to human plasma proteins with preferential binding to albumin and moderate binding to ?1-acid glycoprotein. In patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, at the 5-mg twice-daily dose in the fed state, the geometric mean (% coefficient of variation) C max and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0-24 h (AUC24) were 27.8 ng/mL (79 %) and 265 ng·h/mL (77 %), respectively. Axitinib is metabolized primarily in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 and, to a lesser extent (<10 % each), by CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. The two major human plasma metabolites, M12 (sulfoxide product) and M7 (glucuronide product), are considered pharmacologically inactive. Axitinib is eliminated via hepatobiliary excretion with negligible urinary excretion. Although mild hepatic impairment does not affect axitinib plasma exposures compared with subjects with normal hepatic function, there was a 2-fold increase in AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC?) following a single 5-mg dose in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. In the presence of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor, axitinib C max and AUC? increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas co-administration of rifampin, a strong CYP3A4/5 inducer, resulted in a 71 and 79 % decrease in the C max and AUC?, respectively. Axitinib does not inhibit CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or UGT1A1 at concentrations obtained with the clinical doses and is not expected to have major interactions with drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes. Axitinib is an inhibitor of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, but is not expected to inhibit P-gp at therapeutic plasma concentrations. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and lag time was used to describe axitinib pharmacokinetics. No clinically relevant effects of age, sex, body weight, race, renal function, UGT1A1 genotype, or CYP2C19 inferred phenotype on the clearance of axitinib were identified. PMID:23677771
Chen, Ying; Tortorici, Michael A; Garrett, May; Hee, Brian; Klamerus, Karen J; Pithavala, Yazdi K
Heritable hypermutation in bacteria is mainly due to alterations in the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system. MMR-deficient strains have been described from several bacterial species, and all of the strains exhibit increased mutation frequency and recombination, which are important mechanisms for acquired drug resistance in bacteria. Antibiotics select for drug-resistant strains and refine resistance determinants on plasmids, thus stimulating DNA recombination via the MMR system. Antibiotics can also act as indirect promoters of antibiotic resistance by inducing the SOS system and certain error-prone DNA polymerases. These alterations have clinical consequences in that efficacious treatment of bacterial infections requires high doses of antibiotics and/or a combination of different classes of antimicrobial agents. There are currently few new drugs with low endogenous resistance potential, and the development of such drugs merits further research. PMID:21349992
Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Kovacs, Bela; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Le Bars, Hervé; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Lobel, Bernard; Guillé, François; Soussy, Claude-James; Tenke, Peter
The meaning of the term "logagogy" is elucidated, and logagogic practices are outlined in the history of medicine. It is shown how the traditional medicine of India, Ayurveda, shows signs of logagogic practices (sattvavajaya), and that not only Ayurveda but also the famous Greek physician Galenus emphasize a philosophical approach to medicine. As Galenus's logagogic practices have their roots in the tradition of practical philosophy in Greek antiquity, the most important Greek schools of thought that are relevant to logagogic approaches are sketched. It is shown that the Stoics created a rationalistic system emphasizing the importance of the logos for human beings, and that Epicurus made advances in psychoeducation and cognitive reframing that are important for logagogic practices. These logagogic approaches of antiquity have been taken up by modern counseling in philosophical practices. The article closes with an outline of a clinical logagogy. PMID:14620467
Summary Neurogenic neuroprotection is a promising approach for treating patients with ischemic brain lesions. In rats, stimulation of the deep brain nuclei has been shown to reduce the volume of focal infarction. In this context, protection of neural tissue can be a rapid intervention that has a relatively long-lasting effect, making fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) a potentially valuable method for clinical application. Although the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by FNS remain partially unclear, important data have been presented in the last two decades. A 1-h electrical FNS reduced, by 59%, infarctions triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in Fisher rats. The acute effect of electrical FNS is likely mediated by a prolonged opening of potassium channels, and the sustained effect appears to be linked to inhibition of the apoptotic cascade. A better understanding of the neuronal circuitry underlying neurogenic neuroprotection may contribute to improving neurological outcomes in ischemic brain insults.
Mandel, Mauricio; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Chadi, Gerson
The 6-Minute Walk Distance (6-MWD) has been the most utilized endpoint for judging the efficacy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapy in clinical trials conducted over the past two decades. Despite its simplicity, widespread use in recent trials and overall prognostic value, the 6-MWD has often been criticized over the past several years and pleas from several PAH experts have emerged from the literature to find alternative endpoints that would be more reliable in reflecting the pulmonary vascular resistance as well as cardiac status in PAH and their response to therapy. A meeting of PAH experts and representatives from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies was convened in early 2012 to discuss the validity of current as well as emerging valuable endpoints. The current work represents the proceedings of the conference.
Hassoun, Paul M.; Nikkho, Sylvia; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Moreschi, Gail; Lawrence, John; Teeter, John; Meier, Christian; Ghofrani, Ardeshir H.; Minai, Omar; Rinaldi, Paula; Michelakis, Evangelos; Oudiz, Ronald J
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, methods of diagnosis and localization, and results of treatment in 105 patients with primary aldosteronism seen between 1969 and 1981. Coincident with the use of computed tomography (CT), /sup 131/I-6-beta-iodomethyl norcholesterol scans (NP-59), and postural response studies, the study group was temporally divided into pre-1976 and post-1976 groups, and subdivided into groups with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Our results indicate that aldosterone postural response studies and CT differentiate and localize APA and IHA reliably. Adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for APA, whereas medical treatment alone is preferable for IHA.
Grant, C.S.; Carpenter, P.; van Heerden, J.A.; Hamberger, B.
Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678
OBJECTIVE Existing systems of in-training evaluation (ITE) have been criticized as being unreliable and invalid methods for assessing student performance during clinical education. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a clinical work sampling (CWS) approach to ITE. This approach focused on the following: (1) basing performance data on observed behaviors, (2) using multiple observers and occasions, (3) recording data at the time of performance, and (4) allowing for a feasible system to receive feedback. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-two third-year University of Ottawa students were assessed during their 8-week internal medicine inpatient experience. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Four performance rating forms (Admission Rating Form, Ward Rating Form, Multidisciplinary Team Rating Form, and Patient's Rating Form) were introduced to document student performance. Voluntary participation rates were variable (12%–64%) with patients excluded from the analysis because of low response rate (12%). The mean number of evaluations per student per rotation (19) exceeded the number of evaluations needed to achieve sufficient reliability. Reliability coefficients were high for the Ward Form (.86) and the Admission Form (.73) but not for the Multidisciplinary Team (.22) Form. There was an examiner effect (rater leniency), but this was small relative to real differences between students. Correlations between the Ward Form and the Admission Form were high (.47), while those with the Multidisciplinary Team Form were lower (.37 and .26, respectively). The CWS approach ITE was considered to be content valid by expert judges. CONCLUSIONS The collection of ongoing performance data was reasonably feasible, reliable, and valid.
Turnbull, J; MacFadyen, J; van Barneveld, C; Norman, G
In clinical pharmacology studies, cilazapril, after its bioactivation to cilazaprilat, was characterised as a potent, reversible angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a terminal half-life of 30 to 50 hours, which is consistent with saturable binding to ACE. Despite the arterial vasodilatation, only slight increases in heart rate occurred during cilazapril administration. Cilazapril had no acute effect on cardiovascular reflexes, and increased effective renal plasma flow slightly. Glomerular filtration rate remained unaltered. A close positive correlation was found between the cilazaprilat plasma concentration and degree of ACE inhibition. The potency of cilazaprit, defined as the concentration of cilazaprilat causing 50% inhibition of ACE, was approximately 1 microgram/L plasma. In short term studies in patients with hypertension, it appeared that more than 90% inhibition of plasma ACE was needed to obtain blood pressure reduction. Results of various dose-response studies established the indirect relationship between dose, the plasma concentration of the drug, and the blood pressure response, and identified the dose producing the maximal effect to be 5mg. Cilazapril inhibited ACE for a relatively long period which was extended in patients with severe chronic renal impairment or hepatic failure. In these patients a reduction of the dose and/or less frequent administration is recommended. There was no clinically relevant interaction of cilazapril with food, furosemide (frusemide), digoxin or coumarins. The effects of hydrochlorothiazide on sodium and chloride excretion were potentiated by cilazapril, and an additive effect of propranolol and nitrendipine on the blood pressure response to cilazapril was observed. An interaction with indomethacin and cilazapril might occur, potentially reducing the blood pressure-lowering effect of cilazapril. In general, cilazapril was well tolerated. PMID:1712269
Kleinbloesem, C H; van Brummelen, P; Francis, R J; Wiegand, U W
In clinical pharmacology studies cilazapril, after its bioactivation to cilazaprilat, was characterized as a potent, reversible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a terminal half-life of 30 to 50 hours consistent with saturable binding to ACE. Despite the arterial vasodilation, only slight increases in heart rate were found. Cilazapril had no acute effect on cardiovascular reflexes. Cilazapril increased effective renal plasma flow slightly. Glomerular filtration rate remained unaltered. A close and steep correlation between cilazaprilat plasma concentration and ACE inhibition was found. The potency of cilazaprilat, defined as the concentration of cilazaprilat causing 50 percent ACE inhibition, was approximately 1 ng/ml plasma. In short-term studies in hypertensive patients, it appeared that more than 90 percent of plasma ACE inhibition is needed to obtain blood pressure reduction. The result of various dose-response studies established the indirect relationship between dose, plasma concentration of the drug, and the blood pressure response and identified the dose producing maximal effect (i.e., 5 mg). Cilazapril had relatively long-lasting effects on ACE inhibition. In patients with severe chronic renal impairment or hepatic failure, the duration of ACE inhibition of cilazapril was prolonged. In these patients a reduction of the dose and/or less frequent dosing is recommended. There was no clinically relevant interaction of cilazapril with food or furosemide. The effects of hydrochlorothiazide on sodium and chloride excretion were potentiated by cilazapril. An additive effect of propranolol and nitrendipine on the blood pressure response to cilazapril was observed. An interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cilazapril might occur, potentially reducing the blood pressure lowering effect. In general cilazapril was well tolerated. PMID:2532460
Kleinbloesem, C H; Van Brummelen, P; Francis, R J; Wiegand, U W
Garenoxacin mesylate hydrate (GRN) is a novel oral des-fluoro(6) quinolone with potent antimicrobial activity against common respiratory pathogens, including resistant strains. It has favourable pharmacokinetic profiles for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), with good penetration into sputum and otorhinolaryngological tissues. In clinical studies, the efficacy of GRN ranged from 92% to 96% in patients with bacterial pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, chlamydial pneumonia and acute bronchitis. Efficacy was 85% in acute infectious exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease and ranged from 81% to 95% in otorhinolaryngological infections. Bacterial eradication was 90.9% for Staphylococcus aureus, 99.2% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 98.2% for Haemophilus influenzae, 96.6% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 100% for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, 100% for beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae and beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae, and 96.2% for beta-lactamase-positive M. catarrhalis. Garenoxacin concentrations in plasma and tissues using GRN 400mg once a day were higher than the MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms) of major causative pathogens. The trough concentration (Cmin) in plasma was 1.92 microg/mL, a level that was higher than the mutant prevention concentration, suggesting that GRN is unlikely to induce the selection of resistant strains during treatment. In clinical studies, GRN did not produce class adverse effects of fluoroquinolones such as QTc prolongation, blood glucose abnormality or severe liver damage. No serious adverse events were observed during the trials. The results indicate that GRN is very effective in treating patients with upper and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:18790608
Takagi, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Hisatsugu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki
The imperative to undertake randomised trials in children arises from extraordinary advances in basic biomedical sciences, needing a matching commitment to translational research if child health is to reap the benefits from this new knowledge. Unfortunately, many prescribed treatments for children have not been adequately tested in children, sometimes resulting in harmful treatments being given and beneficial treatments being withheld. Government, industry, funding agencies, and clinicians are responsible for research priorities being adult-focused because of the greater burden of disease in adults, coupled with financial and marketing considerations. This bias has meant that the equal rights of children to participate in trials has not always been recognised. This is changing, however, as the need for clinical trials in children has been increasingly recognised by the scientific community and broader public, leading to new legislation in some countries making trials of interventions mandatory in children as well as adults before drug approval is given. Trials in children are more challenging than those in adults. The pool of eligible children entering trials is often small because many conditions are uncommon in children, and the threshold for gaining consent is often higher and more complex because parents have to make decisions about trial participation on behalf of their child. Uncertain about what is best, despite supporting the notion of trials in principle, parents and paediatricians generally opt for the new intervention or for standard care rather than trial participation. In this review, we explore issues relating to trial participation for children and suggest some strategies for improving the conduct of clinical trials involving children. PMID:15337409
Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Murphy, Sharon B; Butow, Phyllis N; Craig, Jonathan C
Fingolimod (FTY720), a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, is the first in a new class of therapeutic compounds and is the first oral therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod is a structural analogue of endogenous sphingosine and undergoes phosphorylation to produce fingolimod phosphate, the active moiety. Fingolimod targets MS via effects on the immune system, and evidence from animal models indicates that it may also have actions in the central nervous system. In phase III studies in patients with relapsing-remitting MS, fingolimod has demonstrated efficacy superior to that of an approved first-line therapy, intramuscular interferon-?-1a, as well as placebo, with benefits extending across clinical and magnetic resonance imaging measures. The pharmacokinetic profiles of fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate have been extensively investigated in studies in healthy volunteers, renal transplant recipients (the indication for which fingolimod was initially under clinical development, but the development was subsequently discontinued) and MS patients. Results from these studies have demonstrated that fingolimod is efficiently absorbed, with an oral bioavailability of >90%, and its absorption is unaffected by dietary intake, therefore it can be taken without regard to meals. Fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate have a half-life of 6-9 days, and steady-state pharmacokinetics are reached after 1-2 months of daily dosing. The long half-life of fingolimod, together with its slow absorption, means that fingolimod has a flat concentration profile over time with once-daily dosing. Fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate show dose-proportional exposure in single- and multiple-dose studies over a range of 0.125-5?mg; hence, there is a predictable relationship between dose and systemic exposure. Furthermore, fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate exhibit low to moderate intersubject pharmacokinetic variability. Fingolimod is extensively metabolized, with biotransformation occurring via three main pathways: (i) reversible phosphorylation to fingolimod phosphate; (ii) hydroxylation and oxidation to yield a series of inactive carboxylic acid metabolites; and (iii) formation of non-polar ceramides. Fingolimod is largely cleared through metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2. Since few drugs are metabolized by CYP4F2, fingolimod would be expected to have a relatively low potential for drug-drug interactions. This is supported by data from in vitro studies indicating that fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate have little or no capacity to inhibit and no capacity to induce other major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes at therapeutically relevant steady-state blood concentrations. Population pharmacokinetic evaluations indicate that CYP3A inhibitors and CYP3A inducers have no effect or only a weak effect on the pharmacokinetics of fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate. However, blood concentrations of fingolimod and fingolimod phosphate are increased moderately when fingolimod is coadministered with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP4F2. The pharmacokinetics of fingolimod are unaffected by renal impairment or mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. However, exposure to fingolimod is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment. No clinically relevant effects of age, sex or ethnicity on the pharmacokinetics of fingolimod have been observed. Fingolimod is thus a promising new therapy for eligible patients with MS, with a predictable pharmacokinetic profile that allows effective once-daily oral dosing. PMID:22149256
David, Olivier J; Kovarik, John M; Schmouder, Robert L
The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications.
Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I
Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.
King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.
The patient-physician encounter is the pivotal starting point of any healthcare delivery, but it is subject to multiple process breakdowns and prevalent suboptimal performance. An overview of the techniques and components of a successful encounter valid for every setting and readily applicable is presented, stressing 7 rules: (1) ensuring optimal environment, tools, and teamwork; (2) viewing each encounter not only as a cognitive/biomedical challenge, but also as a personal one, and a learning opportunity; (3) adopting an attitude of curiosity, concentration, compassion, and commitment, and maintaining a systematic, orderly approach; (4) "simple is beautiful"-making the most of the basic clinical data and their many unique advantages; (5) minding "the silent dimension"-being attentive to the patient's identity and emotions; (6) following the "Holy Trinity" of gathering all information, consulting databases/colleagues, and tailoring gained knowledge to the individual patient; and (7) using the encounter as a "window of opportunity" to further the patient's health-not just the major problem, by addressing screening and prevention; promoting health literacy and shared decision-making; and establishing proper follow-up. Barriers to implementation identified can be overcome by continuous educational interventions. A high-quality encounter sets a virtuous cycle of patient-provider interaction and results in increasing satisfaction, adherence, and improved health outcomes. PMID:24333201
Twenty-four cases of trichotillomania attending psychiatry outpatient department and child guidance clinic at Kalawati Saran Children's and Smt Sucheta Kriplani Hospitals over a period of 2 years from July, 1985 to November 1987 were studied. Females (66.7%) outnumbered the males (33.3%). Majority of cases belonged to age group 6-10 years (54.2%) and nuclear family (68.5%). Nail-biting (25.0%) was the commonest associated neurotic trait, followed by enuresis (20.9%), temper-tantrum (12.5%), etc. A past history of hysterical fits and neurotic depression was found in 3 cases (12.5%) and 2 cases (8.3%) respectively. Family history of neurosis was seen in mothers and fathers of 20.9% and 12.5% cases respectively. Trichobezoars and trichophytobezoars were found in 6 cases (25.0%) and 3 cases (12.5%) respectively. Majority of patients of trichobezoars presented with vague complaints like heaviness in the stomach (55.6%), inability to gain weight (44.4%), etc, while 22.2% cases were asymptomatic and detected only on screening. PMID:1748781
Bhatia, M S; Singhal, P K; Rastogi, V; Dhar, N K; Nigam, V R; Taneja, S B
Data from 21 placebo-controlled, active-controlled or noncomparative studies involving more than 6500 patients, more than 4220 of whom were treated with glimepiride, are reviewed. Glimepiride has a rapid onset of action and is effective at a single daily dose. It is equally effective as the other second-generation sulfonylureas at doses of 1-8 mg/day, with doses above 4 mg/day reserved for patients with initial HbA(1c) above 8%. Glimepiride (at doses yielding the same blood-lowering effect as glyburide and glipizide), has a safety profile somewhat superior to that of glyburide, glipizide and gliclazide at a lower mg/day dose. Glimepiride also has been shown to be safe and effective in combination with insulin. Finally, glimepiride has two pharmacologic properties which have theoretical advantages over the other currently available sulfonylureas, but which have not as yet been shown to be clinically significant: it does not activate the cardiovascular K(ATP) channel and it achieves equivalent metabolic control at lower insulin secretion levels than the other sulfonylureas. PMID:15010703
Clark, C M; Helmy, A W
Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone. Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention.
In our previous work, we proposed a domain-independent language to describe clinical guidelines and a graphical tool to acquire them. In this paper, we describe an approach to execute clinical guidelines. We propose a flexible execution engine that can be used in clinical decision support applications, and also for medical education, or for integrating guidelines into the clinical workflow. We also focus our attention on temporal issues in the execution of guidelines, including the treatment of composite, concurrent and/or cyclic actions.
Terenziani, P.; Mastromonaco, F.; Molino, G.; Torchio, M.
Sir Bernard Tomlinson's report focuses on London's health services, but his proposals have major implications for the future of clinical research--not just in London but in the United Kingdom as a whole. They must be seen in the context of a widely perceived decline in British research and development which also threatens clinical research. This article examines the implications of Tomlinson's proposals and related strategies and recommends the construction of a research market for the patient costs of clinical research to complement the NHS market for patient services introduced in 1991. These arrangements would help sustain the clinical research base and guarantee excellence. Images p1084-a
Silent, or clinically nonfunctioning, pituitary adenomas can arise from any anterior pituitary cell type. Some are "clinically silent" in that they result in a supranormal serum concentration of the hormonal product of the cell type from which the adenoma arose but do not cause the clinical manifestations typical of excessive levels of that hormone. Others are "totally silent" in that they result in neither hormonal excess nor clinical manifestations. Gonadotroph and null cell adenomas are the most prevalent types and are typically silent. Somatotroph and corticotroph adenomas typically cause clinical syndromes but occasionally are clinically or totally silent. Those that are silent are usually larger and grow more aggressively than those that cause clinical syndromes. Silent adenomas are usually not discovered until they become very large and cause neurologic defects, such as visual impairment, but are also often discovered incidentally when neuroimaging is performed for another reason. Silent adenomas may become, rarely, clinically apparent over time. The diagnosis of a silent pituitary adenoma begins with the detection of a sellar mass by MRI. Biochemical testing can identify the adenoma cell type in those that are clinically silent. Silent adenomas that cause neurologic deficits require transsphenoidal surgery, but those that do not can be followed by MRI. Residual or recurrent disease is treated by radiation therapy, which is usually effective in preventing further growth but results in hormonal deficiencies in about half of patients. Dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogs are usually ineffective, but occasionally have been associated with reduced adenoma size. PMID:24676675
Mayson, Sarah E; Snyder, Peter J
This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to integrate classroom knowledge and a clinical swallowing assessment. Twenty master's-level graduate students in a dysphagia course conducted a clinical swallowing assessment with a resident of an independent retirement community. The exercise was designed to allow students an…
Phillips, Daniel E.
Other Gastrointestinal Cancers - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical
Metformin is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a biguanide developed from galegine, a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis (French lilac). Chemically, it is a hydrophilic base which exists at physiological pH as the cationic species (>99.9%). Consequently, its passive diffusion through cell membranes should be very limited. The mean ± SD fractional oral bioavailability (F) of metformin is 55 ± 16%. It is absorbed predominately from the small intestine. Metformin is excreted unchanged in urine. The elimination half-life (t(½)) of metformin during multiple dosages in patients with good renal function is approximately 5 hours. From published data on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, the population mean of its clearances were calculated. The population mean renal clearance (CL(R)) and apparent total clearance after oral administration (CL/F) of metformin were estimated to be 510 ± 130 mL/min and 1140 ± 330 mL/min, respectively, in healthy subjects and diabetic patients with good renal function. Over a range of renal function, the population mean values of CL(R) and CL/F of metformin are 4.3 ± 1.5 and 10.7 ± 3.5 times as great, respectively, as the clearance of creatinine (CL(CR)). As the CL(R) and CL/F decrease approximately in proportion to CL(CR), the dosage of metformin should be reduced in patients with renal impairment in proportion to the reduced CL(CR). The oral absorption, hepatic uptake and renal excretion of metformin are mediated very largely by organic cation transporters (OCTs). An intron variant of OCT1 (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs622342) has been associated with a decreased effect on blood glucose in heterozygotes and a lack of effect of metformin on plasma glucose in homozygotes. An intron variant of multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter [MATE1] (G>A, SNP rs2289669) has also been associated with a small increase in antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. Overall, the effect of structural variants of OCTs and other cation transporters on the pharmacokinetics of metformin appears small and the subsequent effects on clinical response are also limited. However, intersubject differences in the levels of expression of OCT1 and OCT3 in the liver are very large and may contribute more to the variations in the hepatic uptake and clinical effect of metformin. Lactic acidosis is the feared adverse effect of the biguanide drugs but its incidence is very low in patients treated with metformin. We suggest that the mean plasma concentrations of metformin over a dosage interval be maintained below 2.5 mg/L in order to minimize the development of this adverse effect. PMID:21241070
Graham, Garry G; Punt, Jeroen; Arora, Manit; Day, Richard O; Doogue, Matthew P; Duong, Janna K; Furlong, Timothy J; Greenfield, Jerry R; Greenup, Louise C; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Ray, John E; Timmins, Peter; Williams, Kenneth M
Severe asthma, although difficult to define, includes all cases of difficult/therapy-resistant disease of all age groups and bears the largest part of morbidity and mortality from asthma. Acute, severe asthma, status asthmaticus, is the more or less rapid but severe asthmatic exacerbation that may not respond to the usual medical treatment. The narrowing of airways causes ventilation perfusion imbalance, lung hyperinflation, and increased work of breathing that may lead to ventilatory muscle fatigue and life-threatening respiratory failure. Treatment for acute, severe asthma includes the administration of oxygen, ?2-agonists (by continuous or repetitive nebulisation), and systemic corticosteroids. Subcutaneous administration of epinephrine or terbutaline should be considered in patients not responding adequately to continuous nebulisation, in those unable to cooperate, and in intubated patients not responding to inhaled therapy. The exact time to intubate a patient in status asthmaticus is based mainly on clinical judgment, but intubation should not be delayed once it is deemed necessary. Mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus supports gas-exchange and unloads ventilatory muscles until aggressive medical treatment improves the functional status of the patient. Patients intubated and mechanically ventilated should be appropriately sedated, but paralytic agents should be avoided. Permissive hypercapnia, increase in expiratory time, and promotion of patient-ventilator synchronism are the mainstay in mechanical ventilation of status asthmaticus. Close monitoring of the patient's condition is necessary to obviate complications and to identify the appropriate time for weaning. Finally, after successful treatment and prior to discharge, a careful strategy for prevention of subsequent asthma attacks is imperative.
Papiris, Spyros; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Malagari, Katerina; Roussos, Charis
Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.
Merrell, Ronald C.
Of the 400 consecutive completed suicides investigated over a 5-year period, 114 (28.5%) who had consulted a doctor in the week preceding death were specifically reviewed and compared with those who did not. The study comprised an analysis of the medical history, the scene of death and a complete autopsy with histological and toxicological examination and the identification of features which occurred more frequently in this group when compared with other suicides not contacting their doctors. Suicide-associated factors include psychiatric illness (58.8%), deteriorating health (16.7%), and a loss of spouse (7.0%); all these features were manifested by this group of suicides more frequently than by those who made no clinical contact (P < 0.001). A pre-indication of suicidal intention was made by 45% of these patients. This feature, as with previous attempts, occurred more commonly in patients who consulted a doctor (P < 0.001). Drug overdose was the most common suicidal method chosen (50.9%) and anti-depressants predominated (35%); 78% of those who overdosed ingested prescribed drugs. Poisoning was more common in this group (P < 0.001). Half of the victims committed suicide within 24 hours following consultation; of these, 51% overdosed on drugs with 61% of them ingesting their prescribed drugs. Of these 114 cases, the final consultation in 43% was to collect more drugs. All suicidal threats should be taken seriously, and particular care should be taken in prescribing and dispensing medication which may be fatal in overdose.
Obafunwa, J. O.; Busuttil, A.
Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86%) pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.
M?rk, Tormod; Waage, Steinar; Tollersrud, Tore; Kvitle, Bj?rg; Sviland, Stale
Improving the efficiency with which clinical research studies are conducted can lead to faster medication innovation and decreased time to market for new drugs. To increase this efficiency, the parties involved in a regulated clinical research study, namely, the sponsor, the clinical investigator and the regulatory body, each with their own software applications, need to exchange data seamlessly. However, currently, the clinical research and the clinical care domains are quite disconnected because each use different standards and terminology systems. In this article, we describe an initial implementation of the Semantic Framework developed within the scope of SALUS project to achieve interoperability between the clinical research and the clinical care domains. In our Semantic Framework, the core ontology developed for semantic mediation is based on the shared conceptual model of both of these domains provided by the BRIDG initiative. The core ontology is then aligned with the extracted semantic models of the existing clinical care and research standards as well as with the ontological representations of the terminology systems to create a model of meaning for enabling semantic mediation. Although SALUS is a research and development effort rather than a product, the current SALUS knowledge base contains around 4.7 million triples representing BRIDG DAM, HL7 CDA model, CDISC standards and several terminology ontologies. In order to keep the reasoning process within acceptable limits without sacrificing the quality of mediation, we took an engineering approach by developing a number of heuristic mechanisms. The results indicate that it is possible to build a robust and scalable semantic framework with a solid theoretical foundation for achieving interoperability between the clinical research and clinical care domains. PMID:23008263
Laleci, Gokce Banu; Yuksel, Mustafa; Dogac, Asuman
Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value. PMID:24780831
Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B
Hypotonia in infants can be a confusing clinical presentation leading to inaccurate evaluation and unnecessary investigations. Hypotonia can result from a variety of central or peripheral causes. Therefore, hypotonia is a phenotype of many clinical conditions with variable prognosis. It is important to recognize that hypotonia is not equivalent to weakness. Infants with central causes, such as Down syndrome, may
Mohammed M. S. Jan
This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…
Reviews recent experimental evidence on the hypnotic treatment of obesity, cigarette smoking, alcoholism, clinical pain, warts, and asthma. It is concluded that although hypnosis may be effective with addictive behavior, the therapeutic success is attributable to nonhypnotic factors. In contrast, hypnosis appears to be of unique value in the treatment of clinical pain, warts, and asthma. Differential effectiveness may be
Thomas A. Wadden; Charles H. Anderton
Based on experiences in reviewing journal manuscripts and in working with published literature, the author discusses several methodological inadequacies that frequently occur in research reports dealing with the assessment, diagnosis, comparison, or categorization of individuals being appraised or studied for clinical purposes. Among the methodological problems encountered are sampling errors, inappropriate control groups, confusion of clinical and statistical significance, inadequate
Sol L. Garfield
This paper presents the data examples for clinical application of the authors' original thermographic techniques named developmental thermography (DT); (1) triple aspect thermography (TAT), (2) multiple aspect thermography (MAT) and (3) panoramic thermography (PT). Appropriate examples for the advantageous application for each technique of DT are selected and the specific advantages are discussed. The greatest advantage in the clinical application
Akinori Nagasawa; Kazuichi Katoh
This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.
Kessler, C. (Medical Univ. Lubeck, Lubeck (DE))
Despite changes that have taken place in health care systems, few changes have occurred in undergraduate clinical nursing education. High patient acuity and great needs for skilled technical nursing care make demands for clinical competence among newly graduated nurses across the United States an on-going concern (Matsumura, Callister, Palmer, Cox, & Larsen, 2004; Orsolini-Hain & Malone, 2007). This integrated literature
Rika Tanda; Sharon A. Denham
Nanotechnology–the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer–has been applied to molecular diagnostics. This article reviews nanobiotechnologies that are clinically relevant and have the potential to be incorporated in clinical laboratory diagnosis. Nanotechnologies enable the diagnosis at single cell and molecule level and some of these can be incorporated in the
Kewal K. Jain
Expectations of clinical-track nursing faculty involve scholarship of teaching or of practice. Faculty must embrace scholarship as part of their role and have the skills and resources to pursue it. At one school, a director of clinical scholarship provides support and resources for faculty research. (SK)
Jones, Elaine G.; Van Ort, Suzanne
A clinical privileges program for pharmacists is described. In 1985 and 1989 the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) issued circulars defining policy on clinical privileges for pharmacists at its medical centers. Pharmacists at one large VA medical center responded by developing a clinical privileges program. Bylaws under which medical staff members are granted clinical privileges were used as a model for the pharmacist program. A pharmacist seeking privileges prepares an application detailing his or her background and the practice areas involved in the request; the applicant also drafts a quality assurance protocol. The application is reviewed by a pharmacist clinical privileges review board (PCPRB). The PCPRB uses the quality assurance plan to verify that adequate measures are in place to meet standards of care. If a question of patient safety arises, the board meets to review the pharmacist's activities. Each pharmacist who is granted privileges must have a physician sponsor. Since the first meeting of the PCPRB in 1990, clinical privileges have been requested by all 24 clinical pharmacy specialists at the center. No pharmacist has been denied privileges, although the board has required additional training or improved quality assurance protocols for many. Acceptance of the program by the medical staff has been good. A clinical privileges program at a VA medical center offers pharmacists the opportunity to practice pharmaceutical care. PMID:1529982
Hutchison, L C; Wolfe, J J; Padilla, C B; Forrester, C W
Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial that differs in chemical structure from erythromycin by the methylation of the hydroxyl group at position 6 on the lactone ring. The pharmacokinetic advantages that clarithromycin has over erythromycin include increased oral bioavailability (52 to 55%), increased plasma concentrations (mean maximum concentrations ranged from 1.01 to 1.52 mg/L and 2.41 to 2.85 mg/L after multiple 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively), and a longer elimination half-life (3.3 to 4.9 hours) to allow twice daily administration. In addition, clarithromycin has extensive diffusion into saliva, sputum, lung tissue, epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, tonsils, nasal mucosa and middle ear fluid. Clarithromycin is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozymes and has an active metabolite, 14-hydroxyclarithromycin. The reported mean values of total body clearance and renal clearance in adults have ranged from 29.2 to 58.1 L/h and 6.7 to 12.8 L/h, respectively. In patients with severe renal impairment, increased plasma concentrations and a prolonged elimination half-life for clarithromycin and its metabolite have been reported. A dosage adjustment for clarithromycin should be considered in patients with a creatinine clearance < 1.8 L/h. The recommended goal for dosage regimens of clarithromycin is to ensure that the time that unbound drug concentrations in the blood remains above the minimum inhibitory concentration is at least 40 to 60% of the dosage interval. However, the concentrations and in vitro activity of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin must be considered for pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, clarithromycin achieves significantly higher drug concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages, the potential sites of extracellular and intracellular respiratory tract pathogens, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of these concentrations of clarithromycin at the site of infection. Clarithromycin can increase the steady-state concentrations of drugs that are primarily depend upon CYP3A metabolism (e.g., astemidole, cisapride, pimozide, midazolam and triazolam). This can be clinically important for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, such as carbamazepine, cyclosporin, digoxin, theophylline and warfarin. Potent inhibitors of CYP3A (e.g., omeprazole and ritonavir) may also alter the metabolism of clarithromycin and its metabolites. Rifampicin (rifampin) and rifabutin are potent enzyme inducers and several small studies have suggested that these agents may significantly decrease serum clarithromycin concentrations. Overall, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies suggest that fewer serious drug interactions occur with clarithromycin compared with older macrolides such as erythromycin and troleandomycin. PMID:10589373
Rodvold, K A
The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of the responsibility that will have these Committees, presents/displays the following article, with the bioética commite and the support to this in other hospitable units. PMID:17937182
Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor
Social media has potential in clinical trials for pointing out trial issues, addressing barriers, educating, and engaging multiple groups involved in cancer clinical research. Social media is being used in clinical trials to highlight issues such as poor accrual and barriers; educate potential participants and physicians about clinical trial options; and is a potential indirect or direct method to improve accrual. We are moving from a passive "push" of information to patients to a "pull" of patients requesting information. Patients and advocates are often driving an otherwise reluctant health care system into communication. Online patient communities are creating new information repositories. Potential clinical trial participants are using the Twittersphere and other sources to learn about potential clinical trial options. We are seeing more organized patient-centric and patient-engaged forums with the potential to crowd source to improve clinical trial accrual and design. This is an evolving process that will meet many individual, institutional, and regulatory obstacles as we move forward in a changed research landscape. PMID:24857086
Thompson, Michael A
OBJECTIVE: The authors review clinical applications of gut-derived peptides as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: An increasing number of gut peptides have been evaluated for clinical use. Earlier uses as diagnostic agents have been complemented more recently by increasing application of gut peptides as therapeutic agents. METHOD: The authors conducted a literature review. RESULTS: Current experience with clinical use of gut peptides is described. Initial clinical applications focused on using secretomotor effects of gut peptides in diagnostic tests, many of which have now fallen into disuse. More recently, attention has been directed toward harnessing these secretomotor effects for therapeutic use in a variety of disorders, and also using the trophic effects of gut peptides to modulate gut mucosal growth in benign and malignant disease. Gut peptides have been evaluated in a variety of other clinical situations including use as adjuncts to imaging techniques, and modification of behaviors such as feeding and panic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Gut peptides have been used successfully in an increasing variety of clinical conditions. Further refinements in analogue and antagonist design are likely to lead to even more selective agents that may have important clinical applications. Further studies are needed to identity and evaluate these new agents.
Geoghegan, J; Pappas, T N
Endpoints are measurable clinical and biological findings that are used for the development and assessment of treatment options. In the treatment of cancer, endpoints can be classified into two categories: "patient-centered clinical endpoints" including overall survival (OS) and health-related quality of life (QoL), and "tumor-centered clinical endpoints" such as progression-free survival. Surrogate endpoints are tumor-centered clinical endpoints that can be used as substitutes for patient-centered clinical endpoints, particularly OS. The choice of endpoints in oncology trials is a major problem. The published Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) best-practice guidelines encourage the reporting of clearly defined primary and secondary outcome measures. OS is the gold standard of endpoints but as increasing numbers of effective salvage treatments become available for many types of cancer, much larger numbers of patients are included; this requires a longer follow-up period and increases the cost of clinical trials. Thus, tumor-centered clinical endpoints that can be assessed earlier and used as surrogates for overall survival are increasingly studied, but most of them currently lack standardized definitions to enable cross comparison of results among different clinical trials and they have not been validated as surrogate endpoints. In addition, the variability of their definition can strongly impact the trial's conclusions by affecting both statistical power and estimation. In this context, QoL constitutes an available and useful surrogate endpoint for trials to ensure treatment benefit from both the patient and public health points of view. Methodological research should be pursued to develop standard outcome definitions for use in cancer clinical trials and to define a standardized longitudinal analysis of QoL data. PMID:24440056
Fiteni, F; Westeel, V; Pivot, X; Borg, C; Vernerey, D; Bonnetain, F
evidence for the cardiovascular and renal benefits of hyper- tension control, during that same decade, hypertension con- trol rates increased from 24.6% to only 31.0%. At a time when he was director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Claude Lenfant expressed the concern that the potential benefits of clinical research are lost in the translation into clinical practice.2Others
Theodore A. Kotchen
DSM-IV mixed states have become the mixed mania and mixed depression in the new DSM-5. One noticeable point is the introduction of nine cations, among which the "with mixed features" specification. These non exclusive specifications may contribute to a more precise identification of mixed clinical pictures, and therefore to offer a more efficient therapeutic answer. Different dimensional approaches are widely documented. They allow the isolation of a mixed factor which is clinically associated with two other specifications: anxious distress and psychotic features. These severity markers may encourage clinicians to be alert about the risk of misdiagnosis, and cautious in the management of these clinical situations. PMID:24359852
Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E; Cermolacce, M; Dassa, D; Dubois, M; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Corréard, N; Azorin, J-M
Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with ?-thalassemia intermedia has substantially increased over the past decade. Earlier studies observed that patients with ?-thalassemia intermedia experience a clinical-complications profile that is different from that in patients with ?-thalassemia major. In this article, a variety of clinical morbidities are explored, and their associations with the underlying disease pathophysiology and risk factors are examined. These involve several organs and organ systems including the vasculature, heart, liver, endocrine glands, bone, and the extramedullary hematopoietic system. The effects of some therapeutic interventions on the development of clinical complications are also discussed.
Musallam, Khaled M.; Taher, Ali T.; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.
... get more information? (continued) To find out about cancer research studies, these resources are available through the National ... 6237) for free cancer information and help finding cancer clinical research studies. TTY users should call 1-800-332- ...
Clinical trials employing immunotherapy frequently involve patients with many different types of cancer. Accordingly, this Cancergram focuses on the immunotherapy employed rather than the disease diagnosis. Adoptive, active specific, and active nonspecifi...
Clinical trials employing immunotherapy frequently involve patients with many different types of cancer. Accordingly, the Cancergram focuses on the immunotherapy employed rather than the disease diagnosis. Adoptive, active specific, and active nonspecific...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in diseases is the subject of an overwhelming array of studies. BMPs are excellent targets for treatment of various clinical disorders. Several BMPs have already been shown to be clinically beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including BMP-2 and BMP-7 that have been approved for clinical application in nonunion bone fractures and spinal fusions. With the use of BMPs increasingly accepted in spinal fusion surgeries, other therapeutic approaches targeting BMP signaling are emerging beyond applications to skeletal disorders. These approaches can further utilize next-generation therapeutic tools such as engineered BMPs and ex vivo-conditioned cell therapies. In this review, we focused to provide insights into such clinical potentials of BMPs in metabolic and vascular diseases, and in cancer.
Kim, Meejung; Choe, Senyon
John H. Evans's views on the multiple roles of healthcare ethics consultants are based on his claim that bioethics is a "distinct profession" that has a "system of abstract knowledge." This response to Professor Evans disputes both of his claims. It is argued that clinical ethicists are consultants but not professionals. Their roles as consultants require more than one abstract form of knowledge (principlism). Instead, clinical ethicists rely upon a variety of ethical perspectives and other skills to help resolve conflicts and facilitate healthcare decisions and policy making, whether it is in clinical, research, policy, or organizational contexts. The credibility and effectiveness of clinical ethicists depend upon their knowledge of ethics, their practical experience, and personal abilities, not one form of abstract knowledge. PMID:24779316
Winslade, William J
Meaningful anomalies in clinical processes may be related to caring performance or even the patient survival. It is imperative that the anomalies be timely detected such that useful and actionable knowledge of interest could be extracted to clinicians. Many previous approaches assume prior knowledge about the structure of clinical processes, using which anomalies are detected in a supervised manner. For a majority of clinical settings, however, clinical processes are complex, ad hoc, and even unknown a prior. In this paper, we investigate how to facilitate detection of anomalies in an unsupervised manner. An anomaly detection model is presented by applying a density-based clustering method on patient careflow logs. Using the learned model, it is possible to detect whether a particular patient careflow trace is anomalous with respect to normal traces in the logs. The approach has been validated over real data sets collected from a Chinese hospital.
Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong
Recruiting patients is a critical point of today's clinical research and, along the years, several solutions have been proposed, even if their efficacy seems to be doubtful. On the other hand, nowadays, Internet represents a great opportunity for improving clinical trial recruitments. Nevertheless, on-line recruitment services (e-recruitment) could ensure some advantages (such as facilitating interaction between supply and demand of clinical research, time and money savings/optimizations, data entry errors reduction), but also raise some issues (such as those related to sampling, information, consent, real identity of participants and risks for data breaches). The article debates on the difficulties to recruit patients for clinical research, in general, and e-recruitment particularly, discussing some ethical issues raised by internet enrolment. PMID:24589968
Refolo, P; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Spagnolo, A G
The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment.
Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I
This was an award to purchase equipment for state-of-the-art MRI radiofrequency coils. There was no personnel effort or construction as a part of this project. This report details the final status of the approved budget items for this project. All approved budget items were successfully delivered and installed. The equipment provided to Cleveland Clinic under this project will allow Cleveland Clinic researchers to build imaging equipment with improved capability to investigate brain disorders.
Targeting angiogenesis is a rapidly emerging field of cancer research. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against\\u000a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is at the forefront of clinical investigations and is FDA-approved for several\\u000a neoplasms, including advanced colon, lung, and renal cancers. This chapter discusses key clinical trials that led to the approval\\u000a of bevacizumab, its promising use in
Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching; Ravi A. Madan; James L. Gulley
Other Vendors Biotech Regulatory Patients CROs CDISC Proprietary May 2002 6 Benefits of Standardization in our Industry z Reduce time and cost associated with clinical trials for drug development z Facilitate business processes among biopharmaceutical companies, CROs, EDC vendors, clinical laboratories z Facilitate reviews of regulatory submissions z Increase familiarity with common data elements, reducing training requirements z Improve data quality CDISC Proprietary May 2002 7 What is CDISC, and what is the history?
American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)ACRIN is an international cooperative group sponsored by NCI's Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) as well as philanthropies. Through clinical trials of diagnostic imaging and image-guided therapeutic technologies, ACRIN's goal is to generate information that will lengthen and improve the quality of the lives of cancer patients. ACRIN's clinical trials address both existing and emerging technologies as they apply to cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, imaging as a biomarker, and image-guided treatment.
Clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) apply best-known medical knowledge to patient data for the purpose of generating case-specific decision-support advice. CDSS forms the cornerstone of health informatics research and practice. It is an embedded concept in almost all major clinical information systems and plays an instrumental role in helping health care achieve its ultimate goal: providing high- quality patient care while,
The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute offers unpaid clinical trials research training internships for outstanding statistics and biostatistics students who have strong interests in both clinical trials and methodological research. Each intern selects a research project from any of the areas of active research interest of the preceptor, and works with this preceptor towards turning the project into a paper that can be published (with the intern as a co-author).
Restenosis, the major problem after stent implantation, is caused by in-stent neointimal\\u000ahyperplasia. A number of metbods and techniques have been studied during the last\\u000aten years to address tbis issue, but in-stent restenosis has remained at a rate of 15-25%\\u000ain most of tbe clinical trials. Several experimental and clinical trials showed that\\u000abrachytherapy, following a balloon angioplasty or
A. J. Wardeh
Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines. PMID:17633968
Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients. PMID:17874915
Hunsberger, Peter Hume
Objective: Measure the adoption and utilization of, opinions about, and attitudes toward clinical computing among general dentists in the United States. Design: Telephone survey of a random sample of 256 general dentists in active practice in the United States. Measurements: A 39-item telephone interview measuring practice characteristics and information technology infrastructure; clinical information storage; data entry and access; attitudes toward and opinions about clinical computing (features of practice management systems, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, and potential improvements); clinical Internet use; and attitudes toward the National Health Information Infrastructure. Results: The authors successfully screened 1,039 of 1,159 randomly sampled U.S. general dentists in active practice (89.6% response rate). Two hundred fifty-six (24.6%) respondents had computers at chairside and thus were eligible for this study. The authors successfully interviewed 102 respondents (39.8%). Clinical information associated with administration and billing, such as appointments and treatment plans, was stored predominantly on the computer; other information, such as the medical history and progress notes, primarily resided on paper. Nineteen respondents, or 1.8% of all general dentists, were completely paperless. Auxiliary personnel, such as dental assistants and hygienists, entered most data. Respondents adopted clinical computing to improve office efficiency and operations, support diagnosis and treatment, and enhance patient communication and perception. Barriers included insufficient operational reliability, program limitations, a steep learning curve, cost, and infection control issues. Conclusion: Clinical computing is being increasingly adopted in general dentistry. However, future research must address usefulness and ease of use, workflow support, infection control, integration, and implementation issues.
Schleyer, Titus K.L.; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P.; Spallek, Heiko; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel H.; Hernandez, Pedro; Yuhaniak, Jeannie
Background This paper describes an assessment approach of clinical competencies which widens the number of problems and tasks evaluated using videos and images. Method Clinical Image and Video Assessment (CIVA) was used to assess clinical reasoning and decision making of final year medical students. Forty to fifty clinical videos and images supported by rich text vignette and reviewed by subject matter experts were selected based on examination blueprints for analysis. CIVA scores were correlated with OSCE, Direct Observation Clinical Encounter Exam (DOCEE) and written exam scores, using the 2-sided Pearson correlation analysis, and their reliability was analyzed using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Furthermore, students personally evaluated the CIVA using a 5- point Likert scale. Results CIVA and OSCE scores showed a high correlation (r?=?0.83) in contrast with the correlation scores of the written examination (r?=?.36) and the DOCEE (r?=?0.35). Cronbach’s Alpha for the OSCE and CIVA for the first batch was 0.71 and 0.78. As for the second batch it was 0.91 and 0.91 respectively. Eighty-two percent of students were very satisfied or satisfied with the CIVA process, contents and quality. Conclusions A well constructed CIVA type assessment with a rich authentic vignette and good quality videos and images could be used to assess clinical reasoning and decision making of final year medical students. CIVA is an assessment tool which correlates well with OSCE, compliments the written and DOCEE and is easier to conduct at a possibly reduced cost.
...manufacturing information) that supports initial clinical trials in humans. Presentations will also discuss the role of clinical pharmacology in early clinical studies and how this information is used in the design of subsequent studies. On November 8, 2011,...
...manufacturing information) that supports initial clinical trials in humans. Presentations will also discuss the role of clinical pharmacology in early clinical studies and how this information is used in the design of subsequent studies. On November 9, 2010,...
Myeloproliferative/Myelodysplastic Disorders - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured
Imaging clinical trials take place in doctor's offices, cancer centers, other medical centers, community hospitals and clinics, and veterans' and military hospitals in cities and towns across the United States and in other countries. Imaging clinical
What are clinical trials? A clinical trial is one of the final stages of a long and careful cancer research process. Studies ... and effective. What are the different types of clinical trials? Treatment trials test new treatments (like a new ...
A report of the clinical research program and publications of the staff of Tripler Army Medical Center, APO San Francisco 96438, for fiscal year 1972 is presented. The program was monitored by the Clinical Research Committee. The Clinical Research Service...
J. E. Hansen
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCE&M) online, featuring original works in clinical practice and applied clinical research, begins January 1997 (Vol 82), abstracts from February 1975 (Vol 40), and tables of contents from September 1965.
The article describes a successful model for clinical integration that has improved utilization rates, service levels, physician and staff satisfaction, and the financial performance of physician groups and health plans. The model for clinical integration provides processes of medical management, care management, and patient management that are designed to transform a traditionally fragmented delivery system into a more cohesive system where everyone is working toward a common objective with aligned incentives. Links are established among primary care physicians, specialists, and hospitals to create synergistic relationships and seamless, accessible care for members. PMID:10338708
Qudah, F; Brannon, M; McDougall, P
...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices...will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical...
...Request: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials SUMMARY: In...Title: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials. Type of Information...engaging, informational ``serious video game'' for adolescents about...
Although the frequentist paradigm has been the predominant approach to clinical trial design since the 1940s, it has several notable limitations. The alternative Bayesian paradigm has been greatly enhanced by advancements in computational algorithms and computer hardware. Compared to its frequentist counterpart, the Bayesian framework has several unique advantages, and its incorporation into clinical trial design is occurring more frequently. Using an extensive literature review to assess how Bayesian methods are used in clinical trials, we find them most commonly used for dose finding, efficacy monitoring, toxicity monitoring, diagnosis/decision making, and for studying pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. The additional infrastructure required for implementing Bayesian methods in clinical trials may include specialized software programs to run the study design, simulation, and analysis, and Web-based applications, which are particularly useful for timely data entry and analysis. Trial success requires not only the development of proper tools but also timely and accurate execution of data entry, quality control, adaptive randomization, and Bayesian computation. The relative merit of the Bayesian and frequentist approaches continues to be the subject of debate in statistics. However, more evidence can be found showing the convergence of the two camps, at least at the practical level. Ultimately, better clinical trial methods lead to more efficient designs, lower sample sizes, more accurate conclusions, and better outcomes for patients enrolled in the trials. Bayesian methods offer attractive alternatives for better trials. More such trials should be designed and conducted to refine the approach and demonstrate its real benefit in action.
Lee, J. Jack; Chu, Caleb T.
Implementing reproductive health and family planning clinic hours specifically and exclusively for teens requires a commitment of both staff and financial resources. However, once open, the clinic will draw teens. Teens' most important concern is that their presence at the clinic and their receipt of services remain confidential. Many teens do not want to consult their regular doctor or visit a traditional health center out of fear of being seen by parents or friends of parents. By scheduling special hours, usually after school or on weekends, teens can come to health facilities without risking detection. Patient costs must be either kept low or nonexistent. Current concern over the rise in pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease rates among teens may help agencies qualify for special funding for clinic services. Clinic staff must also be attuned to teens' needs and committed to providing them with reproductive health services. It should also be understood that the provision of free or low-cost services may pull staff from reimbursable activities. PMID:12321213
Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484
Murphy, Sean C; Shott, Joseph P; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R; Stewart, V Ann
Proteomics has emerged from the labs of technologists to enter widespread application in clinical contexts. This transition, however, has been hindered by overstated early claims of accuracy, concerns about reproducibility, and the challenges of handling batch effects properly. New efforts have produced sets of performance metrics and measurements of variability that establish sound expectations for experiments in clinical proteomics. As researchers begin incorporating these metrics in a quality by design paradigm, the variability of individual steps in experimental pipelines will be reduced, regularizing overall outcomes. This review discusses the evolution of quality assessment in 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling, tandem mass spectrometry-based protein inventories, and proteomic quantitation. Taken together, the advances in each of these technologies are establishing databases that will be increasingly useful for decision-making in clinical experimentation.
Tabb, David L.
The purpose of this study was to determine under carefully controlled clinical conditions the relative anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic action of betamethasone as compared with prednisone and a placebo. A total of 130 consecutive patients with atopic dermatitis, primary irritant dermatitis, nummular eczema, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis, sweat retention, seborrheic dermatitis and pruritus were selected for study. Under the conditions of this clinical trial, the samples indicated a difference in anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic response to the therapeutic agents used. The difference between betamethasone and the placebo was highly significant, and the difference in these measured responses was studied on the basis of a careful evaluation and statistically. The result of this study corroborates statistically our clinical impression regarding the therapeutic effect of betamethasone. PMID:14025047
DANTO, J L; STEWART, W D; MADDIN, W S; NELSON, A J
Tumor hypoxia or a reduction of the tissue oxygen tension is a key microenvironmental factor for tumor progression and treatment resistance in solid tumors. Because hypoxic tumor cells have been demonstrated to be more resistant to ionizing radiation, hypoxia has been a focus of laboratory and clinical research in radiation therapy for many decades. It is believed that proper detection of hypoxic regions would guide treatment options and ultimately improve tumor response. To date, most clinical efforts in targeting tumor hypoxia have yielded equivocal results due to the lack of appropriate patient selection. However, with improved understanding of the molecular pathways regulated by hypoxia and the discovery of novel hypoxia markers, the prospect of targeting hypoxia has become more tangible. This chapter will focus on the development of clinical biomarkers for hypoxia targeting.
Le, Quynh-Thu; Courter, Don
Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed.
Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A
Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.
Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav [Philips Medical Systems, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560045 (India)
Lipedema is a common disease in the usual clinical practice. None organic description about the clinical symptoms and signs associated to this condition has been published. Fifty women with lipedema have been examined by the authors, and incidence rates of symptoms and signs have been emphasized. The following signs and symptoms were constantly reported: "Egyptian column", elastic edema, negative Stemmer's sign, alterated plantar support, cutaneous hypothermia. Some others were frequently found: ecchymosis, spontaneous pain, liposclerosis on the thigh, hypodermic hyperalgesia and pain on the internal face of the knee. Moreover, the two most relevant differential diagnosis as well as their two variant's clinical features (mixed lipedema and "thin women" lipedema) have been described. PMID:2248420
Bilancini, S; Lucchi, M; Tucci, S
This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy. PMID:23219083
Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A
To aid in the prospective study of Binswanger's disease, a poorly understood form of vascular dementia, a standardised criteria for its antemortem diagnosis was proposed. These criteria include dementia, bilateral radiological abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and at least two of the following three clinical findings: A) a vascular risk factor or evidence of systemic vascular disease; B) evidence of focal cerebrovascular disease; and C) evidence of "subcortical" cerebral dysfunction. These criteria were validated in two ways. First, by retrospectively applying them to a series of 30 demented patients with various pathological diagnoses. Second, by prospectively applying them to a series of 184 patients with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease. The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria appear adequate for use in clinical research.
Bennett, D A; Wilson, R S; Gilley, D W; Fox, J H
We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 100 patients suffering from Sydenham's chorea (SC). Our analysis revealed a recent, progressive decline in the number of new cases. Onset of SC was frequently reported between 7 and 12 years of age, being more frequent in females. Patients with generalized or severe chorea showed a higher risk of presenting gait
Vitor Tumas; Carla Tanuri Caldas; Antonio Carlos Santos; Auro Nobre; Regina Maria França Fernandes
Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…
Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.
Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…
Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials play a central role in the establishment of clinical evidence, and the important role of clinical research coordinators (CRCs) in various processes of clinical trials is now widely recognized. In Japan, many CRCs work under the discretion of their hospital and support clinical trials in various areas. Modification of CRC activity pursuant to the types of clinical
Hiroaki Yanagawa; Akiyo Akaishi; Toshiko Miyamoto; Shigemi Takai; Rika Nakanishi; Minoru Irahara
The shoulder joint is complex in structure and functionality. It is often difficult to assess clinically due to the great variety of associated pathology. This article presents an overview of the anatomy of the shoulder region and associated pathologies, whilst providing a summary of the clinical examination of the shoulder and associated ‘special tests’. A full history is vital when assessing shoulder pathology. No particular test is fully sensitive or specific alone and accuracy varies between both clinicians and patients alike. Assessment of the shoulder should be conducted systematically with a range of tests combined.
Donnelly, Thomas D; Ashwin, Sridhar; MacFarlane, Robert J; Waseem, Mohammed
The authors present three neurological cases (common and uncommon), that have important management implications. The specific diagnosis can be suspected clinically if the clinician is aware of the entities. Besides clinical clues, the recognition of important findings in MRI brain is highlighted. The first case is a child with developmental delay, the second case is a child with acute encephalitis like presentation, the third is a child with deteriorating school performance and the fourth is a child with raised intracranial pressure. The authors also present concise review of the topics. PMID:24532338
Singhi, Pratibha; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Singhi, Sunit
Written in outline format, this reference will help nurses further their understanding of advanced nursing procedures. Information is provided on the physiological, psychological, environmental, and safety considerations of nursing activities associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Special consideration is given to the areas of pediatric nursing, nursing assessment, and selected radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures for each system. Contents: Clinical Introduction. Clinical Nursing Practice: Focus on Basics. Focus on Cardiovascular Function. Focus on Respiratory Function. Focus on Gastrointestinal Function. Focus on Renal and Genito-Urological Function. Focus on Neuro-Skeletal and Muscular Function. Appendices.
Asheervath, J.; Blevins, D.R.
Nowadays, human insulin is used daily by millions of diabetic patients. The biological effect of human insulin is comparable to that of porcine insulin. However, after subcutaneous injection, pharmacological and clinical studies showed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between human and animal insulins. Human insulin tends to have faster absorption and shorter duration of action compared with animal insulin. These differences are more pronounced and can be of clinical relevance with intermediate- and long-acting insulin preparations. Optimal metabolic control can be achieved with either human or highly purified animal insulin preparations, provided appropriate insulin replacement strategies are used. PMID:8299482
Heinemann, L; Richter, B
We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.
Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten
Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668
Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A
The technetium-99m(/sup 99m/Tc)-labelled diphosophonate bone scan remains the most frequently requested investigation in any nuclear medicine department because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection. It has a wide, and apparently ever-increasing, range of applications in clinical practice and the purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of bone scanning. In addition, important topics of current interest, such as single photon emission computed tomography, quantitation of bone uptake of diphosphonate and bone mineral measurements by photon absorptiometry, are included. The emphasis is on the clinical use of bone scanning.
Clinical research implies advancing current knowledge about health care by continually developing and testing new ideas about diseases, products, procedures, and strategies. Although this trait is inherent in human nature, it needs to be encouraged, nurtured, groomed, and channelized by creating a suitable atmosphere for it, providing the necessary resources, inculcating the necessary conceptual and manual skills, and rewarding the efforts and achievements suitably. Language, logic, statistics, and psychology play an important role in acquiring and developing research capability. To be socially relevant and economically viable, clinical research will need to partner with patients and their doctors in identifying what their goals of health care are, what they value, and what they are willing to "buy" in terms of goods and services. Besides, clinical research will need to bring on one platform the sponsors, the researchers, the patients, the payers, and the regulators to ensure that they do not work at cross purposes, that the cost of developing health care measures is scaled down through innovative approaches such as large simple trials, sequential trials, early marketing conditional on post-marketing surveillance, and so on. All these will be possible if day-to-day practice is slowly and systemically transformed into the largest laboratory of clinical research, which it ought to be, by forming networks of research-oriented practices, and popularizing the use of data collection and analysis tools such as Epi Info which are in the public domain. PMID:21829777
Surveyed clinical psychology training programs and internships to estimate the impact of federal budget cutbacks. For the 1973–1974 academic year, there were 20 graduate school applicants and 9 internship applicants for each funded position. Funded positions decreased 9–22% compared with the previous year.
The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and
Hubert G. M Niesters
Supervisors must become aware of the possible conflicts that could arise during clinical supervision. It is important that supervisors communicate their roles and expectations effectively with their supervisees. This paper supports the notion that supervision is a mutual agreement between the supervisee and the supervisor and the roles of…
... El-Naggar, Adel K., M.D., Ph.D. University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX http://rarediseasesnetwork.epi.usf.edu/SGCC/index.htm STAIR: Sterol And Isoprenoid Diseases Consortium ... University, Portland, OR CINCH: Consortium for Clinical Investigation of ...
Carbohydrate intolerance (CI), has been recognized since the beginning of this century as an entity linked with gastrointestinal disorders) More recently, the work of different authors clearly shows that this problem is most frequently associated with diarrheal disease. 2 Clinically there is transient lactose intolerance and often this intolerance can prolong and increase the severity of the diarrhea and lead
M. Weyman; J. A. Garcia-Aranda; F. Lifshitz
The function of implanted pacemakers was assessed at a special pacemaker clinic at intervals of three to six months. Measurements of the basic discharge rate of the pacemaker were made and the waveform was recovered from skin electrodes and displayed on an oscilloscope screen. The impulse was photographed from the screen and subsequent waveform analysis was carried out. Reproducible results
Edgar Sowton; Kenneth Gray
Experimental studies have demonstrated that myocardium reperfused after reversible ischemia exhibits prolonged depression of contractile function (“stunning”). Despite the multiplicity of clinical situations in which myocardial stunning would be expected to occur, investigation of this phenomenon in humans has been hindered by several major problems, including the limited accuracy of the methods available to measure regional left ventricular function, the
Roberto Bolli; Craig J. Hartley; Raphael S. Rabinovitz
This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…
Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be
S. Salminen; A. C. Ouwehand; E. Isolauri
The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.
Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))
Evaluation of optometry students in clinical settings is a complex management task involving an institutionwide feedback system requiring monitoring. Criteria and standards of demonstrable validity should be applied consistently and equitably, formal evaluation tools should use advanced technology and technique, but faculty should still be…
Dell, William M.
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been a mainstay in pediatric care for decades. Although new antibiotics are constantly under development, gentamicin continues to play an important role in clinical medicine. Although this may be surprising in the context of evidence of an association with hearing loss, both on a toxicity and a…
Pillers, De-Ann M.; Schleiss, Mark R.
Secondary brain damage, following severe head injury is considered to be a major cause for bad outcome. Impressive reductions of the extent of brain damage in experimental studies have raised high expectations for cerebral neuroprotective treatment, in the clinic. Therefore multiple compounds were and are being evaluated in trials. In this review we discuss the pathomechanisms of traumatic brain damage, based upon their clinical importance. The role of hypothermia, mannitol, barbiturates, steroids, free radical scavengers, arachidonic acid inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists, and potassium channel blockers, will be discussed. The importance of a uniform strategic approach for evaluation of potentially interesting new compounds in clinical trials, to ameliorate outcome in patients with severe head injury, is proposed. To achieve this goal, two nonprofit organizations were founded: the European Brain Injury Consortium (EBIC) and the American Brain Injury Consortium (ABIC). Their aim lies in conducting better clinical trials, which incorporate lessons learned from previous trials, such that the succession of negative, or incomplete studies, as performed in previous years, will cease. PMID:10406003
Reinert, M M; Bullock, R
Clinical Imaging Steering Committee Roster Chair Steven M. Larson, M.D.Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew York, NY Neil M. Rofsky, M.D.UT Southwestern Medical CenterDallas, TX Members Laurence H. Baker, D.O.University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI David
Among the clinical implications of attachment theory are the ideas of the therapist as a secure base, internalization of a secure base, and feeling understood as an aspect of secure attachment. I also discuss some issues that need to be integrated into attachment theory, namely, survivor guilt and loyalty to early objects, and the relation between attachment pattern and oedipal
In recent times, there has been considerable controversy over the accuracy, reproducibility, and importance of pressures measured in the esophagus and its sphincters. This has led to confusion about the potential clinical utility of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of abnormalities of esophageal function. There are at least two important aspects that should be considered when formulating an opinion concerning
D. O. Castell
The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.
Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam
Gait analysis has now advanced to the point where it is used as a routine part of patient management in certain centers. It is best thought of as a special investigation, which is used together with the history, physical examination and other special investigations to perform a detailed assessment of a patient with a walking disorder. Clinical gait analysis usually
Michael W. Whittle
Clinical gait analysis allows the measurement and assessment of walking biomechanics, which facilitates the identification of abnormal characteristics and the recommendation of treatment alternatives. The predominant methods for this analysis currently include the tracking of external markers placed on the patient, the monitoring of patient\\/ground interaction (e.g. ground reaction forces), and the recording of muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, all during
Roy B Davis
Information for patients, their families and friends, and the general public about how the rights and safety of people who take part in clinical trials are protected. Learn about informed consent, institutional review boards (IRB's), and how trials are closely monitored for safety.
This text examines the characteristics that define autism: impairments in communication; abnormal social development; and clinically significant odd behaviors. Specific chapters include: (1) Neural Mechanisms in Autism (Andrew W. Zimmerman and Barry Gordon); (2) Epidemiology of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Current…
Accardo, Pasquale J., Ed.; Magnusen, Christy, Ed.; Capute, Arnold J., Ed.
This paper presents replies to comments published by M. S. Schulz and R. J. Waldinger, J. M. Wood and M. T. Nezworski, and H. N. Garb and W. M. Grove on the original article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger. Schulz and Waldinger (2005) make the important point that just as researchers can capitalize on the knowledge of experienced clinical observers…
Westen, Drew; Weinberger, Joel
We present two multichannel systems based on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for biomagnetic measurements, installed at the University of Chieti. Both systems have been designed for clinical and routine use and have been developed owing to an international cooperation. The main issues in the instrument implementation were field sensitivity and spatial resolution, as well as flexibility and stability
S. Della Penna; C. Del Gratta; C. Granata; A. Pasquarelli; V. Pizzella; R. Rossi; M. Russo; K. Torquati; S. N. Erne
Chicago's MacNeal Health Network made several smart moves to get physician buy-in for a computer-based patient record system in its outpatient clinics. It didn't take long before paper-based patient records all but disappeared. PMID:10167512
Simulations used as an educational strategy can mimic clinical reality bringing real life activity into the learning environment. This paper presents a conceptual approach to simulation development and validation that is applied to develop assessment simulations for both childbirth and triage situations. A process-based method of presenting information to the learner in the assessment phase is incorporated in simulations developed
Discussion of the future of clinical dentistry looks at a variety of influences, including historical development factors; demographic trends; the role of the Human Genome Project in the development of scientific knowledge; a paradigm shift in approaches to oral infection and systemic disease; advancing technology; and reforms resulting from these…
Slavkin, Harold C.
The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed
Luis Alberto Do Rego Benevides
Background and Objectives:Myocardial bridge is a congenital coronary anomaly that causes myocardial ischemia by a milking effect. The general study of myocardial bridge is weak, therefore we retrospectively examined clinical records of cases of myocardial bridge. Materials and Method:This study included 36 bridge cases out of 1048 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to chest pain from Jan. 1993 to
Kil Hyun Cho; Jun Yong Jung; Jin Ho Song; Jong Cheol Ryu; Doo Il Kim; Dong Soo Kim
We analyzed clinical characteristics of 26 patients with suggesting clinical picture and histopatological diagnosis of sarcoidosis. We identified mortality-related variables in the follow-up. We examined clinical data and several complementary tests. Follow-up was performed by clinical consultation and telephonic interview. The patients mean age was 42.6 ± 12.7 years old, and 53.8% were female. Pulmonary affection was present in 88.4% of patients and extrapulmonary manifestation were seen in 30.7%. Radiological stage II was the most frequent (34.7%). The predominant spirometric abnormality was a low carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) in 56.5% of cases. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 34.7% of cases. Steroid therapy was performed in 69.2%. The follow-up was completed in 96.1% of patients with a mean of 98 ± 73 months (range 3 to 228). The mortality rate was 23% (n = 6). The factors significantly associated with mortality were: blood arterial gases with lower partial oxygen pressure (41.5 mm Hg vs. 73.3 mm Hg; p = 0.041); higher partial carbon dioxide pressure (59.5 mm Hg vs. 39.6 mm Hg; p = 0.0008); presence of pulmonary hypertension (83.3% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.001) and higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (12.5 mm Hg vs. 9.5 mm Hg; p = 0.041). There was a tendency to higher mortality in patients with radiological stage III/IV (66% vs. 27%; p = 0.082) and lower DLCO (33.5% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.087). Clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis in our serie differed from others publications in international literature. Mortality-related factors were associated with severity of disease. PMID:21163735
González, Enzo L; Vigliano, Carlos; Cáneva, Jorge
The editorial remarked that anti abortion groups using violence must be stopped through legislation currently under consideration by the House and Senate of the US Congress. An important distinction is made between expressing freedom of speech on a deeply held belief and intimidation and violence that directly impacts on the rights of others. Women's health clinics where abortions are performed have repeatedly been the setting for intimidation and violence. There have been over 1000 reports of violence against these facilities and the people working at abortion centers since 1977. The most extreme act was the March 1993 murder of Dr. David Gunn outside a Pensacola, Florida, clinic and the wounding in August 1993 of a doctor in Wichita, Kansas. Unfortunately, the clinic violence not only interfere with abortion seekers, but also interferes with normal routine procedures such as Pap smears, prenatal care, well baby visits, and contraceptive counseling. Politically motivated violence antagonizes many women who rely on these clinics as the only source of care. The House and Senate bills would make it a federal criminal act to use force or physical obstruction to prevent a woman from getting an abortion or to damage a medical facility that provides abortion-related services. The Senate voted November 16, 1993 and the House vote will follow within the week. Anti abortion activists have cited the change to a pro-choice president as one of the reasons for the increase in violence against clinics, which amounted to a tripling of acts between 1990 and 1992. It is quixotic that movement to protect life would use extreme acts such as murder to protect life. Persuasion and appeals to hearts and minds would serve the abortion foes better as a viable strategy in the exercise of their right of free speech. PMID:12345222
The field of clinical laboratory tests is facing an increase in the number of test items as well as a corresponding diversification due to the demands of medical institutions as well as improvements in analytical techniques. To respond to this situation, medical institutions have been promoting systematization of their testing procedures; information exchange among the institutions has likewise expanded with the use of media such as on-line systems and internet. Standardization of interfaces has been proposed to secure a common framework compatible with different types of information. Some embodiments in this country includes; (1) Interface Standards on Clinical Laboratory Information For information exchange, the format and reporting comments used in the media systems were standardized under the sponsorship of The Medical Information System Development Center, with a publication issued on 1993. (2) Standardization of Laboratory Test Code Standardization of codes for information exchange has been established under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (Laboratory Test Coding Committee), through the systematization of laboratory test code used in media systems. A publication entitled "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests (8th edition in 1992, 9th edition in 1994 and supplement in 1996)" has been issued. The system for "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests" is divided into 5 components; (1) analyte code, (2) identification code, (3) specimen code, (4) methodology code, and (5) data classification code. The Laboratory test codes are precisely classified by "(1) analyte code", and then are identified by combination of additional codes such as specimen and methodology codes. In this year, we are making a new easily-used-codes composed of 5 Arabic figures. PMID:9306714
It is suggested that practice theory for clinical social work practice is in a state of disarray. Six new books on clinical social work practice are reviewed, with an identification of their contributions to the development of clinical practice theory. The expanded societal functions of clinical social work have resulted in major changes in method and in practice activities, without
Max Siporin; David Brandon; Kegan Paul; Joel Fischer; Naomi Golan; William J. Reid; Laura Epstein; Herbert S. Strean
The clinical impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder is dependent upon the clinical diagnosisand clinical indications for surgical management. MRI of the shoulder is very useful in defining the anatomic pathology associated with shoulder pain and disability. The clinical impact of MRI is improved when it is obtained under well defined criteria which should be based upon
Joseph P. Iannotti; Gerald R. Williams
Clinical guidelines are a positive contribution to improving the quality of care and assuring its effectiveness. However, clinical guidelines need to be integrated with other quality improvement initiatives to fulfil their potential. We propose a model of how informatics can support the implementation of clinical guidelines and their integration into systems for decision support and clinical audit. Each element of
L. A. Duff; A. Casey
Introduction: The medical education model provides the basis for athletic training students to learn theoretical and practical skills. Clinical rotations are completed where they apply what they have learned under the direct supervision of a clinical instructor (CI) or approved clinical instructor (ACI). Approved clinical instructors are taught…
Levy, Linda S.; Gardner, Greg; Barnum, Mary G.; Willeford, K. Sean; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise
Clinical data repositories represent a potential gold mine of information and knowledge. Rapid access to such information can help bridge the gap between clinical care and research, support clinical and executive decision making, and improve the quality of care. A clinical database can be used in four ways: to display information about an individual patient (results reporting); to find data
Charles Safran; Christopher G. Chute
The purpose of Linking Research to Clinical Practice is to present evidence based information to clinical dental hygienists so that they can make informed decisions regarding patient treatment and recommendations. Each issue will feature a different topic area of importance to clinical dental hygienists with A BOTTOM LINE to translate the research findings into clinical application. PMID:24771770
Bowen, Denise M
This article is the second in a new quarterly series on the roles of adjunct clinical faculty and preceptors, who teach nursing students to apply knowledge in clinical settings. Topics will include the preparation of clinical instructors and preceptors for these roles, the student evaluation process, and overcoming challenges that can come with teaching in the clinical field and with adjunct teaching. PMID:25075704
Koharchik, Linda; Jakub, Karen
Nowadays, treatment selection for most types of cancers is based on anatomical, histological and clinical criteria, which\\u000a are defined by the selection criteria used in registration phase III trials. However, different cancers present distinct molecular\\u000a features, so the current approach results in a lack of specificity of cancer therapy, which is associated with decreased efficacy\\u000a and unnecessary toxicities and costs.
Virginia Arrazubi; Roberto Pazo; Dolores Isla; José Luis Pérez Gracia
Thin melanomas are recognized and captured by clinicians at an alarming rate, whereas thick melanomas remain underrecognized. Improved recognition of thick melanomas will require further understanding of their clinical and histologic characteristics at various stages of development because emerging data suggest that the thin melanomas being captured today may not represent the forerunners of the thick melanomas. In this retrospective analysis, pathology requisition forms from melanomas diagnosed by histopathology were examined for submitted clinical diagnosis, patient characteristics, melanoma thickness, and biopsy method. Three hundred eighty-five melanomas were identified from 2003 to 2011. Most lesions (71.7%) were clinically suspected to be melanocytic. The mean depth in this group was 0.62mm. Of the unsuspected cases (28.3%), the most common submitted diagnoses were basal cell carcinomas and seborrheic keratoses, consistent with previous reports. The mean depth in the unsuspected group was 1.64mm, and more frequently extended to the deep margin (51.8% vs 25.4% of the time). Shave biopsy was the overwhelming preferred method of biopsy (79.5% overall). Compared with thin melanomas, thick melanomas are underrecognized by physicians due to their lack of characteristic morphologic features; consequently, they are more frequently associated with suboptimal biopsies. PMID:24559571
Hermes, Heidi M; Sahu, Joya; Schwartz, Laurel R; Lee, Jason B
Traditionally, Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) collect patient data from physiological monitors and other sources, providing clinicians with derived instructions and information to aid treatment planning. With advancements in telecommunication networks, CDSS functionality can be extended over distances, and accessed remotely (e.g. by appropriate healthcare providers not available in the patient's immediate surroundings). This paper discusses a modular CDSS that
Fran Wu; Mitch Williams; Peter Kazanzides; Ken Brady; Jim Fackler
In October 2010, the new cephalosporin, ceftaroline fosamil, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for therapy of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). The active metabolite, ceftaroline, demonstrates in vitro activity against typical bacterial pathogens most often associated with CABP or ABSSSIs, including resistant Gram-positive pathogens such as multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil was assessed in 2 large phase 3 programs of randomized, double-blind, clinical trials for CABP and ABSSSIs. For both indications, therapy with ceftaroline fosamil was observed to be noninferior to the comparator agents (ceftriaxone for CABP and vancomycin plus aztreonam for ABSSSIs) at both a standard test of cure assessment time (8-15 days after discontinuation of study drug) and an early assessment time point (day 3 or 4 of study). In the integrated analysis of the trials for CABP (FOCUS 1 and 2), clinical cure rates for the ceftaroline group were numerically higher than those for the ceftriaxone group (for the clinically evaluable population 84.3% vs 77.7%; difference: 6.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-11.8%). Among patients with CABP caused by S. pneumoniae, clinical cure rates were markedly higher in the ceftaroline treatment group than in the ceftriaxone treatment group (59 of 69 [85.5%] vs 48 of 70 [68.6%], respectively). For the ABSSSI studies (CANVAS 1 and 2), microbiologically evaluable (ME) success rates were similar between the treatment groups. Notably, the clinical cure rates in ME patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus ABSSSIs were 142 of 152 (93.4%) and 115 of 122 (94.3%), for ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam, respectively, and did not differ from those achieved in infections due to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (93.0%-94.5%). Ceftaroline fosamil was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to the comparator agents used in these phase 3 trials. PMID:22903949
File, Thomas M; Wilcox, Mark H; Stein, Gary E
The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver. PMID:10120058
Morse, W A
Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy.
Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.
Fifty preschoolers participated in this study. Twenty-five preschoolers classified as ADHD were matched with 25 typically developing preschoolers, and assessed using three tests of attention (two vigilance tests, one visual-search test). Their behavior exhibited during these attention tests was also assessed. Compared to their peers, preschoolers classified as ADHD exhibited significantly more omission and commission errors on the visual attention test. On the visual-search attention test, preschoolers classified as ADHD exhibited significantly more commission errors, and they took significantly longer to complete it. They did not exhibit significantly more omission or commission errors on the auditory attention test. The preschoolers classified as ADHD were also more vocal, more often off-task and out-of-seat, and they required more adult redirectives to return to task. Discussion is focused on the clinical value of developmentally appropriate attention tests and behavioral observation systems in the early clinical assessment of attention in very young children. PMID:10806460
DeWolfe, N A; Byrne, J M; Bawden, H N
The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. PMID:24468001
Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C
New biomarkers are urgently needed to accelerate efforts in developing new drugs and treatments of known diseases. New clinical and translational proteomics studies emerge almost every day. However, discovery of new diagnostic biomarkers lags behind because of variability at every step in proteomics studies (e.g., assembly of a cohort of patients, sample preparation and the nature of body fluids, selection of a profiling method and uniform protocols for data analysis). Quite often, the validation step that follows the discovery phase does not reach desired levels of sensitivity and specificity or reproducibility between laboratories. Mass spectrometry and gel-based methods do not provide enough throughput for screening thousands of clinical samples. Further development of protein arrays may address this issue. Despite many obstacles, proteomics delivers vast amounts of information useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases.
Silberring, Jerzy; Ciborowski, Pawel
Clearance of endogenous creatinine offers a reliable clinical means of determining quantitative renal damage. The rate of clearance (Ccr) is obtained by relating the amount of creatinine filtered by the glomerulus per unit of time to the concentration of creatinine in the serum. The technic is simple and practical for routine use. Since 1948, the creatinine clearance determination has been used extensively at the University of California Medical Center for the evaluation of renal function. The present report reviews our selected experience with this procedure during the past 14 years. Clinical examples are used to show that the Ccr is a more accurate index of glomerular filtration than the concentration of any of the nonprotein nitrogen components of the blood.
Tjan, Hoen Lay; Tobias, James; Levin, Ralph; Hopper, James
Friedreich ataxia, the most common hereditary ataxia, affects about 1:29 000 Caucasians. In about 98% of these individuals it is due to homozygosity for a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of FXN; in the other 2% it is due to compound heterozygosity for a GAA expansion and point mutation or deletion. The condition affects multiple sites in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as a number of other organ systems, resulting in multiple signs and symptoms. Onset of this autosomal recessive condition is usually in the first 2 decades of life. Major clinical features include progressive ataxia, absent lower limb reflexes, upgoing plantar responses, and peripheral sensory neuropathy. The main non-neurological sites of morbidity are the heart, resulting in cardiomyopathy, and the pancreas, resulting in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features of Friedreich ataxia and discuss differential diagnoses.
Delatycki, Martin B; Corben, Louise A
Critically ill patients are frequently at risk of neurological dysfunction as a result of primary neurological conditions or secondary insults. Determining which aspects of brain function are affected and how best to manage the neurological dysfunction can often be difficult and is complicated by the limited information that can be gained from clinical examination in such patients and the effects of therapies, notably sedation, on neurological function. Methods to measure and monitor brain function have evolved considerably in recent years and now play an important role in the evaluation and management of patients with brain injury. Importantly, no single technique is ideal for all patients and different variables will need to be monitored in different patients; in many patients, a combination of monitoring techniques will be needed. Although clinical studies support the physiologic feasibility and biologic plausibility of management based on information from various monitors, data supporting this concept from randomized trials are still required.
Objective To explore associated clinical factors in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS). Study design Children with tics and/or OCD (n = 109) were examined by personal and family history, diagnostic interview, physical examination, medical record review, and measurement of baseline levels of streptococcal antibodies. Results Significant group differences were found on several variables, such that those diagnosed with PANDAS (versus without PANDAS) were more likely to have had dramatic onset; definite remissions; remission of neuropsychiatric symptoms during antibiotic therapy; a history of tonsillectomies/adenoidectomies; evidence of GAS infection, and clumsiness. Conclusion The identification of clinical features associated with PANDAS should assist in delineating risks for this subtype of OCD/tics.
Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; Edge, Paula J.; Goodman, Wayne K.
Effective prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccination is a key strategy for controlling the global TB epidemic. The partial effectiveness of the existing TB vaccine, bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), suggests effective vaccination is possible and highlights the need for an improved vaccination strategy. Clinical trials are evaluating both modifications to the existing BCG immunization methods and also novel TB vaccines, designed to replace or boost BCG. Candidate vaccines in clinical development include live mycobacterial vaccines designed to replace BCG, subunit vaccines designed to boost BCG and therapeutic vaccines designed as an adjunct to chemotherapy. There is a great need for validated animal models, identification of immunological biomarkers of protection and field sites with the capacity for large-scale efficacy testing in order to develop and license a novel TB vaccine or regimen.
Rowland, Rosalind; McShane, Helen
Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare pulmonary fibrosis that is clinically characterized by upper-lobe predominant fibrosis. PPFE is a slowly progressive disorder and its first symptom is dyspnea or dry cough. Chest pain because of pneumothorax may be the first symptom in some patients. Patients with PPFE are slender with a flat rib cage or abnormally narrowed anterior–posterior thoracic dimension. Decreases in forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, and diffusing capacity are respiratory-function characteristics of PPFE, similar to those seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The most remarkable difference in clinical features between PPFE and IPF is imaging findings, with upper-lobe-predominant lesions in PPFE and lower-lobe-predominant lesions in IPF.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. There are two major types of AD, early onset and the more common late onset. The genetics of early-onset AD are largely understood with mutations in three different genes leading to the disease. In contrast, while susceptibility loci and alleles associated with late-onset AD have been identified using genetic association studies, the genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are not fully understood. Here we review the known genetics of early- and late-onset AD, the clinical features of EOAD according to genotypes, and the clinical implications of the genetics of AD.
Zou, Zhangyu; Liu, Changyun; Che, Chunhui; Huang, Huapin
Monitoring patient safety during clinical trials is a critical component throughout the drug development life-cycle. Pharmaceutical sponsors must work proactively and collaboratively with all stakeholders to ensure a systematic approach to safety monitoring. The regulatory landscape has evolved with increased requirements for risk management plans, risk evaluation and minimization strategies. As the industry transitions from passive to active safety surveillance activities, there will be greater demand for more comprehensive and innovative approaches that apply quantitative methods to accumulating data from all sources, ranging from the discovery and preclinical through clinical and post-approval stages. Statistical methods, especially those based on the Bayesian framework, are important tools to help provide objectivity and rigor to the safety monitoring process.
Yao, Bin; Zhu, Li; Jiang, Qi; Xia, H. Amy
Over the past decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have prevailed over clinical judgement, case reports, and observational studies and became the gold evidential standard in medicine. Furthermore, during the same time frame, RCTs became a crucial part of the regulatory process whereby a new therapeutic can gain access to the drug market. Today, clinical trials are large and tightly regulated enterprises that have to comply with ethical requirements while maintaining high epistemic standards, a balance that becomes increasingly difficult as the research questions become more sophisticated. In this review, the author will discuss some of the most important ethical issues surrounding RCTs, with an eye to the most recent debates and the context of oncological research in particular.
Mainstream psychotherapy has made huge strides in treating symptoms and disorders, but it has largely overlooked happiness as a therapeutic goal despite frequently hearing from clients, "Doctor, I want to be happy." This issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session describes a number of positive interventions for specific clinical problems, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, loss, grief, and relationship distress. Although the name may suggest it, positive interventions do not imply that rest of psychotherapies are negative. Neither are negatives denied nor minimized. Distinct from self-help recipes proffering instant changes, positive psychology interventions refer to systematic approaches to overcome challenges by using clients' strengths and assets. A hybrid psychotherapy-coaching model and strength-based assessment can ask a client "What is right with you?" All articles are supplemented with rich case illustrations. PMID:19294745
The article is devoted to the circumstances of visit of Alexander III to Clinical hospital of Military-Medical Academy in 1892. It is detailed about the situation in hospital: direct care, instruction and economic aspects. Representations of imperial authority in Russia in XIX century with respect to military-medical institutions are characterized. "Episode 3Match 1892" is important for Military-Medical Academy because in that day the put on hold reconstruction got a crucial impulse. PMID:23808205
Poddubny?, M V
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease affecting up to 40% of people in the Western world. Risk factors\\u000a associated with GERD include age and lifestyle habits, although the clinically relevant contribution of many of these factors\\u000a is unclear. In GERD, refluxed gastric acid damages the oesophageal mucosa, generally when the pH falls below 4. GERD patients\\u000a present a
Background and Purpose—Frequency of poststroke dementia is high, and stroke considerably increases the risk of dementia. The risk factors for dementia related to stroke are still incompletely understood. We sought to examine clinical determinants of poststroke dementia in a large well-defined stroke cohort. Methods—The study group comprised 337 of 486 consecutive patients aged 55 to 85 years who 3 months
Tarja Pohjasvaara; Timo Erkinjuntti; R. Ylikoski; M. Hietanen; Risto Vataja; Markku Kaste
The clinical management of fragility fracture is simple but complex at the same time. Patients are different from one another, and advancing age increases the prevalence of comorbidities and conditions that can impair bone quality and healing, while increasing the risk of falls and fractures. Keeping in mind some principles and key points can help identify patients at risk, thus following an ideal path for the identification, treatment and prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:24046052
Cerocchi, Irene; Ghera, Stefano; Gasbarra, Elena; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Tarantino, Umberto
The awarding of Magnet Status by the Magnet Nursing Services Recognition Program of the American Nursing Credentialing Center is acknowledged as the achievement of Excellence in Nursing. In this article, The Cleveland Clinic shares insights from its experience in becoming the 72nd Magnet hospital. Questions to ponder when conducting a readiness assessment before embarking on the Magnet journey, techniques to engage the staff in the application process, and writing and organizing tips are shared. PMID:15682881
Kuhar, Peggy A; Lewicki, Linda J; Modic, Mary Beth; Schaab, Debbie; Rump, Colleen; Bixler, Sarah
Neuroplasticity can be defined as the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Major advances in the understanding of neuroplasticity have to date yielded few established interventions. To advance the translation of neuroplasticity research towards clinical applications, the National Institutes of Health Blueprint for Neuroscience Research sponsored a workshop in 2009. Basic and clinical researchers in disciplines from central nervous system injury/stroke, mental/addictive disorders, paediatric/developmental disorders and neurodegeneration/ageing identified cardinal examples of neuroplasticity, underlying mechanisms, therapeutic implications and common denominators. Promising therapies that may enhance training-induced cognitive and motor learning, such as brain stimulation and neuropharmacological interventions, were identified, along with questions of how best to use this body of information to reduce human disability. Improved understanding of adaptive mechanisms at every level, from molecules to synapses, to networks, to behaviour, can be gained from iterative collaborations between basic and clinical researchers. Lessons can be gleaned from studying fields related to plasticity, such as development, critical periods, learning and response to disease. Improved means of assessing neuroplasticity in humans, including biomarkers for predicting and monitoring treatment response, are needed. Neuroplasticity occurs with many variations, in many forms, and in many contexts. However, common themes in plasticity that emerge across diverse central nervous system conditions include experience dependence, time sensitivity and the importance of motivation and attention. Integration of information across disciplines should enhance opportunities for the translation of neuroplasticity and circuit retraining research into effective clinical therapies. PMID:21482550
Cramer, Steven C; Sur, Mriganka; Dobkin, Bruce H; O'Brien, Charles; Sanger, Terence D; Trojanowski, John Q; Rumsey, Judith M; Hicks, Ramona; Cameron, Judy; Chen, Daofen; Chen, Wen G; Cohen, Leonardo G; deCharms, Christopher; Duffy, Charles J; Eden, Guinevere F; Fetz, Eberhard E; Filart, Rosemarie; Freund, Michelle; Grant, Steven J; Haber, Suzanne; Kalivas, Peter W; Kolb, Bryan; Kramer, Arthur F; Lynch, Minda; Mayberg, Helen S; McQuillen, Patrick S; Nitkin, Ralph; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; Schiff, Nicholas; Sharma, Anu; Shekim, Lana; Stryker, Michael; Sullivan, Edith V; Vinogradov, Sophia
Nocardia, a gram-positive bacillus with the microscopic appearance of branching hyphae, can produce considerable disease in the appropriate host. The taxonomy of Nocardia continues to evolve; more than 50 species have been described. Early recognition and effective therapy are imperative to achieve successful outcomes. Although nocardiosis typically occurs in patients with cell-mediated immunosuppressive conditions, infection may occasionally develop in immunocompetent patients as well. This review addresses the microbiology of Nocardia, risk factors for infection, clinical presentations, and management strategies.
Wilson, John W.
Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy. PMID:23718237
Perry, Tamara T; Pesek, Robbie D
Neuroplasticity can be defined as the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Major advances in the understanding of neuroplasticity have to date yielded few established interventions. To advance the translation of neuroplasticity research towards clinical applications, the National Institutes of Health Blueprint for Neuroscience Research sponsored a workshop in 2009. Basic and clinical researchers in disciplines from central nervous system injury/stroke, mental/addictive disorders, paediatric/developmental disorders and neurodegeneration/ageing identified cardinal examples of neuroplasticity, underlying mechanisms, therapeutic implications and common denominators. Promising therapies that may enhance training-induced cognitive and motor learning, such as brain stimulation and neuropharmacological interventions, were identified, along with questions of how best to use this body of information to reduce human disability. Improved understanding of adaptive mechanisms at every level, from molecules to synapses, to networks, to behaviour, can be gained from iterative collaborations between basic and clinical researchers. Lessons can be gleaned from studying fields related to plasticity, such as development, critical periods, learning and response to disease. Improved means of assessing neuroplasticity in humans, including biomarkers for predicting and monitoring treatment response, are needed. Neuroplasticity occurs with many variations, in many forms, and in many contexts. However, common themes in plasticity that emerge across diverse central nervous system conditions include experience dependence, time sensitivity and the importance of motivation and attention. Integration of information across disciplines should enhance opportunities for the translation of neuroplasticity and circuit retraining research into effective clinical therapies.
Sur, Mriganka; Dobkin, Bruce H.; O'Brien, Charles; Sanger, Terence D.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Rumsey, Judith M.; Hicks, Ramona; Cameron, Judy; Chen, Daofen; Chen, Wen G.; Cohen, Leonardo G.; deCharms, Christopher; Duffy, Charles J.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Filart, Rosemarie; Freund, Michelle; Grant, Steven J.; Haber, Suzanne; Kalivas, Peter W.; Kolb, Bryan; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lynch, Minda; Mayberg, Helen S.; McQuillen, Patrick S.; Nitkin, Ralph; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; Schiff, Nicholas; Sharma, Anu; Shekim, Lana; Stryker, Michael; Sullivan, Edith V.; Vinogradov, Sophia
The clinical, radiological, and biochemical features of 2 male children with mannosidosis are described. Superficially they appeared to suffer from Hurler's syndrome, but the facies, eye signs, radiological and cytological features were atypical. Excess urinary oligosaccharides were found by thin-layer chromatography. The diagnosis was confirmed by determining the acidic alpha-mannosidase activity of leucocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts. Prenatal diagnosis is possible from cultured amniotic cells. Images Fig. 1 p939-a Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Milla, P J; Black, I E; Patrick, A D; Hugh-Jones, K; Oberholzer, V
A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. PMID:19517578
A comprehensive overview of the clinical aspects of lithium therapy is presented. Emphasis is placed on recent developments regarding the clinical uses of Li2CO3 in non-psychiatric conditions. The established efficacy of the drug in the treatment and prophylaxis of mania and bipolar affective disorders is noted, and the evidence supporting the use of lithium salts as a prophylactic agent in unipolar depression, aggressive behavior, schizophrenic disorders and organic brain dysfunction is discussed. The use of lithium carbonate in various disorders of movement and in certain extrapyramidal diseases is summarized, as are the results of its trials in alcoholism and drug abuse. In addition, uses of Li2CO3 in asthma, thyroid diseases, granulocytopenia, headache, bowel disease, anesthesiology, cardiology, and sleep disorders are summarized. The data suggests the potential effectiveness of Li2CO3 in a variety of clinical conditions other than those for which it is classically indicated, provided more detailed double-blind studies are performed. PMID:6414655
Frost, R E; Messiha, F S
Taking into account the high frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the clinic and taking into account the growing knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying some of these ADRs, we believe that every clinician should know at least the basic principles of pharmacogenetics. However, our experience is that many clinicians are unaware of the potential contribution of pharmacogenetic testing and have not implemented this new modality in their daily practice. We present a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient treated with carbamazepine. Following the pathways of clinical reasoning, we describe the possibilities of pharmacogenetic testing in the clinic (HLA-B*1502 and HLA-A*3101 in our patient). We describe the pharmacological and pharmacogenetic aspects relevant for the clinician's daily practice (the existence of ADR subtypes, cytochrome P450, drug-drug interactions, genetic variations, CYP450 and HLA genotyping). Based on the Dutch top 100 of most prescribed drugs, we provide data on CYP450 and HLA genotypes relevant to those 100 most commonly used drugs. We discuss the availability and costs of pharmacogenetic testing, show a calculation of the 'number needed to genotype' and, based on these data, we propose a decision model for pharmacogenetic testing by clinicians. PMID:23712814
de Graaff, L C G; van Schaik, R H N; van Gelder, T
Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations measured in post-mortem samples difficult or impossible. Qualitative tests can show the presence of substances that were not present in life, and can fail to detect substances that led to death. Quantitative analysis is subject to error in itself, and because post-mortem concentrations vary in largely unpredictable ways with the site and time of sampling, as a result of the phenomenon of post-mortem redistribution. Consequently, compilations of ‘lethal concentrations’ are misleading. There is a lack of adequate studies of the true relationship between fatal events and the concentrations that can be measured subsequently, but without such studies, clinical pharmacologists and others should be wary of interpreting post-mortem measurements.
Ferner, R E
Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ?10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. PMID:23522791
Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G
Rapid progress has been made in the development of novel cell-based approaches for the potential treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. As a result, one must consider carefully the conditions under which these therapeutics are manufactured if they are to be used in clinical studies or, ultimately, be approved as licensed cellular therapeutics. Here, we describe the principles behind the manufacturing of clinical-grade cellular products, as well as potential methods for large-scale expansion and processing according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards sets by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Standards for personnel, materials, procedures, and facilities required for such manufacturing processes are reviewed. We also discuss current and future scale-up methods for the manufacturing of large doses of cellular therapeutics under GMP conditions and compare the use of conventional culture methods such as tissue culture flasks and multi-layered cell factories with novel systems such as closed system hollow-fiber bioreactors. Incorporation of these novel bioreactor systems into GMP facilities may enable us to provide adequate cell numbers for multi-center clinical trials and paves the way for development of cellular therapeutics with the potential to treat very large numbers of patients. PMID:24732771
Sheu, Jonathan; Klassen, Henry; Bauer, Gerhard
The knowledge of brain syndromes is essential for stroke physicians and neurologists, particularly those that can be extremely difficult and challenging to diagnose due to the great variability of symptom presentation and yet of clinical significance in terms of potential devastating effect with poor outcome. The diagnosis and understanding of stroke syndromes has improved dramatically over the years with the advent of modern imaging, while the management is similar to general care as recommended by various guidelines in addition to care of such patients on specialized units with facilities for continuous monitoring of vital signs and dedicated stroke therapy. Such critical care can be provided either in the acute stroke unit, the medical intensive care unit or the neurological intensive care unit. There may be no definitive treatment at reversing stroke syndromes, but it is important to identify the signs and symptoms for an early diagnosis to prompt quick treatment, which can prevent further devastating complications following stroke. The aim of this article is to discuss some of the important clinical stroke syndromes encountered in clinical practice and discuss their management. PMID:23483140
Balami, J S; Chen, R L; Buchan, A M
The main objective of the medical curriculum is to provide medical students with knowledge, skills and attitudes required for their practice. A decade ago, the UK Medical Council issued a report called “Tomorrow's Doctors”1 which called for the reduction in the factual content of the medical course with the promotion of problem-based and self-dedicated learning. This report was the basis for a move toward an extensive reform of the medical and nursing curricula. The new reformed curricula enhanced the integrated medical teaching and emphasized the teaching and learning of clinical skills. However, there were still concerns about the standards and appropriateness of the skills of new medical graduates.2 The changes in the teaching and learning methods, the radical changes in the health care delivery and the rapid growth of technology challenged the traditional way of clinical skills development and led to the emergence of clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) in the medical education of many medical and nursing schools. With the proliferation of the CSLs, it is important to evaluate and introduce the reader to their applications, bearing in mind the paucity of information on this subject particularly over the last couple of years. This article is based on literature review.
Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.
Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a 68Ge/68Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. 68Ga-DOTATOC, 8Ga-DOTATATE, 68Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with 68Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ~10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied 68Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine.
Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G.
Three unusual clinical forms of sporotrichosis described in this paper will be a primer for the clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment, especially in its unusual presentations. Case 1, a 52-year-old man, developed sporotrichosis over pre-existing facial nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma of seven-year duration, due to its contamination perhaps from topical herbal pastes and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis over right hand/forearm from facial lesion/herbal paste. Case 2, a 25-year-old woman, presented with disseminated systemic-cutaneous, osteoarticular and possibly pleural (effusion) sporotrichosis. There was no laboratory evidence of tuberculosis and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATT) did not benefit. Both these cases were diagnosed by histopathology/culture of S. schenckii from tissue specimens. Case 3, a 20-year-old girl, had multiple intensely pruritic, nodular lesions over/around left knee of two-year duration. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of prurigo nodularis and histologically as cutaneous tuberculosis, albeit, other laboratory investigations and treatment with ATT did not support the diagnosis. All the three patients responded well to saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) therapy. A high clinical suspicion is important in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent chronicity and morbidity in these patients. SSKI is fairly safe and effective when itraconazole is not affordable/available. PMID:20445301
Mahajan, Vikram K; Sharma, Nand Lal; Shanker, Vinay; Gupta, Poonam; Mardi, Kavita
This paper illustrates that in countries such as Zambia where available sentinel clinic data lack patient use information while including location and clinic type, advanced geospatial modeling can be a good proxy for measuring access to health care facilities including HIV sentinel clinics. The analysis shows mapped patterns of potential accessibility to HIV sentinel clinics versus all other clinics, while
Imelda K. Moise; Ezekiel Kalipeni; Leo C. Zulu
For many years, placebos have been conceptualised by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research demonstrates that placebo effects are genuine psychobiological phenomenon attributable to the overall therapeutic context, and that placebo effects can be robust in both laboratory and clinical settings. Evidence has also emerged that placebo effects can exist in clinical practice, even if no placebo is given. Further promotion and integration of laboratory and clinical research will allow advances in the ethical harnessing of placebo mechanisms that are inherent in routine clinical care and the potential use of treatments to primarily promote placebo effects.
Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin; Benedetti, Fabrizio
The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) was designed 27 years ago to engage community physicians in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical trials programs and thereby facilitate the incorporation of research results into practice. The program...
The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229
Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun
...relationships among FDA and clinical trial staff, investigators...well as inspections of clinical investigators, IRBs...and Nurse continuing nursing education (CNE...FDA-regulated (human) clinical trials with information...inspections, electronic record requirements, and...
A clinical guide is an experienced nurse who supports nursing students throughout the program, particularly in clinical placements. More than a mentor, a guide is fully involved in promoting deep learning in clinical settings. (SK)
Andrews, Margaret; Roberts, Debbie
...psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2450...Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Federally Qualified Health Center Services...psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a)...
...psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2450...Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Federally Qualified Health Center Services...psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a)...
Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one's own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these studies ABM was assessed by using the same instrument - i.e., the Erweitertes Autobiographisches Gedächtnis Inventar (E-AGI) - thus allowing a direct comparison between diagnostic groups. Episodic ABM, especially the richness of details was impaired already in MCI and in beginning AD. Semantic memories were spared until moderate stages, indicating a dissociation between both memory systems. A recency effect was detectable in cognitively unimpaired subjects and vanished in patients with AD. A similar pattern of deficits was found in patients with chronic schizophrenia but not in patients with major depression. These ABM deficits were not accounted for by gender, or education level and did not apply for the physiological ageing process in otherwise healthy elderly. In conclusion, ABM deficits are frequently found in AD and chronic schizophrenia and primarily involve episodic rather than semantic memories. This dissociation corresponds to the multiple trace theory which hypothesized that these memory functions refer to distinct neuronal systems. The semi-structured interview E-AGI used to discern ABM changes provided a sufficient reliability measures, moreover potential effects of a number of important confounders could be falsified so far. These findings underline the relevance of ABM-assessments in clinical practice. PMID:24339804
Urbanowitsch, Nadja; Gorenc, Lina; Herold, Christina J; Schröder, Johannes
Widespread unexplained variations in clinical practices and patient outcomes suggest major opportunities for improving the quality and safety of medical care. However, there is little consensus regarding how to best identify and disseminate healthcare improvements and a dearth of theory to guide the debate. Many consider multicenter randomized controlled trials to be the gold standard of evidence-based medicine, although results are often inconclusive or may not be generally applicable due to differences in the contexts within which care is provided. Increasingly, others advocate the use "quality improvement collaboratives", in which multi-institutional teams share information to identify potentially better practices that are subsequently evaluated in the local contexts of specific institutions, but there is concern that such collaborative learning approaches lack the statistical rigor of randomized trials. Using an agent-based model, we show how and why a collaborative learning approach almost invariably leads to greater improvements in expected patient outcomes than more traditional approaches in searching simulated clinical fitness landscapes. This is due to a combination of greater statistical power and more context-dependent evaluation of treatments, especially in complex terrains where some combinations of practices may interact in affecting outcomes. The results of our simulations are consistent with observed limitations of randomized controlled trials and provide important insights into probable reasons for effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives in the complex socio-technical environments of healthcare institutions. Our approach illustrates how modeling the evolution of medical practice as search on a clinical fitness landscape can aid in identifying and understanding strategies for improving the quality and safety of medical care. PMID:23166791
Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Buzas, Jeffrey S; Kauffman, Stuart A
Composite endpoints are often used in clinical trials, especially in the cardiovascular area. Decreases in sample size requirements, ability to assess the net effect of an intervention and to avoid bias in presence of competing risks are the most cited advantages for their use. However, there is a risk of misinterpretation when heterogeneity among components with respect to either importance, number of events, or magnitude of treatment effect exist. In the following review we present a conceptual discussion about the rationale and interpretation of such variables. Also, a user's friendly guide to interpret the results of clinical trials based on composite endpoints is presented. We also present an empirical study that provides evidence of the use of misleading composite endpoints in cardiovascular clinical trials. Las variables de resultado combinadas en los ensayos clinicos son un recurso metodologico usado con frecuencia, especialmente en los estudios cardiovasculares. Las motivaciones más importantes para su utilizacion son aumentar la potencia estadística del estudio, valorar el beneficio neto de una intervencion y evitar una interpretacion errónea del resultado en presencia de riesgos competitivos. Sin embargo, su interpretación puede ser problemática si hay heterogeneidad entre los componentes en cuanto a su importancia, la frecuencia de eventos o el efecto de la intervencion. En la discusión que sigue se presenta un revisión conceptual de los problemas del uso y la interpretación de las variables de resultado combinadas en ensayos clinicos, especialmente los cardiovasculares. Se presenta además una sencilla guia de interpretacion de los resultados de los estudios que utilizan variables de resultado combinadas a partir de la cual se puede valorar nuestra confianza en dichos resultados. Finalmente, se presenta un estudio empírico sobre cuál ha sido el uso real de variables de resultado combinadas potencialmente problemáticas en ensayos clinicos cardiovasculares. PMID:24775785
Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Solà, Ivan; Pacheco-Huergo, Valeria; Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Alonso, Jordi; Montori, Víctor; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietá
This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for symptomatic control.
Camilleri, Michael; Parkman, Henry P.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Abell, Thomas L.; Gerson, Lauren
This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for symptomatic control. PMID:23147521
Camilleri, Michael; Parkman, Henry P; Shafi, Mehnaz A; Abell, Thomas L; Gerson, Lauren
Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards.
Mast cell sarcoma is a disorder that results in abnormal mast cells as identified by morphology, special stains, and in some publications, c-kit mutation analysis. It affects animal species such as canines more commonly than humans. In humans it is a very rare condition, with variable clinical presentation. There is no standard therapy for the disorder. It can affect any age group. It is occasionally associated with systemic mastocytosis and/or urticaria pigmentosa. The prognosis of mast cell sarcoma in published literature is very poor in humans. PMID:24745684
Weiler, Catherine R; Butterfield, Joseph
This paper presents a brief introduction to the techniques, methods and tools used to implement clinical systems. It begins with a taxonomy of software systems, describes the classic approach to development, provides some guidelines for the planning and management of software projects, and finishes with a guide to further reading. The conclusions are that there is no single right way to develop software, that most decisions are based upon judgment built from experience, and that there are tools that can automate some of the better understood tasks.
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. While chemo- therapy remains the backbone upon which treatment for meta- static colorectal cancer is built, targeted therapies have been employed, albeit with mixed results, in the management of this disease. Nonetheless, increased understanding in recent years of the complexity and heterogeneity of cellular abnormalities driving these tumors has identified potential targets for future interven- tions. This article will review the seminal biomarkers of predic- tive and prognostic importance currently used in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, and will highlight additional promising biomarkers which may be incorporated into clinical practice in the future. PMID:24893280
Morris, Van; Kopetz, Scott
As we move to accommodate the demands for placement and move students from a learner to a professional role, all parties in a student's clinical learning situation need to re-examine traditional ways of doing things to see if they are still the most effective. The results of placing and working with students in a way that is collaborative and more student-driven may be surprising. The benefits could well outweigh the costs in terms of long-range goals for faculty, students and agencies. PMID:15077514
Cloutier, Angele; Shandro, Gail; Hrycak, Nina
Platelets were first successfully radiolabeled in 1953. At that time, investigators were primarily interested in developing a technique to accurately measure platelet life span in both normal and thrombocytopenic patients. Studies using platelets labeled with /sup 51/Cr have shown shortened platelet survival times in a number of diseases including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. More recently, labels such as /sup 111/In have been developed that allow in vivo imaging of platelets. Indium-111 platelets are being used to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases.
Datz, F.L.; Christian, P.E.; Baker, W.J.
With the availability of newer dopamine agonists selective for dopamine (D2) receptor subtypes, medical management of Parkinson's disease has progressed substantially. These agents can decrease the frequency of ergot-related side effects and dyskinesias. Also, when given as adjunctive therapy with levodopa, they can allow the levodopa maintenance dosage to be reduced without loss of symptom control. Based on early clinical experience, dopamine agonists can also be prescribed as initial monotherapy and can delay therapy with levodopa. Their therapeutic roles will be defined further by long-term studies. PMID:10641988
Lam, Y W
During the last years bile acids have gained more and more clinical importance. They play a decisive part in intestinal fat resorption. Increased bile acid content in the colon will result in diarrhea. By determination of serum bile acids the liver function can be judged exactly. It seems probable that bile acids take part in the pathogenesis of gastritis gastric ulcer and colonic cancer. By administration of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid dissolution of cholesterol stones within the gall bladder is possible. PMID:456969
Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success, it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Interest in this therapeutic modality is based on the potential for treatment and cure of some of the most malignant and devastating diseases affecting humans. Over the next decade, the relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and strategies that underlie the therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the history, basic strategies, tools, and several current clinical paradigms for application.
Capillary malformations (CM) are defects of the dermal capillary bed. These slow-flow malformations can affect any part of the body and are always lateralized, despite Unna's naevus. Present at birth, they grow proportionally with the child. In rare instance, they can be part of a more complex syndrome such as Sturge-Weber syndrome. Ectatic CMs of telangiectatic types can be cutaneous, isolated, multiples, diffuse or generalized. In rare instance, they can be associated with epidermal modifications. They can also be part of a syndrome such as Fabry disease, Osler-Weber-Rendu disorder or Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC). This chapter details the various clinical aspects of CMs. PMID:17007980
Bataille, A-C; Boon, L-M
Two types of male gonad shields, designed for use with support garments, were tested in a number of hospitals and clinics throughout the United States. The clinical evaluation consisted of: (1) Measuring dose reduction with thermoluminescent dosimeters; a...
W. W. Church, B. M. Burnett
A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)
Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.
A list of clinical trials organized by disease site is provided by Tulane University Cancer Center to help patients and physicians identify clinical trials in which they may have been participating prior to Hurricane Katrina.
...following: Foster a cadre of clinical investigators with knowledge...commitment to investigational medicine; Promote communication between clinical investigators and FDA; ...FDA's role in experimental medicine; and Improve the...
...following: Foster a cadre of clinical investigators with knowledge...commitment to investigational medicine; Promote communication between clinical investigators and FDA; ...FDA's role in experimental medicine; and Improve the...
Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year Community Clinical Oncology Programs CCOPs that have been continuously funded since 1983: Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois Columbus CCOP, Columbus, Ohio Dayton
The NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and the Cancer Diagnosis Program announce a request for applications for the Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) for investigators seeking clinical assay development and validation resources.
Clinical inertia is defined as lack of treatment intensification in a patient not as evidence-based goals for care. Clinical inertia is a major factor that contributes to inadequate chronic disease care in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dy...
P. J. O'Connor J. M. Sperl-Hillen P. E. Johnson W. A. Rush G. Biltz
There has never been a more urgent time for clinically expert nurses to consider the clinical faculty role. Whether they are making a full-time "leap" into academia or combining a successful staff nurse role with a part-time clinical teaching position, nurses should consider teaching as a good career move. Practical tips and resources are described for making the transition into a clinical faculty role a smooth one. PMID:19174639
Ziehm, Scott; Fontaine, Dorrie K
The relationship of dose (and dose rate) to response and toxicity in clinical oncology is reviewed. The concepts expressed by some authors in dose-response studies in animal and human systems are reviewed briefly. Dose rate and tactics of conducting clinical studies are reviewed for both radiotherapy and various types of chemotherapeutic treatment. Examples are given from clinical studies in Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, and breast cancer that may prove useful in planning future clinical studies.
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is a rare malignancy that is speculated to arise extraocularly, and preferentially invade and flourish in the ocular and CNS microenvironments. The eye is involved in about 20% of primary central nervous system lymphomas, but the brain is eventually involved in about 80% of PVRL. Most are B-cell lymphomas with small numbers of T-cell lymphomas metastatic to the vitreous and retina. Metastatic systemic B-cell lymphoma usually involves choroid. Primary choroidal lymphoma is rare. Intraocular lymphoma can usually be distinguished from uveitis clinically, although there are overlaps, which may be pronounced in eyes with a large component of reactive inflammation related to tumor surveillance and control. There are controversies in diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis through examination of ocular fluid is technically difficult and can utilize cytology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular detection of gene rearrangements, and cytokine profiling. Treatment of intraocular lymphoma without detectable CNS disease could consist of a full course of systemic chemotherapy with ocular adjunctive treatment, or ocular treatment alone depending on the preference of the clinical center. In ocular only cases where the vitreous has been debulked to improve vision and there is no sight-threatening involvement of the RPE, orbital irradiation or intravitreal chemotherapy stabilizes the intraocular process but does not seem to modify the CNS component, which can present symptomatically in an advanced state. This is a highly malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Close collaboration with a pathologist and oncologist, and good communication with patients is essential.
Davis, J L
Biosimilars offer the prospect of providing efficacious and safe treatment options for many diseases, including cancer, while potentially increasing accessibility with greater affordability relative to biologics. Because biologics are large, complex molecules that cannot be exactly duplicated, biosimilars cannot be considered "generic" versions of biologic drugs. This review will examine important considerations for biosimilar clinical trials. Since the aim of biosimilar manufacturing is to produce a molecule highly similar to the reference biologic, a comparability exercise is needed to demonstrate similarity with the reference biologic product based on physicochemical characterization. In vitro analytical studies and in vivo studies as well as pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) assessments also are conducted. Lastly, because it may not be possible to fully characterize a biosimilar in relation to its reference biologic, robust pharmacovigilance strategies are utilized to ensure that any matters in regard to safety can be monitored. Other key topics will be discussed, including regulatory guidance for the evaluation of biosimilars, clinical trial design considerations, and whether data submitted for the approval of a biosimilar for one indication can be extrapolated to other indications for which the reference biologic is approved. European and Canadian experiences in biosimilar development will be reviewed. PMID:24560024
Bui, Lynne A; Taylor, Carrie
Purpose Even though aural fullness is ubiquitous among patients presenting to otolaryngology clinics, the association between aural fullness and disease development has not yet been clearly determined. Materials and Methods Our study was performed on outpatients from June 2006 to February 2010 whose major complaint was "ear fullness", "aural fullness", or "ear pressure". We assessed their demographic and clinical characteristics, including sex, associated diseases, symptoms, otoscopic findings, audiology test results, and final diagnoses. Results Among 432 patients, 165 (38.2%) were males and 267 (61.8%) were females, with mean ages of 42±19 years and 47±17 years, respectively. Tinnitus, hearing disturbance, autophony (p<0.01) as well as nasal obstruction and sore throat (p<0.05) showed a statistically significant correlation with aural fullness. Among patients who complained of hearing fullness, tests and measures such as impedance audiometry, speech reception threshold, and pure tone audiometry generated statistically significant results (p<0.05). Ear fullness was most frequently diagnosed as Eustachian tube dysfunction (28.9%), followed by otitis media with effusion (13.4%) and chronic otitis media (7.2%). However, 13.4% of patients could not be definitively diagnosed. Conclusion Among patients complaining of ear fullness, Eustachian tube dysfunction, otitis media with effusion, chronic otitis media were most commonly observed. Performance of otoscopy, nasal endoscopy, the Valsalva maneuver, and additional audiological tests is necessary to exclude other diseases.
Park, Moon Suh; Lee, Ho Yun; Kang, Ho Min; Ryu, Eun Woong; Lee, Sun Kyu
Objective To explore reasons for clinical inertia in the management of persistent depression symptoms. Research Design We characterized patterns of treatment adjustment in primary care and their relation to the patient’s clinical condition by modeling transition to a given treatment “state” conditional upon the current state of treatment. We assessed associations of patient, clinician, and practice barriers with adjustment decisions. Subjects Survey data on patients in active care for major depression was collected at six-month intervals over a two-year period for the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) studies. Measures Patient and clinician characteristics were collected at baseline. Depression severity and treatment were measured at each interval. Results Approximately one-third of the observation periods ending with less than a full response resulted in an adjustment recommendation. Clinicians often respond correctly to the combination of severe depression symptoms and less than maximal treatment by changing the treatment. Appropriate adjustment is less common, however, in management of less severely depressed patients who do not improve after starting treatment, particularly if their care already meets minimal treatment intensity guidelines. Conclusions Our findings suggest that quality improvement efforts should focus on promoting appropriate adjustments for patients with persistent depression symptoms, particularly those with less severe depression.
Henke, Rachel M.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Ayanian, John Z.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists. PMID:22735230
Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro
Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enrol in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one’s self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements.
Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth
Pharmacogenetics primarily uses genetic variation to identify subgroups of patients who may respond differently to a certain medication. Since its first description, the field of pharmacogenetics has expanded to study a broad range of cardiovascular drugs and has become a mainstream research discipline. Three principle classes of pharmacogenetic markers have emerged: 1) pharmacokinetic; 2) pharmacodynamic; and 3) underlying disease mechanism. In the realm of cardiovascular pharmacogenetics, significant advances have identified markers in each class for a variety of therapeutics, some with a potential for improving patient outcomes. While ongoing clinical trials will determine if routine use of pharmacogenetic testing may be beneficial, the data today support pharmacogenetic testing for certain variants on an individualized, case-by-case basis. Our primary goal is to review the association data for the major pharmacogenetic variants associated with commonly used cardiovascular medications: antiplatelet agents, warfarin, statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, and antiarrhythmic drugs. In addition, we highlight which variants and in which contexts pharmacogenetic testing can be implemented by practicing clinicians. The pace of genetic discovery has outstripped the generation of the evidence justifying its clinical adoption. Until the evidentiary gaps are filled, however, clinicians may choose to target therapeutics to individual patients whose genetic background indicates that they stand to benefit the most from pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:22742397
Voora, Deepak; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S
The randomized clinical trial has no satisfactory substitute in the evaluation of preventive treatment for stroke-threatened patients, and is the gold standard also in studies designed to test strategies which may reduce the impact of brain damage after ischemic stroke has occurred. Stroke data banks and contemporary non-randomized comparisons are imperfect or flawed as bench-marks against which to judge treatments for these types of patients. Flaws in the design, execution and analysis of randomized clinical trials have been eliminated gradually over the past 35 years. On the basis of the existing trials in stroke prevention it may be stated that anticoagulants are effective in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation and after myocardial infarction. No other uses of anticoagulants in preventing ischemic stroke have been proven. Acetylsalicylic acid between 325-1300 mg/d will prevent stroke; lower doses have not been proven of value. Ticlopidine is effective. Benefit for dipyridamole, suloctidil or sulfinpyrazone has not been shown. Cerebral by-pass surgery has not been shown to have any role in stroke prevention in arteriosclerotic cerebral vascular disease. Carotid endarterectomy is still undergoing careful evaluation. PMID:1859505
Barnett, H J
\\u000a After reading this chapter, you should know the answers to these questions:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What are three requirements for an excellent decision-making system?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What are three decision-support roles for computers in clinical medicine?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a How has the use of computers for clinical decision support evolved since the1960s?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What is a knowledge-based system?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What influences account for the gradual
Mark A. Musen; Yuval Shahar; Edward H. Shortliffe
Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. PMID:22727005
Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan
Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.
Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew
In this paper, I explore how we might link ideas about clinical facts to current issues in child psychotherapy research. I consider what our understanding of clinical facts might contribute to our research methods and how our research methods might better represent the clinical facts. The paper introduces a selection of psychoanalytic writers'…
Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives to transform cancer clinical trials to be more flexible and responsive to the rapid advances being made in oncologic sciences.
Clinical research is guided by ethical principles promulgated in several statements, principally the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association etc. In Japan, clinical research of medical products, principally trial of new pharmaceutical products is regulated by GCP (good clinical practice). Other types of clinical research are regulated by some ethical guidelines for clinical researches. The result is a regulatory position that is a complex combination of legislation and ethical guidelines. In the Ethical Guideline for Clinical Studies revised in 2008, clinical research is classified into intervention research and observational research. When researchers plan clinical research, they must determine the type of clinical research and appropriate ethical guideline for the type of clinical research. Advances in health informatics and genetic research have produced a new and very rich body of raw material for clinical research in the form of gene banks and genome-wide association study etc. The use of human tissue and medical information in the course of clinical research raises issues under the ethical regulations for research with human subjects. PMID:22277384
Clinical guidelines are heralded as a positive contribution to improving quality of care and ensuring the effectiveness of care. From the perspective of the health services researcher, the authors propose a model of how informatics can support the implementation of clinical guidelines and their integration into systems for decision support and clinical audit. Each element of the model is discussed
Lesley Duff; Anne Casey
Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…
Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny
Summary: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an inflammatory interstitial lung disease caused by recurring exposure to a variety of occupational and environmental antigens. It features widely variable clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. Because the clinical findings of HP mimic multiple other diseases, a high degree of clinical suspicion and a thorough occupational and environmental history are essential for accurate diagnosis. There
Craig S. Glazer; Cecile S. Rose; David A. Lynch
Developed prototype of network based clinical decision support system consists of database of clinical data and web-based applications for signal and image analysis methods and algorithms. The methods for eye fundus image analysis and ECG P-wave morphology evaluation are the first methods covering two clinical specialties - cardiology and ophthalmology in the system. Network based database and combined analysis of
D. Jegelevicius; A. Krisciukaitis; A. Lukosevicius; V. Marozas; A. Paunksnis; V. Barzdziukas; M. Patasius; D. Buteikiene; A. Vainoras; L. Gargasas
Clinical preceptorships, in collaboration between clinical agencies and educational institutions have been documented as an effective and innovative means of facilitating student learning, providing advantages for both the clinical and educational settings. A preceptorship programme of 100 hours duration was developed and delivered by the nurse education institute, in consultation with a health care organization. The objectives of the preceptorship
Nayer Kaviani; Yvonne Stillwell
The human major histocompatibility complex HLA is located on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is known to be the most polymorphic genetic system in humans. The biological role of the HLA class I and class II molecules is to present processed peptide antigens. The HLA system is clinically important as transplantation antigens. Molecular HLA allele typing is routinely performed to provide HLA class I and class II allele matching in unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Prospective lymphocyte crossmatching is critical in solid organ transplantation to prevent allograft rejection. HLA alloimmunization causes various problems in transfusion therapy. The HLA system is associated with certain diseases, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully explained.
Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics.
Trospium chloride, a quaternary amine with anticholinergic properties, is used for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and urinary frequency. The pharmacokinetics of trospium chloride have been investigated in healthy volunteers, in patients with renal and hepatic impairment, and in those with symptoms of overactive bladder, after oral, intravenous and intravesical administration. After oral administration, absorption of the hydrophilic trospium chloride is slow and incomplete. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of approximately 4 ng/mL are reached 4-5 hours after administration of a 20 mg immediate-release preparation. The mean bioavailability is approximately 10% and decreases by concomitant food intake (to a mean of 26% of the fasting area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]). Trospium chloride displays dose proportional increases in AUC and Cmax after a single dose within the clinically relevant dose range (20-60 mg). The mean volume of distribution is approximately 350-800 L. The drug is minimally (mean approximately 10%) metabolised to spiroalcohol by hydrolysis, is 50% plasma protein bound and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Urinary excretion of the parent compound plays a major role in the disposition of the drug, with a mean renal clearance of 29 L/h (accounting for approximately 70% of total clearance) and a mean elimination half-life ranging from 10 to 20 hours. Elimination of the drug is slowed in patients with renal insufficiency, and population pharmacokinetic modelling has demonstrated that drug clearance is correlated with serum creatinine concentration. Thus, dose reduction is needed in patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). To date, no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions have been identified; the drug does not bind to any of the drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes. The pharmacokinetics of the drug are compatible with twice-daily administration. A once-daily schedule may also be appropriate, but this regimen needs formal clinical evaluation. PMID:15966754
Doroshyenko, Oxana; Jetter, Alexander; Odenthal, Karl P; Fuhr, Uwe
Entrance into a clinical chemistry career in the US can be obtained through a variety of avenues, ranging from very formal to no formal training requirements. A frequent starting point is through a formal medical technology program at the baccalaureate level. Nonphysicians, interested in an advanced career, have also the option to choose their point of entrance through a formal graduate or postdoctoral program. The main source for obtaining a Master of Science or Doctoral degree with a major in the clinical laboratory sciences, is through Departments of Pathology. Physicians desiring to subspecialize in clinical chemistry can obtain some of the training through a residency program in Pathology. Clinical chemistry is an essential component of both the clinical pathology (CP) residency and the combined residencies in anatomic and clinical pathology (AP/CP). In addition, fellowships in clinical chemistry are available for graduates with doctorate degrees in the chemical and biological sciences as well as for physicians with laboratory experience. PMID:7720280
Tetrault, G A; Gruemer, H D
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials.
Followill, David S.; Urie, Marcia; Galvin, James M.; Ulin, Kenneth; Xiao, Ying; FitzGerald, Thomas J.
On October 9-12, 1985, 250 health personnel, educators, and social service workers attended the 2nd national conference on school based clinics in the US. The conference, held in Chicago, was sponsored jointly by the Center for Population Options (CPO), a Washington based organization which provides technical assistance to groups interested in establishing school clinics, and the Ounce of Prevention Fund, a group of funding agencies in Illinois which works in cooperation with the state government to provide funds for school clinics in Illinois. The growth and accomplishments of the school based clinic movement in the US was reviewed in opening remarks made by the chairperson of the CPO. In 1984, at the time of the 1st national conference, there were clinics in only about 12 communities throughout the nation. Currently, there are clinics in about 50 communities located in 26 states. The clinics provide primary health care, including physical exams, immunizations, treatment for minor illnesses, counseling, nutrition assistance, gynecological exams, and family planning counseling. Some of the clinics dispense contraceptives. Most of the clinics do not provide abortion referrals. The clinics are generally operated by groups outside the educational system, e.g., hospitals, health departments, and nonprofit organizations. The schools furnish space for the clinics. Clinics are usually staffed by a nurse practitioner and a social worker with a backup physician. Topics discussed by the conference participants included strategies for establishing clinics and for gaining community and student acceptance, clinic evaluation, and funding issues. Controversy frequently accompanies the establishment of new clinics. Participants tended to agree that an essential element in launching a successful program is the establishment of a community advisory committee. A concerted effort must be made to address all community concerns about the clinic. Participants noted that it was best to obtain the support of school board members, administrators, and superintendents before approaching the staff at individual schools. Efforts must be made to gain the student's confidence in the ability of the clinics to serve their needs in a confidential manner. This goal can be more effectively met if the clinic is staffed by full-time rather than part-time workers. Some clinics successfully avoided initial controversy by deferring the provision of contraceptive services until their 2nd year of operation. Available but limited evaluation data suggest that clinic utilization is relatively high and that the clinics have had a negative impact on teenage pregnancy and a positive impact on contraceptive use among adolescents. For example, in St. Paul, Minnesota, a school clinic program was introduced in the 1970s, and between 1976-77 and 1984-85, the teenage birth rate declined from 59/1000 to 37/1000. The proportion of female students who used family planning increased from 7%-35% between 1976-77 and 1983-84. During the conference, the CPO announced plans to conduct a much needed large-scale evaluation of school clinics. The 3-year study will cover 7 geographical areas. The cost of operating the clinics is estimated to be US$100-US$125/student. Funding for the clinics comes primarily from the federal government sources including Maternal and Child Health and Social Services block grants, Medicaid, Title X of the Public Health Service Act, and the Adolescent Family Life Act. State governments and private donor organizations also support the clinics. A few clinics offset their expenses by charging minimal student fees. The participants tended to agree that in the long run, public funds should be used to support the programs. There was some disagreement among participants as to whether the primary task of the clinics was to improve the health status of adolescents or reduce the teenage pregnancy rate. PMID:3803548
Kenney, A M
Glycogen storage disease type II - also called Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency - is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, caused by an accumulation of glycogen in the lysosome due to deficiency of the lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme. Pompe disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the acid ?-glucosidase (GAA), located on chromosome 17q25.2-q25.3. The different disease phenotypes are related to the levels of residual GAA activity in muscles. The clinical spectrum ranging from the classical form with early onset and severe phenotype to not-classical form with later onset and milder phenotype is described. PMID:24399863
Manganelli, Fiore; Ruggiero, Lucia
Both disease progression and pulsatile stimulation of dopaminergic receptors are responsible for development of fluctuations and dyskinesia in about 50% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) after 4-6 years of therapy with levodopa. In order to prevent motor complications, the ideal therapy should secure continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS). The concept of CDS is supported by the results of both experimental and clinical studies. Several treatment options are available to achieve CDS. Dopamine agonists have a longer half-life than levodopa and the development of dyskinesia is delayed when they are used as monotherapy in early PD. Continuous delivery of agonists can be improved with prolonged-release oral preparations, a transdermal delivery system or continuous subcutaneous infusion. Continuous enteral infusion of levodopa is another way to achieve CDS and it is very effective in reducing motor complications in advanced PD. PMID:20827612
Bogucki, Andrzej; S?awek, Jaros?aw
The basic treatment goals of pharmacological therapies in sleep medicine are to improve waking function by either improving sleep or by increasing energy during wakefulness. Stimulants to improve waking function include amphetamine derivatives, modafinil, and caffeine. Sleep aids encompass several classes, from benzodiazepine hypnotics to over-the-counter antihistamines. Other medications used in sleep medicine include those initially used in other disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and psychiatric disorders. As these medications are prescribed or encountered by providers in diverse fields of medicine, it is important to recognize the distribution of adverse effects, drug interaction profiles, metabolism, and cytochrome substrate activity. In this paper, we review the pharmacological armamentarium in the field of sleep medicine to provide a framework for risk-benefit considerations in clinical practice.
Proctor, Ashley; Bianchi, Matt T.
To improve the equality of life, we must prevent the falls in both healthy elderly and patients with the cerebrovascular diseases. Wearable accelerometer was applied to monitor. In this paper, we introduced two different clinical applications. On is fall detector and the other is monitoring device for screening test. 1) We have developed body-worn accelerometer with data loggers and monitored the daily of life in patient with Parkinson disease. The patients wore the device and monitored falls while walking and standing. As a result, we could obtain fall times for a long period. 2) The ability of walking and standing have been evaluated by Timed up & go test. We used telemetry with accelerometer. The stability of walking could be evaluated by the acceleration signals. The simple body-won device can be useful for fall study. PMID:17281929
Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261
Valensi, P; Behar, A
Lipoprotein (a) is a strong and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis severity and a predictor of the risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Many questions are still unanswered in relation to the clinical relevance of the scientific observations on Lp(a) and its application in the realms of cardiovascular prevention. Lp(a), a lipoprotein subtype, is linked to the Apo(a) gene located on chromosome 6q26-27 independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). For this review, data sources from Cochrane, Pubmed, MEDLINE from 1960 till 2012 were analysed systematically. At least one-off measurement of plasma Lp(a) was found to be indicated in those with premature coronary disease when no real causative factor was identified. Management seemed promising with PCSK9 I, apheresis, CETPI, dietary choices and ACEi. There was clear evidence that Lp(a) is a definite risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:24864642
Jayasinghe, Rohan; Craig, Ian Hamilton; Mohan, Raj Kamal Alfred
Recommendations about the nutritional management of preterm infants, especially of extremely low gestational age (or extremely low birth weight) neonates, have been published by a number of pediatric and nutritional organizations. The objectives of these recommendations are to provide nutrients to approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age, to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients, and to achieve a satisfactory functional development. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the intrauterine growth rate to be targeted and of the nutrient requirements of preterm infants. Birth weight-based intrauterine curves should be used to monitor postnatal growth of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. Although primarily provided by observational studies or historic control studies, data demonstrate that growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes correlate with nutritional intake. The implementation of standardized feeding guidelines reduces nutritional practice variation and facilitates postnatal growth and improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24751619
Ehrenkranz, Richard A
This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247
Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice
Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive and irresistible impulses to steal objects, with growing excitement before, and relief after the incidents. The thefts are not planned, carried out without confidants and regarded as illegal by the offenders who often feel guilty for it. The objects are stolen not for monetary gain or personal use, but are mostly discarded, given away or hoarded. Though there is a debate going on for more than 100 years, the nosological position of kleptomania remains unclear. On the one hand the clinical picture is observed as an isolated disorder in otherwise healthy persons, on the other hand it may also occur as an accompanying symptom of various other psychiatric disorders, e. g. impulse control disorders, acute psychoses, affective, or organic psychic disorders. The present article gives an overview of the most important aetiopathogenetic viewpoints about kleptomania and discusses their nosological, therapeutical and legal implications. PMID:14745686
Jabs, B E; Pfuhlmann, B
Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike.
Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan
Aeromonas hydrophila has for some time been regarded as an opportunistic pathogen in hosts with impaired local or general defence mechanisms. Infections in such individuals are generally severe. The organism is also being isolated with increasing frequency throughout the world from a variety of focal and systemic infections of varying severity in persons that are apparently immunologically normal. Most commonly it causes acute diarrheal disease by producing an enterotoxin. Thus the organism appears to have greater clinical significance that was hitherto suspected. The organism has been infrequently reported from humans in Canada, but its correct laboratory identification, together with increased awareness that it can contribute to illness, will undoubtedly lead to more reports of its isolation in Canada.
Trust, T. J.; Chipman, D. C.
Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an assisted reproductive technology in which oocytes are retrieved from the antral follicles of unstimulated or minimally stimulated ovaries. IVM of human oocytes has emerged as a promising procedure. This new technology has advantages over controlled ovarian stimulation such as reduction of costs, simplicity, and elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. By elimination or reduction of gonadotropin stimulation, IVM offers eligible infertile couples a safe and convenient form of treatment, and IVM outcomes are currently comparable in safety and efficacy to those of conventional in vitro fertilization. IVM has been applied mainly in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome or ultrasound-only polycystic ovaries, but with time, the indications for IVM have expanded to other uncommon situations such as fertility preservation, as well as to normal responders. In this review, the current clinical experiences with IVM will be described.
Lim, Kyung Sil; Chae, Soo Jin; Choo, Chang Woo; Ku, Yeon Hee; Lee, Hye Jun; Hur, Chang Young; Lim, Jin Ho
Numerous iatrogenic causes of altered radiotracer biodistributions have been described. Cancer chemotherapy is a particularly potent cause of changed biodistributions while even a trivial matter such as preparing the skin with an iodine containing antiseptic may cause displacement of technetium from its compounds. In the blocking of thyroid uptake of radioiodines, there is good precedent for the manipulation of regional tissue dosimetry. It is possible to go beyond the mere cataloguing of these effects to look creatively at the subject of comparative tissue biodistributions and hence comparative dosimetry. Effects such as the clinical observation of the interference by cis-platinum with the usual biodistribution of radio-gallium suggests that such compounds can be used as probes each to lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the other.
Lentle, B.C.; Scott, J.R.; Schmidt, R.P.; Noujaim, A.A.
Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma is a rarely encountered cause of back pain. It often leads to cauda equina syndrome, necessitating emergency spinal surgery. We report the case of a 19-year-old Chinese man who presented with pain in the lower back, which started after he had carried some heavy boxes. He denied a history of fall or trauma. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a hyperintense biconvex-shaped lesion in the posterior epidural space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences, diagnostic of a spinal epidural haematoma. The patient, who was admitted and managed conservatively, had gradual resolution of his pain. No neurological deficit was detected on discharge or on follow-up. Repeat MR imaging showed total resolution of the lumbar spinal epidural haematoma. The clinical characteristics, MR imaging features, diagnosis and management of spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma are discussed. PMID:24356751
Mahmud, Nor Azam; Singh, Dinesh R; Wong, Steven B S; Peh, Wilfred C G
Testicular lymphoma is a rare condition, so large scale prospective studies are difficult to conduct. Consensus regarding standard treatment is lacking. This study retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with testicular lymphoma. One patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis. Two patients with Burkitt's lymphoma had poor outcomes regardless of treatment. Thus, we analyzed the clinical features, treatments, and outcomes of 19 patients with DLBCL. The median progression-free and overall survival was 28.3 and 36.3 months, respectively. A good response to treatment was a favorable prognostic factor. Because of the high relapse rate, the outcome is poor for testicular lymphoma. Therefore, long-term follow-up is strongly recommended. PMID:24247653
Shih, Hsuan-Jen; Shih, Lee-Yung; Chang, Hung; Wang, Po-Nan; Wu, Jin-Hou; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Hung, Yu-Shin; Dunn, Po
Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of male breast glandular tissue and is the most common breast condition in males. At least 30% of males will be affected during their life. Since it causes anxiety, psychosocial discomfort and fear of breast cancer, early diagnostic evaluation is important and patients usually seek medical attention. Gynecomastia was reported to cause an imbalance between estrogen and androgen action or an increased estrogen to androgen ratio, due to increased estrogen production, decreased androgen production or both. Evaluation of gynecomastia must include a detailed medical history, clinical examination, specific blood tests, imaging and tissue sampling. Individual treatment requirements can range from simple reassurance to medical treatment or even surgery. The main aim of any intervention is to relieve the symptoms and exclude other etiological factors.
Cuhaci, Neslihan; Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir
Objectives: To describe the establishment of a community based walk-in outreach genitourinary medicine clinic, the “374 clinic,” in south London to target young men under 25 in an area with high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Methods: The outreach clinic was set up within a Brook advisory centre, which already had gained the trust of local young people. Epidemiological, clinical,
D A Lewis; A McDonald; G Thompson; J S Bingham
The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 patients (96.0%) were diagnosed with GID. Four patients were excluded
Nobuyuki Okabe; Toshiki Sato; Yosuke Matsumoto; Yumiko Ido; Seishi Terada; Shigetoshi Kuroda
To provide an open translational research platform to narrow the gap between clinical practice and laboratory research of colorectal cancer, we construct a more comprehensive clinical omics database integrating not only clinical and omics data, but also epidemiology data from more than 150 patients. Based on this integrated database, we provide query, integrated view, and data analysis for clinical physicians,
Ling Zheng; Li Wang; Da Wang; Ning Deng; Xudong Lu; Huilong Duan
This study analyzed 816 medical professors' perceptions of clinical teaching, as measured with the online version of the Clinical Teaching Perception Inventory, and examined difficulties that female professors faced in becoming the ideal clinical teacher. While describing themselves as a clinical teacher, female professors rated themselves lower…
Masunaga, Hiromi; Hitchcock, Maurice A.
Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care. PMID:7787486
Objective To understand the nature of emerging electronic documentation practices, disconnects between documentation workflows and computing systems designed to support them, and ways to improve the design of electronic documentation systems. Materials and methods Time-and-motion study of resident physicians' note-writing practices using a commercial electronic health record system that includes an electronic documentation module. The study was conducted in the general medicine unit of a large academic hospital. Results During the study, 96 note-writing sessions by 11 resident physicians, resulting in close to 100?h of observations were seen. Seven of the 10 most common transitions between activities during note composition were between documenting, and gathering and reviewing patient data, and updating the plan of care. Discussion The high frequency of transitions seen in the study suggested that clinical documentation is fundamentally a synthesis activity, in which clinicians review available patient data and summarize their impressions and judgments. At the same time, most electronic health record systems are optimized to support documentation as uninterrupted composition. This mismatch leads to fragmentation in clinical work, and results in inefficiencies and workarounds. In contrast, we propose that documentation can be best supported with tools that facilitate data exploration and search for relevant information, selective reading and annotation, and composition of a note as a temporal structure. Conclusions Time-and-motion study of clinicians' electronic documentation practices revealed a high level of fragmentation of documentation activities and frequent task transitions. Treating documentation as synthesis rather than composition suggests new possibilities for supporting it more effectively with electronic systems.
Vawdrey, David K; Stetson, Peter D; Zheng, Kai; Hripcsak, George
Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients requiring full-time care, and finally death. The most common cause of death is pneumonia, followed by suicide.
As a basis for semantic interoperability, ideally, a Clinical Knowledge Resource for a clinical concept should be defined formally and defined once in a way that all clinical professions and all countries can agree on. Clinical Knowledge Governance is required to create high-quality, reusable Clinical Knowledge Resources and achieve this aim. Traditionally, this is a time-consuming and cumbersome process, relying heavily on face-to-face meetings and being able to get sufficient input from clinicians. However, in a national or even international space, it is required to streamline the processes involved in creating Clinical Knowledge Resources. For this, a Web 2.0 tool that supports online collaboration of clinicians during their creation and publishing of Clinical Knowledge Resources has been developed. This tool is named the Clinical Knowledge Manager (CKM) and supports the development, review and publication of Clinical Knowledge Resources. Also, post-publication activities such as adding terminology bindings, translating the Clinical Knowledge Resource into another language and republishing it are supported. The acceptance of Clinical Knowledge Resources depends on their quality and being able to determine their quality, for example it is important to know that a broad umber of reviewers from various clinical disciplines have been involved in the development of the Clinical Knowledge Resource. We are still far from realizing the vision of a global repository of a great number of reusable, high-quality Clinical Knowledge Resources, which can provide the basis for broad semantic interoperability between systems. However progress towards this aim is being made around the world. PMID:24018522
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, act on motor nerve endings and induce muscle relaxation. BoNT type A and B are used as therapeutic agents. Several preparations of BoNT type A are commercially available; Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin® are popular. They differ in the manufacturing method used, for example, BoNT consists of neurotoxin and a complex protein, Botox® and Dysport® contain a complex protein, whereas Xeomin® is free from the protein. However, when applied clinically, there is no significant difference in the efficacy and adverse effects between these BoNT products. Intramuscular BoNT injection is widely recognized as a safe and effective treatment for blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, cervical dystonia, spasticity, squint, migraine, hyperhidrosis, wrinkles (cosmetic purpose), achalasia, hyperactive bladder, etc. BoNT preparations are used in more than 70 countries. In Japan, BoNT is used to treat blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, cervical dystonia, and spasticity in addition to being used to treat wrinkles. However, its use is not yet widespread in Japan. This article reviews the structure and characteristics of BoNT, and throws light upon the technique of injecting BoNT. PMID:21747148
Mukai, Yohei; Kaji, Ryuji
The Clinical Scholar Model (CSM) is a practice-education partnership focused on improving the outcomes of clinical nursing education by bridging the academic and service settings. An expert clinical nurse serves as a clinical scholar (CS) to coordinate, supervise, and evaluate the clinical education of nursing students in collaboration with school of nursing faculty. This article describes the model's evolution, how the model is differentiated from traditional clinical instruction roles and responsibilities, and the benefits to the collaborating clinical agency and school of nursing. PMID:16465092
Preheim, Gayle; Casey, Kathy; Krugman, Mary
Decision making in health care implies knowledge of the clinical course of the disease. Knowing the course allows us to estimate the likelihood of occurrence of a phenomenon at a given time or its duration. Within the statistical models that allow us to have a summary measure to estimate the time of occurrence of a phenomenon in a given population are the linear regression (the outcome variable is continuous and normally distributed -time to the occurrence of the event-), logistic regression (outcome variable is dichotomous, and it is evaluated at one single interval), and survival curves (outcome event is dichotomous, and it can be evaluated at multiple intervals). The first reference we have of this type of analysis is the work of the astronomer Edmond Halley, an English physicist and mathematician, famous for the calculation of the appearance of the comet orbit, recognized as the first periodic comet (1P/Halley's Comet). Halley also contributed in the area of health to estimate the mortality rate for a Polish population. The survival curve allows us to estimate the probability of an event occurring at different intervals. Also, it leds us to estimate the median survival time of any phenomenon of interest (although the used term is survival, the outcome does not need to be death, it may be the occurrence of any other event). PMID:24878091
Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios, Lino; Talavera, Juan O
The most common surgery performed in our clinic with the CO2 laser is the cutting and vaporization of neoplasms associated with the head and neck, in particular, the squamous cell carcinoma in the cat. A majority of the tumors are malignant and 50% are metastatic at the time of presentation for surgery. Experience has taught us that early detection and removal with the CO2 laser affords the best prognosis. To date, roughly 100 cases have been treated with the CO2 laser. The success rate in the dog is not as rewarding as in the cat. Most cases were done with 5 - 10 watts of power continuous or pulsed wave, using a 125 mm or 50 mm handpiece. The laser beam was focused or defocused to adjust for cutting, vaporization, and coagulation. No post-op care of the wounds was recommended. Other small neoplasms in and around the ears, head, and neck can also be removed easily with the CO2 laser.
Sinibaldi, Kenneth R.
The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Clinical Research Task Force (CRTF) was one of six Task Forces developed by the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) organization committee with the purpose of: a) evaluating the limitations of APS clinical research and developing guidelines for researchers to help improve the quality of APS research; and b) prioritizing the ideas for a well-designed multicenter clinical trial and discussing the pragmatics of getting such a trial done. Following a systematic working algorithm, the Task Force identified five major issues that impede APS clinical research and the ability to develop evidence-based recommendations for the management of aPL-positive patients: (1) aPL detection has been based on partially or non-standardized tests, and clinical (and basic) APS research studies have included patients with heterogeneous aPL profiles with different clinical event risks; (2) clinical (and basic) APS research studies have included a heterogeneous group of patients with different aPL-related manifestations (some controversial); (3) thrombosis and/or pregnancy risk stratification and quantification are rarely incorporated in APS clinical research; (4) most APS clinical studies include patients with single positive aPL results and/or low-titer aPL ELISA results; furthermore, study designs are mostly retrospective and not population based, with limited number of prospective and/or controlled population studies; and (5) lack of the understanding the particular mechanisms of aPL-mediated clinical events limits the optimal clinical study design. The Task Force recommended that there is an urgent need for a truly international collaborative approach to design and conduct well-designed prospective large-scale multi-center clinical trials of patients with persistent and clinically significant aPL profiles. An international collaborative meeting to formulate a good research question using 'FINER' (Feasible; Interesting; Novel; Ethical; and Relevant) criteria took place in November 2010. PMID:21303838
Erkan, D; Derksen, R; Levy, R; Machin, S; Ortel, T; Pierangeli, S; Roubey, R; Lockshin, M
Various risk indices have been propounded by various authors to assess the severity of stone formation in the human urinary tract. However, most of these indices are laboratory oriented and not feasible to be performed in a hospital setting. Most of these also do not take into consideration all the possible influences on stone formation. In this paper, the correlation of various clinically relevant risk indices has been assessed to understand the relevance of the prediction in the possibility of future stone formation. 500 stone patients were studied to find out the various possible risk factors. The total score of the index was fixed as 100. Forty three variables were used to calculate the index, and each variable was given a score ranging from one to eight. They included the following: age 20-40 (1), sex (2), family history (3), Gulf returned (1), external occupation (1), primary (1), recurrent (5), symptoms (2), RBC (1), PC (1), COD (1), COM (2), UA (2), crystal aggregation (2), urinary infection (1), pH below 6 (1), bilateralism (2), kidney/U/B/U (1), passer (2), multiple organs (2), multiple number (2), incomplete removal (5), serum calcium (3), serum phosphorus (1), serum magnesium (1), serum creatinine (1), serum uric acid (4), urine volume (1), urine specific gravity (1), urine calcium (1), urine phosphorus (1), urine uric acid (5), urine magnesium (2), urine oxalate (8), urine citrate (8), calcium magnesium ratio (2), creatinine clearance (1), tubular reabsorption of phosphate (4), urine calcium oxalate ratio (2), urine oxalate citrate ratio (5), urine oxalate uric acid ratio (2), urine calcium uric acid ratio (2), stone COM/COD (2) and stone UA/cystine (2). After calculating the index, it was correlated with the clinical severity index. The severity status of each patient was considered as +/++/+++/++++ (nil/low/moderate/severe) depending on the status of the disease in long term assessment. In 127 patients, the risk index was calculated after a period of over 1 year to see the change in index score. On calculating the risk index and correlating with the severity grade of the stone disease, the correlation coefficient r value was +0.67 which was significant at P < 0.001 level. The risk index could be altered by dietary habit changes, drugs, life style changes, and appropriate drug schedules. The second assessment after 1 year of the 127 patients showed that the mean risk index could be reduced from 43.08 to 36.56. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). It is concluded that by using the present clinical risk index assessment, it is possible to arrive at a prediction regarding future stone formation in any individual. It is also possible to reduce the risk of stone formation by dietetic and life style changes and appropriate chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:19609518
Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya
The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The protocol proposes the use of a fiber-optic coupled (FOCD) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter to measure the entrance skin exposure at the time of the mammogram without interfering with diagnostic information of the mammogram. The study showed that FOCD had sensitivity with less than 7% energy dependence, linear in all tube current-time product stations, and was reproducible within 2%. FOCD was superior to MOSFET dosimeter in sensitivity, reusability, and reproducibility. The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. In addition, the study population anthropometric measurements enabled the development of analytical equations to calculate the whole breast area, estimate for the skin layer thickness and optimal location for automatic exposure control ionization chamber. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.
Benevides, Luis Alberto Do Rego
This cross sectional descriptive study was done to find out common clinical presentations, etiologies and laboratory investigation abnormalities in patients of periodic paralysis. Study was carried out in 30 patients with an age range from 8 to 70 years who were enrolled from July 2008 to June 2009 in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) medicine unit. Individuals who were admitted with sudden onset generalized muscle weakness, had history of previous attack and serum potassium level <3mmol/l or >5.5mmol/l were included in this study. In this series, majority of the patients were male (66.67%). Male: female ratio was approximately 2:1. The mean age of the patients was 27.4±4.5 years. Majority (26.67%) of them were in age range of 31-40 years. About 30% of the patients experienced the first attack of paralysis at the age of 20-24 years. Majority of patients (53%) were from middle class family with occupation of private service (26.66%) and farmer (20%). Positive family history was reported in 20% of patients. Regarding the precipitating factors, majority of patients (83.3%) were related to high carbohydrate meal, 56.67% related to temperature, 41.67% to exercise. Flaccid muscle weakness with variables muscle power (MRC grade 4/5 to 2/5 in 60% and 1/5 to 0/5 in 40%) was found. Cerebellar functions, all modalities of sensations and functions of cranial nerves were intact in all patients. In this series, laboratory investigations revealed reduced serum potassium level (<3mmol/l) in 90% of patients. Serum potassium value >5.5mmol/l was found in only 3.33% of patients. Creatine kinase (MM) was raised in 23% of the patients and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was 0.8-2mmol/l in 6% of the patients. More than half of the patients (56%) showed variable ECG changes. Impaired nerve conduction function was found in 28.00%. So, careful history taking, meticulous clinical examination and simple laboratory investigations is sufficient to make a prompt diagnosis and rapid management of patients with periodic paralysis. PMID:22314450
Khan, N A; Khan, A U; Hasan, M I; Datta, P K; Rahman, M W; Akter, M; Rahman, S; Ferdous, J; Miah, A H; Sarker, C B
Molecular diagnostics and disease-specific tailored treatments are now being introduced to patients at many hospitals and clinics throughout the world (Strain and Richman, Curr Opin HIV AIDS 8:106-110, 2013) and becoming prevalent in the nonscientific literature. Instead of generically using a "one treatment fits all" approach that may have varying levels of effectiveness to different patients, patient-specific molecular profiling based on the genetic makeup of the disease and/or a more accurate pathogen titer could provide more effective treatments with fewer unwanted side effects.One commonly known example of this scenario is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is upregulated in many cancers, including many lung and colorectal cancers. Commonly used treatments for these include the receptor blockers cetuximab or panitumumab and tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib. These agents are effective at reducing out-of-control cell cycling and tumor proliferation, but only if downstream signaling kinases and phosphatases are not mutated. Known oncogenes such as BRAF V600E and KRAS G12/13 that are constitutively activated render these treatments ineffective. The use of known ineffective drugs and treatments can thus be avoided reducing time to more effective treatments, reducing cost, and increasing patient well-being.Although digital PCR is for all practical purposes a "new" technology, there is already tremendous interest in its potential for the clinical diagnostics arena. Specificity of the information acquired, accuracy of results, time to results, and cost per sample analyzed are making dPCR an attractive tool for this field. Three areas where dPCR will have a noticeable impact are pathogen/viral detection and quantitation, copy number variations, and rare mutation detection and abundance, but it will inevitably expand from these as the technology becomes more and more prevalent.This chapter discusses digital PCR assay optimization and validation, pathogen/viral detection and quantitation, copy number variation, and rare mutation abundance assays. The sample methods described below utilize the QX100/QX200 methodologies, but with the exception of reaction sub-partitioning (dependent on the instrumentation used) most other parameters remain the same. PMID:24740231
Crystalluria is a marker of urine supersaturation present in both normal and pathological conditions. Indeed, nature and characteristics of the spontaneous crystalluria are of clinical interest for detecting and following biological disorders involved in renal diseases. Method. Crystalluria examination should preferably be performed on first morning urine or fresh fasting voiding samples by polarised microscopy in a Malassez cell. Urine samples must be stored at 37 degrees C or at room temperature and examined within two hours following voiding. Results and discussion. Crystalluria should be interpreted according to various criteria: 1) chemical nature of crystals for abnormal crystals such as struvite, ammonium urate, cystine, dihydroxyadenine, xanthine or drugs; 2) crystalline phase of common chemical species as calcium oxalates, calcium phosphates and uric acids; 3) crystal morphology (calcium oxalates); 4) crystal size (calcium oxalates); 5) crystal abundance (calcium oxalates, calcium phosphates, uric acids, cystine); 6) crystal aggregation (calcium oxalates); 7) frequency of crystalluria assessed on serial first morning urine samples, a very useful tool for long-term surveillance of patients. Within calcium oxalate crystalluria, presence of whewellite is a marker of elevated oxalate concentration (urine oxalate > 0.3 mmol/L); a crystal number > 200/mm 3 is highly suggestive of heavy hyperoxaluria of genetic or absorptive origin. Predominant weddellite crystalluria is most often indicative of an excessive urine calcium concentration (> 3.8 mmol/L); a dodecahedric aspect of the crystals is a marker for heavy hypercalciuria (> 6 mmol/L) while an increased crystal size (>or= 35 microm) is indicative of simultaneous hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. Calculation of the global crystal volume, especially when applied to calcium oxalates or cystine, is a clinically useful tool for the monitoring of patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Lastly, presence of crystalluria in more than 50% of serial first voided morning urine samples is in our experience the most reliable biological marker for detecting the risk of stone recurrence in lithiasic patients. Conclusion. Crystalluria examination is an essential laboratory test for detecting and following pathological conditions, which may induce renal stone disease or alter kidney function due to urine crystals. PMID:15297232
Daudon, M; Jungers, P; Lacour, B
The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.
Okonta, Patrick I.
Although drug craving has received considerable research attention over the past several decades, to date there has been no systematic review of the general clinical significance of craving. This paper presents an overview of measurement issues of particular relevance to a consideration of use of craving in clinical settings. The paper then considers the relevance of craving across a broad array of clinical domains, including diagnosis, prognostic utility, craving as an outcome measure, and the potential value of craving as a direct target of intervention. The paper is both descriptive and prescriptive, informed by the current state of the science on craving with recommendations for the definition of craving, assessment practices, future research, and clinical applications. We conclude that craving has considerable utility for diagnosis and as a clinical outcome, and that findings from future research will likely expand the clinical potential of the craving construct in the domains of prognosis and craving as a treatment target.
Tiffany, Stephen T.; Wray, Jennifer M.
With increased enrollment, nursing faculty are finding clinical placement for students more difficult, especially in clinical areas such as child health. Simulation using moderate-fidelity and high-fidelity manikins offers evidence-based and innovative approaches to augment traditional clinical experiences. However, few studies quantitatively examine student outcomes associated with clinical simulation. This article describes student learning outcomes related to traditional and hybrid (part simulation and part traditional clinical) undergraduate clinical experiences in a baccalaureate nursing program. In addition, the use of faculty-developed simulation scenarios integration of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies into four pediatric scenarios, as well as the educational development of faculty at a simulation center, are presented. PMID:21210608
Parker, Ramona Ann; McNeill, Jeanette A; Pelayo, Lula Westrup; Goei, Kathleen A; Howard, Joyce; Gunter, M Danielle