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1

Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) in cervical dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular (IM) administration of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®, Ipsen Biopharm Ltd.) for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD) and the long-term safety and efficacy of repeated treatments. During the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase patients were randomized to 500 units Dysport (n = 55) or placebo (n = 61). Efficacy assessments

Daniel Truong; Matthew Brodsky; Mark Lew; Allison Brashear; Joseph Jankovic; Eric Molho; Olga Orlova; Sofia Timerbaeva

2010-01-01

2

An open-label cohort study of the improvement of quality of life and pain in de novo cervical dystonia patients after injections with 500 U botulinum toxin A (Dysport)  

PubMed Central

Objectives It remains to be determined whether the benefits of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on cervical dystonia (CD) motor symptoms extend to improvements in patient's quality of life (QoL). This analysis of a large, multicentre study was conducted with the aim of investigating changes in QoL and functioning among de novo patients receiving 500?U BoNT-A (abobotulinumtoxinA; Dysport) for the treatment of the two most frequent forms of CD, predominantly torticollis and laterocollis. Design A prospective, open-label study of Dysport (500?U; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd) administered according to a defined intramuscular injection algorithm. Setting German and Austrian outpatient clinics. Participants 516 male and female patients (aged ?18?years) with de novo CD. The majority of patients had torticollis (78.1%). 35 patients had concomitant depression (MedDRA-defined). Main outcome measures Change from baseline to weeks 4 and 12 in Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24) total and subscale scores, patient diary items (‘day-to-day capacities and activities’, ‘pain’ and ‘duration of pain’) and global assessment of pain. Results Significant improvements were observed in CDQ-24 total and subscale scores at week 4 and were sustained up to week 12 (p<0.001). Changes in CDQ-24 scores did not significantly differ between the torticollis and laterocollis groups or between patients with or without depression. There were also significant reductions in patient diary item scores for activities of daily living, pain and pain duration at weeks 4 and 12 (p<0.001). Pain relief (less or no pain) was reported by 66% and 74.1% of patients at weeks 4 and 12, respectively. Changes in pain parameters demonstrated a positive relationship with change in Tsui score. Conclusions After standardised open-label treatment with Dysport 500?U, improvements in QoL and pain intensity up to 12?weeks in patients with CD were observed. PMID:23604344

Hefter, H; Benecke, R; Erbguth, F; Jost, W; Reichel, G; Wissel, J

2013-01-01

3

A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Three Doses of Botulinum Toxin Type A (Dysport®) in the Treatment of Spastic Equinovarus Deformity after Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: Calf muscle hypertonicity following stroke may impair walking rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to assess botulinum toxin (Dysport®) in post-stroke calf spasticity. Methods: A prospective, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study was performed to evaluate dysport at 500, 1,000 or 1,500 units in 234 stroke patients. They were assessed at 4-week intervals over 12 weeks. Results: The primary

S. J. Pittock; A. P. Moore; O. Hardiman; E. Ehler; M. Kovac; J. Bojakowski; I. al Khawaja; M. Brozman; A. Skorometz; J. Slawek; G. Reichel; A. Stenner; S. Timerbaeva; Z. Stelmasiak; U. A. Zifko; B. Bhakta; E. Coxon

2003-01-01

4

Treatment of refractory anterior knee pain using botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) injection to the distal vastus lateralis muscle: a randomised placebo controlled crossover trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis randomised controlled crossover trial examined the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection, plus an exercise programme, to remediate chronic anterior knee pain (AKP) associated with quadriceps muscle imbalance.Methods24 individuals with refractory AKP received either BoNT-A (500 U Dysport) or the same volume saline injection to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and performed home exercises focusing on re-training

Barbara J Singer; Peter L Silbert; Swithin Song; John W Dunne; Kevin P Singer

2011-01-01

5

Factors affecting the health-related quality of life of patients with cervical dystonia and impact of treatment with abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport): results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) burden of cervical dystonia (CD) and report on the HRQOL and patient perception of treatment benefits of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport). Design The safety and efficacy of a single injection of abobotulinumtoxinA for CD treatment were evaluated in a previously reported international, multicenter, double-blind, randomised trial. HRQOL measures were assessed in the trial and have not been previously reported. Setting Movement disorder clinics in the USA and Russia. Participants Patients had to have a diagnosis of CD with symptoms for at least 18?months, as well as a total Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) score of at least 30; a Severity domain score of at least 15; and a Disability domain score of at least 3. Key exclusion criteria included treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) or botulinum toxin type B (BoNT-B) within 16?weeks of enrolment. Interventions Patients were randomised to receive either 500 U abobotulinumtoxinA (n=55) or placebo (n=61). Primary and secondary outcome measures Efficacy assessments included TWSTRS total (primary end point) and subscale scores at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12; a pain visual analogue scale at weeks 0 and 4; and HRQOL assessed by the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36; secondary end point) at weeks 0 and 8. Results Patients with CD reported significantly greater impairment for all SF-36 domains relative to US norms. Patients treated with abobotulinumtoxinA reported significantly greater improvements in Physical Functioning, Role Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health and Role Emotional domains than placebo patients (p?0.03 for all). The TWSTRS was significantly correlated with Physical Functioning, Role Physical and Bodily Pain scores, for those on active treatment. Conclusions CD has a marked impact on HRQOL. Treatment with a single abobotulinumtoxinA injection results in significant improvement in patients’ HRQOL. Trial registration number The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00257660 and NCT00288509. PMID:25324317

Mordin, Margaret; Masaquel, Catherine; Abbott, Chandra; Copley-Merriman, Catherine

2014-01-01

6

Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of post-stroke arm spasticity: results of the German-Austrian open-label post-marketing surveillance prospective study.  

PubMed

The current practice in Germany and Austria, and the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A; Dysport) in the treatment of patients with post-stroke arm spasticity (with no fixed upper-limb contractures), were assessed in this observational prospective non-interventional study. One treatment cycle was documented with assessments at baseline, approximately week 4 (optional), and approximately week 12. Pattern of spasticity, treatment goal, safety and efficacy were recorded. Overall response and goal achievement was rated on a 4-point scale ('no goal achievement', 'goal achievement', 'good goal achievement', 'best goal achievement'). In total, 409 patients were included and 99% assigned to one of five arm-spasticity patterns. Therapy goals included reduced muscle tone (92.6%), physiotherapy or occupational therapy support (63.8%), increased range of motion (61.8%), pain reduction (58.9%), facilitation of care or hygiene (55.7%), and functional improvement (17.0%). Goals were achieved in 84% of patients. The following factors had the most potential as predictors of treatment outcome: pre-treatment; time since onset of spasticity; pattern of arm spasticity. Mean Dysport dose was 728 U and an inverse dose-response relationship was observed. Treatment was well tolerated. 500-1000 U was a safe and effective treatment for post-stroke arm spasticity in this post-marketing evaluation. PMID:24361062

Jost, Wolfgang H; Hefter, Harald; Reissig, Andrea; Kollewe, Katja; Wissel, Joerg

2014-02-15

7

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

8

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? A clinical trial is a study carried out in human volunteers to help doctors learn more about the human body and ... work. What can I gain from joining a clinical trial? You will: • Take a more active role in ...

9

Clinical terminology.  

PubMed

This chapter gives an educational overview of: * What a clinical terminology is * How clinical terminology is constructed and used * The concept of mapping terminologies * Why clinical terminology is an essential component of electronic health records and clinical decision support systems * The issues that relate to good use of terminologies and the need for governance and standardisation to support health information quality and the linkage to safe/consistent clinical decision support. PMID:20407153

Grain, Heather

2010-01-01

10

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

11

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... as the treatment group. If there is firm evidence that one method is better than the others ... The ethical and legal codes that govern medical practice apply to clinical trials. In addition, most clinical ...

12

Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management.

13

Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

ACRIN is funded to improve the quality and utility of imaging in cancer research and cancer care through expert, multi-institutional clinical evaluation of discoveries and technological innovations relevant to imaging science as applied in clinical oncology.

14

Clinical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computerization of clinical care is needed for several reasons. Paper records cannot efficiently support new models of care, clinical governance, or clinical decision-making; and they are not always available. The British Government's strategy for computerizing the NHS in England is embodied in the National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT). Modern, patient-centric, electronic patient record systems that incorporate clinical decision-support

Anthony P Madden

2004-01-01

15

Clinical Semiotics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical semiotics is defined and discussed as the discipline having to do with the interrelation between specifically human methods of communicating and processing information and specifically human psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. (Author/RM)

Shands, Harley C.; Meltzer, James D.

1975-01-01

16

Clinical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... potential drugs in development for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. These new therapies can only be made available ... people who need them most, many people with cystic fibrosis are needed to participate in clinical trials. Learn ...

17

Clinical hypnosis.  

PubMed

Clinical hypnosis is now an available tool for general practitioners. Hypnotists do not possess any magical powers. It is the patient who possess the magic; the hypnotist merely unlocks this power. PMID:7794139

Wong, M; Burrows, G

1995-05-01

18

Clinical Toxinology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical toxinology is a specialized area of clinical medicine focused on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention\\u000a of diseases caused by animal, plant, and fungal toxins. This review focuses on recent developments in snakebite. Snakebite\\u000a is newly recognized as a Neglected Tropical Disease by the World Health Organization (WHO), reflecting the large human and\\u000a economic cost of this disease. New

Julian White

2011-01-01

19

Clinical Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective. We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6. Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis. We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy. PMID:17422801

Martin, S. Wayne; Bonnett, Brenda

1987-01-01

20

Clinical sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical sepsis has been a fundamental issue in the practice of intensive care medicine since the specialty’s inception in\\u000a the early 1950s (1). Severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection presenting as clinical sepsis remain the ‘bread\\u000a and butter’ of modern intensive care (2). Yet despite the availability of a wide range of antimicrobial agents, it continues\\u000a to be associated with a

David Bihari

21

Clinical cytomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of predictive medicine is the detection of changes in patient's state prior to the clinical manifestation of the deterioration of the patients current status. Therefore, both the diagnostic of diseases like cancer, coronary atherosclerosis or congenital heart failure and the prognosis of the effect specific therapeutics on patients outcome are the main fields of predictive medicine. Clinical Cytomcs is based on the analysis of specimens from the patient by Cytomic technologies that are mainly imaging based techniques and their combinations with other assays. Predictive medicine aims at the recognition of the "fate" of each individual patients in order to yield unequivocal indications for decision making (i.e. how does the patient respond to therapy, react to medication etc.). This individualized prediction is based on the Predictive Medicine by Clinical Cytomics concept. These considerations have recently stimulated the idea of the Human Cytome Project. A major focus of the Human Cytome Project is multiplexed cy-tomic analysis of individual cells of the patient, extraction of predictive information and individual prediction that merges into individualized therapy. Although still at the beginning, Clinical Cytomics is a promising new field that may change therapy in the near future for the benefit of the patients.

Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik

2006-02-01

22

Clinical Psychology Unit. Doctor of Clinical Psychology  

E-print Network

Clinical Psychology Unit. Doctor of Clinical Psychology Annual Placement Report November 2013 standards for clinical psychology training programmes, as set out the placements they completed between September 2012 and October 2013. Clinical

Stone, J. V.

23

Clinical biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the biochemical studies conducted for the Apollo program were (1) to provide routine laboratory data for assessment of preflight crew physical status and for postflight comparisons; (2) to detect clinical or pathological abnormalities which might have required remedial action preflight; (3) to discover as early as possible any infectious disease process during the postflight quarantine periods following certain missions; and (4) to obtain fundamental medical knowledge relative to man's adjustment to and return from the space flight environment. The accumulated data presented suggest that these requirements were met by the program described. All changes ascribed to the space flight environment were subtle, whereas clinically significant changes were consistent with infrequent illnesses unrelated to the space flight exposure.

Alexander, W. C.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.

1975-01-01

24

Clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare complication of a variety of intestinal disorders characterized by an excessive\\u000a loss of proteins into the gastrointestinal tract due to impaired integrity of the mucosa. The clinical presentation of patients\\u000a with PLE is highly variable, depending upon the underlying cause, but mainly consists of edema due to hypoproteinemia. While\\u000a considering PLE, other causes of

Marjet J. A. M. Braamskamp; Koert M. Dolman; Merit M. Tabbers

2010-01-01

25

CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER and Translational Science CenterClinical and Translational Science Center June 24, 2011June 24, 2011 #12;UC DAVIS CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER UC DAVIS CLINICAL & TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER Goals

Carmichael, Owen

26

Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport) in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral) and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS) system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale), length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss). Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG) guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS) and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:19852852

Upile, Tahwinder; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Jerjes, Waseem; Prasad, Vyas; Kafas, Panagiotis; Abiola, Jesuloba; Youl, Bryan; Epstein, Ruth; Hopper, Colin; Sudhoff, Holger; Rubin, John

2009-01-01

27

Clinical neuroimaging  

SciTech Connect

Designed for practicing neurologists and neurosurgeons, this reference focuses on the newest techniques in computed assisted tomography. Text material covers basic principles of computed tomography, as well as the clinical advantages and disadvantages of each modality. The anatomical and/or physiological processes measured by XCT, PET, SPECT and MRI are first discussed in terms of the normal patient, and then applied to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological disease (primarily of the brain). Emphasis is placed on areas of difficult diagnosis, such as differentiating recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis, early diagnosis of dementia, selection of patients for extracranial-intracranial bypass procedures, and localization of epileptic foci.

Gilman, S.; Mazziotta, J.C.

1989-01-01

28

Women in Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... products regulated by FDA. How does FDA use clinical trials data? FDA uses the information from clinical trials ... clinical trials. How can I learn more about clinical trials? FDA has a website to help patients and ...

29

Children and Clinical Studies  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Scientific Reports Technology Transfer What are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials at NIH Clinical Center ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us Home » Children and Clinical Studies Skip Navigation Contact Connect Share ...

30

Paying for Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Learn About Clinical Trials In English En español Updated: 11/02/2012 Learn About Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Paying for ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Paying for Clinical Trials Senior couple reviewing bills. As you think about ...

31

Hypothyroidism in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points. PMID:25161963

Qari, Faiza

2014-01-01

32

Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models. Finally, collections of clinical models do require a repository in which they can be stored, searched, and maintained. Governance of Detailed Clinical Models is required at local, national, and international levels. PMID:24018520

Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

2013-01-01

33

Find International Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Find International Clinical Trials Search for Clinical TrialsSearch NCI's list of 8,000+ clinical trials now accepting participants, or use more search options to search the set of 19,000+ clinical trials that are no longer recruiting. Search Tip:The

34

Clinical Trials Helpful information  

E-print Network

Clinical Trials Helpful information and answers for patients #12;"I joined a clinical trial because: BREAST CANCER #12;Answering questions, offering hope A cancer clinical trial offers today's newest drugs patients throughout Northern California and beyond access to more than 150 cancer clinical trials at any

Ferrara, Katherine W.

35

Being a Clinical Educator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is it like to be a clinical educator? How do clinical educators experience and describe their continuing journey of becoming a clinical educator? Within the model developed in this research, dimensions of being a clinical educator were identified. These dimensions include (a) having a sense of self (and the impact of bringing self into the…

Higgs, Joy; Mcallister, Lindy

2007-01-01

36

Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with botulinum toxin A: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A beneficial effect of botulinum toxin on tension-type headache was reported in open-label studies but scientifically rigorous clinical studies are lacking. Therefore we conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multiple pericranial muscles of 112 patients with chronic tension-type headache were treated either with 500 mouse units of botulinum toxin (Dysport®) or with placebo. The diagnoses were made strictly

Wilhelm J Schulte-Mattler; Paul Krack

2004-01-01

37

Clinical Trials in Vision Research  

MedlinePLUS

... What is a clinical trial? Clinical trials are medical research studies in which people volunteer to participate. A clinical ... an eye disease or disorder. Clinical trials are medical research studies in which people volunteer to participate. Clinical trials ...

38

The NIH GIST Clinic  

Cancer.gov

Shown in the photograph from left to right are Barbara Wise pediatric nurse practitioner, Elizabeth Skree who attended the inaugural Pediatric GIST clinic, and Lee Helman scientific director for clinical research at the National Cancer Institute.

39

Spina Bifida Clinic Directory  

MedlinePLUS

... Minneapolis Spina Bifida Clinic 2001 Blaisdell Ave. Minneapolis, MN 55404 (952) 993-9100 www.parknicollett.com Shriners ... Clinic (pediatric only) 2025 E. River Parkway Minneapolis, MN 55414 (612) 596-6128 www.shrinershospitals.org Mayo ...

40

Clinical Trial Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... safe. Clinical trials can also look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of ... the process of providing potential participants with the key facts about a clinical trial before they decide ...

41

Cancer Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes types of clinical trials, who sponsors them, how they are conducted, how participants are protected, and who pays for the patient care costs associated with a clinical trial.

42

Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Performance and Accountability Report Budget Submission Recovery ... Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations Contact ...

43

Taking a Clinical Look at Clinicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention here was to promote the clinical approach to staff development. Attempts to come up with a number or particular personal outcomes which seem to represent a consensus of workshop participants' feelings. (Author/RK)

Kinghorn, Jon Rye

1976-01-01

44

2011 Clinic Application  

E-print Network

. PURPOSE OF CLINIC This two-day clinic is designed for high school Student-athletes who have an interest-8, 14-15, 21-22 & 28-29 All-American Gabrielle Woodson, `09 @ NCAA Final Four #12;CLINIC STAFF MICHELYNE

Aalberts, Daniel P.

45

Learn About Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Perhaps you are thinking about participating in a clinical trial. Or maybe you have a friend or family member with cancer and are wondering if a clinical trial is right for them. This section contains basic information about clinical trials, things to think about when deciding to take part and questions to ask your doctor.

46

Learning clinical reasoning.  

PubMed

Errors in clinical reasoning continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality, despite evidence-based guidelines and improved technology. Experts in clinical reasoning often use unconscious cognitive processes that they are not aware of unless they explain how they are thinking. Understanding the intuitive and analytical thinking processes provides a guide for instruction. How knowledge is stored is critical to expertise in clinical reasoning. Curricula should be designed so that trainees store knowledge in a way that is clinically relevant. Competence in clinical reasoning is acquired by supervised practice with effective feedback. Clinicians must recognise the common errors in clinical reasoning and how to avoid them. Trainees can learn clinical reasoning effectively in everyday practice if teachers provide guidance on the cognitive processes involved in making diagnostic decisions. PMID:24372846

Pinnock, Ralph; Welch, Paul

2014-04-01

47

Audiology Clinical Education Objectives Semester 1 WSU Clinic  

E-print Network

Audiology Clinical Education Objectives Semester 1 ­ WSU Clinic 1. Demonstrate ability to perform electroacoustic analysis #12;Audiology Clinical Education Objectives Semester 4 ­ Henry Ford 1. Demonstrate

Berdichevsky, Victor

48

Veterinary Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... coronoid processes Spinal cord injuries Acute disc herniations Testing pancreatic function Searchable Clinical Trials Database For Cancer In Pet Animals sponsored by the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) ...

49

AIDSinfo: Clinical Trials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Health and Human Services offers information on the clinical trials studying HIV and AIDS at this website. Visitors can search the clinical trials by category or keywords. For each study, users can discover the purpose, conditions, eligibility, publications, and additional information. Students and educators can find an overview of the components of an AIDS clinical trial. The website supplies the latest clinical trials news and links to related websites. Frequent visitors can quickly browse the trials that have been listed at the website in the last 30 days.

50

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

51

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

52

How Do Clinical Trials Work?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Do Clinical Trials Work? If you take part in a clinical ... protect patients and help produce reliable study results. Clinical Trial Protocol Each clinical trial has a master plan ...

53

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

54

Learn about Clinical Studies  

MedlinePLUS

... by a principal investigator, who is often a medical doctor. Clinical studies also have a research team that may include ... Participation Participating in a clinical study contributes to medical knowledge. The results of these studies can make a difference in the care of ...

55

Respecialization in clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 371 departments that offer graduate programs in psychology to determine their current respecialization efforts. Program directors from 43 departments indicated that they are currently involved in respecialization efforts, 26 of these in clinical psychology. A 2nd questionnaire was sent to the 149 students identified as having been involved in clinical respecialization, and responses were received from 65. Results show

George Stricker; James W. Hull; Jan Woodring

1984-01-01

56

Clinical Psychology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Psychology in India has seen steady development since its inception in the early 1900s. With clinical psychology developing as an independent profession, clinical psychologists have been functioning in various roles, offering a wide range of services in consultation, training, research, and private practice on multidisciplinary teams as well as in independent practice. This paper focuses on the historical roots

P. S. D. V. Prasadarao; Paulomi Matam Sudhir

2001-01-01

57

Hypnosis and Clinical Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnosis has been demonstrated to reduce analogue pain, and studies on the mechanisms of laboratory pain reduction have provided useful applications to clinical populations. Studies showing central nervous system activity during hypnotic procedures offer preliminary information concerning possible physiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia. Randomized controlled studies with clinical populations indicate that hypnosis has a reliable and significant impact on acute

David R. Patterson; Mark P. Jensen

2003-01-01

58

Clinical Imaging Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical Imaging Steering Committee (CISC) was established in December of 2010. CISC members include Cooperative Groups and other NCI sponsored networks imaging representatives, as well as other clinicians, translational scientists, biostatisticians, patient advocates, and NCI staff who support or are involved with cancer clinical imaging research.

59

Quantifying Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Communicating clinical trial results should include measures of effect size in order to quantify the clinical relevance of the results. P-values are not informative regarding the size of treatment effects. Cohen’s d and its variants are often used but are not easy to understand in terms of applicability to day-to-day clinical practice. Number needed to treat and number needed to harm can provide additional information about effect size that clinicians may find useful in clinical decision making, and although number needed to treat and number needed to harm are limited to dichotomous outcomes, it is recommended that they be considered for inclusion when describing clinical trial results. Examples are given using the fictional antipsychotic medications miracledone and fantastapine for the treatment of acute schizophrenia. PMID:25152844

2014-01-01

60

[Clinical study of smoking cessation clinic subjects].  

PubMed

The Cigarette-associated diseases will be decreased only by stopping smoking. At a smoking cessation clinic, we evaluated 22 subjects for smoking cessation after a three-month smoking cessation program. The program was completed by 20 subjects, or 90%, of whom 15, or 68%, quit smoking. Varenicline tartrate was used to treat 90% of subject, of whom 8, or 40%, suffered nausea. This was treated using an anti-nausea agent, which relieved symptoms immediately. PMID:21919308

Shino, Miki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Shuhei; Kushihashi, Yukiomi; Suzuki, Miyuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Kadokura, Yoshiyuki; Kano, Masato; Suzaki, Harumi

2011-08-01

61

Clinical microbiology informatics.  

PubMed

The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. PMID:25278581

Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

2014-10-01

62

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology  

E-print Network

and Clinical Pharmacology2 Introduction What is Pharmacology and Toxicology? #12;Physical location Faculty of biomedical research. Major instrumental facilities include core laboratories for molecular biology, microscopy and imaging, tissue culture, electrophysiology, contractility, radioactivity measurement, HPLC

Auckland, University of

63

PROs in Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Best Practices for Integrating Patient Reported Outcomes in Oncology Clinical Trials This webinar series is a collaboration of the International Society for Quality of Life Research and the National Cancer Institute. Session 1: How to identify the PRO

64

Clinical Education Resource Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Education Resource Manual School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science 2012 #12;TABLE....................................................................... 2 2. General Information regarding Griffith University Physiotherapy Programmes..........................................................................................................3 2.1. Overview of the Physiotherapy Programmes

New South Wales, University of

65

Stanford Hospital and Clinics  

E-print Network

by the FDA is evidence ofsuch permission. B. Drug: Any chemical compound that may be used on or administered (IDS): A division ofthe Stanford Hospital and Clinics Department ofPharmacy that provides support

Puglisi, Joseph

66

What Are Clinical Trials?  

Cancer.gov

Whether you are a cancer survivor, someone who is touched by cancer, or someone who works with people with cancer, this presentation will help answer some of the most important questions you may have about clinical trials.

67

Types of Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Information about the several types of cancer clinical trials, including treatment trials, prevention trials, screening trials, supportive and palliative care trials. Each type of trial is designed to answer different research questions.

68

Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will review the clinical and histopathologic features associated with the presentation and diagnosis of retinoblastoma.\\u000a A thorough appreciation of the differential and a detailed clinical assessments is the cornerstone of arriving at the proper\\u000a diagnosis. Unlike most cancers, retinoblastoma is unique, as tissue is generally not necessary for diagnostic and treatment\\u000a purposes. However, once the eye is enucleated,

P. Chévez-Barrios; D. S. Gombos

69

Clinical Studies with Epothilones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing company. The compound that has been most comprehensively characterized in the clinical literature is ixabepilone (BMS-247550), for which trial results have been described in a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals and which has been granted FDA approval for two clinical indications on Oct. 16, 2007. For all other compounds, most of the information on clinical trials is available only in abstract form. In all these cases it remains uncertain, whether the content of these abstracts fully reflects the content of the subsequent (poster or oral) presentations at the corresponding meeting; in fact, it seems likely that additional data will have been included in the actual meeting presentations that may not have been available at the time of abstract submission. As this is unknown to the author, such additional information cannot be considered in this chapter, which is solely based on information documented in accessible abstracts or journal publications. It should also be kept in mind that the interpretation of data from ongoing clinical trials or forward looking statements based on data from completed trials are always preliminary in character.

Altmann, Karl-Heinz

70

GeneClinics  

PubMed Central

GeneClinics is an online genetic information resource consisting of descriptions of specific inherited disorders (“disease profiles”) as well as information on the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with these inherited conditions. GeneClinics is intended to promote the use of genetic services in medical care and personal decision making by providing health care practitioners and patients with information on genetic testing for specific inherited disorders. GeneClinics is implemented as an object-oriented database containing a combination of data and semistructured text that is rendered as HTML for publishing a given “disease profile” on the Web. Content is acquired from authors via templates, converted to an XML document reflecting the underlying database schema (with tagging of embedded data), and then loaded into the database and subjected to peer review. The initial implementation of a production system and the first phase of population of the GeneClinics database content are complete. Further expansion of the content to cover more disease, significant scaling up of rate of content creation, and evaluation redesign are under way. The ultimate goal is to have an entry in GeneClinics for each entry in the GeneTests directory of medical genetics laboratories—that is, for each disease for which clinical genetic testing is available. PMID:10833163

Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Shannon, Paul; Baskin, Patty; Espeseth, Miriam; Pagon, Roberta A.

2000-01-01

71

Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... about the importance of conducting clinical trials for children while addressing common questions that parents and caregivers ... Why Clinical Studies Are Important Clinical research in children helps us to treat our children like children, ...

72

Clinical & Translational Research Scholars Programme  

E-print Network

Clinical & Translational Research Scholars Programme PhD Scholarship Applications Invited A unique Clinical & Translational Research Scholars Programme. The successful candidates will commence studies College Dublin (to be confirmed). The MMI Clinical & Translational Research Scholars Programme (CTRSP

73

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help ... related to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. ...

74

RNAi in clinical studies.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is an efficient process of posttranscriptional gene silencing. In recent years it has been developed into a new technology in biopharmaceutical fields of science. RNAi products include short interference RNA (siRNA) but also short hairpin RNA (shRNA), bifunctional short hairpin RNA (bi-shRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). They combine with homologous fragments of the mRNA and cause its degradation. It results in inhibition of protein synthesis, or in mutation in the gene encoding it. RNAi has been used in analysis of genomes and creation of new animal models to test drugs. From the pharmaceutical point of view, what is the most important is its therapeutic application. So far the basic and clinical research has been focused on the following targets: macular degeneration, cancer and antiviral therapy. But there are also reports on clinical trials in asthma, hypercholesterolemia and genetic diseases such as inherited skin disorders and amyloidosis. Among over 20 therapeutics that reached clinical trials, only few are still investigated. Another few are clinical candidates. The review focuses on RNAi products under clinical evaluation and their most promising new applications. PMID:23432579

Kubowicz, P; ?elaszczyk, D; P?kala, E

2013-01-01

75

Gateways to Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Albinterferon alfa-2b, ARRY-142886, Asenapine maleate; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab; Caspofungin acetate, Certolizumab pegol, Custirsen sodium; Darifenacin hydrobromide; Ecogramostim, EndoTAG-1, Enzastaurin hydrochloride; HER2Bi; Lapatinib ditosylate, L-BLP-25; Micafungin sodium; O6-Benzylguanine, Odanacatib; Pazopanib hydrochloride, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Posaconazole; Sagopilone, Satraplatin; Tanespimycin, Tremelimumab; Vatalanib succinate, Voriconazole; Zoledronic acid monohydrate, ZP-10A. PMID:19229381

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2008-11-01

76

Pediatric anthrax clinical management.  

PubMed

Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which has multiple routes of infection in humans, manifesting in different initial presentations of disease. Because B anthracis has the potential to be used as a biological weapon and can rapidly progress to systemic anthrax with high mortality in those who are exposed and untreated, clinical guidance that can be quickly implemented must be in place before any intentional release of the agent. This document provides clinical guidance for the prophylaxis and treatment of neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21 (referred to as "children") in the event of a deliberate B anthracis release and offers guidance in areas where the unique characteristics of children dictate a different clinical recommendation from adults. PMID:24777226

Bradley, John S; Peacock, Georgina; Krug, Steven E; Bower, William A; Cohn, Amanda C; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Pavia, Andrew T

2014-05-01

77

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen, [18F]-FPS; Adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Belatacept, bortezomib; C340, caspofungin acetate, clazosentan sodium, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, DB-289, decitabine, dronedarone hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eletriptan, entecavir, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib; Gaboxadol, gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, gemifloxacin mesilate, glutamine; Human insulin; I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, indiplon, inhaled insulin, isatoribine; L-Arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Magnesium sulfate; Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, omapatrilat, OncoVEX (GM-CSF); rDNA insulin, rupatadine fumarate; Sorafenib; Tadalafil, teduglutide, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tiotropium bromide; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate. PMID:16357953

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-11-01

78

Teaching Clinical Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to �sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.� Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.

Suler, John R., 1955-

2006-12-02

79

Clinical Microbiology in Pediatrics.  

PubMed

Abstract ABSTRACTThe clinical microbiology laboratory plays a critical role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the pediatric population. Children are uniquely susceptible to infectious agents because of immature immunologic and physiologic systems. The etiologies and manifestations of infections in pediatric patients are often distinctly different and more severe than those seen in adults. This requires laboratories to implement unique microbiologic methods for rapid and accurate diagnoses in this population. The broad spectrum of diseases diagnosed in the pediatric period and the growing complexity of pediatric laboratory testing can be challenging. This review discusses key aspects of pediatric clinical microbiology including preanalytic and analytic variables, test selection, performance, and data interpretation. In order to provide comprehensive pediatric clinical microbiology services, laboratories need to be aware of the specific needs of this patient population. PMID:20233063

Dunn, James J; Hindiyeh, Musa Y

2010-02-23

80

Hypomagnesemia: a clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Although magnesium is involved in a wide spectrum of vital functions in normal human physiology, the significance of hypomagnesemia and necessity for its treatment are under-recognized and underappreciated in clinical practice. In the current review, we first present an overview of the clinical significance of hypomagnesemia and normal magnesium metabolism, with a focus on renal magnesium handling. Subsequently, we review the literature for both congenital and acquired hypomagnesemic conditions that affect the various steps in normal magnesium metabolism. Finally, we present an approach to the routine evaluation and suggested management of hypomagnesemia. PMID:24966690

Pham, Phuong-Chi T; Pham, Phuong-Anh T; Pham, Son V; Pham, Phuong-Truc T; Pham, Phuong-Mai T; Pham, Phuong-Thu T

2014-01-01

81

Memory clinics in context  

PubMed Central

The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

2009-01-01

82

Marking out the clinical expert/clinical leader/clinical scholar: perspectives from nurses in the clinical arena  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical scholarship has been conceptualised and theorised in the nursing literature for over 30 years but no research has captured nurses’ clinicians’ views on how it differs or is the same as clinical expertise and clinical leadership. The aim of this study was to determine clinical nurses’ understanding of the differences and similarities between the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. Methods A descriptive interpretative qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with 18 practising nurses from Australia, Canada and England. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholarship as described by the participants. These themes were then compared and contrasted and the essential elements that characterise the nursing roles of the clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar were identified. Results Clinical experts were seen as linking knowledge to practice with some displaying clinical leadership and scholarship. Clinical leadership is seen as a positional construct with a management emphasis. For the clinical scholar they linked theory and practice and encouraged research and dissemination of knowledge. Conclusion There are distinct markers for the roles of clinical expert, clinical leader and clinical scholar. Nurses working in one or more of these roles need to work together to improve patient care. An ‘ideal nurse’ may be a blending of all three constructs. As nursing is a practice discipline its scholarship should be predominantly based on clinical scholarship. Nurses need to be encouraged to go beyond their roles as clinical leaders and experts to use their position to challenge and change through the propagation of knowledge to their community. PMID:23587282

2013-01-01

83

WINTER 2011 Clinical Research  

E-print Network

system including brain metastasis, as well as leptomeningeal cancer, glioblastomas and less aggressive gliomas, base of brain neoplasms including pituitary disorders, and neurological complications of cancer cancer.stanford.edu/trials Welcome to the premier issue of the Stanford Cancer Center Clinical Research

Bejerano, Gill

84

Clinical applications of quinolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quinolone antimicrobials are the class of inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerases that has been developed most fully for clinical use in human medicine. Initial members of the class had their greatest potency against Gram-negative bacteria, but newly developed members have exhibited increased potency against Gram-positive bacteria and soon agents will be available with additional activity against anaerobic bacteria, providing a

David C Hooper

1998-01-01

85

Listeriosis: clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, this bacterium is an important cause of severe infections in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, transplant recipients and other patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Various clinical syndromes due to L. monocytogenes have been described such as sepsis, central nervous system infections, endocarditis, gastroenteritis and localized infections. A

Mehmet Doganay

2003-01-01

86

Achieving clinical integration.  

PubMed

To develop an effective and sustainable clinically integrated network (CIN) that positions a healthcare organization for value-based payment and other effects of healthcare reform, leaders of CIN initiatives should: Embrace progress rather than perfection; Constrain the development timeline by project managing in reverse; Ensure that physician leaders play an oversight role in the development process. PMID:24340650

Redding, John

2013-11-01

87

Research on Clinical Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical education research indicates little has been done to improve teaching effectiveness of attending physicians on hospital wards. Moreover, there have been few studies to determine what the attending physician should attempt to accomplish with medical school trainees. More data collected in clinical settings are needed. (RD)

And Others; Daggett, Christopher J.

1979-01-01

88

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology  

E-print Network

in Cocaine Users After Controlling for Marijuana and Alcohol Use Nehal P. Vadhan, Catherine E. Myers, Elysia Controlling for Marijuana and Alcohol Use. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Advance online Controlling for Marijuana and Alcohol Use Nehal P. Vadhan Columbia University College of Physicians

Gluck, Mark

89

Clinically available antischistosomal drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indications, the contraindications, and the characteristics of the antimonial and nonantimonial drugs clinically available for the treatment of human schistosomiasis are outlined.Of the antimonial compounds, antimony potassium tartrate or antimony sodium tartrate, both given by the intravenous route, are effective against Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni, and S. hematobium, but the production of severe side effects limits their use outside

A. Davis

1975-01-01

90

Clinical Hypnosis and Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE LATEST FIGURES FROM THE CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS report nearly 72 million surgical procedures performed in the United States in 1996. No one needs to be reminded of the financial expense associated with surgery, but the cost in terms of anxiety and pain can be just as staggering to the patient. Mind-body methods, such as clinical hypnosis and guided

Steven Gurgevich

91

Clinical Aromatherapy and AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical aromatherapy is the use of essential oils for expected outcomes that are measurable and is a ther- apy that is used as part of nursing care in Switzerland, Germany, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and, more recently, the United States. Essential oils are steam distillates obtained from aromatic plants. These volatile extracts have been used for many years by

Jane Buckle

2002-01-01

92

Clinical application of pharmacogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacogenetics encompasses the involvement of genes in an individual's response to drugs. As such, the field covers a vast area including basic drug discovery research, the genetic basis of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, new drug development, patient genetic testing and clinical patient management. Ultimately, the goal of pharmacogenetics is to predict a patient's genetic response to a specific drug as a

Brian B Spear; Margo Heath-Chiozzi; Jeffrey Huff

2001-01-01

93

HEALTH & COUNSELLING Health Clinic  

E-print Network

HEALTH & COUNSELLING SERVICES Health Clinic 778.783.4615 - Burnaby 778.782.5200 - Vancouver_counsellor@sfu.ca Health Promotion 778.782.4674 Health & Counselling Services, SFU - 8888 University Drive, MBC 0164 health can suffer if you're under stress for a long time, especially if you are not eating well. You may

94

Position Description Clinical Counselor  

E-print Network

in the field of grief, death and dying. Desire to work in a medical setting providing crisis intervention and the impact of pet death on families and clinical professionals essential. Desire to work as a collaborative (e.g. communication, grief, death and dying, veterinary technician trainings). Provide annual

Birner, Thomas

95

Clinical Mastery of Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypnosis is an increasingly popular clinical intervention. The number of training courses in hypnosis is growing each year. Research on hypnosis training appears to show that limited exposure to training, as is typical in the common 3 to 5 day format of mass training, produces limited results. Only when training is extended over time do the…

Horevitz, Richard P.

96

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center is an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. It was one of the first cancer centers to receive the NCI designation in 1971. In addition to the main campus in Minnesota, there are Mayo campuses in Jacksonville, Florida and Phoenix, Arizona.

97

Debating Clinical Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of genetic tests is determined by the outcomes following test use. Like other measures of value, it is often contested. Stakeholders may have different views about benefits and risks and about the importance of social versus health outcomes. They also commonly disagree about the evidence needed to determine whether a test is effective in achieving a specific

W. Burke; A.-M. Laberge

2010-01-01

98

Clinical Trials in Vision Research  

E-print Network

Clinical Trials in Vision Research Information for Volunteers U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute #12;Clinical trials in vision Trials in Vision Research 1 Basics of Clinical Trials 3 How a Clinical Trial is Conducted 7 Participating

Bandettini, Peter A.

99

FAQ for Patients (Clinical Trials)  

MedlinePLUS

... What is a cooperative group? What is a clinical trial? Why participate in a clinical trial? What costs will insurance pay? What happens if ... treatment is assigned? How can I join a clinical trial? I'm in a clinical trial but I' ...

100

Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology  

E-print Network

Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology Programme information #12;www.bath.ac.uk/psychology/clinical #12;Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology Introduction and overview from the Programme Director As the most recently established Doctorate in Clinical Psychology the Bath team has combined well

Burton, Geoffrey R.

101

Clinical applications of the camptothecins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The camptothecin topoisomerase I-targeting agents are new class of antitumor drugs with demonstrated clinical activity in human malignancies, such as colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer. Currently, irinotecan and topotecan are the most widely used camptothecin analogs in clinical use and clinical trials are ongoing to better characterize their spectra of clinical activity, to determine their optimal schedules of administration and

Chris H. Takimoto; John Wright; Susan G. Arbuck

1998-01-01

102

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing  

E-print Network

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing Graduate Degree Program Clinical Manual 2012....................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function?.........................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

Dyer, Bill

103

Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

Barthelat, Francois

104

Models for transition clinics.  

PubMed

Transition is a purposeful, planned process that addresses the medical, psychosocial, educational, and vocational needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions, as they advance from a pediatric and family-centered to an adult, individual focused health care provider. This article describes some of the models for transition clinics or services for epilepsy in five countries (Canada, France, Colombia, Germany, and the United Kingdom). These models include joint adult and pediatric clinics, algorithm-driven service, and a check list system in the context of pediatric care. Evaluation of these models is limited, and it is not possible to choose an optimal program. The attitude and motivation of health care providers may be the most important elements. PMID:25209087

Carrizosa, Jaime; An, Isabelle; Appleton, Richard; Camfield, Peter; Von Moers, Arpad

2014-08-01

105

Virtual Clinical Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Reality (VR) is more than a fancy technology: it is an advanced tool for assessment and clinical therapy. On one side,\\u000a it can be described as an advanced form of human–computer interface that allows the user to interact with and become immersed\\u000a in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion. On the other side, VR can also be considered

Giuseppe Riva; Andrea Gaggioli

106

Dream busters ... clinic income.  

PubMed

In summary, the best clinical education occurs in a setting of exemplary patient care. The critical factor is quality--not just technical quality, but those features by which patients judge quality. Commitment to service should be enhanced and barriers should be minimized in order to achieve efficient and personalized patient care. And, schools must always reach for a higher standard, (9) exceeding their patients' expectations. As Pacific Bell Telephone says in its commercials: "Good enough isn't." PMID:7560429

Hasler, J F

1995-09-01

107

Clinical aspects: drug allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drug allergy can be the cause of many inflammatory reactions involving the liver, lung, kidney, GIT and blood cell formation\\u000a leading to such diseases as agranulocytosis [1-4]. However it is the skin, which is frequently involved in these reactions and relatively overtly, that is considered to be\\u000a a signalling organ for these reactions [5]. The clinical signs and symptoms of

Hans F. Merk

108

Clinical patterns of phytodermatitis.  

PubMed

Exposure to plants is very common, through leisure or professional activity. In addition, plant products and botanic extracts are increasingly present in the environment. Cutaneous adverse reactions to plants and their derivatives occur fairly frequently, and establishing the correct diagnosis is not always easy. The astute clinician relies on a detailed history and a careful skin examination to substantiate his opinion. This article reviews the characteristic clinical patterns of phyto- and phytophotodermatitis and some less common presentations. PMID:19580924

Sasseville, Denis

2009-07-01

109

Clinical Sociology and Bereavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the origin of thanatology (death, dying, and bereavement) as a discipline can be traced to two time\\u000a periods and two different foci of interest. Academic and clinical interest in the death and dying components of thanatology\\u000a emerged in the 1950s as a result of the death awareness movement1 and, from the beginning, has been interdisciplinary. One

Sarah Callaway Brabant

110

Clinical trials report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Epidemiologic studies show that the risk of coronary atherosclerosis in humans is inversely related to plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its main carrier protein, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Yet, present therapeutic strategies do not focus primarily on modifying HDL cholesterol. The usual clinical approach to coronary heart disease (CHD) lowers the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and

Mustafa Tiewala; Mary Ann Banerji; Alexander Perkelvald; Cristina Ogrin

2004-01-01

111

Vardenafil Clinical Trials Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

There can be little doubt that the introduction into clinical practice of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors\\u000a has had a major and positive impact on the quality of life in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) of various causes. PDE5 inhibitors\\u000a have largely supplanted less subjectively appealing local treatments for ED, such as vacuum constriction devices, penile self-injection\\u000a therapy, transurethral

Ajay Nehra

112

Cervicogenic headache: clinical aspects.  

PubMed

Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is a relatively common but often overlooked disorder. There is sufficient evidence to support this category and the existing diagnostic criteria are adequate. Subgroups may exist and the clinical picture sometimes may be similar to that of other headache disorders, however. The pathophysiology of this condition and its relationship with other headache syndromes remain to be determined. Migrainous features may occur in some patients. PMID:10824279

Vincent, M B

2000-01-01

113

Clinical aspects: urticaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urticaria is characterised by itchy and sometimes painful swellings of the skin or mouth due to transient plasma leakage.\\u000a It has a spectrum of clinical presentations but is invariably short-lived and resolves without permanent damage. Superficial\\u000a swellings known as wheals may be white initially due to intense edema with a surrounding red neurogenic flare but become pink\\u000a as they mature.

Clive E. Grattan

114

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Aciclovir, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, alteplase, amifostine hydrate, antithymocyte globulin (equine), aspirin, atorvastatin calcium, azathioprine; Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, basiliximab, bicalutamide, bimatoprost, BMS-214662, brimonidine tartrate, buprenorphine hydrochloride; Cabergoline, carbamazepine, carboplatin, ciclosporine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide; Daclizumab, desmopressin acetate, dihydroergotamine mesylate, dorzolamide hydrochloride, doxorubicin, dutasteride; Everolimus; Fluocinolone acetonide, frovatriptan, FTY-720, fulvestrant; Gabapentin, galantamine hydrobromide, ganciclovir, gemcitabine, glatiramer acetate; Hydrocodone bitartrate; Interferon beta, interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, ipratropium bromide; Ketotifen; Lamivudine, latanoprost, levodopa, lidocaine hydrochloride, lonafarnib; Metformin hydrochloride, methylprednisolone, metoclopramide hydrochloride, mirtazapine, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, modafinil, muromonab-CD3, mycophenolate mofetil; NS-2330; Olopatadine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oxcarbazepine, oxycodone hydrochloride; Paclitaxel, paracetamol, piribedil, pramipexole hydrochloride, pravastatin sodium, prednisone; Quetiapine fumarate; Raloxifene hydrochloride, rituximab, rizatriptan sulfate, Ro-63-8695, ropinirole hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate; Simvastatin, siplizumab, sirolimus; Tacrolimus, tegaserod maleate, timolol maleate, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tizanidine hydrochloride, tolterodine tartrate, topiramate, travoprost; Unoprostone isopropyl ester; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, visilizumab; Zidovudine. PMID:12224444

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-01-01

115

Gateways to Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Adalimumab, aeroDose insulin inhaler, agomelatine, alendronic acid sodium salt, aliskiren fumarate, alteplase, amlodipine, aspirin, atazanavir; Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, basiliximab, BQ-788, bupropion hydrochloride; Cabergoline, caffeine citrate, carbamazepine, carvedilol, celecoxib, cyclosporine, clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, colestyramine; Dexamethasone, diclofenac sodium, digoxin, dipyridamole, docetaxel, dutasteride; Eletriptan, enfuvirtidie, eplerenone, ergotamine tartrate, esomeprazole magnesium, estramustine phosphate sodium; Finasteride, fluticasone propionate, fosinopril sodium; Ganciclovir, GBE-761-ONC, glatiramer acetate, gliclazide, granulocyte-CSF; Heparin sodium, human isophane insulin (pyr), Hydrochlorothiazide; Ibuprofen, inhaled insulin, interferon alfa, interferon beta-1a; Laminvudine, lansoprazole, lisinopril, lonafarnib, losartan potassium, lumiracoxib; MAb G250, meloxicam methotrexate, methylprednisolone aceponate, mitomycin, mycophenolate mofetil; Naproxen sodium, natalizumab, nelfinavir mesilate, nemifitide ditriflutate, nimesulide; Omalizumab, omapatrilat, omeprazole, oxybutynin chloride; Pantoprazole sodium, paracetamol, paroxetine, pentoxifylline, pergolide mesylate, permixon, phVEGF-A165, pramipexole hydrochloride, prasterone, prednisone, probucol, propiverine hydrochloride; Rabeprazole sodium, resiniferatoxin, risedronate sodium, risperidone, rofecoxib rosiglitazone maleate, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Selegiline transdermal system, sertraline, sildenafil citrate, streptokinase; Tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, technosphere/Insulin, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone heptanoate, testosterone undecanoate, tipifarnib, tolterodine tartrate, topiramate, troglitazone; Ursodeoxycholic acid; Valdecoxib, valsartan, vardenafil, venlafaxine hydrochloride, VX-745. PMID:12428432

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-09-01

116

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abciximab, acetylcysteine, adefovir dipivoxil, alfuzosin hydrochloride, aliskiren fumarate, alosetron hydrochloride, amlodipine besilate, apomorphine hydrochloride, atazanavir, atorvastatin, atorvastatin calcium, atrasentan; Basiliximab, beraprost sodium, bevacizumab, bivalirudin, botulinum toxin type A, botulinum toxin type B; Celecoxib, cetuximab, cilansetron, cilomilast; Daclizumab, darbepoetin alfa, docetaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, efavirenz, eletriptan,, entecavir, eplerenone, epoetin alfa, eptifibatide, esomeprazole magnesium. ezetimibe; Filgrastim, finasteride, fluvastatin sodium, follitropin alfa; Gemcitabine, gemeprost, ghrelin (human); HE-2000; Infliximab, 111In-Pentetreotide, interferon alfa-2 alpha, interferon alfa-2 beta, interferon beta-1 alpha, irbesartan, irinotecan hydrochloride; Ketamine hydrochloride; L-778123, lafutidine, lamivudine, lamivudine/zidovudine, latanoprost, letrozole, licofelone, lopinavir, losartan potassium, loxiglumide, lubeluzole; Magnesium sulfate, MeGLA, meloxicam, mycophenolate mofetil; NBI-6024, nelfinavir mesilate, nesiritide, nevirapine, niacin, NN-2211; Octreotide, orlistat; PC-515, peginterferon alfa-2 alpha, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, pibrozelesin hydrochloride, pimagedine, pirfenidone, pitavastatin calcium, premarin/trimegestone, prucalopride; Rabeprazole sodium; reboxetine, risedronate sodium, ritonavir, rituximab, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosuvastatin calcium; Sertraline, sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate, sildenafil citrate, spironolactone, stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, tenecteplase, thalidomide, travoprost; Valsartan; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:12500432

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-10-01

117

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 5A8; Agomelatine, alefacept, almotriptan, anakinra, APC-8015, atazanavir, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bicifadine; Cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, CAT-213, CGP-51901, ciclesonide, cipamfylline; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dibotermin alfa, DX-9065a; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, eniluracil, EPI-KAL2, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, etilevodopa, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Fosamprenavir calcium, fosamprenavir sodium, fumagillin; Gadofosveset sodium, gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin; HSPPC-96, human papillomavirus vaccine; Icatibant Id-KLH, imatinib mesylate, INS-37217, iodine (I131) tositumomab; LAS-34475, levobupivacaine hydrochloride, levocetirizine, linezolid, 131I-lipiodol, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-450108; Magnetites, MBI-594AN, melagatran, melatonin, mepolizumab, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NC-100100; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, omapatrilat, onercept; PEG-filgrastim, (PE)HRG21, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pleconaril, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, prasterone; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasagiline mesilate, reslizumab, rFGF-2, rhOP-1, rosuvastatin calcium, roxifiban acetate; Sitaxsentan sodium, sodium lauryl sulfate; Tadalafil, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tipranavir, TMC-114, tucaresol; Valdecoxib, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, zosuquidar trihydrochloride. PMID:12743628

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-04-01

118

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3-AP, Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AeroDose albuterol inhaler, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anidulafungin, anthrax vaccine, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B; Caspofungin acetate, ceftobiprole, certolizumab pegol, CG-53135, cilansetron; Darbepoetin alfa, degarelix acetate, dimethylfumarate, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, eletriptan, entecavir, esomeprazole magnesium, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fontolizumab; Gefitinib, gepirone hydrochloride; Human insulin; IDEA-070, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab; Lanthanum carbonate, lubiprostone; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, melatonin; NC-531, nemifitide ditriflutate, neridronic acid, nolatrexed dihydrochloride; Oral insulin; Palifermin, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranibizumab, renzapride hydrochloride, RSD-1235; Sabarubicin hydrochloride, semapimod hydrochloride, Semax, SHL-749; Tegaserod maleate, tenatoprazole, tetrodotoxin, tolevamer sodium, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol; Valdecoxib, visilizumab, Xcellerated T cells, XP-828L; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:16082427

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-05-01

119

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-510, ABX-EGF, acetyldinaline, ACIDFORM, acyline, afeletecan hydrochloride, anecortave acetate, apolizumab, l-arginine hydrochloride, asimadoline, atazanavir sufate, atlizumab; BMS-181176, BMS-188667; CAB-175, carnosine, CDP-870, CEP-701, CEP-7055, CGC-1072, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilomilast, clofarabine, combretastatin A-4 phosphate, cryptophycin 52; Duloxetine hydrochloride; E-5564, eculizumab, elcometrine, emtricitabine, ENO, epratuzumab, eszopiclone, everolimus; Fampridine, flurbiprofen nitroxybutyl ester; Garenoxacin mesilate, gestodene, GI-181771, gimatecan, gomiliximab; Halofuginone hydrobromide, hGH, hLM609; ICA-17043, IL-1 receptor type II, IMC-1C11, iodine (I131) tositumomab, irofulven, ISAtx-247; J591; L-778123, lanthanum carbonate Lasofoxifene tartrate, LDP-02, LE-AON, leteprinim potassium, lintuzumab, liraglutide, lubiprostone, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan, LY-450108, LY-451395; MAb G250, magnesium sulfate, MDX-210, melatonin, 2-methoxy-estradiol, monophosphoryl lipid A; NM-3, nolpitantium besilate; Ocinaplon, olpadronic acid sodium salt, oral heparin; Palonosetron hydrochloride, pemetrexed disodium, PI-88, picoplatin, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, prinomastat, pyrazoloacridine; Resiniferatoxin, rhEndostatin, roxifiban acetate; S-18886, siplizumab, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate, SU-11248, SU-6668; Talampanel, TAPgen, testosterone transdermal gel, trabectedin; VEGF-2 gene therapy, visilizumab; ZD-6416, ZD-6474. PMID:12949633

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-01-01

120

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, adalimumab, AERx morphine sulphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, amprenavir, aripiprazole, atenolol, atorvastatin calcium; BSYX-A110; Cantuzumab mertansine, capravirine, CDP-571, CDP-870, celecoxib; Delavirdine mesilate, docetaxel, dofetilide, donepezil hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride, dydrogesterone; Efavirenz, emtricitabine, enjuvia, enteryx, epristeride, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etanercept, etonogestrel, etoricoxib; Fesoterodine, finasteride, flt3ligand; Galantamine hydrobromide, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, genistein, gepirone hydrochloride; Indinavir sulfate, infliximab; Lamivudine, lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, leteprinim potassium, levetiracetam, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, losartan potassium; MCC-465, MRA; Nebivolol, nesiritide, nevirapine; Olanzapine, OROS(R)-Methylphenidate hydrochloride; Peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, Pimecrolimus, polyethylene glycol 3350, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Risedronate sodium, risperidone, ritonavir, rituximab, rivastigmine tartrate, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium; Saquinavir mesilate, Stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, telmisartan, tomoxetine hydrochloride, treprostinil sodium, trimegestone, trimetrexate; Valdecoxib, venlafaxine hydrochloride; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:12616965

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-12-01

121

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables can be retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, abciximab, acarbose, alefacept, alteplase, amisulpride, amoxicillin trihydrate, apomorphine hydrochloride, aprepitant, argatroban monohydrate, aspirin, atenolol; Betamethasone dipropionate, betamethasone valerate, bicalutamide, bleomycin sulfate; Calcium carbonate, candesartan cilexetil, celecoxib, cetirizine hydrochloride, cisplatin, clarithromycin, clavulanate potassium, clomethiazole edisilate, clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, cyclophosphamide, chorionic gonadotropin (human); Dalteparin sodium, desloratadine, dexamethasone, doxorubicin, DPC-083; Efalizumab, efavirenz, enoxaparin sodium, eprosartan mesilate, etanercept, etoposide, ezetimibe; Faropenem daloxate, fenofibrate, fluocinolone acetonide, flutamide, fluvastatin sodium, follitropin beta, fondaparinux sodium; Gabapentin, glibenclamide, goserelin, granisetron hydrochloride; Haloperidol, hydrochlorothiazide; Imiquimod, interferon beta-1a, irbesartan, iseganan hydrochloride; L-758298, lamivudine, lanoteplase, leflunomide, leuprorelin acetate, loratadine, losartan potassium; Melagatran, metformin hydrochloride, methotrexate, metronidazole, micafungin sodium, mitoxantrone hydrochloride; Nelfinavir mesilate, neutral insulin injection, nizatidine; Olopatadine hydrochloride, omeprazole, ondansetron hydrochloride; Pamidronate sodium, paracetamol, paroxetine hydrochloride, perindopril, pimecrolimus, pioglitazone hydrochloride, piroxicam, pleconaril, pralmorelin, pravastatin sodium, prednisolone, prednisone, propofol; Raloxifene hydrochloride, ranpirnase, remifentanil hydrochloride, risedronate sodium, risperidone, rofecoxib, ropinirole hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium; Sevoflurane, sildenafil citrate, simvastatin, somatropin; Tacrolimus, tamoxifen citrate, telmisartan, temozolomide, thiopental sodium, tinzaparin sodium, tirofiban hydrochloride, treosulfan, triamcinolone acetonide; Urokinase; Valsartan, vardenafil, vincristine; Warfarin sodium; Ximelagatran; Zidovudine. PMID:12092009

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-05-01

122

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses, which has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the world's first drug discovery and development portal, providing information on study design, treatments, conclusions and references. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate; abciximab; abetimus sodium; adalimumab; aldesleukin; almotriptan; alteplase; amisulpride; amitriptyline hydrochloride; amoxicillin trihydrate; atenolol; atorvastatin calcium; atrasentan; Beclometasone dipropionate; bosentan; Captopril; ceftriaxone sodium; cerivastatin sodium; cetirizine hydrochloride; cisplatin; citalopram hydrobromide; Dalteparin sodium; darusentan; desirudin; digoxin; Efalizumab; enoxaparin sodium; ertapenem sodium; esomeprazole magnesium; estradiol; ezetimibe; Famotidine; farglitazar; fluorouracil; fluticasone propionate; fosamprenavir sodium; Glibenclamide; glucosamine sulfate; Heparin sodium; HSPPC-96; hydrochlorothiazide; Imatinib mesilate; implitapide; Lamivudine; lansoprazole; lisinopril; losartan potassium; l-Propionylcarnitine; Melagatran; metformin hydrochloride; methotrexate; methylsulfinylwarfarin; Nateglinide; norethisterone; Olmesartan medoxomil; omalizumab; omapatrilat; omeprazole; oseltamivir phosphate; oxatomide; Pantoprazole; piperacillin sodium; pravastatin sodium; Quetiapine hydrochloride; Rabeprazole sodium; raloxifene hydrochloride; ramosetron hydrochloride; ranolazine; rasburicase; reboxetine mesilate; recombinant somatropin; repaglinide; reteplase; rosiglitazone; rosiglitazone maleate; rosuvastatin calcium; Sertraline; simvastatin; sumatriptan succinate; Tazobactam sodium; tenecteplase; tibolone; tinidazole; tolterodine tartrate; troglitazone; Uniprost; Warfarin sodium; Ximelagatran. PMID:11980386

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-01-01

123

Basic and clinical immunology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

2003-01-01

124

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-chTNT; Abatacept, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, APC-8015, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan, buserelin; Caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, ChAGCD3, ciclesonide, clopidogrel, curcumin, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, dapoxetine hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, denosumab, DMXB-Anabaseine, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edodekin alfa, efaproxiral sodium, elaidic acid-cytarabine, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etonogestrel/testosterone decanoate, exenatide; Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, glycine, GVS-111; Homoharringtonine; ICC-1132, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, i.v. gamma-globulin; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, lintuzumab, liposomal nystatin, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Manitimus, mapatumumab, melatonin, micafungin sodium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Oblimersen sodium, OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), pasireotide, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranolazine, rosuvastatin calcium, rubitecan, rupatadine fumarate; Sardomozide, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, testosterone transdermal patch, TH-9507, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole. PMID:16395422

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-12-01

125

Terminal Behavioral Objectives for Teaching Clinical Toxicology to Clinical Pharmacists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a first step in the development of a competency-based clinical toxicology clerkship, a set of terminal behavioral objectives were developed that reflect the anticipated role that clinical pharmacists should play as part of the clinical toxicology team. The evaluation approaches used at the University of Utah are presented. (LBH)

Veltri, Joseph C.; And Others

1976-01-01

126

"Clinical Reasoning Theater": A New Approach to Clinical Reasoning Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new approach to clinical reasoning education called clinical reasoning theater (CRT). With students as the audience, the doctor's clinical reasoning skills are modeled in CRT when he or she thinks aloud during conversations with the patient. Preliminary results of students' evaluations of the relevance of CRT reveal that they…

Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Custers, Eugene J. F. M.; van Gijn, Jan; ten Gate, Olle Th. J.

2003-01-01

127

Evaluating the relative clinical efficiency of family medicine satellite clinics.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of decentralization in family medicine clinic services by comparing utilization of services in 3 satellite clinics to utilization patterns of patients served at the hub clinic. It was expected that a hub clinic would be more efficient than satellite clinics because of tighter administrative control and economies of scale. Stable chronically ill patients were used as a homogeneous tracer condition in a secondary analysis of 12 months of archival data. Three types of service use were analyzed: laboratory visits, x-ray visits, and visits to specialists. Among 1,410 stable chronically ill family medicine patients, 303 (21.5%) had 10 more laboratory visits, 222 (15.7%) had 2 or more x-ray visits, and 617 (43.8 %) had 2 or more visits to a specialist. Patients at one of the satellite clinics had greater odds of receiving 2 or more x-rays but lower odds of receiving 10 or more laboratory visits, in comparison with the hub clinic. Patients at the other 2 satellite clinics did not differ from hub patients for any type of service use. Overall, stable chronically ill patients were treated with approximately equal clinical efficiency in our satellite clinics. Some differences in efficiency may occur in some clinics, but these appear to be idiosyncratic rather than due to clinic size or distance from central control. PMID:17992106

Rohrer, James E; Bernard, Matthew; Adamson, Steve; Naessens, James; Furst, Joseph; Angstman, Kurt

2007-01-01

128

Assuring Quality Control of Clinical Education in Multiple Clinical Affiliates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plan was developed to assure equivalency of clinical education among the medical laboratory technician (MLT) programs affiliated with Sandhills Community College. The plan was designed by faculty to monitor the quality of clinical courses offered by the clinical affiliates. The major strategies were to develop competencies, slide/tape modules, a…

Davis, Judith A.

129

Clinical controversies: Pediatric tumors  

PubMed Central

Despite the claim in the published literature, the introduction of proton therapy for children is not analogous to the evolution of conformal photon irradiation relying on the understanding of the impact of altered dose distributions. The differences in radiobiological effect when comparing photons to protons means that we are comparing a known entity to an unknown entity: the dose-volume histogram for proton therapy might mean something substantially different than the dose-volume histogram for photon therapy. The multifaceted difference between the two modalities supports the argument for careful evaluation, follow-up and clinical trials with adverse event monitoring when using proton therapy in children. We review the current data on the outcome of proton therapy in a range of pediatric tumours and compare them to the often excellent results of photon therapy in the setting of multidisciplinary management of childhood cancer. It is hoped that the apparent dosimetric advantage of proton therapy over photons will lead to improved indications for therapy, disease control and functional outcomes. While physical dose distribution is of clear importance, the multimodality management of children by an expert pediatric oncology team and the availability of ancillary measures that improve the quality of treatment delivery may be more important than the actual beam. In addition, current estimates of the benefit of proton therapy over photon therapy based on toxicity reduction will only be realized when survivorship has been achieved. Once substantive data proton therapy data become available, it will be necessary to demonstrate benefit in clinically relevant outcome measures in comparison to best existing photon outcome data. Such an effort will require improved funding and appreciation for late effects research. Only real clinical outcome data combined with better understanding of the radiobiological differences between protons and photons will help us to further reduce side effects in children and exploit the full curative potential of this relatively new modality. PMID:23473686

Merchant, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

130

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed, polyglutamate paclitaxel, posurdex, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, rostaporfin, rosuvastatin calcium; SDZ-SID-791, sibrotuzumab, sorafenib, SU-11248; Tadalafil, targinine, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15071612

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-03-01

131

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (PE)HRG214, 1E10, 21-Aminoepothilone B; Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Ad100-B7.1/HLA, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMD-070, anhydrovinblastine, aripiprazole, asimadoline, atrasentan, AVE-5883; Bimatoprost, BNP-7787, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1; Canfosfamide hydrochloride, ciclesonide, curcumin, cypher; D0401, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, D-D4FC, dendritic cell-based vaccine, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, dolastatin 10, drospirenone drospirenone/estradiol, DS-992, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; E-7010, efalizumab, eletriptan, EM-1421, enfuvirtide, entecavir, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide, ezetimibe; Favid, fidarestat, fingolimod hydrochloride, FK-352; Gefitinib, gemifloxacin mesilate, gepirone hydrochloride, gimatecan; HE-2000; Imatinib mesylate, indisulam, insulin detemir, irofulven, ISIS-5132; Lapatinib, levocetirizine, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Metformin/Glyburide, methionine enkephalin, MK-0431, morphine hydrochloride, motexafin gadolinium, mycobacterium cell wall complex; Naturasone, neridronic acid, nesiritide; Oblimersen sodium, olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oral insulin; Paclitaxel poliglumex, PC-515, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pegvisomant, pexelizumab, picoplatin, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Quercetin; Ramelteon, ranirestat, RG228, rhGAD65, roflumilast, rubitecan; Sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, tipifarnib, tolevamer sodium, topixantrone hydrochloride; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin, voriconazole; XTL-001; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15632957

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-11-01

132

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, Ad5-FGF4, adeno-Interferon gamma, AE-941, AERx, alemtuzumab, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, alpharadin, anakinra, anatumomab mafenatox, ANG-453, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, AP-12009, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, astemizole, atlizumab, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BG-9928, BMS-188667, botulinum toxin type B, BufferGel; Caffeine, CDP-870, cetuximab, cilomilast, ciluprevir, clofarabine, continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator, CP-461; Darbepoetin alfa, deferasirox, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diflomotecan, dolasetron, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EKB-569, eletriptan, EMD-72000, enfuvirtide, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib; Fampridine, ferumoxytol, fondaparinux sodium; Gadofosveset sodium, gastrazole, gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride glutamine; hLM609, HSPPC-96, human insulin; IDD-1, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lapatinib, laquinimod, LDP-02, LE-SN38, levetiracetam, levosimendan, licofelone, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal NDDP, lopinavir, lumiracoxib, LY-156735; Morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide, motexafin gadolinium, MS-27-275, MVA-5T4, MVA-Muc1-IL-2; Nemifitide ditriflutate, neridronic acid nitronaproxen, NSC-683864, NSC-703940, NVP-LAF-237; Oblimersen sodium, ocinaplon, oncomyc-NG, OPC-28326, ortataxel, ospemifene; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PEG-filgrastim peginterferon alfa-2(a), peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pemetrexed disodium, pregabalin, prilocaine, pyridoxamine; RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, recombinant human ApoA-I milano/phospholipid complex; SB-715992, soblidotin, sodium dichloroacetate, St. John's Wort extract; TAS-102, terfenadine, TG-1024, TG-5001, 4'-Thio-ara-C, tipranavir, topixantrone hydrochloride, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline, trimethoprim, troxacitabine, TT-232; Vatalanib succinate, vinflunine; Ximelagatran; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:14988742

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-01-01

133

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com/. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alemtuzumab, alendronate sodium/cholecalciferol, aliskiren fumarate, AMGN-0007, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan; Calcipotriol/beta methasone dipropionate, caldaret hydrate, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, cocaine-BSA conjugate, conivaptan hydrochloride, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, delmitide, desloratadine, desmoteplase, desoxyepothilone B, disufenton sodium, DU-176b, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; EBV-specific CTLs, ecogramostim, edodekin alfa, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, entecavir, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fanapanel, fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, GTI-2040, GW-501516; Her2 E75-peptide vaccine, human insulin; Ibogaine, icatibant acetate, Id-KLH vaccine, imatinib mesylate, immune globulin subcutaneous [human], indacaterol, inolimomab, ipilimumab, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, lanthanum carbonate, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa methyl ester hydrochloride/carbidopa, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine; Maraviroc, mecasermin, melevodopa hydrochloride, mepolizumab, mitumomab; Nesiritide; Omalizumab, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), patupilone, pegaptanib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, pemetrexed disodium, photochlor, pimecrolimus, posaconazole, prasterone, prasugrel, pregabalin, prilocaine, PRX-00023; QS-21; Ranibizumab, ranirestat, rhodamine 123, rotigaptide; Sarcosine, sirolimus-eluting stent, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate, Staphylococcus aureus vaccine; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, talaporfin sodium, Taxus, tecadenoson, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, terutroban sodium, tesaglitazar, tesmilifene hydrochloride, TG-100115, tigecycline, torcetrapib; Ularitide; Valproic acid, sodium, voriconazole; Zotarolimus, zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:16801985

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-05-01

134

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, posaconazole, prasterone, pregabalin; R-112, ramelteon, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, rebimastat, roflumilast, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rupatadine fumarate; S-3013, S-3304, semustine, sitaxsentan sodium, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, tamoxifen, Taxus, Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, TH-9507, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, tolvaptan, torcetrapib, TR-14035, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, treprostinil diethanolamine, troglitazone, troxacitabine; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, VAS-991, veglin, vinflunine, voriconazole; White sweet potato extract; Ximelagatran. PMID:16273137

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-10-01

135

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort extract, synthetic human secretin; Taxus, telavancin hydrochloride, telithromycin, temoporfin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, teriparatide, testosterone gel, TG-1024, tirapazamine, travoprost, travoprost/timolol; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, voriconazole; Ximelagatran. PMID:15834452

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-04-01

136

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M, 166Ho-DOTMP, 3-AP; Abatacept, abetimus sodium, ACR-16, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, AMD-070, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, anatumomab mafenatox, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, AP-12009, AP-23573, APC-8024, aripiprazole, ATL-962, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clofazimine, colchicine, cold-adapted influenza vaccine trivalent, CRM197; Desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diethylhomospermine; Edodekin alfa, efalizumab, elcometrine, eletriptan, enfuvirtide, entecavir, EP-2101, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, etoricoxib, everolimus, exherin, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fluorescein lisicol, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; Hemoglobin raffimer, HSPPC-96, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, IRX-2, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ixabepilone; Kahalalide F; L-759274, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, licofelone, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lurtotecan, LY-156735; MAb G250, mecasermin, melatonin, midostaurin, muraglitazar; Nesiritide, nitronaproxen; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parecoxib sodium, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, PG-CPT, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, posaconazole; Rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, RG228, rimonabant hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; S-3304, safinamide mesilate, salcaprozic acid sodium salt, SDZ-SID-791, SGN-30, soblidotin, squalamine; Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, testosterone gel, TF(c)-KLH conjugate vaccine, TH-9507, theraloc, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, travoprost; ValboroPro, valdecoxib, veglin, voriconazole; Ximelagatran. PMID:15538546

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-09-01

137

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Know- ledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, adefovir dipivoxil, AdPEDF.11, AES-14, albumex, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvimopan hydrate, aAminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anti-IL-12 MAb, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan, avanafil; Banoxantrone, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, CBT-1, ciclesonide, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CpG-7909, C-Vax, Cypher; DA-8159, DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eculizumab, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, ETC-642, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Gefitinib, IV gamma-globulin; Human insulin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium; IDN-6556, iguratimod, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, ixabepilone; Laquinimod, LB-80380, lidocaine/prilocaineliraglutide, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lucinactant; MAb-14.18, melatonin, MLN-591-DM1; NC-531, neridronic acid, nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, niacin/lovastatin; Oblimersen sodium, olcegepant, oral Insulin, ORV-105; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAmAb, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, pegvisomant, perifosine, pexelizumab, phenoxodiol, phenserine tartrate, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-542, prostate cancer vaccine, PT-141; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, reslizumab, rh-Lactoferrin, ribamidine hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium; S-8184l, SC-1, sorafenib, St. John's Wort extract, SU-11248; Taxus, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, testosterone gel, tezosentan disodium, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol, treprostinil sodium; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Xcellerated T cells, XR-5944; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Ziconotide. PMID:15349141

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-01-01

138

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abarelix, ABX-EGF, ademetionine, agomelatine, AMGN-0007, 9-aminocamptothecin, AN-9, anecortave acetate, anidulafungin, AOD-9604, apolizumab, apomate, L-arginine hydrochloride, arzoxifene hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BP-897, BufferGel; Capravirine, carboxyamidotriazole, carnosine, CC-4047, CEP-701, cerivastatin sodium, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CP-461, CS-003; Daptomycin, darifenacin, decitabine, deferasirox, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eberconazole, Ecyd, efalizumab, eglumegad hydrate, EMD-72000, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, exatecan mesilate, exenatide; Fampridine, fenretinide, ferumoxtran-10; Gadofosveset sodium, garenoxacin mesilate, genistein, glutamine, GPI-15715; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, HYB-165; Indisulam, irofulven; KRN-5500, L-796568, laurocapram, lidocaine/prilocaine, lonafarnib, lotrafiban; Melagatran, melatonin, 2-methoxyestradiol, metreleptin, motexafin gadoliniu, motexafin lutetium; Natalizumab, nelarabine, NO-aspirin, NSC-683864; ONO-6126; Pemetrexed disodium, pexelizumab, pirfenidone, PncCRM9, polyglutamate paclitaxel, pramlintide acetate pregabalin, PRO-2000; Ragaglitazar, ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84), reolysin RG228, roflumilast, roxifiban acetate, RPI-4610, rubitecan; Safinamide mesilate, solifenacin succinate, SRL-172; T-138067, tafenoquine succinate, tecadenoson, TER-286, tesaglitazar, tetrathiomolybdate, tezosentan disodium, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, trabectedin, tributyrin, trimegestone, troxacitabine; UCN-01, urokinase alfa; Vinflunine, viscum fraxini 2; Xcellerated T cells, ximelagatran. PMID:14685303

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-11-01

139

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abiraterone acetate, Ad5CMV-p53, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, ambrisentan, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atrasentan; BCH-10618, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, BMS-275183, BMS-387032, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1, BR96-Doxorubicin; Capravirine, caspofungin acetate, cinacalcet hydrochloride; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, DJ-927, duloxetine hydrochloride; Elacridar, emtricitabine, eplerenone, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, ESP-24217, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe; Ferumoxtran-10, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; GS-7904L, GW-5634; HMN-214, human insulin; IC-14, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine, insulinotropin, iseganan hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, L-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lenalidomide, LE-SN38, lestaurtinib, L-MDAM, lometrexol, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir; Magnesium sulfate, maraviroc, mepolizumab, metreleptin, milataxel, MNA-715, morphine hydrochloride; Nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, NK-911; Olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ortataxel, oxycodone hydrochloride/ibuprofen; Panitumumab, patupilone, PC-515, PD-MAGE-3 Vaccine, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, prasugrel, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Rosuvastatin calcium, RPR-113090; sabarubicin hydrochloride, safinamide mesilate, SB-715992, sitaxsentan sodium, soblidotin, synthadotin; Tadalafil, taltobulin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, testosterone gel, tigecycline, tipranavir, tirapazamine, trabectedin, travoprost; UCN-01; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; XB-947; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:15605126

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-10-01

140

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prouse Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M, 3F8; Abatacept, ABT-263, Adalimumab, AG-7352, Agatolimod sodium, Alfimeprase, Aliskiren fumarate, Alvimopan hydrate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, AT-9283, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, AVE-1642, AVE-9633, Axitinib, AZD-0530; Becocalcidiol, Belotecan hydrochloride, Bevacizumab, BG-9928, BIBF-1120, BMS-275183, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, Cetuximab, CHR-2797, Ciclesonide, Clevidipine, Cypher, Cytarabine/daunorubicin; Darifenacin hydrobromide, Darunavir, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Disufenton sodium, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Eplerenone, Epratuzumab, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Ethynylcytidine, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fulvestrant; Garenoxacin mesilate, Gefitinib, Gestodene; HI-164, Hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Icatibant acetate, ICX-RHY, Idraparinux sodium, Indacaterol, Ispronicline, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Ixabepilone; KB-2115, KW-2449; L-791515, Lapatinib ditosylate, LGD-4665, Licofelone, Liposomal doxorubicin, Lisdexamfetamine mesilate, Lumiracoxib; Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Miglustat, Mipomersen sodium, Mitumprotimut-T, MK-0822A, MK-0974; Nelarabine; Obatoclax mesylate, Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paliperidone, Palonosetron hydrochloride, Panitumumab, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pemetrexed disodium, Perospirone hydrochloride, Pertuzumab, Pimecrolimus, Pitrakinra, Pixantrone maleate, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; Quercetin; RALGA, Raltegravir potassium, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, rhHistone 1.3, Rimonabant, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium, RTS,S/SBAS2; Satraplatin, SNDX-275, Sodium butyrate, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, SU-14813, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafenoquine succinate, Tamatinib fosdium, Taxus, Telbivudine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temsirolimus, Tiotropium bromide, Tipranavir, Tocilizumab, Trabectedin, Tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen; Ulipristal acetate, Uracil, Ursodeoxycholyltaurine; Valdecoxib, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Varenicline tartrate, Vildagliptin, Vinflunine, Vitespen, Vorinostat; ZK-EPO, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:18389098

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X

2008-01-01

141

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abatacept, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Aleglitazar, Aliskiren fumarate, AM-103, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Axitinib; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Bortezomib, Bupropion/naltrexone; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Certolizumab pegol, Ciclesonide, CYT-997; Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride cogramostim; Eltrombopag olamine, Emtricitabine, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Fenretinide, Filibuvir, Fludarabine; Golimumab; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, HEV-239, HP-802-247, HPV-16/18 AS04, HPV-6/11/16/18, Human albumin, Human gammaglobulin; Imatinib mesylate, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Invaplex 50 vaccine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, Lopinavir, Lumiliximab, LY-686017; Maraviroc, Mecasermin rinfabate; Narlaprevir; Ocrelizumab, Oral insulin, Oritavancin, Oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Pregabalin, Prucalopride succinate; Raltegravir potassium, Ranibizumab, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salclobuzic acid sodium salt, SCY-635, Selenate sodium, Semapimod hydrochloride, Silodosin, Siltuximab, Silybin, Sirolimus-eluting stent, SIR-Spheres, Sunitinib malate; Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tocilizumab, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Trabectedin, TransVax™ hepatitis C vaccine; Ustekinumab; V-260, Valspodar, Varenicline tartrate, VCL-IPT1, Vildagliptin, VRC-HIVADV014-00-VP, VRC-HIVDNA009-00-VP, VRC-HIVDNA016-00-VP; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Yttrium Y90 Epratuzumab; Zibotentan, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:21225019

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2010-11-01

142

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Aclidinium bromide, Adalimumab, Adefovir, Alemtuzumab, Alkaline phosphatase, Amlodipine, Apilimod mesylate, Aripiprazole, Axitinib, Azacitidine; Belotecan hydrochloride, Berberine iodide, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bryostatin 1; Calcipotriol/hydrocortisone, Carglumic acid, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cixutumumab, Coumarin, Custirsen sodium; Darbepoetin alfa, Darifenacin hydrobromide, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Denibulin hydrochloride, Denosumab, Diacetylmorphine, Dulanermin, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Escitalopram oxalate, Esomeprazole sodium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fenofibrate/pravastatin sodium, Ferric carboxymaltose, Flavangenol, Fondaparinux sodium; Glutamine, GSK-1024850A; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, Hib-MenC, HIV-LIPO-5; Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Indacaterol maleate, Indibulin, Indium 111 (¹¹¹In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent vaccine, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin glulisine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Leucovorin/UFT; Maraviroc, Mecasermin, MMR-V, Morphine hydrochloride, Morphine sulfate/naltrexone hydrochloride, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium, Natalizumab; Oncolytic HSV; Paliperidone, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; Raltegravir potassium, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasburicase, Rilpivirine hydrochloride; Sertindole, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sumatriptan succinate/naproxen sodium, Sunitinib malate; Tafluprost, Telithromycin, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumavate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Teriparatide, Ticagrelor, Tigecycline, Tipranavir, Tirapazamine, Trimetrexate; Ulipristal acetate; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vicriviroc, Vorinostat; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:21225012

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2010-12-01

143

Clinical pharmacology of deferasirox.  

PubMed

Iron accumulation is a consequence of regular red cell transfusions, and can occur as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis secondary to increased intestinal iron absorption, in patients with various anemias. Without appropriate treatment, iron overload can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator effective for reduction of body iron in iron-overloaded patients with transfusion-dependent anemias and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia, with a well-established safety profile. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug-drug interaction profile of deferasirox, and the claims supporting once-daily dosing for effective chelation. Sustained labile plasma iron suppression is observed with no rebound between doses, protecting organs from potential tissue damage. Increased iron excretion positively correlates with increased deferasirox exposure; to optimize iron removal transfusional iron intake, body iron burden and safety parameters should also be considered. Deferasirox dispersible tablets should be taken ?30 min before food due to an effect of food on bioavailability. Dosing is consistent across pediatric and adult patients and there is no ethnic sensitivity. Dose adjustment is required for patients with hepatic impairment and may be considered upon coadministration with strong uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase inducers or bile acid sequestrants (coadministration should be avoided where possible), and patients should be monitored upon coadministration with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5, CYP2C8, or CYP1A2 substrates. Coadministration with hydroxyurea, a fetal hemoglobin modulator, does not appear to impact deferasirox pharmacokinetics. In summary, a substantial body of clinical and pharmacokinetic data are available for deferasirox to guide its optimal use in multiple patient populations and clinical circumstances. PMID:24996374

Tanaka, Chiaki

2014-08-01

144

Philosophy of clinical psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently. In conclusion, psychopharmacologists already use methodological audit (e.g. statistical audit); similarly, conceptual clarification is needed in both research planning/evaluation and everyday psychopharmacological practice. PMID:23470600

Aragona, Massimiliano

2013-03-01

145

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 81C6; Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase alfa, AGM-1470, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alosetron hydrochloride, anakinra, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir; BAY-43-9006, BBR-3438, beta-L-Fd4C, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentanBR96-doxorubicin; Caspofungin acetate, ciclesonide, cilengitide, cilomilast, COL-1621, COL-3, CpG-7909, cyclosporine; DCVax-Brain, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, dexosome vaccine (melanoma), donepezil hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTI-015, [99Tc]-DTPA-mannosyldextran, duloxetine hydrochloride; Emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, epothilone B, estradiol-MNP, etonogestrel/etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol, etoricoxib; Febuxostat, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GVS-111; Heparinase I, HspE7, human alpha-glucosidase, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, INGN-241, interferon alfa B/D hybrid, interferon alfa Biphasix, ISIS-14803; Lanicemine hydrochloride, 1311-lipiodol, liposome-encapsulated mitoxantrone, lixivaptan, lumiracoxib, lupus-AHP, LY-466700; Marimastat, MEN-10755, micafungin sodium; Nitronaproxen, NSC-683864 Omalizumab, oral insulin; Palonosetron hydrochloride, peginterferon alfa-2a, pimecrolimus, pralnacasan, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, pyrazoloacridine; R-165335, ranolazine, risperidone, RPR-109881;, RSD-1235, Satraplatin, seocalcitol, sertindole, SMART anti-interferon gamma antibody, sulfasalazine; T-138067, TAK-013, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, TP-38; Valdecoxib, vatalanib succinate, voriconazole; ZD-9331. PMID:12690708

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-01-01

146

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M; Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, adenosine triphosphate, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, autologous renal tumor vaccine, azimilide hydrochloride; Bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; C340, cantuzumab mertansine, caspofungin acetate, CGP-36742, CHAMPION everolimus-eluting coronary stent, cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Efalizumab, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, everolimus, ezetimibe; Flesinoxan hydrochloride, fosamprenavir calcium, FR-901228, frovatriptan; Gadofosveset sodium, gadomer-17, galiximab, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib; HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); IDN-6556, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, iseganan hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; LB-80380, levocetirizine, liposomal doxorubicin, LMB-9, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Mecasermin, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, nelfinavir, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; Olcegepant, omalizumab, oregovomab; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, perospirone hydrochloride, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, prinomastat; Resiquimod, rhIGFBP-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, ritanserin, ro-31-7453, rosuvastatin calcium; SCIO-469, SDZ-SID-791, SU-11248, suberanilohydroxamic acid; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TER-286, tezosentan disodium, TH-9507, tipifarnib, tipranavir, tolvaptan, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, travoprost, treprostinil sodium, tucaresol; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, val-mCyd, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vinflunine, voriconazole; Ximelagatran, XTL-002; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:15319815

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-06-01

147

Comfrey: A Clinical Overview  

PubMed Central

Comfrey has a centuries-old tradition as a medicinal plant. Today, multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of comfrey preparations for the topical treatment of pain, inflammation and swelling of muscles and joints in degenerative arthritis, acute myalgia in the back, sprains, contusions and strains after sports injuries and accidents, also in children aged 3 or 4 and over. This paper provides information on clinical trials and non-interventional studies published on comfrey to date and further literature, substantiating the fact that topical comfrey preparations are a valuable therapy option for the treatment of painful muscle and joint complaints. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22359388

Staiger, Christiane

2012-01-01

148

[Dyslexia: clinical characteristics].  

PubMed

Dyslexia is characterized by a severe, persistent reading disorder occurring in an intelligent child. In the large field of learning disabilities, dyslexia is related to a cerebral dysfunction well described with Imagery and genetic studies. Nevertheless the diagnosis of dyslexia cannot be done by another way than clinical symptoms. Optimizing the management of children with dyslexia is a critical issue and is now possible, thanks to the improvement of neurosciences data and the mobilization of the key stakeholders. The knowledge of the precise symptoms is essential in order to lead the child's doctor able to improve coordination and harmonization of teaching and care and guidance of parents. PMID:21074390

Billard, C; Delteil-Pinton, F

2010-12-01

149

Milestones in Clinical Neurophysiology  

PubMed Central

Over the last 25 years, clinical neurophysiology has made many advances for the understanding, diagnosis and even treatment for different movement disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been the biggest technical advance. Progress in pathophysiology includes improved knowledge about bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease, loss of inhibition and increased plasticity in dystonia, abnormal startle in hyperekplexia, and various features of psychogenic movement disorders that can aid diagnosis. Studies have been done looking at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for therapy, but effects are generally small. PMID:21626542

Hallett, Mark; Rothwell, John

2010-01-01

150

Clinical applications of angiocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several tables are presented giving left ventricular (LV) data for normal patients and patients with heart disease of varied etiologies, pointing out the salient features. Graphs showing LV pressure-volume relationships (compliance) are presented and discussed. The method developed by Rackley et al. (1964) for determining left ventricular mass in man is described, and limitations to the method are discussed. Some clinical methods for determining LV oxygen consumption are briefly described, and the relation of various abnormalities of ventricular performance to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease is characterized.

Dodge, H. T.; Sandler, H.

1974-01-01

151

Clinical neurogenetics: friedreich ataxia.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, typically with onset before 20 years of age. Signs and symptoms include progressive ataxia, ascending weakness and ascending loss of vibration and joint position senses, pes cavus, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. There are no disease-modifying medications to either slow or halt the progression of the disease, but research investigating therapies to increase endogenous frataxin production and decrease the downstream consequences of disrupted iron homeostasis is ongoing. Clinical trials of promising medications are underway, and the treatment era of Friedreich ataxia is beginning. PMID:24176426

Collins, Abigail

2013-11-01

152

What Is a Clinical Trial?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a clinical trial? Clinical trials evaluate promising new cancer treatments or methods, from radiation and chemotherapy to ... the effects of research treatmenton various types of cancer. Once researchers are satisfied that the treatment has ...

153

Improvements in clinical prediction research  

E-print Network

. Validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe postoperative pain in new settings. In second revision for Anesthesia&Analgesia. Chapter 3.3 K.J.M. Janssen, Y. Vergouwe, C.J. Kalkman, D.E. Grobbee, K.G.M. Moons of clinical prediction rules 3.2 Validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe postoperative pain in new

Fernandez, Thomas

154

Pharmaceutical Care Clinic Spring 2009  

E-print Network

Pharmaceutical Care Clinic Spring 2009 Ambulatory Pharmaceutical Care Clinic [Phar 6230] and, Advanced Pharmaceutical Care Clinic [Phar 6217] Spring Semester 2009 Course Director: Teaching Assistants, Director - Peters Institute of Pharmaceutical Care WDH 3-160 Priya Bardal, Pharm.D. Computer documentation

Thomas, David D.

155

MARQUETTE UNIVERSITY CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

MARQUETTE UNIVERSITY CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM Proposal for Doctoral Qualifying Examination, is an agreement between you and the DQE committee, representing the Clinical Psychology Program, for your planned between the student and the committee, representing the Clinical Psychology Program. Signing this affirms

Sanders, Matthew

156

Clinical Psychology Unit November 2011  

E-print Network

Clinical Psychology Unit Annual Report November 2011 Department of Psychology Faculty of Science details the major activities of the Clinical Psychology Unit. This includes the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology (DClin Psy), the Diploma in High Intensity Psychological Interventions (Dip HP), the Certificate

Li, Yi

157

Clinical Psychology Unit December 2012  

E-print Network

Clinical Psychology Unit Annual Report December 2012 Department of Psychology Faculty of Science INTRODUCTION This report details the major activities of the Clinical Psychology Unit. This includes the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology (DClin Psy), the Diploma in High Intensity Psychological Interventions (Dip

Stone, J. V.

158

Clinical Psychology Unit November 2013  

E-print Network

Clinical Psychology Unit Annual Report November 2013 Department of Psychology Faculty of Science INTRODUCTION This report details the major activities of the Clinical Psychology Unit. This includes the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology (DClin Psy), the Diploma in High Intensity Psychological Interventions (Dip

Stone, J. V.

159

The future of clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the present status of clinical psychology. An analysis is presented of the reasons for the failure of clinical psychologists to provide strong supporting evidence for the utility of their diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, for the declining interest in diagnostic testing, and for the proliferation of new methods of intervention. A new conception of clinical practice, research, and graduate training

Julian B. Rotter

1973-01-01

160

LEND Trainees Behavior Clinic Option  

E-print Network

be discussed with trainee's LEND faculty mentor. Purpose of Clinic The Cerebral Palsy Clinic with Cerebral Palsy. The goal of the clinic is to provide comprehensive assessments and follow up to address. Nash's schedule is as follows: Wednesday and Thursdays 9:00 a.m. ­ 1:00 p.m. #12;LEND Trainees Cerebral

161

Constructing clinical science.  

PubMed

Clinical practice became clinical science in the years 1720-1820. There were many reasons for this transformation. The discoveries by Santorio Santorio, William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Lorenzo Bellini, Thomas Sydenham, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, were perceived by students who asked for changes in the medical curriculum. In 1761 Morgagni centered the study of diseases on morbid anatomy, a way to control at autopsy the validity of diagnosis. J.P. Frank who worked on public health and John Locke who supported a method of scientific reasoning based on asking questions were also instrumental for changes. Hospitals, formerly hospices for the poor, became places for curing and healing. Military hospitals represented models to be followed. In Vienna Marie Therese inaugurated the Allegemein Krankenhaus in 1785. In revolutionary France Fourcroy with the law Frimaire An III, 1794 gave a new rationale. Medicine and surgery were unified in the curriculum. Basic sciences were introduced. Dissection became compulsory, practical teaching became the rule. But it was with John Hunter, Domenico Cotugno and P. Joseph Desault that the great advancement was achieved. They were anatomists and therefore they made the knowledge of human body the core of medical curriculum. However experimentation on animals, as well as practical bedside teaching at the hospital also became important. Through their work hospitals and universities were associated in a common goal. PMID:16285082

Gaspare de Santo, Natale; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Salvatore de Santo, Luca; Richet, Gabriel

2005-01-01

162

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-01-01

163

Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy. PMID:24324289

Castelli, Roberto

2013-01-01

164

Insurance in clinical research  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: Sponsors need to pay for management of all serious adverse events suffered by subjects in a clinical trial and to compensate for injuries or deaths related to the trial. This study examines if insurance policies of trials, cover all contingencies that require reimbursement or compensation. Materials and Methods: Insurance policies of trials submitted to Sahyadri Hospitals between January 2013 and December 2013 were studied, with respect to the policy period, the limit of liability, deductibles, and preconditions if any. Results: All the policies studied had some deficiencies, in one respect or the other and none had a provision to pay full compensation if required. Some insurers have put in preconditions that could jeopardize the payment of compensation to subjects. Conclusions: Insurances are complicated documents, and need to be critically examined by the ethics committee before approval of the study documents.

Ghooi, Ravindra B.; Divekar, Deepa

2014-01-01

165

[Filariasis in clinical practice].  

PubMed

Filariases are infections caused by distinct species of nematodes. These infections are transmitted through insect bites and primarily affect lymph nodes and skin. Filariases are classified as neglected diseases and affect millions, producing severe disability and social stigma. This type of infection is rarely diagnosed in travellers, as prolonged stays in endemic areas are usually required acquire infection. Infections may be asymptomatic, and clinical manifestations depend on the host immune response to the infection and the parasite burden. Diagnosis is based on the demonstration of microfilariae in blood or skin, but there are other methods that support the diagnosis. Individual treatment is effective, but community interventions, mostly mass drug administration, have helped to diminish the incidence of filariases. PMID:22305667

Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; Norman, Francesca; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

2011-12-01

166

Foundations of clinical logagogy.  

PubMed

The meaning of the term "logagogy" is elucidated, and logagogic practices are outlined in the history of medicine. It is shown how the traditional medicine of India, Ayurveda, shows signs of logagogic practices (sattvavajaya), and that not only Ayurveda but also the famous Greek physician Galenus emphasize a philosophical approach to medicine. As Galenus's logagogic practices have their roots in the tradition of practical philosophy in Greek antiquity, the most important Greek schools of thought that are relevant to logagogic approaches are sketched. It is shown that the Stoics created a rationalistic system emphasizing the importance of the logos for human beings, and that Epicurus made advances in psychoeducation and cognitive reframing that are important for logagogic practices. These logagogic approaches of antiquity have been taken up by modern counseling in philosophical practices. The article closes with an outline of a clinical logagogy. PMID:14620467

Bühler, Karl-Ernst

2003-01-01

167

Clinical application of prokinetics.  

PubMed

Intestinal stasis or ileus is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in horses and has been attributed to a variety of causes, including loss of intrinsic or extrinsic electrical activity, incoordination of contractile activity from regional stimuli, and dissociation between electrical and mechanical activity. Proposed mechanisms include systemic shock, electrolyte disturbances, persistent luminal distention, ischemia, inflammation, peritonitis, endotoxemia, and anesthesia. Because the cause of ileus is likely multifactorial, a variety of pharmaceutics have been used to target specific causes. Prokinetics are defined as agents that facilitate or enhance the net movement of feed material down the length of the intestinal tract and do not simply produce an uncoordinated increase in local contractile activity. The primary objective of pharmaceutic intervention is to augment the pathways that stimulate motility or attenuate the inhibitory neurons that predominantly suppress activity. The objective of this article is to summarize the actions of prokinetic agents available and suggest clinical applications. PMID:14740766

Van Hoogmoed, Linda M

2003-12-01

168

Clinical management of neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic disease of the nervous system and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Differences in the number and location of lesions as well as in the severity of the immune response against the parasites, makes neurocysticercosis a complex disease. Therefore, a single therapeutic approach is not expected to be useful in every patient. Introduction of cysticidal drugs - praziquantel and albendazole - have changed the prognosis of thousands of patients with neurocysticercosis. While pioneer trials of therapy were flawed by a poor design, recent studies have shown that cysticidal drugs results in disappearance of lesions and clinical improvement in most cases. Nevertheless, some patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis may be left with remaining cysts and may develop recurrent seizures after therapy, and many patients with subarachnoid cysts may need repeated courses of therapy. In addition, not all forms of the disease benefit from cysticidal drugs. PMID:24552577

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-04-01

169

Possession: a clinical enigma.  

PubMed

This is a case of a 21-year-old lady who presented with history of episodes where she would display extraordinary strength while becoming aggressive towards her family members, speak in foreign language and display bizarre behaviour. The episode would last for 15-20 min and would resolve spontaneously. She would always claim amnesia for the event. This would remain irritable in the intervening period. The frequency of such episodes is at least three times a week. The family members took her to several faith healers with no improvement in her condition. On the suggestion of a family friend, the patient was brought in for consultation in the psychiatric clinic. The patient remained a diagnostic dilemma though there has been some reduction in intensity of such episodes on psychotropic medication. Unfortunately, there is no remission in episodes. PMID:22701065

Gadit, Amin

2011-01-01

170

Possession: a clinical enigma  

PubMed Central

This is a case of a 21-year-old lady who presented with history of episodes where she would display extraordinary strength while becoming aggressive towards her family members, speak in foreign language and display bizarre behaviour. The episode would last for 15–20 min and would resolve spontaneously. She would always claim amnesia for the event. This would remain irritable in the intervening period. The frequency of such episodes is at least three times a week. The family members took her to several faith healers with no improvement in her condition. On the suggestion of a family friend, the patient was brought in for consultation in the psychiatric clinic. The patient remained a diagnostic dilemma though there has been some reduction in intensity of such episodes on psychotropic medication. Unfortunately, there is no remission in episodes. PMID:22701065

Gadit, Amin

2011-01-01

171

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, (S)-Tenatoprazole sodium salt monohydrate 19-28z, Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate, ADV-TK, AE-37, Aflibercept, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Asenapine maleate, Axitinib; Bavituximab, Becatecarin, beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Bevacizumab, Bremelanotide; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Casopitant mesylate, Catumaxomab, CDX-110, Cediranib, CMD-193, Cositecan; Darinaparsin, Denosumab, DP-b99, Duloxetine hydrochloride; E75, Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, EMD-273063, EndoTAG-1, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Eribulin mesilate, Esomeprazole magnesium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Faropenem daloxate, Febuxostat, Fenretinide; Ghrelin (human); I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, I-131-3F8, Iclaprim, Iguratimod, Iloperidone, Imatinib mesylate, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Ipilimumab, Iratumumab, Ispinesib mesylate, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Laquinimod sodium, Larotaxel dehydrate, Linezolid, LOR-2040; Mapatumumab, MKC-1, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NK-012; Olanzapine pamoate, Oncolytic HSV, Ortataxel; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Paliperidone palmitate, Panitumumab, Patupilone, PCV-9, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pimecrolimus, Plerixafor hydrochloride, PM-02734, Poly I:CLC, PR1, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Progesterone caproate, Prucalopride, Pumosetrag hydrochloride; RAV-12, RB-006, RB-007, Recombinant human erythropoietin alfa, Rimonabant, Romidepsin; SAR-109659, Satraplatin, Sodium butyrate; Tadalafil, Talampanel, Tanespimycin, Tarenflurbil, Tariquidar, Taurine, Tecovirimat, Telatinib, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telcagepant, Terameprocol, Tesofensine, Tetrodotoxin, Tezampanel, Tipifarnib, TPI-287, Tremelimumab; Valspodar, Vatalanib succinate, VCL-CB01, vCP1452, Vorinostat; XL-228; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:19088949

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2008-10-01

172

Carcinoembryonic antigen: clinical application.  

PubMed

Carcinoembryionic antigen (CEA) a glycoprotein extracted from colonic cancer tissue (beta-globulin electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation coefficient 7 to 8S, and mol wt approximately 200,000) can be detected and measured by radioimmunoassay. Clinical evaluations of CEA determination have given the following results: In health: (1) Serum CEA level is not influenced by sex, age, blood type, time of blood sampling, or family history of cancer; (2) serum CEA level is influenced by a history of smoking or inflammatory disease of the bowel, lung, pancreas, and other organs (occasionally, a CEA level as high as 10 ng/ml is noted); and (3) currently, CEA positivity is defined as greater than 2.5 ng/ml, however, 5 ng/ml may be more realistic. In cancer: (1) CEA level may be increased in primary cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as well as in non-GI neoplasia; (2) the CEA test is not recommended for screening to detect early cancer; (3) serum CEA level depends on the stage of the neoplasia and usually is not influenced by the grade of differentiation; and (4) markedly increased (greater than 25 ng/ml serum CEA values are highly suggestive of metastatic cancer, particularly hepatic metastasis. In biological fluid: The CEA or CEA-like activity can be measured in gastrointestinal secretions. Quantitative studies of CEA levels in such fluids may yield more information than is obtainable from studies of serum. However, this possibility needs more study at present. Therefore, the currently available CEA tests cannot replace any of the now standard diagnostic methods for cancer detection. This use for assessment of therapy in selected patients or for following those known to be a high risk for cancer appears promising in preliminary studies, but clinical value, if any, remains to be determined. PMID:1247982

Go, V L

1976-01-01

173

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abiraterone acetate, acyline, adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, AEE-788, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, AK-602, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, alprazolam, amdoxovir, AMG-162, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, aminophylline hydrate, anakinra, anecortave acetate, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, APC-8015, aripiprazole, aspirin, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atorvastatin calcium, atrasentan, AVE-5883, AZD-2171; Betamethasone dipropionate, bevacizumab, bimatoprost, biphasic human insulin (prb), bortezomib, BR-A-657, BRL-55730, budesonide, busulfan; Calcipotriol, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, calcium folinate, capecitabine, capravirine, carmustine, caspofungin acetate, cefdinir, certolizumab pegol, CG-53135, chlorambucil, ciclesonide, ciclosporin, cisplatin, clofarabine, clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, clozapine, co-trimoxazole, CP-122721, creatine, CY-2301, cyclophosphamide, cypher, cytarabine, cytolin; D0401, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, DASB, desipramine hydrochloride, desloratadine, desvenlafaxine succinate, dexamethasone, didanosine, diquafosol tetrasodium, docetaxel, doxorubicin hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecallantide, efalizumab, efavirenz, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, enoxaparin sodium, estramustine phosphate sodium, etanercept, ethinylestradiol, etonogestrel, etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol, etoposide, exenatide; Famciclovir, fampridine, febuxostat, filgrastim, fludarabine phosphate, fluocinolone acetonide, fluorouracil, fluticasone propionate, fluvastatin sodium, fondaparinux sodium; Gaboxadol, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, gelclair, gemcitabine, gemfibrozil, glibenclamide, glyminox; Haloperidol, heparin sodium, HPV 16/HPV 18 vaccine, human insulin, human insulin; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, indium 111 (111In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, infliximab, INKP-100, iodine (I131) tositumomab, IoGen, ipratropium bromide, ixabepilone; L-870810, lamivudine, lapatinib, laquinimod, latanoprost, levonorgestrel, licochalcone a, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lorazepam, lovastatin; Maraviroc, maribavir, matuzumab, MDL-100907, melphalan, methotrexate, methylprednisolone, mitomycin, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, MK-0431, MN-001, MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef, MRKAd5gag, MVA.HIVA, MVA-BN Nef, MVA-Muc1-IL-2, mycophenolate mofetil; Nelfinavir mesilate, nesiritide, NSC-330507; Olanzapine, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, oral insulin, osanetant; PA-457, paclitaxel, paroxetine, paroxetine hydrochloride, PCK-3145, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, perillyl alcohol, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, porfiromycin, prasterone, prasugrel, pravastatin sodium, prednisone, pregabalin, prinomastat, PRO-2000, propofol, prostate cancer vaccine; Rasagiline mesilate, rhBMP-2/ACS, rhBMP-2/BCP, rhC1, ribavirin, rilpivirine, ritonavir, rituximab, Ro-26-9228, rosuvastatin calcium, rosuvastatin sodium, rubitecan; Selodenoson, simvastatin, sirolimus, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, SS(dsFv)-PE38, St. John's Wort extract, stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tafenoquine succinate, talaglumetad, tanomastat, taxus, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tempol, tenofovir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone enanthate, TH-9507, thalidomide, tigecycline, timolol maleate, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, torcetrapib, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, varenicline, VEGF-2 gene therapy, venlafaxine hydrochloride, vildagliptin, vincristine sulfate, voriconazole, VRX-496, VX-385; Warfarin sodium; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 9

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-06-01

174

Enteroclysis: Current clinical value  

PubMed Central

AIM: To retrospectively analyze changes in clinical indication, referring medical specialty and detected pathology for small bowel double-contrast examinations. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-one (n = 143 females; n = 98 males; 01.01.1990-31.12.1990) and 384 (n = 225 females; n = 159 males; 01.01.2004-31.12.2010) patients underwent enteroclysis, respectively. All examinations were performed in standardized double-contrast technique. After placement of a nasojejunal probe distal to the ligament of Treitz, radiopaque contrast media followed by X-ray negative distending contrast media were administered. Following this standardized projections in all four abdominal quadrants were acquired. Depending on the detected pathology further documentation was carried out by focused imaging. Examination protocols were reviewed and compared concerning requesting unit, indication and final report. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-one examinations in 1990 faced an average of 55 examinations per year from 2004-2010. There was an increase of examinations for gastroenterological (33.6% to 64.6%) and pediatric (0.4% to 7.8%) indications while internal (29.0% to 6.0% for inpatients and from 16.6% to 9.1% for outpatients) and surgical (12.4% to 7.3%) referrals significantly decreased. “Follow-up of Crohn’s disease” (33.1%) and “bleeding/tumor search” (15.1%) represented the most frequent clinical indications. A total of 34% (1990) and 53.4% (2004-2010) examinations yielded pathologic findings. In the period 01.01.2004 -31.12.2010 the largest proportion of pathological findings was found in patients with diagnosed Crohn’s disease (73.5%), followed by patients with abdominal pain (67.6% with history of surgery and 52.6% without history of surgery), chronic diarrhea (41.7%), suspected Crohn’s disease (39.5%) and search for gastrointestinal bleeding source/tumor (19.1%). The most common pathologies diagnosed by enteroclysis were “changes in Crohn’s disease” (25.0%) and “adhesions /strictures” (12.2%). CONCLUSION: “Crohn’s disease” represents the main indication for enteroclysis. The relative increase of pathologic findings reflects today’s well directed use of enteroclysis. PMID:23908695

Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Jacobi, Volkmar; Khan, M Fawad

2013-01-01

175

Cherubism: best clinical practice.  

PubMed

Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable.Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone.Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention. PMID:22640403

Papadaki, Maria E; Lietman, Steven A; Levine, Michael A; Olsen, Bjorn R; Kaban, Leonard B; Reichenberger, Ernst J

2012-05-24

176

Perioperative allergy: clinical manifestations.  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions or side effects are usually expected, dose dependent, and occur at therapeutic doses. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are unexpected and dose independent and can occur at the first exposure to drugs used during anesthesia. Perioperative anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid clinical condition that can be lethal even in previously healthy patients. The initial diagnosis of anaphylaxis is presumptive. A precise identification of the drug responsible for the adverse reaction is more difficult to establish in the case of anaphylactoid reaction because the adverse reaction could result from additive side effects of different drugs injected simultaneously. The timing of the reaction in relation to events, e.g. induction, start of surgery, administration of other drugs, i.v. fluids, is essential for the diagnosis. Generally, reactions are predominant in the induction and recovery phases, and manifested mainly as cutaneous symptoms. Reactions to drugs coincide with the phases when they are administered. Reactions to antibiotics are more frequent in the induction phase, to neuromuscular agents in the initiation and maintenance phases and to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in the recovery phase. The differential diagnosis of any adverse reaction during or following anesthesia should include the possibility of anaphylaxis. PMID:22014928

Peroni, D G; Sansotta, N; Bernardini, R; Cardinale, F; Paravati, F; Franceschini, F; Boner, A L

2011-01-01

177

Clinical biochemistry of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

1981-05-01

178

Pediatric DXA: clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Normal bone mineral accrual requires adequate dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients; hepatic and renal activation of vitamin D; normal hormone levels (thyroid, parathyroid, reproductive and growth hormones); and neuromuscular functioning with sufficient stress upon the skeleton to induce bone deposition. The presence of genetic or acquired diseases and the therapies that are used to treat them can also impact bone health. Since the introduction of clinical DXA in pediatrics in the early 1990s, there has been considerable investigation into the causes of low bone mineral density (BMD) in children. Pediatricians have also become aware of the role adequate bone mass accrual in childhood has in preventing osteoporotic fractures in late adulthood. Additionally, the availability of medications to improve BMD has increased with the development of bisphosphonates. These factors have led to the increased utilization of DXA in pediatrics. This review summarizes much of the previous research regarding BMD in children and is meant to assist radiologists and clinicians with DXA utilization and interpretation. PMID:17431606

Sparke, Paul; Henwood, Maria J.

2007-01-01

179

Cherubism: best clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone. Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention. PMID:22640403

2012-01-01

180

Clinically Relevant Biometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Obtaining precise post-operative target refraction is of utmost importance in today’s modern cataract and refractive surgery. Given the growing number of patients undergoing premium intraocular lens implantations, patient expectation continues to rise. In order to meet heightened patient expectations, it is crucial to pay utmost attention to patient selection, accurate keratometry and biometry readings, as well as to the application of correct intraocular lens power formula with optimized lens constants. This article reviews recent advances in the field of clinical biometry and intraocular lens power calculations. Recent findings Recently developed low-coherence reflectometry optical biometry is comparable to older ultrasonic biometric and keratometric techniques. In addition, the new IOL Master software upgrade has improved reproducibility and enhanced signal acquisition. Further, the modern lens power formulas currently determine the effective lens position and the shape of the intraocular lens power prediction curve more accurately. Summary In order to reach target refraction, precise biometric measurements are imperative. Understanding the strengths and limitations of the currently available biometry devices, allows prevention of high variability and inaccuracy, ultimately determining the refractive outcomes. PMID:22081032

Sahin, Afsun; Hamrah, Pedram

2012-01-01

181

Clinical profile of trichotillomania.  

PubMed

Twenty-four cases of trichotillomania attending psychiatry outpatient department and child guidance clinic at Kalawati Saran Children's and Smt Sucheta Kriplani Hospitals over a period of 2 years from July, 1985 to November 1987 were studied. Females (66.7%) outnumbered the males (33.3%). Majority of cases belonged to age group 6-10 years (54.2%) and nuclear family (68.5%). Nail-biting (25.0%) was the commonest associated neurotic trait, followed by enuresis (20.9%), temper-tantrum (12.5%), etc. A past history of hysterical fits and neurotic depression was found in 3 cases (12.5%) and 2 cases (8.3%) respectively. Family history of neurosis was seen in mothers and fathers of 20.9% and 12.5% cases respectively. Trichobezoars and trichophytobezoars were found in 6 cases (25.0%) and 3 cases (12.5%) respectively. Majority of patients of trichobezoars presented with vague complaints like heaviness in the stomach (55.6%), inability to gain weight (44.4%), etc, while 22.2% cases were asymptomatic and detected only on screening. PMID:1748781

Bhatia, M S; Singhal, P K; Rastogi, V; Dhar, N K; Nigam, V R; Taneja, S B

1991-05-01

182

Clinical Investigation in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

A study involving correlations between personality and the fasting serum cholesterol level of normal volunteers on a fat-free diet was used to illustrate techniques of clinical investigation in psychiatry. Precise data were not quoted, but the procedure was described to show how behavioural studies differ from biological ones. Somatotyping (no significant correlation), excretion of catecholamines under stress (raised with high cholesterol levels) and classical conditioning (no significant correlation) were used as examples of simple biological functions. These were contrasted with trait ratings where one observer predicted cholesterol levels with a high degree of accuracy and another with a low and unreliable one. It seemed that the most important trait being rated was “aggressiveness”, and this was probably differentially elicited by the two observers, the one male and authoritarian, the other female and permissive. Such an interaction distorted the information obtained to a degree seldom seen in other data-gathering situations. Estimated and actual achievement on a competitive pin-ball game failed to show significant correlations with other traits. Questionnaires on the attitudes of the subjects' mothers suggested some correlation between severity of training and aggressivity. The techniques of personality investigation described embraced behavioural observations which, it was suggested, were ill-taught in existing undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:13989251

Sloane, R. Bruce; Payne, R. W.; Inglis, J.

1963-01-01

183

A Knowledge Management Framework to Morph Clinical Cases with Clinical  

E-print Network

A Knowledge Management Framework to Morph Clinical Cases with Clinical Practice Guidelines Fehmida University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Abstract In this paper we present a knowledge management framework to automate the captured knowledge through knowledge management systems. We note with interest

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

184

On the Distinction Between Clinical Process and Clinical Content Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article emphasizes, first, the distinction between clinical process theory which refers to the method of investigation, and clinical content theory which refers to the findings of an investigation. It is suggested that psychoanalysts attend to the process, attempt to specify it, and microanalyze it in its naturalistic context. Second, it is suggested that we attend to the problem of

Emanuel Peterfreund

1990-01-01

185

Statistical Principles of Clinical Trials Lecture Notes  

E-print Network

ST 520 Statistical Principles of Clinical Trials Lecture Notes (Modified from Dr. A. Tsiatis Introduction and History of Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Phase I and II clinical trials 18 2.1 Phases of Clinical Trials

Zhang, Daowen

186

Other Gastrointestinal Cancers - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Other Gastrointestinal Cancers - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical

187

Hydroxycarbamide: clinical aspects.  

PubMed

Due to its oral route of administration and mild toxicity profile, as well as its potent laboratory and clinical effects, hydroxyurea (or hydroxycarbamide) has been the primary focus of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction strategies for the treatment of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). When administered orally once a day, hydroxyurea treatment is very well tolerated with little short-term toxicity. Hydroxyurea has documented laboratory efficacy with increases in Hb and HbF; treatment also significantly reduces the number of painful episodes, acute chest syndrome, transfusions, and hospitalizations. Most young patients reach a maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea at 25-30 mg/kg/d, where they will achieve key laboratory thresholds (Hb ? 9 g/dL and HbF ? 20%) without excessive myelosuppression. Potential long-term toxicities continue to be of great concern and should be monitored in all patients with SCA who receive hydroxyurea therapy. To date, however, no increases in stroke, myelodysplasia, or carcinogenicity have been detected in SCA patient cohorts, with drug exposure now reaching 15 years for some treated children. Taken together, available evidence suggests that hydroxyurea represents an inexpensive and effective treatment option that should be offered to most, if not all, patients with SCA. As countries in Africa develop newborn screening programs to identify SCA, the widespread use of hydroxyurea may prove to be a useful treatment to help ameliorate the disease in resource-limited settings. Hydroxyurea is the only currently available disease-modifying therapy for SCA, and is emerging as a safe and effective treatment for all patients with SCA, in both developed and developing countries. PMID:23643402

Ware, Russell E

2013-03-01

188

Clinical review: Severe asthma  

PubMed Central

Severe asthma, although difficult to define, includes all cases of difficult/therapy-resistant disease of all age groups and bears the largest part of morbidity and mortality from asthma. Acute, severe asthma, status asthmaticus, is the more or less rapid but severe asthmatic exacerbation that may not respond to the usual medical treatment. The narrowing of airways causes ventilation perfusion imbalance, lung hyperinflation, and increased work of breathing that may lead to ventilatory muscle fatigue and life-threatening respiratory failure. Treatment for acute, severe asthma includes the administration of oxygen, ?2-agonists (by continuous or repetitive nebulisation), and systemic corticosteroids. Subcutaneous administration of epinephrine or terbutaline should be considered in patients not responding adequately to continuous nebulisation, in those unable to cooperate, and in intubated patients not responding to inhaled therapy. The exact time to intubate a patient in status asthmaticus is based mainly on clinical judgment, but intubation should not be delayed once it is deemed necessary. Mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus supports gas-exchange and unloads ventilatory muscles until aggressive medical treatment improves the functional status of the patient. Patients intubated and mechanically ventilated should be appropriately sedated, but paralytic agents should be avoided. Permissive hypercapnia, increase in expiratory time, and promotion of patient-ventilator synchronism are the mainstay in mechanical ventilation of status asthmaticus. Close monitoring of the patient's condition is necessary to obviate complications and to identify the appropriate time for weaning. Finally, after successful treatment and prior to discharge, a careful strategy for prevention of subsequent asthma attacks is imperative. PMID:11940264

Papiris, Spyros; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Malagari, Katerina; Roussos, Charis

2002-01-01

189

Clinical aspects of telemedicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.

Merrell, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

190

Lasers in clinical ophthalmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical application of lasers in ophthalmology is schematized, showing for each anatomic eye structure, pathologies that may be treated through this procedure. In the cornea, the unusual laser practice for suture removals and the promising possibility of the excimer laser in refractive surgery are discussed. In the iris, the camerular angle, and the ciliary body, the laser application is essentially used to treat the glaucoma and other situations that are not so frequent. The capsulotomy with YAG LASER is used in the treatment of structures related with crystalline and, at least, the treatment of the retina and choroid pathology is expanded. A. A. explained the primordial interest and important of laser in the diabetic retinopathy treatment and some results in patients with more than 5 years of evolution are: 55 of the patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (RDP) treated for more than 5 years noticed their vision improved or stabilized; 5 years after treating patients with PDR, 49.3 had their vision stabilized or even improved, provided the diabetics had declared itself more than 20 years ago, versus 61.7 provided the diabetics had declared itself less than 20 years before; finally, 53.8 of the patients under 40-years-old when the diabetics was diagnosed, had their vision improved or at least stabilized 5 years after the beginning of the treatment. On the other side, when patients were over 40 years old when the diabetics was diagnosed percentage increased to 55.9. This study was established in the follow-up of 149 cases over 10 years.

Ribeiro, Paulo A.

1992-03-01

191

Clinical trials of homoeopathy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN--Criteria based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an extensive search. Trials were scored using a list of predefined criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was interpreted in relation to their quality. SETTING--Controlled trials published world wide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of the trials with the best methodological quality. Trials of classical homoeopathy and several modern varieties were considered separately. RESULTS--In 14 trials some form of classical homoeopathy was tested and in 58 trials the same single homoeopathic treatment was given to patients with comparable conventional diagnosis. Combinations of several homoeopathic treatments were tested in 26 trials; isopathy was tested in nine trials. Most trials seemed to be of very low quality, but there were many exceptions. The results showed a positive trend regardless of the quality of the trial or the variety of homeopathy used. Overall, of the 105 trials with interpretable results, 81 trials indicated positive results whereas in 24 trials no positive effects of homoeopathy were found. The results of the review may be complicated by publication bias, especially in such a controversial subject as homoeopathy. CONCLUSIONS--At the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means of well performed trials. PMID:1825800

Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G

1991-01-01

192

Student Handbook Doctoral Subprogram in Clinical Psychology  

E-print Network

Student Handbook Doctoral Subprogram in Clinical Psychology The City...................................................................................................5 C. The Clinical Psychology Subprogram: Relationship with the Graduate

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

193

Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86%) pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes. PMID:17892567

M?rk, Tormod; Waage, Steinar; Tollersrud, Tore; Kvitle, Bj?rg; Sviland, Stale

2007-01-01

194

Clinical Cytogenetics Two-Year Fellowship  

E-print Network

& Clinical Training Lab Research & Clinical Training Cancer genetics conference (4th Monday) CMMG noon Research & Clinical Training Lab Research & Clinical Training Cancer genetics conference (4th Monday) CMMG seminar Medical Genetics Grand Rounds P.M. Lab Research & Clinical Training Lab Research & Clinical

Finley Jr., Russell L.

195

Clinical trials and communicating safely.  

PubMed

In the arena of clinical trials, patient safety is of the highest concern. Despite rules and regulations to protect participants, errors still occur. Deviations from standard practice, complexity, and unfamiliarity all may contribute to errors that occur in the research setting. Detailed and precise communication must exist between the research team and clinical staff to maintain patient safety and protocol integrity. PMID:22297003

Ermete, Rose

2012-02-01

196

Insurance Coverage and Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... costs of a clinical trial. Examples of these costs include extra blood tests or scans that are done purely for the sake of the clinical trial. Often, the research sponsor will cover such costs. Plans are also not required to cover the ...

197

Empathy in clinical social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the meaning of empathy in clinical social work. It differentiates empathy from the related concepts of sympathy, insight, identification, and intuition. It examines the phenomenon of affect transmission, defines different types of empathy, describes major errors and postulates how empathy can be improved. Clinical illustrations are used throughout.

James C. Raines

1990-01-01

198

Capillary electrophoresis in clinical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction, capillary electrophoresis has diversified, spreading out into different specialized fields covering solutions for almost any analytical questions arising in research laboratories. In the context of clinical chemistry, results must be provided at low costs and in a clinically relevent time frame; however, the attributes which have made capillary electrophoresis such a successful tool in basic research are

Rainer Lehmann; Wolfgang Voelter; Hartmut M. Liebich

1997-01-01

199

Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

2004-01-01

200

SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING CLINIC  

E-print Network

's faculty, offer assessment and therapy services for a variety of speech, language and hearing disorders and phonology · Voice · Hearing loss · Receptive and expressive language · Resonance · Aphasia · ReadingSPEECH-LANGUAGE- HEARING CLINIC AT OSU-TULSA The OSU-Tulsa Speech-Language-Hearing Clinic provides

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

201

Environmental conditions of abortion clinics.  

PubMed

9 out of 15 known free standing abortion clinics in the Washington, D.c. metro area were surveyed by a multidisciplinary team to determine whether prescribed health and safety standards for health care facilities are being adhered to. The minimum space requirements of 80 sq ft for medical examination and/or treatment rooms were not met by 4 clinics and inadequate lighting was found in 2 clinics. Although all facilities exhibited evidence of an effective housekeeping program, 8 clinics did not have effective preventive maintenance program for mechanical equipment and medical devices. 1 clinic had inadequate ventilation system and 6 had inadequate handwashing facilities. All had effective solid waste management systems. 6 clinics regularly conduct microbiological monitoring programs (eg, swabbing walls, doorknobs and heating units; sterilization of surgical instruments) but 3 lacked vigilant supervision of sterilizing equipment and procedures. 2 clinics did not have properly grounded or insulated electrical equipment for minimizing electrical shock. Insect and rodent control in all clinics was good. Overall, the housekeeping programs were considered to be constant, thorough, well-conceived and well executed. Implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:10305534

Walker, B; Gordon, T J; Preuss, J

1977-01-01

202

Clinical Experiences with Dental Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utilization of dental impants has accelerated in recent years, and new applications continue to emerge. Concomitantly, alternative implant systems have introduced conceptually different approaches to treatment using altered protocols. The purpose of this paper is to address some of the background issues pertinent to the long-term success, survival, safety, and effectiveness of these devices. The requirements for clinical

Patrick J. Henry

1999-01-01

203

Clinical Teaching: Some Experimental Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study attempted to measure some effects of a 2-week postbaccalaureate workshop on clinical teaching (teaching which provides children with individualized materials and procedures) and to assess administrative encouragement and appreciation of clinical experimentation and innovation. An experimental group of 20 experienced elementary teachers who…

Scott, Ralph

204

Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

Kessler, C. (Medical Univ. Lubeck, Lubeck (DE))

1990-01-01

205

The clinical use of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews recent experimental evidence on the hypnotic treatment of obesity, cigarette smoking, alcoholism, clinical pain, warts, and asthma. It is concluded that although hypnosis may be effective with addictive behavior, the therapeutic success is attributable to nonhypnotic factors. In contrast, hypnosis appears to be of unique value in the treatment of clinical pain, warts, and asthma. Differential effectiveness may be

Thomas A. Wadden; Charles H. Anderton

1982-01-01

206

Acupuncture Analgesia: II. Clinical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture and related percutaneous neuromodulation therapies can be used to treat patients with both acute and chronic pain. In this review, we critically examined peer-reviewed clinical studies evaluating the analgesic proper- ties of acupuncture modalities. METHODS: Using Ovid© and published medical databases, we examined prospec- tive, randomized, sham-controlled clinical investigations involving the use of acupuncture and related forms of

Shu-Ming Wang; Zeev N. Kain

2008-01-01

207

Clinical complications of osseointegrated implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. There is no comprehensive review of the literature that identifies the complications reported in clinical dental implant studies. Purpose. This article attempted to determine the types of complications that have been reported and to provide data regarding their frequency. Methods. All available clinical studies from 1981 to 1997, published in English or with English abstract, that presented

Charles J. Goodacre; Joseph Y. K. Kan; Kitichai Rungcharassaeng

1999-01-01

208

New Technologies in Clinical Microbiology  

PubMed Central

Rapid identification of microorganisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory can be of great value for selection of optimal patient management strategies for infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycobacteria, and parasites. Rapid identification of microorganisms in clinical samples enables expedient de-escalation from broad-spectrum agents to targeted antimicrobial therapy. The switch to tailored therapy minimizes risks of antibiotics, namely, disruption of normal flora, toxic side effects, and selective pressure. There is a critical need for new technologies in clinical microbiology, particularly for bloodstream infections, in which associated mortality is among the highest of all infections. Just as importantly, there is a need for the clinical laboratory community to embrace the practices of evidence-based interventional laboratory medicine and collaborate in translational research projects to establish the clinical utility, cost benefit, and impact of new technologies.

Wolk, Donna M.; Dunne, W. Michael

2011-01-01

209

Clinical research: together, stronger, bolder.  

PubMed

Clinical inquiry is the ongoing process of questioning and evaluating practice, providing informed practice based on best-available data, and innovating practice though research. It is about noticing subtle differences at the bedside and asking "what if" questions. Critically ill patients and their families require care that is based on our best-available evidence. In the quantitative research paradigm, the highest level of evidence is derived from randomized controlled clinical trials. Currently, few adequately powered clinical trials support our practice, but this is changing. In critical care, clinical research should be conducted in the same manner as we practice, collaboratively within multidisciplinary teams. Our core value of the primacy of patient and family, our spirit of inquiry, and our passion for innovation centers our practice. During this year's Distinguished Research Lecture, Martha Curley describes how together, we can build stronger, bolder clinical research. PMID:22751365

Curley, Martha A Q

2012-07-01

210

Clinical experience with bemiparin.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous bemiparin has been evaluated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in moderate to high-risk patients undergoing surgery, and for the acute and long-term treatment of established VTE. General and orthopaedic surgery is associated with VTE incidence rates of 15-60% in the absence of thromboprophylaxis and this can be reduced by over 70% with appropriate thromboembolic prophylaxis. Bemiparin was as effective as unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the prevention of VTE, when both were initiated preoperatively, but was associated with significantly fewer bleeding episodes than UFH. Bemiparin prophylaxis initiated postoperatively was at least as effective as bemiparin initiated preoperatively and was associated with a lower incidence of bleeding complications than preoperative initiation. In terms of patients with cancer undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery, preliminary results from a recent study with bemiparin showed that extended prophylaxis for 4 weeks significantly reduced the rate of major VTE, without increasing bleeding risk, compared with prophylaxis for one week. Bemiparin, initiated postoperatively, was as effective as enoxaparin, initiated preoperatively, in the prevention of VTE in patients undergoing total knee replacement. The incidence of bleeding complications was similar between groups, although the incidence of injection site haematoma was significantly higher with enoxaparin than with bemiparin. Postoperative initiation of bemiparin thromboprophylaxis minimized the risk of spinal haematoma in patients using neuraxial anaesthesia (approximately 93% of patients). In addition, postoperative initiation is likely to reduce the total costs, because patients do not need to be admitted to hospital the day before surgery. Bemiparin was more effective than intravenous UFH in the acute treatment of established deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and was as effective as oral warfarin in the subsequent secondary prevention of VTE over 3 months of therapy, while bleeding complications over 3 months of therapy were similarly low. In a European study, acute treatment of DVT with bemiparin for one week followed by 12 weeks' secondary prevention with bemiparin (i.e. bemiparin/bemiparin) was associated with a cost saving of &U20AC;908 per patient compared with UFH/warfarin. Similarly, bemiparin/warfarin produced a cost saving of &U20AC;769 compared with UFH/warfarin. The savings were predominantly the result of reduced hospital stays during acute treatment with bemiparin. Bemiparin was also associated with increased quality-adjusted life expectancy. Observational studies in routine clinical practice demonstrated that outpatient treatment of acute VTE was as effective as inpatient treatment, but with lower costs, and bemiparin was as effective as vitamin K antagonists over 3 months for secondary prevention, with VTE recurrence rates of 0% and 0.3% over 3 months in separate studies. Bemiparin is thus an effective, well tolerated agent for thromboprophylaxis in surgery, and for the acute and long-term treatment of established VTE, having advantages over UFH and particular benefits as a result of initiating therapy postoperatively. PMID:21162607

Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Lozano Sánchez, Francisco S; Rocha, Eduardo

2010-12-14

211

Clinical Reasoning in Massage Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. Methods: A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client’s symptoms; knowledge of the client’s anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. Results: The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client’s symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. Conclusion: The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education. PMID:21589814

LeMoon, Kim

2008-01-01

212

Personalizing medicine with clinical pharmacogenetics  

PubMed Central

Clinical genetic testing has grown substantially over the past 30 years as the causative mutations for Mendelian diseases have been identified, particularly aided in part by the recent advances in molecular-based technologies. Importantly, the adoption of new tests and testing strategies (e.g., diagnostic confirmation, prenatal testing, and population-based carrier screening) has often been met with caution and careful consideration before clinical implementation, which facilitates the appropriate use of new genetic tests. Although the field of pharmacogenetics was established in the 1950s, clinical testing for constitutional pharmacogenetic variants implicated in interindividual drug response variability has only recently become available to help clinicians guide pharmacotherapy, in part due to US Food and Drug Administration-mediated product insert revisions that include pharmacogenetic information for selected drugs. However, despite pharmacogenetic associations with adverse outcomes, physician uptake of clinical pharmacogenetic testing has been slow. Compared with testing for Mendelian diseases, pharmacogenetic testing for certain indications can have a lower positive predictive value, which is one reason for underutilization. A number of other barriers remain with implementing clinical pharmacogenetics, including clinical utility, professional education, and regulatory and reimbursement issues, among others. This review presents some of the current opportunities and challenges with implementing clinical pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:22095251

Scott, Stuart A.

2012-01-01

213

CLINICAL TRIALS OPERATIONS MANUAL Associate Director for Clinical Research  

E-print Network

.N., B.S.N., Administrative Director for Clinical Research Kristie Moffett, MHA Research Administrator.S.M. Robert.Lanese@UHhospitals.org 216-844-8679 Kristie Moffett, MHA moffetk@ccf.org 216-444-9953 Sherrie

Rollins, Andrew M.

214

[Acute bronchiolitis clinical practice guideline: recommendations for clinical practice].  

PubMed

There are scientific controversies about the management of acute bronchiolitis that generate a great variability in the approach to this entity. A clinical practice guideline (CPG) is a set of systematically developed recommendations to assist practitioners and patients to make decisions based on evidence. A working group (WG) of experts has been selected and they have developed the clinical questions. A systematic search for evidence on the acute bronchiolitis has been done and the evidence has been assessed. The information obtained has been summarized in evidence tables and recommendations have been done from them. The WG has produced a total of 46 clinical questions grouped into sections (diagnosis, complementary tests, treatment, monitoring, prevention and evolution), resulting in 133 recommendations. The CPG on acute bronchiolitis provides an opportunity to unify clinical practice based on scientific evidence, which could rationalize the use of health resources, improving health care quality and equity of access to services. PMID:20634158

Nebot, M Simó; Teruel, G Claret; Cubells, C Luaces; Sabadell, M D Estrada; Fernández, J Pou

2010-10-01

215

Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they

J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest

2011-01-01

216

Personal Computers in Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Personal computers have proved useful in several identifiable areas of clinical research support. However, they have limitations. Popular microcomputer systems typically fail to meet all of the traditional data processing requirements of serious clinical investigators — usually because of software restrictions. Objective evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of these small systems, and particularly of their software, ensures effective use of research budgets and personnel. An analysis of clinical research needs that personal computers serve well, and of those that they serve poorly, is therefore presented.

McAlister, Neil; Andrews, David

1984-01-01

217

CMA Infobase: clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The CMA Infobase is a free Web-based resource that contains evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The database is maintained by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and is available on its Web site. The CMA Infobase currently contains 1,200-plus clinical practice guidelines either developed or endorsed by an authoritative health care organization located in Canada. It is an alternative source of free clinical practice guidelines to the National Guideline Clearinghouse. This column will cover the basics of CMA Infobase, including searching, special features, and available resources which complement the database. PMID:19042721

Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

2008-01-01

218

[Clinical description of mixed mania].  

PubMed

DSM-IV mixed states have become the mixed mania and mixed depression in the new DSM-5. One noticeable point is the introduction of nine cations, among which the "with mixed features" specification. These non exclusive specifications may contribute to a more precise identification of mixed clinical pictures, and therefore to offer a more efficient therapeutic answer. Different dimensional approaches are widely documented. They allow the isolation of a mixed factor which is clinically associated with two other specifications: anxious distress and psychotic features. These severity markers may encourage clinicians to be alert about the risk of misdiagnosis, and cautious in the management of these clinical situations. PMID:24359852

Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E; Cermolacce, M; Dassa, D; Dubois, M; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Corréard, N; Azorin, J-M

2013-12-01

219

?-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Clinical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with ?-thalassemia intermedia has substantially increased over the past decade. Earlier studies observed that patients with ?-thalassemia intermedia experience a clinical-complications profile that is different from that in patients with ?-thalassemia major. In this article, a variety of clinical morbidities are explored, and their associations with the underlying disease pathophysiology and risk factors are examined. These involve several organs and organ systems including the vasculature, heart, liver, endocrine glands, bone, and the extramedullary hematopoietic system. The effects of some therapeutic interventions on the development of clinical complications are also discussed. PMID:22762026

Musallam, Khaled M.; Taher, Ali T.; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

2012-01-01

220

Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.

221

Are Clinical Studies for You?  

MedlinePLUS

If you are thinking about participating in a Clinical Study at NIH, the information on this page may provide a starting point for ... medical care and activities of daily living. In thinking about the risks of research, it is helpful ...

222

Ovarian Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Ovarian Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

223

ABOUTTHEMEDICALCOLLEGE Residencies and Clinical Fellowships  

E-print Network

and Rehabilitation Plastic Surgery Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine Kenneth B. Simons, MD Associate Dean and Gynecology Ophthalmology Orthopaedic Surgery Otolaryngology Pathology Pediatrics Physical Medicine Surgery, General Thoracic Surgery Urology Clinical Fellowships Fellowship programs are open to physicians

224

Clinical Trials and Older People  

MedlinePLUS

... learn more about certain health problems. Whatever the motivation, when you choose to participate in a clinical ... perfect. Based on many years of experience and learning, Congress has passed laws to protect study participants. ...

225

Breast Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Breast Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

226

Clinical Supervision: A Principal's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characterizes public school principals' perceptions of effective clinical-supervisory behavior and contrasts these with prior research findings. A Q-sort completed by 65 Quebec principals supplied data on three aspects of supervisors' behavior. (MCG)

Isherwood, Geoffrey B.

1983-01-01

227

British Association of Clinical Anatomists  

PubMed Central

The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented. PMID:19310890

1983-01-01

228

Clinical aspects of crew health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical procedures and findings for Apollo astronauts in the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the Apollo missions are described in detail. Preflight medical examinations, inflight monitoring and medications, crew illnesses, and clinical findings are summarized.

Hawkins, W. R.; Zieglschmid, J. F.

1975-01-01

229

Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) Do you need: Advice on further development of a cancer diagnostics assay? Assay optimization? Design or implementation of assay controls, assay standards or assay calibrators? Determination

230

Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications.  

E-print Network

utility of such exercise for promoting brain plas- ticityexercise is a specific extension of activity-based thera- pies for promotingpromoting strategies are able to produce clinically significant changes. For example, aerobic exercise

2011-01-01

231

Clinical Decision-Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) apply best-known medical knowledge to patient data for the purpose of generating case-specific decision-support advice. CDSS forms the cornerstone of health informatics research and practice. It is an embedded concept in almost all major clinical information systems and plays an instrumental role in helping health care achieve its ultimate goal: providing high- quality patient care while,

Kai Zheng

232

Clinical Trials Research Training Internships  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute offers unpaid clinical trials research training internships for outstanding statistics and biostatistics students who have strong interests in both clinical trials and methodological research. Each intern selects a research project from any of the areas of active research interest of the preceptor, and works with this preceptor towards turning the project into a paper that can be published (with the intern as a co-author).

233

Clinical Judgment and Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract When clinical psychologists make judgments, are they likely to be cor- rect or incorrect? The following topics are reviewed: (a) methodological,advances,in evaluating the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, (b) recent findings on the cognitive processes of clinicians, and (c) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions made,by mental,health professionals. Results from research on clinical judgment,and

Howard N. Garb

2005-01-01

234

Clinical Psychology for Cardiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a From its very beginning, modern scientific psychology has dealt with issues regarding mind-body, health-disease relationships;\\u000a in particular, clinical psychology, in its various applications, has tried to provide a structure to psychological concepts\\u000a tied to organic disease. Clinical psychology is described as the “area of psychology whose objectives are the explanation,\\u000a understanding, interpretation and reorganization of dysfunctional or pathological mental processes,

E. Molinari; L. Bellardita; A. Compare

235

Clinical Data Interchange Standards - CDISC  

Cancer.gov

Other Vendors Biotech Regulatory Patients CROs CDISC Proprietary May 2002 6 Benefits of Standardization in our Industry z Reduce time and cost associated with clinical trials for drug development z Facilitate business processes among biopharmaceutical companies, CROs, EDC vendors, clinical laboratories z Facilitate reviews of regulatory submissions z Increase familiarity with common data elements, reducing training requirements z Improve data quality CDISC Proprietary May 2002 7 What is CDISC, and what is the history?

236

Clinical Teachers' Opinions about Bedside-based Clinical Teaching  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In recent years, there has been a decline in estimated time spent on bedside teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical teachers’ perceptions and practice of, and approaches to, bedside teaching. Methods: The study site was Ninewells Hospital in Dundee, UK. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and piloted on full-time clinical academic university staff. Responses were solicited to 36 questions relating to teaching experience, familiarity with the 12 learning outcomes of Dundee Medical School's curriculum, and perception and practice of basic bedside etiquette. For each of these items, a comparison between consultants and specialist registrars (SPRs) was carried out. Results: Out of the 64 clinical teachers approached, 45 (70%) participated in the study: 26 of them (57.7%) were consultants and 19 (42.3%) SPRs. A total of 17 (65%) of the consultants had been trained to teach medical students at the bedside, while only 9 SPRs (47%) had had similar training. In addition, 13 consultants (50%) reported being familiar with Dundee Medical School's 12 learning outcomes, while only 7 (36%) SPRs were familiar with it. Obstacles reported by consultants and SPRs were groups of over 6 students (65% versus 61%, respectively), a limited number of patients with good clinical signs (67% versus 63%, respectively), a shorter length of stay in hospital (73% versus 68%, respectively), lack of privacy in crowded wards (76% versus 73%, respectively), and interruptions from telephones and visitors (57% versus 64%, respectively). Conclusion: Effective clinical teacher training and a thorough understanding of curriculum outcomes are crucial to successful bedside clinical teaching. Identifying obstacles to bedside clinical teaching will contribute to a more effective and efficient programme. PMID:23573392

Shehab, Abdullah

2013-01-01

237

Immunologic derangement preceding clinical autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies are valuable markers for the recognition of autoimmune diseases. Over the last 25 years, several investigators have consistently shown that autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of cognate diseases by years or decades. This phenomenon, regularly observed in the natural history of autoimmune diseases, indicates that autoimmunity develops through successive stages across a variable period of time until the characteristic manifestations of disease are clinically apparent. Recent evidence indicates that the pre-clinical stages of autoimmune diseases involve a series of immunologic derangements and that this process is dynamic and progressive. During the years preceding clinical disease onset, there is progressive intensification in the humoral autoimmune response, characterized by increases in autoantibody titer, avidity, number of immunoglobulin isotypes, and spread of epitopes and of autoantigens targeted. This scenario is reminiscent of cancer processes that develop slowly by means of progressive stages, and may be interrupted by early detection and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it might be reasoned that early intervention may be more effective in reverting the less firmly established autoimmune abnormalities at the pre-clinical stage of autoimmunity. With the continuous progress in novel immunologic therapeutic strategies, one can envision the possibility that early intervention at pre-clinical stages may lead to prevention of overt disease development and even cure of the autoimmune disorder. PMID:25228734

Dellavance, A; Coelho Andrade, L E

2014-10-01

238

Clinical engagement: improving healthcare together.  

PubMed

Clinical engagement can achieve lasting change in the delivery of healthcare. In October 2011, Healthcare Improvement Scotland formulated a clinical engagement strategy to ensure that a progressive and sustainable approach to engaging healthcare professionals is firmly embedded in its health improvement and public assurance activities. The strategy was developed using a 90-day process, combining an evidence base of best practice and feedback from semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The strategy aims to create a culture where clinicians view working with Healthcare Improvement Scotland as a worthwhile venture, which offers a number of positive benefits such as training, career development and research opportunities. The strategy works towards developing a respectful partnership between Healthcare Improvement Scotland, the clinical community and key stakeholders whereby clinicians' contributions are recognised in a non-financial reward system. To do this, the organisation needs a sustainable infrastructure and an efficient, cost-effective approach to clinical engagement. There are a number of obstacles to achieving successful clinical engagement and these must be addressed as key drivers in its implementation. The implementation of the strategy is supported by an action and resource plan, and its impact will be monitored by a measurement plan to ensure the organisation reviews its approaches towards clinical engagement. PMID:24434856

Riches, E; Robson, B

2014-02-01

239

Quality Assurance for Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Cooperative groups, of which the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group is one example, conduct national clinical trials that often involve the use of radiation therapy. In preparation for such a trial, the cooperative group prepares a protocol to define the goals of the trial, the rationale for its design, and the details of the treatment procedure to be followed. The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) is one of several quality assurance (QA) offices that is charged with assuring that participating institutions deliver doses that are clinically consistent and comparable. The RPC does this by conducting a variety of independent audits and credentialing processes. The RPC has compiled data showing that credentialing can help institutions comply with the requirements of a cooperative group clinical protocol. Phantom irradiations have been demonstrated to exercise an institution’s procedures for planning and delivering advanced external beam techniques (1–3). Similarly, RPC data indicate that a rapid review of patient treatment records or planning procedures can improve compliance with clinical trials (4). The experiences of the RPC are presented as examples of the contributions that a national clinical trials QA center can make to cooperative group trials. These experiences illustrate the critical need for comprehensive QA to assure that clinical trials are successful and cost-effective. The RPC is supported by grants CA 10953 and CA 81647 from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS. PMID:24392352

Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Haworth, Annette; Followill, David S.

2013-01-01

240

Clinical trials 101. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

A basic understanding of the process, ethics, and requirements of clinical trials enables nurses to support patients' awareness, understanding of and decision making about clinical trial participation. Nurses new to clinical trials will benefit from this overview of the history of clinical trials, the types of trials, the clinical research enterprise, and the roles of both the research team members and the research participant.

241

Clinical Trials Unit King's College London  

E-print Network

Clinical Trials Unit King's College London Caroline Murphy, CTU Manager History of the Clinical's · The Clinical Trials Unit has been awarded full registration by the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) and is the only fully UKCRC registered Clinical Trials Unit across King's Health Partners (KHP) UKCRC Registration

Applebaum, David

242

Survival of nonprofit community health clinics  

E-print Network

...............................................................27 III TWO NON-SURVIVING CLINICS ..................................................30 History of the Helping Hands Clinic..............................................30 History of the Charity Clinic... .................. ......................................................................................................174 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem This study investigates the factors contributing to the success or failure of non- profit health clinics. Because the clinics...

Schemmer, Ruth Ann

2006-08-16

243

Nurses' unique roles in randomized clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurses are in an ideal position to promote patients' awareness of the role played by clinical trials in the advancement of health science and the subsequent improvement of patient care. The history of clinical trials and the four phases of clinical trials are described. Nurses' professional roles in clinical trial participation, such as helping the patient to identify open clinical

Georgia Robins Sadler; John M. Lantz; Judith T. Fullerton; Yulia Dault

1999-01-01

244

Clinical Computing in General Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Objective: Measure the adoption and utilization of, opinions about, and attitudes toward clinical computing among general dentists in the United States. Design: Telephone survey of a random sample of 256 general dentists in active practice in the United States. Measurements: A 39-item telephone interview measuring practice characteristics and information technology infrastructure; clinical information storage; data entry and access; attitudes toward and opinions about clinical computing (features of practice management systems, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, and potential improvements); clinical Internet use; and attitudes toward the National Health Information Infrastructure. Results: The authors successfully screened 1,039 of 1,159 randomly sampled U.S. general dentists in active practice (89.6% response rate). Two hundred fifty-six (24.6%) respondents had computers at chairside and thus were eligible for this study. The authors successfully interviewed 102 respondents (39.8%). Clinical information associated with administration and billing, such as appointments and treatment plans, was stored predominantly on the computer; other information, such as the medical history and progress notes, primarily resided on paper. Nineteen respondents, or 1.8% of all general dentists, were completely paperless. Auxiliary personnel, such as dental assistants and hygienists, entered most data. Respondents adopted clinical computing to improve office efficiency and operations, support diagnosis and treatment, and enhance patient communication and perception. Barriers included insufficient operational reliability, program limitations, a steep learning curve, cost, and infection control issues. Conclusion: Clinical computing is being increasingly adopted in general dentistry. However, future research must address usefulness and ease of use, workflow support, infection control, integration, and implementation issues. PMID:16501177

Schleyer, Titus K.L.; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P.; Spallek, Heiko; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel H.; Hernandez, Pedro; Yuhaniak, Jeannie

2006-01-01

245

Clinical management of alcohol use disorders in the neurology clinic.  

PubMed

Alcohol misuse adversely affects health outcomes, but alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are often ignored by healthcare providers in primary and specialty ambulatory care clinics. Data show that early identification and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in these settings can effectively reduce alcohol consumption and its medical sequelae. The aim of this chapter is to review the epidemiology of problematic alcohol use in ambulatory care settings, the diagnostic criteria for AUDs, the approach called SBIRT (screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment) as a model program to target alcohol misuse in everyday clinical practice, when and how to refer patients to resources beyond the clinic for their alcohol use problems, and the medical illnesses associated with AUDs. PMID:25307603

Lembke, Anna; Stanford, Mark

2014-01-01

246

Stanford Hospital and Clinics Stanford Family Medicine  

E-print Network

Stanford Hospital and Clinics Stanford Family Medicine (addressograph stamp) ADULT HISTORY (Page 1 and Clinics Stanford Family Medicine (addressograph stamp) ADULT HISTORY (Page 2) Date Completed Hospital and Clinics Stanford Family Medicine (addressograph stamp) ADULT HISTORY (Page 3) Date Completed

Ford, James

247

Myeloproliferative/Myelodysplastic Disorders - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Myeloproliferative/Myelodysplastic Disorders - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured

248

Bachelor of Science Clinical Laboratory Science  

E-print Network

-- Professional Year 1 CLS 3020 Hematology Lecture/Lab: 4 cr. CLS 3280 Clinical Chemistry Lecture/Lab: 4 cr. CLS Program Total Credits: 63 CLS 4000 Clinical Hematology: 5 cr. CLS 4010 Clinical Chemistry: 3 cr. CLS 4020

Berdichevsky, Victor

249

Clinical teachers’ experiences of nursing and teaching.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)%%%Abstract Clinical teachers’ experiences of nursing and teaching Clinical nurse teachers’ experiences of nursing and teaching undergraduate nursing students on clinical placement… (more)

Forbes, Helen

2007-01-01

250

Where do imaging clinical trials take place?  

Cancer.gov

Imaging clinical trials take place in doctor's offices, cancer centers, other medical centers, community hospitals and clinics, and veterans' and military hospitals in cities and towns across the United States and in other countries. Imaging clinical

251

Assessment of clinical competencies using clinical images and videos "CIVA"  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes an assessment approach of clinical competencies which widens the number of problems and tasks evaluated using videos and images. Method Clinical Image and Video Assessment (CIVA) was used to assess clinical reasoning and decision making of final year medical students. Forty to fifty clinical videos and images supported by rich text vignette and reviewed by subject matter experts were selected based on examination blueprints for analysis. CIVA scores were correlated with OSCE, Direct Observation Clinical Encounter Exam (DOCEE) and written exam scores, using the 2-sided Pearson correlation analysis, and their reliability was analyzed using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Furthermore, students personally evaluated the CIVA using a 5- point Likert scale. Results CIVA and OSCE scores showed a high correlation (r?=?0.83) in contrast with the correlation scores of the written examination (r?=?.36) and the DOCEE (r?=?0.35). Cronbach’s Alpha for the OSCE and CIVA for the first batch was 0.71 and 0.78. As for the second batch it was 0.91 and 0.91 respectively. Eighty-two percent of students were very satisfied or satisfied with the CIVA process, contents and quality. Conclusions A well constructed CIVA type assessment with a rich authentic vignette and good quality videos and images could be used to assess clinical reasoning and decision making of final year medical students. CIVA is an assessment tool which correlates well with OSCE, compliments the written and DOCEE and is easier to conduct at a possibly reduced cost. PMID:23721093

2013-01-01

252

Implications of Look AHEAD for clinical trials and clinical practice.  

PubMed

Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) was a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the long-term health effects of weight loss in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary result was that the incidence of cardiovascular events over a median follow-up of 9.6 years was not reduced in the Intensive Lifestyle Group relative to the control group. This finding is discussed, with emphasis on its implications for design of trials and clinical treatment of obese persons with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24853636

Wing, R R

2014-12-01

253

78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...public. Name of Committee: Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...disability, please contact James Clark, Conference Management Staff, at...

2013-02-27

254

77 FR 35407 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials SUMMARY: In...Collection: Title: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials. Type of Information...an engaging, informational ``serious video game'' for adolescents about...

2012-06-13

255

Pragmatic problems with clinical equipoise.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that if one is to follow the ethical tenets of clinical equipoise, phase III controlled clinical trials must be designed pragmatically, to measure effectiveness rather than efficacy. This choice of a pragmatic rather than an explanatory approach to phase III clinical trial design has a number of consequences, some of which may be considered problematic. These include changes in what the trial is expected to accomplish, the way treatments are defined, the selection of subjects, the ways in which treatments are compared, and the assessment of the results. One also may end up challenging the real-world expectation that scientific results will be replicated before they are considered valid. This article discusses the connection between clinical equipoise and pragmatic trials, contrasts explanatory with pragmatic trials, points to the differences in the ways in which trial data are analyzed and interpreted, and discusses the power of replication, one of the defining hallmarks of the scientific method. Viewing clinical equipoise through a consequentialist lens reveals a number of problems, many of which are attributable to equipoise's insistence on a pragmatic approach to trial architecture. PMID:20495255

Kowalski, Charles J

2010-01-01

256

Metrological traceability in clinical biochemistry.  

PubMed

True and precise routine measurements of quantities of clinical interest are essential if results are to be optimally interpreted for patient care. Additionally, results produced by different measurement procedures for the same measurand must be comparable if common diagnostic decision values and clinical research findings are to be broadly applied. Metrology, the science of measurement, provides laboratory medicine with a structured approach to the development and terminology of reference measurement systems which, when implemented, improve the accuracy and comparability of patients' results. The metrological approach is underpinned by the concepts of common measurement units, traceability of measured values, measurement uncertainty and commutability. Where traceability to the International System of Units (SI units) is not yet realized for a measurand, result comparability may be achievable by other, less ideal, approaches. Measurements are the core activity of clinical laboratories, and clinical biochemists should ensure that patients' results are traceable to the highest available reference. This review introduces and illustrates the principles of metrological traceability, describes its critical importance to improving the quality of patients' results and highlights the need to actively promote traceability in clinical laboratories. PMID:21795407

White, Graham H

2011-09-01

257

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, âÂÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersâÂÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâÂÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicâÂÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

258

Clinical reasoning in musculoskeletal physiotherapy in Portugal.  

E-print Network

??Clinical reasoning refers to the process in which practitioners, interacting with their patients, structure meaning, goals, and health management strategies based on clinical data, patient/client… (more)

Cruz, Eduardo José Brazete Carvalho

2010-01-01

259

A Participant's to Mental Health Clinical Research  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What is clinical research What are the different types of clinical research? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 What are the risks and benefits of participating in research? . . . . . . . .8 What rights do

Baker, Chris I.

260

Quality Assessment for Clinical Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Proteomics has emerged from the labs of technologists to enter widespread application in clinical contexts. This transition, however, has been hindered by overstated early claims of accuracy, concerns about reproducibility, and the challenges of handling batch effects properly. New efforts have produced sets of performance metrics and measurements of variability that establish sound expectations for experiments in clinical proteomics. As researchers begin incorporating these metrics in a quality by design paradigm, the variability of individual steps in experimental pipelines will be reduced, regularizing overall outcomes. This review discusses the evolution of quality assessment in 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling, tandem mass spectrometry-based protein inventories, and proteomic quantitation. Taken together, the advances in each of these technologies are establishing databases that will be increasingly useful for decision-making in clinical experimentation. PMID:23246537

Tabb, David L.

2013-01-01

261

Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed. PMID:8993861

Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

1997-01-01

262

(Analytical instrumentation in clinical chemistry)  

SciTech Connect

As chairman of the Expert Panel on Instrumentation (EPI) of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), I presided over its closed and open meetings held on June 29, 1987, and July 2, 1987, respectively. As chairman-elect of the Organizing Committee of the 1990 International Congress on Clinical Chemistry, I also attended the meeting of the IFCC Congress Committee to give a progress report. This report was subsequently also presented to the IFCC Executive Board and Council and to its corporate members. These meetings were held prior to, or in conjunction with, the 13th International Congress of Clinical Chemistry. Consequently, I had an opportunity to attend several of the scientific sessions and the Trade Exposition of the Congress.

Burtis, C.A.

1987-07-14

263

Clinical diagnosis of leprosy cases.  

PubMed

The principle of leprosy control is based on secondary prevention with early detection of all cases and treatment with multidrug therapy. Eradication of leprosy warrants detection of all cases. Hence diagnosis of leprosy is of paramount importance to eradicate the cases. History taking gives all important information about the patient. Presenting complaint and contacts in family give useful guidelines to clinicians to arrive at the diagnosis. The objective of clinical examination is to elicit cardinal signs of leprosy through a systemic examination. Sensory testing, examination of nerves and examination of hands, feet and eyes are helpful in establishing diagnosis. Laboratory examination is not essential. Slit-skin smear examination for acid-fast bacilli shows positive results in a few cases. Diagnosis is complete once the clinical signs are established through clinical examination. PMID:17474283

Rao, P V Ranganadha

2006-12-01

264

Clinical Evaluation of Microbicide Formulations  

PubMed Central

The clinical evaluation of microbicide formulations presents variable and interacting challenges. Specific domains of acceptability, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity interact with each other to potentially inhibit or enhance a microbicide's efficacy. Each of these is further influenced by application and use parameters in the relative presence (or absence) of vaginal and/or seminal fluids, ultimately impacting effectiveness. Historically, acceptability of formulation and use parameters, and their concomitant behavioral influences, have been considered separately from pharmacokinetics and toxicity. While independent evaluation of these elements is necessary in some respects, we must acknowledge that this approach is not sufficient for the successful development of microbicides. Each needs to be considered in an integrated clinical evaluation strategy. This article presents the rationale for such an approach. This article forms part of a special supplement covering two presentations on clinical evaluation of microbicides from the symposium on “Recent Trends in Microbicide Formulations” held on 25 and 26 January 2010, Arlington, VA. PMID:21109067

Morrow, Kathleen M.; Hendrix, Craig

2010-01-01

265

[Dermatitis herpetiformis. A clinical chameleon].  

PubMed

Celiac disease is a genetically determined bowel disease also influenced by exogenous factors in which exposure to grain components triggers a chronic immune response with intestinal symptoms. Dermatitis herpetiformis represents the cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. While intense pruritus is the characteristic symptom, clinical signs can be highly variable, ranging from grouped papulovesicles with excoriations or eczema-like lesions to minimal variants of discrete erythema and digital purpura. Diagnosis depends on direct fluorescence studies of perilesional skin displaying granular IgA deposits in dermal papillae. Suspecting and then searching for dermatitis herpetiformis is often clinically challenging, as the disease is a true chameleon with many clinical faces. Dapsone therapy alleviates the cutaneous symptoms and signs, but does not prevent the systemic complications of celiac disease; thus, strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is strongly advisable. PMID:17051408

Pfeiffer, C

2006-11-01

266

Experimental studies: randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

There are two major approaches to medical investigations: observational studies and experimental trials. The classical application of the experimental design to studies of human populations is the randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a new drug or treatment. A further application of the experimental studies is to the testing of hypotheses about the etiology of a disease, already tested and corroborated from various forms of observational studies. Ethical considerations and requirements for consent of the experimental subjects are of primary concern in the clinical trials, and those concerns set the first and final limits for implementing a trial. General moral principles in research with human and animal beings, defined by the "Nuremberg Code," deal with strict criteria for approval, endorsement and evaluation of a clinical trial. PMID:10205986

Gjorgov, A N

1998-01-01

267

Death Anxiety in Clinical and Non-Clinical Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was administered, individually, to 7 groups (N=765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, and patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally matched as groups according to age, occupation, and education. The…

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

2005-01-01

268

Freshman Engineering Clinic 4 hrs Sophomore Engineering Clinic  

E-print Network

Processes II ­ 2 hrs Fluid Mechanics ­ 2 hrs Process Fluid Transport ­ 2hrs ChE Thermodynamics II ­ 3 hrs Engineering ­ 4 hrs Process Dynamics & Control ­ 3 hrs Unit Ops Exp. Design & Analysis­ 2 hrs Chemical Plant Design ­ 3 hrs Chemical Process Component Design ­ 4 hrs Junior/Senior Engineering Clinic ­ 8 hrs

Rusu, Adrian

269

Clinical Scientists Improving Clinical Practices: In Thoughts and Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this article, the author comments on aspects of Kamhi's (2014) article, which caused the author to think more deeply about definitions of language, theories of learning, and how these two core components of intervention prepare clinical scientists as they search the literature for new knowledge. Interprofessional collaborative…

Apel, Kenn

2014-01-01

270

Phase II Clinical Immersion Clinical ImmersionTraining  

E-print Network

on each rotation at any one time in the proposed plan and confirmed it never exceeds current clerkship capacity. Here is a sample rotation schedule for five students. Expanding Phase II of the proposed new and outpatient content. Viewthe complete Clinical Immersion Training section of the framework. Surgery Obstetrics

Lotko, William

271

Clinical assessment of the shoulder.  

PubMed

The shoulder joint is complex in structure and functionality. It is often difficult to assess clinically due to the great variety of associated pathology. This article presents an overview of the anatomy of the shoulder region and associated pathologies, whilst providing a summary of the clinical examination of the shoulder and associated 'special tests'. A full history is vital when assessing shoulder pathology. No particular test is fully sensitive or specific alone and accuracy varies between both clinicians and patients alike. Assessment of the shoulder should be conducted systematically with a range of tests combined. PMID:24082969

Donnelly, Thomas D; Ashwin, Sridhar; Macfarlane, Robert J; Waseem, Mohammed

2013-01-01

272

Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

2003-01-01

273

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Clinical Review  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined. PMID:21233984

Remick, Ronald A.; Froese, Colleen

1990-01-01

274

Ethical aspects of clinical chemistry.  

PubMed Central

The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics to medical ethics as a whole, his ethical obligations to the patient and to society, and other aspects. PMID:6199500

BenGershom, E

1983-01-01

275

Accessing the Columbia Clinical Repository.  

PubMed

The Columbia Clinical Repository is the foundation of the Clinical Information System at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC). The Repository is implemented as a relational database on an IBM mainframe, using a generic design that employs a small number of tables. Client applications on remote platforms send and receive data through Database Access Modules (DAMs), which support the HL7 protocol, while applications on the mainframe manipulate data through DAMs supporting a locally defined "query template". Implementation using static (compiled) SQL is compared to dynamic (ad hoc) SQL in terms of efficiency and flexibility. PMID:7949935

Johnson, S B; Hripcsak, G; Chen, J; Clayton, P

1994-01-01

276

Clinical role of bisphosphonate therapy  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate. They inhibit bone resorption and are therefore widely used in disorders where there are increases or disruptions in bone resorption. This includes postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-related bone loss. To best understand the clinical application of BPs, an understanding of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is important. This review describes the structure, pharmacology and mode of action of BPs, focusing on their role in clinical practice. Controversies and side effects surrounding their use will also be discussed. PMID:23071416

Hampson, Geeta; Fogelman, Ignac

2012-01-01

277

Appointment Processing of Clinical Trainees  

E-print Network

NOT treat any patients independently at the hospital or in the clinics without going through this process): Actions taken by or against license, DEA, board certification, other hospital affiliations, federal agencies Item(s) listed on the background check or NPDB Open or settled malpractice claims Negative peer

Kay, Mark A.

278

Clinic for Children with Handicaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model self-care nursing plan which helps school children with handicaps participate in their own health maintenance and, in the process, become more reliant in self-care is described. The pilot program outlined trains school nurse practitioners to staff a clinic to assist handicapped children identify and achieve appropriate self-care goals.…

Robinson, Thelma

1980-01-01

279

Current clinical approach to achalasia  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus. The classical features are incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and a lack of peristalsis in the tubular esophagus. These motor abnormalities lead to dysphagia, stasis, regurgitation, weight loss, or secondary respiratory complications. Although major strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare disorder, including a probable autoimmune mediated destruction of inhibitory neurons in response to an unknown insult in genetically susceptible individuals, a definite trigger has not been identified. The diagnosis of achalasia is suggested by clinical features and confirmed by further diagnostic tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), manometry or barium swallow. These studies are not only used to exclude pseudoachalasia, but also might help to categorize the disease by severity or clinical subtype. Recent advances in diagnostic methods, including high resolution manometry (HRM), might allow prediction of treatment responses. The primary treatments for achieving long-term symptom relief are surgery and endoscopic methods. Although limited high-quality data exist, it appears that laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is superior to endoscopic methods in achieving long-term relief of symptoms in the majority of patients. However, the current clinical approach to achalasia will depend not only on patients’ characteristics and clinical subtypes of the disease, but also on local expertise and patient preferences. PMID:19705490

Eckardt, Alexander J; Eckardt, Volker F

2009-01-01

280

Clinical applications of breath testing  

PubMed Central

Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

2010-01-01

281

Clinical translation of angiogenesis inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a new class of drugs, for which the general rules involving conventional chemotherapy might not apply. The successful translation of angiogenesis inhibitors to clinical application depends partly on the transfer of expertise from scientists who are familiar with the biology of angiogenesis to clinicians. What are the most common questions that clinicians ask as they begin to

Robert Kerbel; Judah Folkman

2002-01-01

282

REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC  

E-print Network

/s: Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: Email: Preferred method of contact during the day: (Between 9am and 5pm, Monday to Friday) Email Home Phone Work Phone Mobile Phone Any previous SLT involvement Disorders Phone: 03-364-2408 Speech and Hearing Clinic Fax: 03-364-2760 University of Canterbury Private Bag

Hickman, Mark

283

PROFILE 2009 NIH CLINICAL CENTER  

E-print Network

research studies on traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder, investigations to find new ways to diagnose and treat traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress in both military, efficient, and ethical. RECENT CLINICAL CENTER ACHIEVEMENTS IN 2008 WE: established new partnerships

284

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment  

E-print Network

-624-8182. · Eating Disorders: We provide an Eating Disorder Therapy program in coordination with medical and nutrition services. We do not offer intensive Eating Disorder Treatment (including treatment for anorexia-624-8182. Psychiatric Hospitalizations/Past Treatment: Mental Health Professional/Clinic: Situation/condition treated

Weiblen, George D

285

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

286

Clinical virology in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and

Hubert G. M Niesters

2002-01-01

287

Clinical Applications of Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be

S. Salminen; A. C. Ouwehand; E. Isolauri

1998-01-01

288

College of Education Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

College of Education Clinical Practice 10-Day Improvement Plan Revised 5/2009 1 Prior Facilitator, and either the Department Chair or the Chair of the Student Progress Committee. Start Date. The cooperating teacher will maintain a daily feedback log on the teacher candidate's progress with each

Rusu, Adrian

289

University of Minnesota Dental Clinics  

E-print Network

for all dentistry patients. Even if the parking ramp sign indicates "Full", enter the ramp, inform to the University of Minnesota Dental Clinics: From the east or west: Follow interstate 94 to exit 235B, Huron at the dental school. Revised 5/13 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents School of Dentistry Phone Numbers

Blanchette, Robert A.

290

Maximising student preparation for clinical  

E-print Network

been added to the clinical expe- rience mix. Little is really under- stood about the nature, location. Little is understood about the ideal student preparation to capitalise on all learning oppor- tunities been enhanced by the development of small group prac- tical sessions with women as gynaecological

291

Clinical simulations: development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations used as an educational strategy can mimic clinical reality bringing real life activity into the learning environment. This paper presents a conceptual approach to simulation development and validation that is applied to develop assessment simulations for both childbirth and triage situations. A process-based method of presenting information to the learner in the assessment phase is incorporated in simulations developed

Jane Cioffi

2001-01-01

292

Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

Hunsberger, Peter Hume

2007-01-01

293

Gentamicin in the Clinical Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been a mainstay in pediatric care for decades. Although new antibiotics are constantly under development, gentamicin continues to play an important role in clinical medicine. Although this may be surprising in the context of evidence of an association with hearing loss, both on a toxicity and a…

Pillers, De-Ann M.; Schleiss, Mark R.

2005-01-01

294

[New clinical aspects of dermatomycosis.].  

PubMed

Usually the clinical diagnostic of tinea is easy for the dermatologist, but occasionally, mostly as a result of an unsuitable treatment, the cutaneous lesions can show up atypical forms. In this article tinea capitis in the elderly, tinea follicularis et granulomatosa of the legs, tinea faciei and tinea incognito are discussed. PMID:18473600

Moreno Giménez, J C

1999-10-01

295

Autism: Clinical and Research Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines the characteristics that define autism: impairments in communication; abnormal social development; and clinically significant odd behaviors. Specific chapters include: (1) Neural Mechanisms in Autism (Andrew W. Zimmerman and Barry Gordon); (2) Epidemiology of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Current…

Accardo, Pasquale J., Ed.; Magnusen, Christy, Ed.; Capute, Arnold J., Ed.

296

Beryllium disease: A clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively new occupational disease, beryllium poisoning, is discussed. The history of this respiratory disease among workers after beryllium exposure from extraction and alloy manufacturing is not well documented in the US Attempts by industry to delay investigations into beryllium toxicity are described. The specific incidents occurring at a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant in Salem, Massachusetts are presented. Clinical observations

H. Hardy

1980-01-01

297

Psychiatric interviewing and clinical skills.  

PubMed

Does the ability of medical students to assess and relate to their patients through the psychiatric interview reflect in traditional academic achievement scores? A previous publication by our group offers data suggesting that certain personality traits of final year medical students have a fundamental importance in determining a successful performance on a psychiatry rotation. As the literature is vague and contradictory about the relationship between the psychiatric interview and clinical performance, a study was developed to determine what outcome variables are associated with the performance of clinical clerks on the Psychiatric Interview. An attempt was made to develop and test a new scale designed to measure the Psychiatric Interview. The Psychiatric Interview Scale was used to measure performance on 33 final year medical students on a 1 month psychiatry rotation at a University of Toronto teaching hospital, and subsequently, as a basis for analysis and training of these students in interviewing. Inter-rater reliability of the Psychiatric Interview Scale was rho = 0.72 and internal reliability was 0.74. Psychiatric Interview Scores were compared with other achievement scores, and with patients' ratings of the students interviews. A significant correlation emerged between the Psychiatric interview scores and final clinical examinations, but surprisingly, there was no relationship between the patients' evaluation of the Psychiatric Interview and the raters' evaluations and a strongly significant negative correlation between patients' ratings and clinical scores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3971284

Pollock, D C; Shanley, D F; Byrne, P N

1985-02-01

298

Clinical Heterogeneity in Sodium Channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mutations in the SCN5A gene have been linked to a variety of diseases causing sudden cardiac death, with important variability in expressivity and phenotypic overlap. With the availability of genetic testing family members may now be diagnosed as carriers based solely on the presence of the genetic defect. Clinical decision making in this situation is complex and generates important

Antonio Oliva; Preben Bjerregaard; Kui Hong; Steven Evans; Kevin Vernooy; Jorge McCormack; Josep Brugada; Pedro Brugada; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Ramon Brugada

2008-01-01

299

Clinical Judgment in Science: Reply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents replies to comments published by M. S. Schulz and R. J. Waldinger, J. M. Wood and M. T. Nezworski, and H. N. Garb and W. M. Grove on the original article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger. Schulz and Waldinger (2005) make the important point that just as researchers can capitalize on the knowledge of experienced clinical observers…

Westen, Drew; Weinberger, Joel

2005-01-01

300

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

301

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

I D Young

1984-01-01

302

Bridging the preclinical - clinical gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

TO THE EDITOR: Basic or preclinical research in addiction has moved on enormou- sly in the last decade, but in order for clinical research to benefit there need to be new efforts in translational research. We can approach this question in a number of ways. The first is to use well-established but indirect technologies, such as challenge tests. In these,

David J. Nutt; Anne Lingford-Hughes; Mark Daglish; Tim Williams; Lindsay Taylor; Sue Wilson; Simon Davies; Jan Melichar; Judy Myles

303

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies the marked improvements that control of feed- back signaling can offer primary stem cell culture

Zandstra, Peter W.

304

Cardinal Soccer Clinic Peckham Park  

E-print Network

Cardinal Soccer Clinic at Peckham Park Middlefield, CT Dates: July 25-29, 2011 Time: 6:00-8:00 pm Who: Boys and Girls ­ Ages 5-12 (Grades K-6) Coaches: Geoff Wheeler ­ Wesleyan Men's Soccer Coach Why: Come enjoy a great week of soccer focused on individual skills, teamwork and fun! Where: Peckham Park

Devoto, Stephen H.

305

New Directions in Clinical Neuroscience  

E-print Network

expected in 2007 if rise had continued #12;Success Stories in Clinical Neuroscience · Acute ischemic stroke disorders ­ excellent response to meds and psychosocial Rx in subset · DBS effects in Parkinson's, tremor, prediction is poor · Etiology is unknown for many disorders; prevention is not well-developed for most

Bandettini, Peter A.

306

Temporomandibular joint multidisciplinary team clinic.  

PubMed

Patients with dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) commonly present to oral and maxillofacial departments and are increasingly being managed by a subspecialist group of surgeons. We review the outcomes of patients attending a specialist TMJ multidisciplinary team (MDT) clinic. All patients are simultaneously reviewed by a consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeon, consultant in oral medicine, specialist physiotherapist, and maxillofacial prosthetist, and they can also see a consultant liaison psychiatrist. They are referred from primary, secondary, and tertiary care when medical and surgical treatment in the routine TMJ clinic has failed, and are triaged by the attending maxillofacial surgeon. On discharge they are returned to the care of the referring practitioner. We review the outcomes of patients attending this clinic over a 2-year period and show improvements in pain scores and maximal incisal opening, as well as quality of life outcome measures. All units in the UK with an interest in the management of diseases of the TMJ should consider establishing this type of clinic and should use available resources and expertise to maximise outcomes. PMID:25179688

Ahmed, Nabeela; Poate, Tim; Nacher-Garcia, Cristina; Pugh, Nicola; Cowgill, Helen; Page, Lisa; Matthews, N Shaun

2014-11-01

307

Transforming Staff through Clinical Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to continue to do great work with challenging youth, teachers should know that learning helps them be better professionals. Clinical supervision is one of the vehicles used. In a Re-ED program, those who work directly with youth (called teacher-counselors) are the primary agents of change. This makes it necessary to equip them with the…

Pfeifer, Douglas

2011-01-01

308

SOUTH SANTA CLARA COUNTY MIGRANT TREATMENT CLINIC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THE SUMMER OF 1965, A MIGRANT HEALTH CLINIC WAS STARTED IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. THE CLINIC DIFFERS FROM THE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT'S CLINICS BY OFFERING TREATMENT AND MEDICATION, INSTEAD OF ONLY PREVENTIVE SERVICES. THE ENTIRE STAFF, FROM DOCTORS TO BABY-SITTERS, VOLUNTEERS ITS TIME, AND THE CLINIC IS NOW OPEN…

SKILLICORN, STANLEY A.

309

Starting a job as adjunct clinical instructor.  

PubMed

This article is the second in a new quarterly series on the roles of adjunct clinical faculty and preceptors, who teach nursing students to apply knowledge in clinical settings. Topics will include the preparation of clinical instructors and preceptors for these roles, the student evaluation process, and overcoming challenges that can come with teaching in the clinical field and with adjunct teaching. PMID:25075704

Koharchik, Linda; Jakub, Karen

2014-08-01

310

Exploration and exploitation of clinical databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical data repositories represent a potential gold mine of information and knowledge. Rapid access to such information can help bridge the gap between clinical care and research, support clinical and executive decision making, and improve the quality of care. A clinical database can be used in four ways: to display information about an individual patient (results reporting); to find data

Charles Safran; Christopher G. Chute

1995-01-01

311

UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FACULTY OF SCIENCE Doctor of Clinical Psychology Pre-Registration Programme Intake September 2011 #12;#12;WELCOME TO THE SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAMME CONTENTS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT STAFF 3 STAFF PHOTOS

Li, Yi

312

UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FACULTY OF SCIENCE Doctor of Clinical Psychology Pre-Registration Programme Intake September 2013 #12;WELCOME TO THE SHEFFIELD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAMME CONTENTS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT STAFF 3 STAFF PHOTOS 4

Stone, J. V.

313

Clinical Research Unit Translating research from  

E-print Network

Clinical Research Unit Translating research from bench to bedside www.niehs.nih.gov/clinicalunit #12;National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Clinical Research Program The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Clinical Research Program and the Clinical Research Unit

Bandettini, Peter A.

314

Situational Supervision for Athletic Training Clinical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The medical education model provides the basis for athletic training students to learn theoretical and practical skills. Clinical rotations are completed where they apply what they have learned under the direct supervision of a clinical instructor (CI) or approved clinical instructor (ACI). Approved clinical instructors are taught…

Levy, Linda S.; Gardner, Greg; Barnum, Mary G.; Willeford, K. Sean; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise

2009-01-01

315

Clinical Supervision - A Ten-Year Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the reasons for the gaps in clinical supervision for substance abuse counselors. It reports on 10 years of study of counselor training needs and recommendations for future developments in clinical supervision for alcoholism and drug abuse counselors. The Clinical Preceptorship Program of the U.S. military is discussed. The clinical supervisory needs, as devised by 10 years of

David J. Powell

1989-01-01

316

[Quality control in clinical trials].  

PubMed

Quality control (QC) in clinical trials means the procedures which insure protection of human subjects from research risk, reliability of the data, and thereby assures internal consistency. This has been developed since 1970s in the US, by establishing various regulations which are now called GCP. From the viewpoint of total QC, it should be emphasized that rigorous review of protocol by the Institutional Review Board and obtaining Informed Consent are prerequisites for insuring the quality of the given trial at high scientific level. When pursuing a clinical trial, first of all, facilities of the institutions and the ability of investigators must be of high quality. For this reason, at each institution previous data related to trials should be thoroughly reviewed and analyzed prior to developing a protocol. Educational courses in QC in clinical practice are invaluable. QC of diagnosis means, for example, central pathology review and standardization of diagnostic procedures and process. Secondly, at each institution, data managers collect the data and submit them to the central office at the indicated time. In order to evolve clinical trial, continuous education for data managers and expansion of their job are encouraged. Thirdly, at the statistical center independent from the research group office, subject-specific data managers, the biostatistical staff, must check submitted forms for completeness, consistency and accuracy. Finally, at the data analysis, quality evaluation of the research should also be carried out. Throughout the trial, monitoring and audit are particularly important to assure quality. The sponsor has the responsibility of monitoring the trial and make rigorous onsite visits, and the individual study group also have a monitoring program, while the FDA and the NCI audit by themselves. The purpose of audit is not only to assure data reliability but also to check out patient compliance to drug, education as to regulations and rules of clinical trials and the analysis of violations so as to provide suggestions to improve medical care. PMID:8611045

Fukushima, M

1996-01-01

317

Clinical Evaluation of Cervicogenic Headache: A Clinical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Headache is a common complaint that affects the majority of the population at some point in their lives. The underlying pathological bases for headache symptoms are many, diverse, and often difficult to distinguish. Classification of headache is principally based on the evaluation of headache symptoms as well as clinical testing. Although manual therapy has been advocated to treat a variety of different forms of headache, the current evidence only supports treatment for cervicogenic headache (CGH). This form of headache can be identified from migraine and other headache forms by a comprehensive musculoskeletal examination. Examination and subsequent diagnosis is essential not only to identify patients with headache where manual therapy is appropriate but also to form a basis for selection of the most appropriate treatment for the identified condition. The purpose of this paper is to outline, in clinical terms, the classification of headache, so that the clinician can readily identify those patients with headache suited to manual therapy. PMID:19119390

Hall, Toby; Briffa, Kathy; Hopper, Diana

2008-01-01

318

Clinical and histologic characteristics of clinically unsuspected melanomas.  

PubMed

Thin melanomas are recognized and captured by clinicians at an alarming rate, whereas thick melanomas remain underrecognized. Improved recognition of thick melanomas will require further understanding of their clinical and histologic characteristics at various stages of development because emerging data suggest that the thin melanomas being captured today may not represent the forerunners of the thick melanomas. In this retrospective analysis, pathology requisition forms from melanomas diagnosed by histopathology were examined for submitted clinical diagnosis, patient characteristics, melanoma thickness, and biopsy method. Three hundred eighty-five melanomas were identified from 2003 to 2011. Most lesions (71.7%) were clinically suspected to be melanocytic. The mean depth in this group was 0.62mm. Of the unsuspected cases (28.3%), the most common submitted diagnoses were basal cell carcinomas and seborrheic keratoses, consistent with previous reports. The mean depth in the unsuspected group was 1.64mm, and more frequently extended to the deep margin (51.8% vs 25.4% of the time). Shave biopsy was the overwhelming preferred method of biopsy (79.5% overall). Compared with thin melanomas, thick melanomas are underrecognized by physicians due to their lack of characteristic morphologic features; consequently, they are more frequently associated with suboptimal biopsies. PMID:24559571

Hermes, Heidi M; Sahu, Joya; Schwartz, Laurel R; Lee, Jason B

2014-01-01

319

Career opportunities in clinical engineering.  

PubMed

The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver. PMID:10120058

Morse, W A

1992-01-01

320

The ethics of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have prevailed over clinical judgement, case reports, and observational studies and became the gold evidential standard in medicine. Furthermore, during the same time frame, RCTs became a crucial part of the regulatory process whereby a new therapeutic can gain access to the drug market. Today, clinical trials are large and tightly regulated enterprises that have to comply with ethical requirements while maintaining high epistemic standards, a balance that becomes increasingly difficult as the research questions become more sophisticated. In this review, the author will discuss some of the most important ethical issues surrounding RCTs, with an eye to the most recent debates and the context of oncological research in particular. PMID:24482672

Nardini, Cecilia

2014-01-01

321

Mayo Clinic Library education programs.  

PubMed Central

The health-related sciences programs of Mayo Foundation, including those related to librarianship, are conducted in an internationally known center for medical education, clinical practice, and medical research. Students have access to all the educational resources of Mayo Clinic. Appointees to the programs enjoy the benefits of more than half a century of experience in medical education that includes the training of residents, research fellows, interns, and medical students. The health-related sciences programs, like the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine and the Mayo Medical School, are part of the Division of Education of the Mayo Foundation, a nonprofit charitable corporation responsible for the support and conduct of education and research as an integral part of medical and health care. PMID:1148445

Key, J D

1975-01-01

322

Clinical Role of Hybrid Imaging  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances have fueled the growth in hybrid radionuclide and CT imaging of the heart. Noninvasive imaging studies are reliable means to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), stratify risk, and guide clinical management. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a robust, widely available noninvasive modality for the evaluation of ischemia from known or suspected CAD. Cardiac CT (coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography) has emerged as a clinically robust noninvasive anatomic imaging test, capable of rapidly diagnosing or excluding obstructive CAD. Both anatomic and functional modalities have strengths and weaknesses, and can complement each other by offering integrated structural and physiologic information. As we discuss below, in selected patients, hybrid imaging may facilitate more accurate diagnosis, risk stratification, and management in a “one-stop shop” setting. PMID:23467390

Hsiao, Edward M.; Ali, Bilal

2013-01-01

323

Clinical biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition  

PubMed Central

Introduction An expanding understanding of the importance of angiogenesis in oncology and the development of numerous angiogenesis inhibitors are driving the search for biomarkers of angiogenesis. We review currently available candidate biomarkers and surrogate markers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Discussion A number of invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. Diverse markers can evaluate tumor tissue or biological fluids, or specialized imaging modalities. Conclusions The inclusion of these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, prediction of individual response to an agent, insight into the interaction of chemotherapy and radiation following exposure to these agents, and perhaps most importantly, a better understanding of the complex nature of angiogenesis in human tumors. While many markers have potential for clinical use, it is not yet clear which marker or combination of markers will prove most useful. PMID:18414993

Brown, Aaron P.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Camphausen, Kevin A.

2009-01-01

324

Clinical science and human behavior.  

PubMed

The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors. PMID:11494239

Plaud, J J

2001-09-01

325

Botulinum toxin in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has become a powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical applications. This review draws attention to new findings about the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and briefly reviews some of its most frequent uses, focusing on evidence based data. Double blind, placebo controlled studies, as well as open label clinical trials, provide evidence that, when appropriate targets and doses are selected, botulinum toxin temporarily ameliorates disorders associated with excessive muscle contraction or autonomic dysfunction. When injected not more often than every three months, the risk of blocking antibodies is slight. Long term experience with this agent suggests that it is an effective and safe treatment not only for approved indications but also for an increasing number of off-label indications. PMID:15201348

Jankovic, J

2004-01-01

326

Mammary hamartoma- a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Mammary hamartoma is an uncommon benign lesion. The frequency of the tumor is reported between 0.04 -1.15% and it accounts for 4.8% of all benign breast tumors. The lesion may be under-diagnosed by the clinician because of the varied clinical presentation or by the pathologist, as the microscopic appearance is not distinctive. A case of left sided mammary hamartoma in a 46-year-old female who presented with a freely mobile mass is reported. A clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made and lumpectomy performed. Histopathology and gross diagnosis confirmed it to be a case of mammary hamartoma. Extensive area of adenosis, focal cystic change, apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell change was noted. Identification of hamartoma is important because there are the problems of recurrence, co-existent carcinomas and association with Cowden syndrome. Keywords: Hamartoma, fibroadenoma, apocrine, metaplasia, ductal carcinomas. PMID:24610294

Magdalene, K F; Robin, G; Sapna, M

2014-01-01

327

Removable partial dentures: clinical concepts.  

PubMed

This article provides a review of the traditional clinical concepts for the design and fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs). Although classic theories and rules for RPD designs have been presented and should be followed, excellent clinical care for partially edentulous patients may also be achieved with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and unique blended designs. These nontraditional RPD designs and fabrication methods provide for improved fit, function, and esthetics by using computer-aided design software, composite resin for contours and morphology of abutment teeth, metal support structures for long edentulous spans and collapsed occlusal vertical dimensions, and flexible, nylon thermoplastic material for metal-supported clasp assemblies. PMID:24286646

Bohnenkamp, David M

2014-01-01

328

Safety Monitoring in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Monitoring patient safety during clinical trials is a critical component throughout the drug development life-cycle. Pharmaceutical sponsors must work proactively and collaboratively with all stakeholders to ensure a systematic approach to safety monitoring. The regulatory landscape has evolved with increased requirements for risk management plans, risk evaluation and minimization strategies. As the industry transitions from passive to active safety surveillance activities, there will be greater demand for more comprehensive and innovative approaches that apply quantitative methods to accumulating data from all sources, ranging from the discovery and preclinical through clinical and post-approval stages. Statistical methods, especially those based on the Bayesian framework, are important tools to help provide objectivity and rigor to the safety monitoring process. PMID:24300399

Yao, Bin; Zhu, Li; Jiang, Qi; Xia, H. Amy

2013-01-01

329

Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Neuroplasticity can be defined as the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Major advances in the understanding of neuroplasticity have to date yielded few established interventions. To advance the translation of neuroplasticity research towards clinical applications, the National Institutes of Health Blueprint for Neuroscience Research sponsored a workshop in 2009. Basic and clinical researchers in disciplines from central nervous system injury/stroke, mental/addictive disorders, paediatric/developmental disorders and neurodegeneration/ageing identified cardinal examples of neuroplasticity, underlying mechanisms, therapeutic implications and common denominators. Promising therapies that may enhance training-induced cognitive and motor learning, such as brain stimulation and neuropharmacological interventions, were identified, along with questions of how best to use this body of information to reduce human disability. Improved understanding of adaptive mechanisms at every level, from molecules to synapses, to networks, to behaviour, can be gained from iterative collaborations between basic and clinical researchers. Lessons can be gleaned from studying fields related to plasticity, such as development, critical periods, learning and response to disease. Improved means of assessing neuroplasticity in humans, including biomarkers for predicting and monitoring treatment response, are needed. Neuroplasticity occurs with many variations, in many forms, and in many contexts. However, common themes in plasticity that emerge across diverse central nervous system conditions include experience dependence, time sensitivity and the importance of motivation and attention. Integration of information across disciplines should enhance opportunities for the translation of neuroplasticity and circuit retraining research into effective clinical therapies. PMID:21482550

Sur, Mriganka; Dobkin, Bruce H.; O'Brien, Charles; Sanger, Terence D.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Rumsey, Judith M.; Hicks, Ramona; Cameron, Judy; Chen, Daofen; Chen, Wen G.; Cohen, Leonardo G.; deCharms, Christopher; Duffy, Charles J.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Filart, Rosemarie; Freund, Michelle; Grant, Steven J.; Haber, Suzanne; Kalivas, Peter W.; Kolb, Bryan; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lynch, Minda; Mayberg, Helen S.; McQuillen, Patrick S.; Nitkin, Ralph; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; Schiff, Nicholas; Sharma, Anu; Shekim, Lana; Stryker, Michael; Sullivan, Edith V.; Vinogradov, Sophia

2011-01-01

330

Beryllium disease: a clinical perspective  

SciTech Connect

A relatively new occupational disease, beryllium poisoning, is discussed. The history of this respiratory disease among workers after beryllium exposure from extraction and alloy manufacturing is not well documented in the US Attempts by industry to delay investigations into beryllium toxicity are described. The specific incidents occurring at a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant in Salem, Massachusetts are presented. Clinical observations of chronic beryllium disease are discussed. Symptoms are described. The current status of diagnosis and treatment of beryllium poisoning is presented.

Hardy, H.L.

1980-02-01

331

Managing clinical research permissions electronically  

PubMed Central

Background One mechanism to increase participation in research is to solicit potential research participants’ general willingness to be recruited into clinical trials. Such research permissions and consents typically are collected on paper upon patient registration. We describe a novel method of capturing this information electronically. Purpose The objective is to enable the collection of research permissions and informed consent data electronically to permit tracking of potential research participants’ interest in current and future research involvement and to provide a foundation for facilitating the research workflow. Methods The project involved systematic analysis focused on key areas, including existing business practices, registration processes, and permission collection workflows, and ascertaining best practices for presenting consent information to users via tablet technology and capturing permissions data. Analysis was followed by an iterative software development cycle with feedback from subject matter experts and users. Results An initial version of the software was piloted at one institution in South Carolina for a period of 1 year, during which consents and permission were collected during 2524 registrations of patients. The captured research permission data were transmitted to a clinical data warehouse. The software was later released as an open-source package that can be adopted for use by other institutions. Limitations There are significant ethical, legal, and informatics challenges that must be addressed at an institution to deploy such a system. We have not yet assessed the long-term impact of the system on recruitment of patients to clinical trials. Conclusions We propose that by improving the ability to track willing potential research participants, we can improve recruitment into clinical trials and, in the process, improve patient education by introducing multimedia to informed consent documents. PMID:23785065

Sanderson, Iain C; Obeid, Jihad S; Madathil, Kapil Chalil; Gerken, Katherine; Fryar, Katrina; Rugg, Daniel; Alstad, Colin E; Alexander, Randall; Brady, Kathleen T; Gramopadhye, Anand K; Moskowitz, Jay

2014-01-01

332

Clinical aspects of primary vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Vasculitic syndromes have now been recognized for some two centuries, and still pose diagnostic and other problems for clinicians.\\u000a In general, vasculitic syndromes cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Descriptions of larger series of patients, classification\\u000a efforts, and improved histological techniques have helped in dealing with these diseases. However, we still have to rely on\\u000a associations of certain clinical characteristics and

C. A. Stegeman; C. G. M. Kallenberg

2001-01-01

333

Equivalence concepts in clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  According to the recent ICH E9 Guidance Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials, efficacy is most convincingly established\\u000a by demonstrating superiority to placebo, by showing superiority to an active control treatment or by demonstrating a dose-response\\u000a relationship (so-called ‘superiority’ trials). For serious illnesses, a placebo-controlled trial may be considered unethical\\u000a if a therapeutic treatment exists which has proven efficacious in relevant

V. W. Steinijans; M. Neuhäuser; F. Bretz

2000-01-01

334

Vardenafil: update on clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vardenafil, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, has entered phase 3 clinical trials. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that the maximum plasma concentration after oral administration of 20–40 mg of vardenafil occurred in 0.7–0.9 h, the half-life was 4–5 h, and negligible amounts remained in the circulation after 24 h. The efficacy of vardenafil compared with placebo was shown in RigiScan

J Pryor

2002-01-01

335

Positive Psychology in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ke yW ords well being, strength(s), meaning, flow, happiness ? Abstract Positive psychology is the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development. A field concerned with well-being and optimal functioning, positive psychology aims to broaden the focus of clinical psychology beyond suffering and its direct alleviation. Our proposed conceptual framework parses

Angela Lee Duckworth; Tracy A. Steen; Martin E. P. Seligman

2005-01-01

336

Can clinical psychoanalysis be scientific?  

PubMed

Criticism of psychoanalysis as a scientific discipline has increased recently. Even though psychoanalytic theory deserves ample criticism by the scientific community for its ambiguous definitions, deficient construct validity and precarious operationalization of its procedures, as long as there are clinical observables susceptible of recording, psychoanalysis remains in the realm of science. The scientific merit is reviewed of some psychoanalytic concepts such as repression, the unconscious, psychic structures, and intrapsychic conflict. The possibility of objectivity, prediction, and confirmation of hypotheses is discussed. PMID:3578601

Paniagua, C

1987-01-01

337

Hypothermia: Physiology and Clinical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of hypothermia for clinical practice dates back to the mid 1940's when it was used in an abortive effort to slow the\\u000a progress of metastatic carcinoma in a series of patients that were cooled to approximately 30°C for several days at a time\\u000a (1). In the 50's moderate hypothermia was recommended by some for the management of head

John D. Michenfelder

338

Disability awareness for clinical staff.  

PubMed

While nurses and other influential groups in society pay lip-service to understanding and meeting the needs of physically disabled persons, disabled people continue to encounter lack of recognition, ignorance and prejudice. The author describes how one nursing college is attempting to create a better understanding of disability for its students and clinical staff, and discusses the issues which have inspired the course's design. PMID:8038067

Goodall, C J

339

Clinical analysis of vertebrobasilar dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. The natural history of vertebrobasilar artery dissection (VAD) is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to review\\u000a the clinical outcome of the patients with VAD, then to propose an appropriate management strategy for VAD.\\u000a \\u000a Method. From 1992 to 2004, 35 VAD patients admitted to our institutes were retrospectively reviewed. There were 28 men and 7 women,

C.-H. Kim; Y.-J. Son; S. H. Paek; M. H. Han; J. E. Kim; Y. S. Chung; B. J. Kwon; C. W. Oh; D. H. Han

2006-01-01

340

Clinical applications in molecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging is aimed at the noninvasive in vivo characterization and measurement of processes at a cellular and molecular\\u000a level with clinical imaging methods. Contrast agents are constructed to target markers that are specific either for certain\\u000a diseases or for functional states of specialized tissues. Efforts are currently focused mainly on processes involved in angiogenesis,\\u000a inflammation, and apoptosis. Cell tracking

Carola Heneweer; Jan Grimm

2011-01-01

341

Conflict in the dialysis clinic.  

PubMed

Conflict is common in healthcare settings and can affect the functioning of a dialysis clinic. Unresolved conflict can decrease staff productivity and teamwork, and potentially decrease the quality of patient care. This article discusses the causes and effects of conflict, describes the five basic conflict-handling styles that can be useful when dealing with conflict (avoidance, accommodation, competing, compromise, and collaboration), and provides resources for resolving patient-provider conflict. PMID:25244891

Payton, Jennifer

2014-01-01

342

[Clinical military hospital in 1892].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the circumstances of visit of Alexander III to Clinical hospital of Military-Medical Academy in 1892. It is detailed about the situation in hospital: direct care, instruction and economic aspects. Representations of imperial authority in Russia in XIX century with respect to military-medical institutions are characterized. "Episode 3Match 1892" is important for Military-Medical Academy because in that day the put on hold reconstruction got a crucial impulse. PMID:23808205

Poddubny?, M V

2013-02-01

343

Clinical applications of Gallium-68.  

PubMed

Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ?10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. PMID:23522791

Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G

2013-06-01

344

Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update  

PubMed Central

Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia), Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence. PMID:23049300

Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Dinardo, Carla Luana

2011-01-01

345

[Varicella: clinical aspects and prevention  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To present, in practical form and updated terms, the clinical aspects of the varicella and its prevention using either vaccination or isolation precautions. METHOD: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and LILACS referring to the last 10 years; presentation of the most recent aspects in the literature as well as reference to the author's professional experience in the area. RESULTS: Current aspects of the clinic and treatment of this disease are analyzed. The vaccine is examined in relation to the soroconversion and safety. The technique of application of the vaccine is presented, considering its indication for healthy children, adults, seniors and high risk patients. Among these, we consider those with leukemia, solid tumors, nephrotic syndrome, AIDS, and those transplanted. The application of the vaccine is analyzed in relation to contacts, personal in the health area and people in closed communities. Precautions, contraindication, production and types of vaccines are analyzed. The association and combination of vaccines, as well as their current indications are carefully discussed. As a nosocomial infection, varicella requires much attention due to its very easy dissemination. Recommended procedures are indicated for both hospitalized and contact cases of varicella or zoster. CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate knowledge of the clinic, treatment and preventive procedures in cases of varicella is mostly important for the pediatrician, especially with the introduction of its vaccine in our country. PMID:14685490

Carvalho, E S; Martins, R M

1999-07-01

346

[Clinical cytology: why and how?].  

PubMed

Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

Znidarci?, Zeljka

2013-12-01

347

Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:23238357

Cianfoni, Alessandro; Pravatà, Emanuele; De Blasi, Roberto; Tschuor, Costa Silvia; Bonaldi, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

348

Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.  

PubMed

Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

2009-01-01

349

A males only clinic session.  

PubMed

The pressure to establish the Dunedin (New Zealand) Male Advice Clinic came from members of the Psychology Department of the University of Otago as a result of a study of attitudes towards the use and purchase of contraceptives among the local young people. The study findings and the suggestions made for the establishment of a male advice center are summarized. 3 samples were studied: a university sample (N=80); a sample of high school students (N=243); and a general population sample (N=70). The males in all samples were questioned regarding the process of purchasing contraceptives. The study findings indicated that embarrassment functioned as an impediment to obtaining contraceptive supplies. 76% of the university sample, 36% of the school sample, and 57% of the general population thought that males needed advice in choosing condoms. The male advice center would be open to anyone but designed specifically to cater to young men who anticipate or are already engaged in sexual intercourse. Services available would include contraceptive advice, contraceptive supplies, and sexual advice and counseling. Initial interest in the Dunedin Male Advice Clinic was considerable, but the question remained as to whether the group for whom the clinic was intended was really reached. PMID:12262433

Stupples, A

1980-01-01

350

Clinical Applications of Gallium-68  

PubMed Central

Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a 68Ge/68Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. 68Ga-DOTATOC, 8Ga-DOTATATE, 68Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with 68Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ~10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied 68Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. PMID:23522791

Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G.

2013-01-01

351

Clinical Trials in Head Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This yields an approximate number of 500,000 new cases each year, a sizeable proportion of which demonstrate signficant long-term disabilities. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of proven therapies for this disease. For a variety of reasons, clinical trials for this condition have been difficult to design and perform. Despite promising pre-clinical data, most of the trials that have been performed in recent years have failed to demonstrate any significant improvement in outcomes. The reasons for these failures have not always been apparent and any insights gained were not always shared. It was therefore feared that we were running the risk of repeating our mistakes. Recognizing the importance of TBI, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) sponsored a workshop that brought together experts from clinical, research, and pharmaceutical backgrounds. This workshop proved to be very informative and yielded many insights into previous and future TBI trials. This paper is an attempt to summarize the key points made at the workshop. It is hoped that these lessons will enhance the planning and design of future efforts in this important field of research. PMID:12042091

NARAYAN, RAJ K.; MICHEL, MARY ELLEN; Ansell, Beth; Baethmann, Alex; Biegon, Anat; Bracken, Michael B.; Bullock, M. Ross; Choi, Sung C.; Clifton, Guy L.; Contant, Charles F.; Coplin, William M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Ghajar, Jamshid; Grady, Sean M.; Grossman, Robert G.; Hall, Edward D.; Heetderks, William; Hovda, David A.; Jallo, Jack; Katz, Russell L.; Knoller, Nachshon; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Maas, Andrew I.; Majde, Jeannine; Marion, Donald W.; Marmarou, Anthony; Marshall, Lawrence F.; McIntosh, Tracy K.; Miller, Emmy; Mohberg, Noel; Muizelaar, J. Paul; Pitts, Lawrence H.; Quinn, Peter; Riesenfeld, Gad; Robertson, Claudia S.; Strauss, Kenneth I.; Teasdale, Graham; Temkin, Nancy; Tuma, Ronald; Wade, Charles; Walker, Michael D.; Weinrich, Michael; Whyte, John; Wilberger, Jack; Young, A. Byron; Yurkewicz, Lorraine

2006-01-01

352

Clinical effectiveness of Traditional Medicines  

E-print Network

There is a general conception that, herbs are natural therefore, they are completely safe. In fact, herbs or herbal preparations also can cause toxic adverse effects, serious allergic reactions and adverse drug /diet interactions 19. The efficacy of a drug substance is its capacity to produce a desired therapeutic effect, or the relative ability of a drug receptor complex to produce maximum functional response. Nowadays, in health care systems the term 'clinical effectiveness' or 'clinical governance ' is preferred instead of efficacy, though both are having similar meanings. The term clinical effectiveness includes the sum total of the pharmacological and the non medical effects of bioactive compounds that may act synergistically, otherwise termed as placebo effect, or sometimes antagonistically or the nocebo effect. The meaning response 5 The non therapeutic function of medicines plays a major role in executing the 'meaning response'. The 'meaning response ' mainly arise from the physiological or psychological perception of mind in the treatment of illness 8. This includes mainly the brain mechanisms like- expectation, anxiety, and reward, in addition to other learning

unknown authors

2013-01-01

353

Why is clinical information not reused?  

PubMed

Reuse of clinical information plays a key role in the vision of a health sector with comprehensive semantic and pragmatic interoperability. Several papers have dealt with the secondary reuse of information, e.g. for statistics or research, while the primary reuse - clinical information reused in a clinical setting - has received less attention. On the basis of a qualitative literature review, this paper creates a categorised overview of the different causes to refrain from reuse of clinical information in clinical settings. The categorisation contributes to a greater understanding of failing reuse of clinical information in clinical settings, and it can probably be used in designing, evaluating and optimising clinical information systems. Further, it is speculated that the categorisation can be used in the process of identifying the concepts that constitute the context of clinical information. PMID:22874266

Galster, Gert

2012-01-01

354

Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances  

PubMed Central

For many years, placebos have been conceptualised by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research demonstrates that placebo effects are genuine psychobiological phenomenon attributable to the overall therapeutic context, and that placebo effects can be robust in both laboratory and clinical settings. Evidence has also emerged that placebo effects can exist in clinical practice, even if no placebo is given. Further promotion and integration of laboratory and clinical research will allow advances in the ethical harnessing of placebo mechanisms that are inherent in routine clinical care and the potential use of treatments to primarily promote placebo effects. PMID:20171404

Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin; Benedetti, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

355

Changing regulation of clinical trials in Europe.  

PubMed

The lack of harmonization of legislation, guidance and procedures for conducting clinical trials in Europe is generally considered unsatisfactory, despite the implementation of the Clinical Trials Directive in 2004. This article outlines the measures being taken by the Clinical Trials Facilitation Group of the Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Ad Hoc Clinical Trials Group of the European Commission to improve authorization, amendment and safety monitoring for clinical trials. It also comments, from a UK perspective, on the current status of the Commission's consultation and impact assessment on potential changes to the Clinical Trials Directive, and anticipates the likely changes in the next 5 years. PMID:22111676

Davis, Brian

2010-07-01

356

Specialist outreach clinics in general practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To establish the extent and nature of specialist outreach clinics in primary care and to describe specialists' and general practitioners' views on outreach clinics. DESIGN--Telephone interviews with hospital managers. Postal questionnaire surveys of specialists and general practitioners. SETTING--50 hospitals in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--50 hospital managers, all of whom responded. 96 specialists and 88 general practitioners involved in outreach clinics in general practice, of whom 69 (72%) and 46 (52%) respectively completed questionnaires. 122 additional general practitioner fundholders, of whom 72 (59%) completed questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of specialist outreach clinics; organisation and referral mechanism; waiting times; perceived benefits and problems. RESULTS--28 of the hospitals had a total of 96 outreach clinics, and 32 fundholders identified a further 61 clinics. These clinics covered psychiatry (43), medical specialties (38), and surgical specialties (76). Patients were seen by the consultant in 96% (107) of clinics and general practitioners attended at only six clinics. 61 outreach clinics had shorter waiting times for first outpatient appointment than hospital clinics. The most commonly reported benefits for patients were ease of access and shorter waiting times. CONCLUSIONS--Specialist outreach clinics cover a wide range of specialties and are popular, especially in fundholding practices. These clinics do not seem to have increased the interaction between general practitioners and specialists. PMID:8173432

Bailey, J. J.; Black, M. E.; Wilkin, D.

1994-01-01

357

Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists.  

PubMed

The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Clinical Practice Affairs Committee to review and update the College's 1995 White Paper, "Rewards and Advancements for Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners." Because of the limited data on the present state of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, an online survey of "front-line" clinical pharmacists and pharmacy managers was conducted (1126 total respondents, 14% response rate). The resulting White Paper discusses motivators and existing systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, as well as perceived barriers to implementation of these systems. Clinical pharmacists reported work-life balance, a challenging position, and opportunities for professional advancement as the most important factors for career success. At the time of the survey, financial rewards appeared not to be a major motivator for clinical pharmacists. Managers underestimated the importance that clinical pharmacists place on work-life balance and favorable work schedules. Although almost two thirds of the clinical pharmacists surveyed had not developed a professional development plan, 84% indicated an interest in career planning. Both clinical pharmacists and managers rated the lack of a clear reward and advancement structure as the most important barrier to effective systems of rewards and advancements. Pharmacy managers and administrators are encouraged to develop effective systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists that positively impact patient care and the institution's mission; these systems will benefit the clinical pharmacist, the health care institution, and the patient. PMID:20030483

Goodwin, S Diane; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ng, Tien M H; Melroy, Joel T; Hess, Mary M; Tallian, Kimberly; Trujillo, Toby C; Vermeulen, Lee C

2010-01-01

358

Urological diagnosis using clinical PACS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urological diagnosis using fluoroscopy images has traditionally been performed using radiographic films. Images are generally acquired in conjunction with the application of a contrast agent, processed to create analog films, and inspected to ensure satisfactory image quality prior to being provided to a radiologist for reading. In the case of errors the entire process must be repeated. In addition, the radiologist must then often go to a particular reading room, possibly in a remote part of the healthcare facility, to read the images. The integration of digital fluoroscopy modalities with clinical PACS has the potential to significantly improve the urological diagnosis process by providing high-speed access to images at a variety of locations within a healthcare facility without costly film processing. The PACS additionally provides a cost-effective and reliable means of long-term storage and allows several medical users to simultaneously view the same images at different locations. The installation of a digital data interface between the existing clinically operational PACS at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center and a digital urology fluoroscope is described. Preliminary user interviews that have been conducted to determine the clinical effectiveness of PACS workstations for urological diagnosis are discussed. The specific suitability of the workstation medium is discussed, as are overall advantages and disadvantages of the hardcopy and softcopy media in terms of efficiency, timeliness and cost. Throughput metrics and some specific parameters of gray-scale viewing stations and the expected system impacts resulting from the integration of a urology fluoroscope with PACS are also discussed.

Mills, Stephen F.; Spetz, Kevin S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III

1995-05-01

359

Cough: an unmet clinical need  

PubMed Central

Cough is among the most common complaints for which patients worldwide seek medical attention. Thus, the evaluation and treatment of cough result in tremendous financial expenditure and consumption of health care resources. Yet, despite the clinical significance of cough, research efforts aimed at improving diagnostic capabilities and developing more effective therapeutic agents have been, to date, disappointing in their limited scope and outcomes. Acute cough due to the common cold represents the most common type of cough. Currently, available medications for the symptomatic management of acute cough are inadequate due to lack of proven efficacy and/or their association with undesirable or intolerable side effects at anti-tussive doses. Subacute cough, often representing a prolonged post-viral response, is typically refractory to standard anti-tussive therapy. Few clinical trials have evaluated therapeutic options for subacute cough. Diagnostic challenges facing the clinician in the management of chronic cough include the determination of whether symptoms of upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are indeed the underlying cause of cough. Chronic, refractory unexplained (formerly, idiopathic) cough must be distinguished from cough that has not been fully evaluated and treated according to current guideline recommendations. Eagerly awaited are new safe and effective anti-tussive agents for use when cough suppression is desired, regardless of underlying aetiology of cough, as well as practical, validated ambulatory cough counters to aid clinical assessment and future research in the field of cough. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21198555

Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

2011-01-01

360

Autobiographical Memory: A Clinical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one’s own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these studies ABM was assessed by using the same instrument – i.e., the Erweitertes Autobiographisches Gedächtnis Inventar (E-AGI) – thus allowing a direct comparison between diagnostic groups. Episodic ABM, especially the richness of details was impaired already in MCI and in beginning AD. Semantic memories were spared until moderate stages, indicating a dissociation between both memory systems. A recency effect was detectable in cognitively unimpaired subjects and vanished in patients with AD. A similar pattern of deficits was found in patients with chronic schizophrenia but not in patients with major depression. These ABM deficits were not accounted for by gender, or education level and did not apply for the physiological ageing process in otherwise healthy elderly. In conclusion, ABM deficits are frequently found in AD and chronic schizophrenia and primarily involve episodic rather than semantic memories. This dissociation corresponds to the multiple trace theory which hypothesized that these memory functions refer to distinct neuronal systems. The semi-structured interview E-AGI used to discern ABM changes provided a sufficient reliability measures, moreover potential effects of a number of important confounders could be falsified so far. These findings underline the relevance of ABM-assessments in clinical practice. PMID:24339804

Urbanowitsch, Nadja; Gorenc, Lina; Herold, Christina J.; Schroder, Johannes

2013-01-01

361

Clinical Guideline: Management of Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for symptomatic control. PMID:23147521

Camilleri, Michael; Parkman, Henry P.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Abell, Thomas L.; Gerson, Lauren

2013-01-01

362

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2014-04-01

363

21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...

2010-04-01

364

21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...

2014-04-01

365

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2013-04-01

366

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2011-04-01

367

Clinical knowledge management at scale: fulfilling the promise of pervasive  

E-print Network

Clinical knowledge management at scale: fulfilling the promise of pervasive computerized clinical. Corporate Manager Clinical Knowledge Management and Decision Support, Clinical Informatics Research and application results 2. Clinical Knowledge Management System Typical knowledge engineering processes

Gabrieli, John

368

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

. Initiate transfusion. APPROVAL: Nursing Standards Committee Transfusion Committee Director of Transfusion Medicine #12;Clinical Procedure Page 2 of 2 Clinical Manual ­ Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital

Oliver, Douglas L.

369

Clinical management of pressure ulcers.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers are chronic and difficult to heal. Pressure-reducing devices are clearly superior to a standard hospital mattress in preventing pressure ulcers, but only limited evidence and clinical intuition supports pressure-reducing devices in improving the healing rate of pressure ulcers. Local wound treatment should aim at maintaining a moist wound environment. The choice of a particular dressing depends on wound characteristics, such as the amount of exudate, dead space, or wound location. Nutritional status should be addressed as a process of good care. Debridement may improve time to a clean wound bed, but no clearly superior approach has been demonstrated. PMID:23571035

Thomas, David R

2013-05-01

370

Informatics and the Clinical Laboratory  

PubMed Central

The nature of pathology services is changing under the combined pressures of increasing workloads, cost constraints and technological advancement. In the face of this, laboratory systems need to meet new demands for data exchange with clinical electronic record systems for test requesting and results reporting. As these needs develop, new challenges are emerging especially with respect to the format and content of the datasets which are being exchanged. If the potential for the inclusion of intelligent systems in both these areas is to be realised, the continued dialogue between clinicians and laboratory information specialists is of paramount importance. Requirements of information technology (IT) in pathology, now extend well beyond the provision of purely analytical data. With the aim of achieving seamless integration of laboratory data into the total clinical pathway, ‘Informatics’ – the art and science of turning data into useful information – is becoming increasingly important in laboratory medicine. Informatics is a powerful tool in pathology – whether in implementing processes for pathology modernisation, introducing new diagnostic modalities (e.g. proteomics, genomics), providing timely and evidence-based disease management, or enabling best use of limited and often costly resources. Providing appropriate information to empowered and interested patients – which requires critical assessment of the ever-increasing volume of information available – can also benefit greatly from appropriate use of informatics in enhancing self-management of long term conditions. The increasing demands placed on pathology information systems in the context of wider developmental change in healthcare delivery are explored in this review. General trends in medical informatics are reflected in current priorities for laboratory medicine, including the need for unified electronic records, computerised order entry, data security and recovery, and audit. We conclude that there is a need to rethink the architecture of pathology systems and in particular to address the changed environment in which electronic patient record systems are maturing rapidly. The opportunity for laboratory-based informaticians to work collaboratively with clinical systems developers to embed clinically intelligent decision support systems should not be missed. PMID:25336763

Jones, Richard G; Johnson, Owen A; Batstone, Gifford

2014-01-01

371

Design Methods for Clinical Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a brief introduction to the techniques, methods and tools used to implement clinical systems. It begins with a taxonomy of software systems, describes the classic approach to development, provides some guidelines for the planning and management of software projects, and finishes with a guide to further reading. The conclusions are that there is no single right way to develop software, that most decisions are based upon judgment built from experience, and that there are tools that can automate some of the better understood tasks.

Blum, B.I.

1986-01-01

372

Emerging clinical applications of RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RNA is a versatile biological macromolecule that is crucial in mobilizing and interpreting our genetic information. It is not surprising then that researchers have sought to exploit the inherent properties of RNAs so as to interfere with or repair dysfunctional nucleic acids or proteins and to stimulate the production of therapeutic gene products in a variety of pathological situations. The first generation of the resulting RNA therapeutics are now being evaluated in clinical trials, raising significant interest in this emerging area of medical research.

Sullenger, Bruce A.; Gilboa, Eli

2002-07-01

373

New clinical pathways for keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Pre-2000, the clinical management of keratoconus centred on rigid contact lens fitting when spectacle corrected acuity was no longer adequate, and transplantation where contact lens wear failed. Over the last decade, outcome data have accumulated for new interventions including corneal collagen crosslinking, intracorneal ring implantation, topographic phototherapeutic keratectomy, and phakic intraocular lens implantation. We review the current evidence base for these interventions and their place in new management pathways for keratoconus under two key headings: corneal shape stabilisation and visual rehabilitation. PMID:23258309

Gore, D M; Shortt, A J; Allan, B D

2013-01-01

374

Gene therapy in clinical medicine  

PubMed Central

Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success, it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Interest in this therapeutic modality is based on the potential for treatment and cure of some of the most malignant and devastating diseases affecting humans. Over the next decade, the relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and strategies that underlie the therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the history, basic strategies, tools, and several current clinical paradigms for application. PMID:15466989

Selkirk, S

2004-01-01

375

Alarmins: awaiting a clinical response  

PubMed Central

Alarmins are endogenous molecules that are constitutively available and released upon tissue damage and activate the immune system. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of alarmins contributes to the dysregulated processes seen in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as tumorigenesis and cancer spread. Conversely, alarmins have also been found to play a major role in the orchestration of tissue homeostasis, including repair and remodeling in the heart, skin, and nervous system. Here, we provide an update and overview on alarmins, highlighting the areas that may benefit from this clinical translation. PMID:22850880

Chan, James K.; Roth, Johannes; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Vogl, Thomas; Feldmann, Marc; Horwood, Nicole; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

2012-01-01

376

Capital planning for clinical integration.  

PubMed

When assessing the financial implications of a physician alignment and clinical integration initiative, a hospital should measure the initiative's potential ROI, perhaps best using a combination of net present value and payback period. The hospital should compare its own historical and projected performance with rating agency median benchmarks for key financial indicators of profitability, debt service, capital and cash flow, and liquidity. The hospital should also consider potential indirect benefits, such as retained outpatient/ancillary revenue, increased inpatient revenue, improved cost control, and improved quality and reporting transparency. PMID:21548429

Grauman, Daniel M; Neff, Gerald; Johnson, Molly Martha

2011-04-01

377

Flexible Reporting of Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Two prototype methods have been developed to aid in the presentation of relevant clinical data: 1) an integrated report that displays results from a patient's computer-stored data and also allows manual entry of data, and 2) a graph program that plots results of multiple kinds of tests. These reports provide a flexible means of displaying data to help evaluate patient treatment. The two methods also explore ways of integrating the display of data from multiple components of the Veterans Administration's (VA) Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP) database.

Andrews, Robert D.

1987-01-01

378

Evaluation of clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed Central

Compared with the current focus on the development of clinical practice guidelines the effort devoted to their evaluation is meagre. Yet the ultimate success of guidelines depends on routine evaluation. Three types of evaluation are identified: evaluation of guidelines under development and before dissemination and implementation, evaluation of health care programs in which guidelines play a central role, and scientific evaluation, through studies that provide the scientific knowledge base for further evolution of guidelines. Identification of evaluation and program goals, evaluation design and a framework for evaluation planning are discussed. PMID:7489550

Basinski, A S

1995-01-01

379

Computer applications in clinical psychology  

E-print Network

The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.

Zamo?teanu, Alina Oana

2012-01-01

380

Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

2013-06-01

381

An ontology model for clinical documentation templates  

E-print Network

There are various kinds of clinical documents used in a hospital or clinic setting. With the emergence of Electronic Medical Records, efforts are being made to computerize these documents in a structured fashion in order ...

George, Joyce, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

382

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Cancer Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... clinical trials are listed in NCI's PDQ ® (Physician Data Query) computer database of clinical trials. It currently includes approximately 10,000 abstracts of trials that are open and approved to accept patients. Active trials are ...

383

Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Knowing all you can about clinical trials can help you feel better when deciding whether ...

384

Translating materials design to the clinic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many materials-based therapeutic systems have reached the clinic or are in clinical trials. Here we describe materials design principles and the construction of delivery vehicles, as well as their adaptation and evaluation for human use.

Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Langer, Robert

2013-11-01

385

The globalization of clinical drug development  

E-print Network

Industry-sponsored clinical research of investigational drugs (also called clinical development) has traditionally been carried out in relatively developed countries in the North American, Western European, and Pacific ...

Thiers, Fabio Albuquerque

2006-01-01

386

http://cls.sfsu.edu/ Clinical Laboratory  

E-print Network

health labs, community health projects, environmental testing, Peace Corps) Specialty Laboratorieshttp://cls.sfsu.edu/ Clinical Laboratory Science Internship Program Performs laboratory analyses in all departments of the clinical laboratory, using samples (blood, urine, etc.) from the human body

387

Opportunity for Clinical Assay Development Support  

Cancer.gov

The NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and the Cancer Diagnosis Program announce a request for applications for the Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) for investigators seeking clinical assay development and validation resources.

388

Approach to Teaching Clinical Skills: Physical Exam  

E-print Network

state of clinical skills teaching · Teaching clinical skills through a coaching relationship in style, or they concluded the criticism was no longer relevant to their current level of performance. #12

Myers, Lawrence C.

389

Site Map | Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Site Map Home About CADP Mission Background CADP Resources for Assay Development CADN — Clinical Assay Development Network CADC — Clinical Assay Development Center SRS — Specimen Retrieval System Access to CADP Resources Eligibility Instructions Submit

390

Clinical implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis.  

PubMed

Digital breast tomosynthesis is rapidly being implemented in breast imaging clinics across the world as early clinical data demonstrate that this innovative technology may address some of the long-standing limitations of conventional mammography. This article reviews the recent clinical data supporting digital breast tomosynthesis implementation, the basics of digital breast tomosynthesis image interpretation using case-based illustrations, and potential issues to consider as this new technology is integrated into daily clinical use. PMID:24792652

Conant, Emily F

2014-05-01

391

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL TRIALS  

E-print Network

MATH5906 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL TRIALS Semester 1, 2013 CRICOS Provider No: 00098G c 2013 statistical concepts, methods and models used in the design and analysis of clinical trials. Relation to other. The main aim of a clinical trial is to assess whether there is a treatment effect on the primary outcome

Blennerhassett, Peter

392

Stanford University Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms  

E-print Network

Stanford University HRPP Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms {From http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/info A clinical trial is "Blind" if participants are unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control arm of the study; also called masked. CONTROLLED TRIALS In clinical trials, one group is given

Puglisi, Joseph

393

Peggy Gilbertsen RN Clinical Trials Recruitment Nurse  

E-print Network

Peggy Gilbertsen RN Clinical Trials Recruitment Nurse Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern University #12; Recognize common barriers to clinical trial participation, especially in minority/staff and dispel current myths about clinical trials Review latest recruitment strategies at the Robert H Lurie

Chisholm, Rex L.

394

Robust Bayesian Methods for Monitoring Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

Robust Bayesian Methods for Monitoring Clinical Trials Joel B. Greenhouse and Larry Wasserman Revised: July 1994 ­1 #12; Robust Bayesian Methods for Monitoring Clinical Trials Summary Bayesian methods for the analysis of clinical trials data have received increasing attention recently as they offer an approach

395

INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR CLINICAL TRIALS Proposed Research  

E-print Network

INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR CLINICAL TRIALS Proposed Research In combined phase II/III trials stages. The project will explore some of these issues and their implications for real clinical trials. Beneficiaries and Impact Until recently, the different phases of a clinical trial were conducted separately

Wright, Francis

396

Clinical Signs and Symptoms Predicting Influenza Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of influenza type A and type B infec- tions. In clinical practice, antiviral use has rarely been guided by antecedent laboratory diagnosis. Defined clinical predictors of an influenza infection can help guide timely therapy and avoid unnecessary antibiotic use. Objective: To examine which clinical signs and symp- toms are most predictive

Arnold S. Monto; Stefan Gravenstein; Michael Elliott; Michael Colopy; Jo Schweinle

2000-01-01

397

Microwave and radiofrequency techniques for clinical hyperthermia.  

PubMed Central

Biological and practical constraints on the use of clinical hyperthermia for the management of cancer are discussed. Commonly used electromagnetic techniques for producing clinical hyperthermia are reviewed and compared. Innovative engineering designs leading to the realization of an integrated, safe and reliable clinical hyperthermia system are also presented. PMID:6950753

Cheung, A. Y.

1982-01-01

398

Clinical judgement in violence risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses the three main approaches to violence risk assessment, clinical judgement, actuarial assessment, and structured clinical judgement, informing the reader of the comparative benefits and short-comings of these methods of violence risk assessment. In particular, the present article highlights the controversy within the literature surrounding clinical judgement in comparison to actuarial assessments of violence risk, and proposes

Jennifer Murray; Mary E. Thomson

2010-01-01

399

Clinical psychology seen some 50 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important developmental aspects of the history of clinical psychology over the past 50 yrs are considered, beginning with the author's own early Jamesian orientation toward viewing psychology (experimental and clinical) as a unity. Several reports influencing the development of clinical training in psychology are described, including the 1945 report of the Subcommittee on Graduate Internship Training to the Committees of

David Shakow

1978-01-01

400

Serving Inland Rural Communities through University Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…

Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny

2011-01-01

401

Studienordnung fr den weiterbildenden Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental  

E-print Network

Studienordnung für den weiterbildenden Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental CAD/CAM" an der Ernst Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental CAD/CAM" als Satzung: Inhaltsverzeichnis § 1 Geltungsbereich § 2 Studium § 3 Clinical Dental CAD/CAM vom 3. Dezember 2009. * Mittl.bl. BM M-V S. 511 Soweit für Funktionsbezeichnungen

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

402

[Clinical management. A always current tool].  

PubMed

Clinical reasoning is the fundamental tool every clinician must master. This paper gives a definition of clinical reasoning process using real cases and presents some of the cognitive models underlying it (especially the script concept). We discuss the caveats of clinical reasoning process and its impact on interdisciplinary work, the use of technologies and medical teaching. PMID:16711074

Désaulniers, Pierre; Letendre, Jean F

2006-03-01

403

Patient's Surface, Clinical Surface, and Workable Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface is a term often used in clinical theory, which seems to have eluded a reliable definition. Freud used the term mostly to denote the analysand's consciousness. This patient's surface does not always coincide with the data the analyst can observe, i.e., the clinical surface. It is proposed that clinical surface be understood, in contrast to other psychoanalytic concepts, as

Cecilio Paniagua

1991-01-01

404

An evaluative study of clinical preceptorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical preceptorships, in collaboration between clinical agencies and educational institutions have been documented as an effective and innovative means of facilitating student learning, providing advantages for both the clinical and educational settings. A preceptorship programme of 100 hours duration was developed and delivered by the nurse education institute, in consultation with a health care organization. The objectives of the preceptorship

Nayer Kaviani; Yvonne Stillwell

2000-01-01

405

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY DOCTORAL PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

2012-2013 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY DOCTORAL PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK The Texas Tech Univeristy Clinical Psychology docotral program is accredited by the American Psychological Association American, DC 20002-4242 Phone: (202) 336-5500, TDD: (202) 336-6123 #12;TTU Clinical Psychology Doctoral Program

Gelfond, Michael

406

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAMME HANDBOOK 2013--2014 APPENDICES #12;DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY HANDBOOK Page 140 INDEX OF APPENDICES Appendix 2.1 Doctoral Programme Appendix 9.4 Marking Framework For Service Based Evaluation Project........234 #12;DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL

Guo, Zaoyang

407

Clinical Psychology Center Center Review Recommendation  

E-print Network

Clinical Psychology Center Center Review Recommendation B. Review and Approval Process 2 to address issues of common interest. The purpose of the Clinical Psychology Center (CPC) is to serve and the Missoula community. Clinical psychology research endeavors focus on a broad range of `therapy outcomes

Vonessen, Nikolaus

408

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY DOCTORAL PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

2013-2014 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY DOCTORAL PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK The Texas Tech Univeristy Clinical Psychology doctoral program is accredited by the American PsychologicalAssociation (APA.apa.org/ed/accreditation Email: apaaccred@apa.org #12;TTU Clinical Psychology Doctoral Program 2 2013-2014 Graduate Student

Zhuang, Yu

409

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAMME HANDBOOK 2013--2014 The University of Glasgow, charity no. SC004401 #12;#12;DOCTORATE IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY HANDBOOK Page 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.2 The Doctorate In Clinical Psychology .................................................... 19 3

Guo, Zaoyang

410

Mining and Modelling Temporal Clinical Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinical e-Science Framework (CLEF) demonstrator runs Information Extraction technology over textual, narrative patient notes to assemble repositories of clinical patient data for the purposes of biomedical research and clinical care. Since many important medical events in the course of a patient's treatment are mentioned in multiple documents and most documents will only include partial descriptions of these events, constructing

Henk Harkema; Andrea Setzer; Rob Gaizauskas; Mark Hepple; Richard Power; Jeremy Rogers

411

Clinical Computer Applications in Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Direct patient-computer interviews were among the earliest applications of computing in medicine. Yet patient interviewing and other clinical applications have lagged behind fiscal/administrative uses. Several reasons for delays in the development and implementation of clinical computing programs and their resolution are discussed. Patient interviewing, clinician consultation and other applications of clinical computing in mental health are reviewed.

Greist, John H.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Erdman, Harold P.; Jefferson, James W.

1982-01-01

412

Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences International Master's Programme  

E-print Network

Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences Study Programme 2013 - 2015 Preface #12;The Elite Master's of ScienceExperimental and Clinical Neurosciences International Master's Programme Study Programme 2013 and Clinical Neurosciences" (ECN). It is sponsored by the Elite Network of Bavaria (ENB) as part

Schubart, Christoph

413

Night Terrors: A Clinical and Empirical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night terrors are intense and striking clinical phenonema. Because of the dramatic nature of this disorder and its widespread confusion with nightmares, a comprehensive overview of the empirical literature reflecting the characteristics, etiology, and treatment of night terrors is presented. Data gathered from recent sleep laboratory investigations and clinical findings are integrated to highlight the unique clinical presentation and course

Charles R. Carlson; David K. White; Ira Daniel Turkat

1982-01-01

414

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic  

E-print Network

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic The Health System's Non-Clinical Labor Pool is coordinating employee volunteers to assist with the kick off of Employee Health Services Flu Vaccination Season. Two Flu Clinics will be conducted simultaneously on Friday, October 1, 2010 at the PSSB courtyard

Leistikow, Bruce N.

415

Clinical Facts, Turning Points and Complexity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I explore how we might link ideas about clinical facts to current issues in child psychotherapy research. I consider what our understanding of clinical facts might contribute to our research methods and how our research methods might better represent the clinical facts. The paper introduces a selection of psychoanalytic writers'…

Lush, Margaret

2011-01-01

416

[Clinical evidence for metabolic surgery].  

PubMed

The metabolic effect of bariatric surgery is well-established and is considered to be self-evident in morbidly obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) >?40 kg/m(2). Metabolic surgery performed on patients with obesity grades II (BMI 35-40 kg/m(2)) and I (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) has increased in recent years; however, the indications for metabolic surgery in obesity grades I and II are currently under debate due to insufficient evidence. In the last 5 years several highly qualified randomized clinical trials have been published which evaluated the effect of metabolic surgery in patients with obesity grades I and II in comparison to conservative therapy. Based on these data the efficacy of metabolic surgery in short-term follow-up (12-36 months) is unquestionable when compared to conservative therapy according to the current guidelines. Besides improved glycemic control and remission of diabetes, metabolic surgery has the potential to have a positive influence on diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and polyneuropathy, as well as on comorbidities, such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. Future clinical trials should address the long-term (>?36 months) effects of metabolic surgery, patient selection criteria and choice of procedure. PMID:25315339

Senft, J D; Billeter, A T; Fischer, L; Müller-Stich, B P

2014-11-01

417

Clinical management of hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

The number of patients with cirrhosis in the United States continues to rise, and 30-45% of these patients are expected to develop hepatic encephalopathy. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations is seen with the disorder, including mental or personality changes, asterixis, decreased energy level, impaired cognition, impaired sleep-wake cycle, decreased hand-eye coordination, psychomotor retardation, and incessant talking. Hepatic encephalopathy is a clinical diagnosis, and several scoring systems have been used to determine the severity of hepatic encephalopathy. The West Haven Criteria appear to be the scoring system most frequently used. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy has been reported to affect 60-70% of patients with cirrhosis and is predictive of the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. An estimated 10-50% of patients who have undergone a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal bleeding develop hepatic encephalopathy. A great amount of attention has centered on the role of ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy, but that role is still largely hypothetical. Lactulose has been used for many years to minimize the effects of hepatic encephalopathy; however, noncompliance with lactulose is a common cause of rehospitalization. The pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy is extremely complex, and formal treatment guidelines are grossly outdated. The survival rate after 3 years among patients with hepatic encephalopathy is only 25%. PMID:20412035

Schiano, Thomas D

2010-05-01

418

Therapeutic decisions: assessing clinical fit.  

PubMed

Quality health care has been defined as the maximization of desired outcomes while minimizing undesirable consequences. Therefore, the optimal antimicrobial agent for a given clinical condition will be one that is the most rapidly effective, produces the least patient discomfort, results in minimal disruption of the patient's or hospital flora, and causes minimal dissatisfaction with the treatment program and its attendant costs. The clinical utility of antimicrobials is generally judged on the basis of in vitro activity, kinetic disposition, resistance trends, safety, and cost. Fluoroquinolones possess characteristics in each of these areas; for example, broad, potent gram-negative spectrum coupled with excellent oral absorption and tissue penetration, and relative safety and reduced cost compared with parenteral therapy. Drawbacks include the emergence of resistance among certain bacteria, particularly staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, drug interactions that may compromise efficacy, and greater cost than other potentially useful oral antimicrobial agents. Indications for the agents' use can be categorized as appropriate (gram-negative osteomyelitis, complicated urinary tract infection, prostatitis, certain sexually transmitted diseases, bacterial gastroenteritis), potential (gastrointestinal tract decontamination in granulocytopenic patients, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nosocomial pneumonia and bacteremia, eradication of certain bacterial carrier states), or inappropriate (community-acquired pulmonary infections, especially aspiration pneumonitis, serious gram-positive infections, uncomplicated urinary tract infection, surgical prophylaxis except prostatic surgery). Gram-negative osteomyelitis serves as a model to demonstrate the fluoroquinolones as agents for quality health care. Current and future investigations should focus on the cost effectiveness and cost utility of the agents. PMID:8474933

Barriere, S L

1993-01-01

419

Liver transplantation at Cleveland Clinic.  

PubMed

This review describes our program and its outcomes and then provides an in-depth focuses into many of the unique aspects of our practice that have been important to the success of the program. These include a global appreciation for the impact and various presentations of chronic portal hypertension. We have sought to better understand and describe the various effects it can have on local allograft hemodynamics and graft survival. Intraoperative blood flow measurements of the hepatic artery and portal vein are important. Postoperative follow-up with Doppler ultrasound has been essential for both partial and whole grafts. A better understanding of systemic and graft hemodynamics has changed our clinical practice with regards to the intra- and post-operative management of the hepatic artery and portal vein. We have also focused on the issue of hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the major indications for liver transplantation. We have sought to better understand the heterogeneous clinical presentations of this disease and how to best approach them in a multidisciplinary fashion. Finally, we describe the various methods we have utilized to increase the number of hepatic grafts available for our patients. We have aggressively utilized all forms of grafts; living and deceased; partial and whole; and extended and standard criteria donors. We have done this with the focus on living donor safety and then concentrated on finding the best graft for the individual patient in the context of the national allocation systems in which we all work. PMID:21696042

Hashimoto, Koji; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; El-Gazzaz, Galal; Hodgkinson, Peter; Fujiki, Masato; Diago, Teresa; Kelly, Dympna; Winans, Charles; Vogt, David; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John; Miller, Charles

2010-01-01

420

Clinical validation of aneroid sphygmomanometer.  

PubMed

Recent concerns about the mercury toxicity and its ill effects on the environment and health has led to widespread use of aneroid manometers. Present study was conducted to analyse whether this change would lead to any systematic shift in measured blood pressure or consistency of blood pressure measurement in clinical setting. The clinical accuracy of the Welch Allyn aneroid sphygmomanometer model 7670-04 was studied against the mercury sphygmomanometer on 83 volunteers from Dehradun. Two blood pressure reading of each study subject was recorded with pretested instruments (aneroid and mercury sphygmomanometer). Data analysis showed the difference of means between the reading of two devices against mean of the observer reading for both systolic (-3.62 +/- 4.88) and diastolic (-2.36 +/- 3.77) blood pressure were not statistically different. The corresponding values of the SBP and DBP from both the instruments showed significant correlation. Regression analysis of mercury versus aneroid showed regression line (Y = 9.52 + 0.95X for SBP, Y = 0.36 + 0.96X for DBP) significantly different from line of equality (P < 0.001). The study has demonstrated that the aneroid device (model: 7670-04) achieved grade B performance according to the British Hypertensive Society criteria. PMID:23734440

Saxena, Yogesh; Saxena, Vartika; Gupta, Rani

2012-01-01

421

Participants' responsibilities in clinical research.  

PubMed

Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enroll in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one's self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements. PMID:22822200

Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

2012-12-01

422

Participants’ responsibilities in clinical research  

PubMed Central

Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enrol in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one’s self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements. PMID:22822200

Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

423

Clinical Manifestations of Aural Fullness  

PubMed Central

Purpose Even though aural fullness is ubiquitous among patients presenting to otolaryngology clinics, the association between aural fullness and disease development has not yet been clearly determined. Materials and Methods Our study was performed on outpatients from June 2006 to February 2010 whose major complaint was "ear fullness", "aural fullness", or "ear pressure". We assessed their demographic and clinical characteristics, including sex, associated diseases, symptoms, otoscopic findings, audiology test results, and final diagnoses. Results Among 432 patients, 165 (38.2%) were males and 267 (61.8%) were females, with mean ages of 42±19 years and 47±17 years, respectively. Tinnitus, hearing disturbance, autophony (p<0.01) as well as nasal obstruction and sore throat (p<0.05) showed a statistically significant correlation with aural fullness. Among patients who complained of hearing fullness, tests and measures such as impedance audiometry, speech reception threshold, and pure tone audiometry generated statistically significant results (p<0.05). Ear fullness was most frequently diagnosed as Eustachian tube dysfunction (28.9%), followed by otitis media with effusion (13.4%) and chronic otitis media (7.2%). However, 13.4% of patients could not be definitively diagnosed. Conclusion Among patients complaining of ear fullness, Eustachian tube dysfunction, otitis media with effusion, chronic otitis media were most commonly observed. Performance of otoscopy, nasal endoscopy, the Valsalva maneuver, and additional audiological tests is necessary to exclude other diseases. PMID:22869482

Park, Moon Suh; Lee, Ho Yun; Kang, Ho Min; Ryu, Eun Woong; Lee, Sun Kyu

2012-01-01

424

Distress management. Clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The evaluation and treatment model expressed in the NCCN Distress Management Guidelines recommends that each new patient be rapidly assessed in the office or clinic waiting room for evidence of distress using a brief screening tool (the Distress Thermometer and Problem List) presented in Figure 1 (see page 369). A score of 5 or greater on the thermometer should trigger further evaluation and referral to a psychosocial service. The choice of which service should be determined by the problem areas specified on the Problem List. Patients with practical and psychosocial problems are referred to social work, emotional or psychological (excessive sadness, worry, nervousness) problems to mental health, and spiritual concerns to pastoral counselors. The primary oncology team members--doctor, nurse, and social worker--are central to making this model work. Team members collect information from the brief screening and problem list and expand it with the clinical evaluation. It is critical for at least one team member to be familiar with the mental health, psychosocial, and pastoral counseling resources available in the institution and the community. A list of the names and phone numbers for these resources should be kept in all oncology clinics and updated frequently. The first step in implementing this model is to establish a multidisciplinary committee in each institution or office responsible for 1) revising and modifying the standards of care to fit the particular clinical care setting and 2) implementing and monitoring the use of these standards. Because each institution has its own culture, standards must be implemented in ways that are compatible with each institution. The second step is to institute professional educational programs to ensure that staff is 1) aware that distress is under-recognized, 2) knowledgeable about the management of distress, and 3) aware of the resources available to treat it. It is important to have access to mental health professionals and clergy who are trained to deal with cancer-related distress. The benefits of treating distress in cancer accrue to the patients and their families, to the treating staff, and to improved efficiencies in clinic operations. Health care contracts often allow these services to "fall through the cracks" by failing to reimburse for them through either behavioral health or medical insurance. Reimbursement for services to treat psychosocial distress must be included in medical health care contracts to prevent fragmentation of services for the medically ill. For patients with cancer, integration, not separation, of mental health services and medical services is critically important. Also outcomes research studies that include quality-of-life assessment and analysis of cost-effectiveness are needed. Patients and families should be informed that management of distress is part of their total medical care. Finally, the multidisciplinary committee, office practice, or institution must be responsible for evaluating the quality of the distress management (see guidelines algorithm [page 368]), with CQI studies making an important contribution. Presently, the quality of the psychological care patients receive is not routinely monitored. Accrediting bodies have not directly examined the quality of psychosocial care, nor have they established minimal performance standards for its delivery. The panel believes that psychosocial care should and will eventually be on our institution's report cards. PMID:19761069

2003-07-01

425

Clinical resource centers in nursing programs.  

PubMed

Whether it is called a nursing lab, clinical resource center, or something else, the need to have a place where students can observe and practice clinical skills before entering the actual clinical setting is critical. Surprisingly, nothing could be found in the literature that describes the physical structure, resources, budget, or administration of these centers. To better understand the "state of the art" of clinical resource centers in schools and colleges in the United States, a national survey was developed and administered. The findings are useful for evaluation and planning purposes by clinical resource center directors and nursing program administrators. PMID:12355050

Childs, Janis C

2002-01-01

426

Clinical research informatics: a conceptual perspective  

PubMed Central

Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics. PMID:22523344

Weng, Chunhua

2012-01-01

427

Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Accurate clinical course descriptions (phenotypes) of multiple sclerosis (MS) are important for communication, prognostication, design and recruitment of clinical trials, and treatment decision-making. Standardized descriptions published in 1996 based on a survey of international MS experts provided purely clinical phenotypes based on data and consensus at that time, but imaging and biological correlates were lacking. Increased understanding of MS and its pathology, coupled with general concern that the original descriptors may not adequately reflect more recently identified clinical aspects of the disease, prompted a re-examination of MS disease phenotypes by the International Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of MS. While imaging and biological markers that might provide objective criteria for separating clinical phenotypes are lacking, we propose refined descriptors that include consideration of disease activity (based on clinical relapse rate and imaging findings) and disease progression. Strategies for future research to better define phenotypes are also outlined. PMID:24871874

Reingold, Stephen C.; Cohen, Jeffrey A.; Cutter, Gary R.; S?rensen, Per Soelberg; Thompson, Alan J.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Balcer, Laura J.; Banwell, Brenda; Barkhof, Frederik; Bebo, Bruce; Calabresi, Peter A.; Clanet, Michel; Comi, Giancarlo; Fox, Robert J.; Freedman, Mark S.; Goodman, Andrew D.; Inglese, Matilde; Kappos, Ludwig; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Lincoln, John A.; Lubetzki, Catherine; Miller, Aaron E.; Montalban, Xavier; O'Connor, Paul W.; Petkau, John; Pozzilli, Carlo; Rudick, Richard A.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Stuve, Olaf; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Polman, Chris H.

2014-01-01

428

The 374 clinic: an outreach sexual health clinic for young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the establishment of a community based walk-in outreach genitourinary medicine clinic, the “374 clinic,” in south London to target young men under 25 in an area with high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Methods: The outreach clinic was set up within a Brook advisory centre, which already had gained the trust of local young people. Epidemiological, clinical,

D A Lewis; A McDonald; G Thompson; J S Bingham

2004-01-01

429

King's Health Partners Clinical Trials Office Supporting Clinical Research in King's Health Partners  

E-print Network

King's Health Partners Clinical Trials Office Supporting Clinical Research in King's Health are we? Used to be called Joint Clinical Trials Office (JCTO) A department of King's College London · JDP to KHP-CTO Board CTIMP Clinical Trial of an Investigational Medicinal Product Regulated: · EU Directives

Applebaum, David

430

How Does Gender Interact with Clinical Teachers' Perceptions of Clinical Teaching?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed 816 medical professors' perceptions of clinical teaching, as measured with the online version of the Clinical Teaching Perception Inventory, and examined difficulties that female professors faced in becoming the ideal clinical teacher. While describing themselves as a clinical teacher, female professors rated themselves lower…

Masunaga, Hiromi; Hitchcock, Maurice A.

2011-01-01

431

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 5 Clinical Manual Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 5 Clinical Manual ­ Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital according to this standard. #12;Clinical Procedure Page 2 of 5 Clinical Manual ­ Nursing Practice Manual ­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Blood Components

Oliver, Douglas L.

432

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual - Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital receipt. The receipt must be signed by a nurse or other licensed practitioner and a Proof of Use sheet;Clinical Procedure Page 2 of 2 Clinical Manual - Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital ­ Department

Oliver, Douglas L.

433

Clinical Mental Health Training Within a Multidisciplinary School-Based Health Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented to illustrate a clinical mental health training program within a multidisciplinary School-Based Health Clinic (SBHC). In collaboration with schools of education, medicine, nursing, and social work, a multidisciplinary training and treatment program was established that provided unique opportunities for clinical training. An ecological\\/public health model was utilized as the conceptual framework for clinical mental health training,

Michael J. Mason; Thomas A. Wood

1999-01-01

434

A clinical omics database integrating epidemiology, clinical, and omics data for colorectal cancer translational research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide an open translational research platform to narrow the gap between clinical practice and laboratory research of colorectal cancer, we construct a more comprehensive clinical omics database integrating not only clinical and omics data, but also epidemiology data from more than 150 patients. Based on this integrated database, we provide query, integrated view, and data analysis for clinical physicians,

Ling Zheng; Li Wang; Da Wang; Ning Deng; Xudong Lu; Huilong Duan

2011-01-01

435

Clinical results of patellofemoral arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Isolated patellofemoral arthritis can be a disabling condition that can be challenging to treat. Patients with symptoms recalcitrant to conservative measures are considered for total or partial knee arthroplasty. This retrospective study reports the results of patellofemoral arthroplasty at a single center using a variety of implant designs. Thirty patients (37 knees) with isolated patellofemoral disease treated with patellofemoral arthroplasty with a minimum of one year follow-up were evaluated. The majority of patients were female (83%) and the underlying diagnosis was osteoarthritis in 98% of knees. Reported follow-up averaged 31 months. Average Knee Society Pain, Functional, and Clinical Scores improved from pre-op to most recent follow-up. Two complications (5.4%) required intervention. One patient was converted to a total knee arthroplasty secondary to patella instability. PMID:23790605

Morris, Michael J; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Hurst, Jason M; Adams, Joanne B

2013-10-01

436

Gynecomastia: Clinical evaluation and management  

PubMed Central

Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of male breast glandular tissue and is the most common breast condition in males. At least 30% of males will be affected during their life. Since it causes anxiety, psychosocial discomfort and fear of breast cancer, early diagnostic evaluation is important and patients usually seek medical attention. Gynecomastia was reported to cause an imbalance between estrogen and androgen action or an increased estrogen to androgen ratio, due to increased estrogen production, decreased androgen production or both. Evaluation of gynecomastia must include a detailed medical history, clinical examination, specific blood tests, imaging and tissue sampling. Individual treatment requirements can range from simple reassurance to medical treatment or even surgery. The main aim of any intervention is to relieve the symptoms and exclude other etiological factors. PMID:24741509

Cuhaci, Neslihan; Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

2014-01-01

437

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

PubMed

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261

Valensi, P; Behar, A

1995-09-01

438

Clinical variables in radiotracer biodistributions  

SciTech Connect

Numerous iatrogenic causes of altered radiotracer biodistributions have been described. Cancer chemotherapy is a particularly potent cause of changed biodistributions while even a trivial matter such as preparing the skin with an iodine containing antiseptic may cause displacement of technetium from its compounds. In the blocking of thyroid uptake of radioiodines, there is good precedent for the manipulation of regional tissue dosimetry. It is possible to go beyond the mere cataloguing of these effects to look creatively at the subject of comparative tissue biodistributions and hence comparative dosimetry. Effects such as the clinical observation of the interference by cis-platinum with the usual biodistribution of radio-gallium suggests that such compounds can be used as probes each to lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the other.

Lentle, B.C.; Scott, J.R.; Schmidt, R.P.; Noujaim, A.A.

1981-06-01

439

Clinical use of acid steatocrit.  

PubMed

Malabsorption of fat is an important gastrointestinal cause of malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood. The gold standard for the evaluation of fat malabsorption is the faecal fat balance method. The acid steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple method to evaluate faecal fat. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acid steatocrit in clinical practice. Faecal fat excretion and acid steatocrit results were determined in 42 children, half with and half without fat malabsorption. Acid steatocrit results correlated significantly with both faecal fat excretion (p < 0.01) and faecal fat concentration (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the acid steatocrit for the diagnosis of malabsorption were 90% and 100%, respectively. We consider the acid steatocrit method useful for the screening and monitoring of patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:9183483

Van den Neucker, A; Pestel, N; Tran, T M; Forget, P P; Veeze, H J; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M

1997-05-01

440

Where philosophy meets clinical science.  

PubMed

Nowadays, there is a renewed interest in bone changes in experimental and clinical nephrology. However, the need for understanding the peculiarity of bone can be traced back to the 5th century BC, when Empedocles of Acragas put forward a theory of a world made of air, water, fire, and earth governed by love and hate. By observing the various body tissues, he strove to demonstrate that they consisted of 4 elements assembled with different mathematical ratios (logos). Blood is considered the most perfect tissue, because the ratio between elements is one. Bone is a very unusual tissue because it is made of 2 parts of earth, 2 parts of water, and 4 parts of fire. This kind of reasoning could be considered the first cry in the birth of quantitative chemistry. PMID:21395971

De Santo, Natale Gaspare; De Santo, Rosa Maria; Perna, Alessandra F; Bisaccia, Carmela; Pišot, Rado; Cirillo, Massimo

2011-04-01

441

Clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

This chapter discusses topics in the design of clinical trials for Multiple Sclerosis. This nontechnical discussion introduces concepts such as phases of trials, basic design strategies and the importance of the question at hand and the outcomes. The chapter discusses the concept of Bayesian statistical design versus Frequentist approaches. A host of modern designs ranging from adaptive designs to treatment paradigms to targeted designs are introduced. Strategies for treatment selection, randomized withdrawal designs and futility designs are covered. Finally how to evaluate multiple drugs in an era of limited placebo controlled trials are discussed and the chapter ends with the competing demands of the shortest trials to get efficacy answers for immediate goals versus the value of long term studies for future outcomes and long term safety. PMID:24507530

Cutter, Gary; Kappos, Ludwig

2014-01-01

442

Clinical update on pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality and financial burden that affects the community. The diagnosis of PE can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms, which include cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Hereditary and acquired risk factors are associated with PE. Incidence of PE is increasing, associated with the development in the diagnostic methods. Evidence-based algorithms can help clinicians diagnose PE. Serum D-dimer level, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy or echocardiography help to establish clinical probability and the severity of PE. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment for PE. However, thrombolytic treatment is a significant alternative in high risk of PE as it provides rapid clot resolution. This article reviews the risk factors, diagnostic algorithms, and methods of treatment in PE in the light of current information. PMID:25097588

Kele?o?lu, Arif; Ard?ç, Sad?k

2013-01-01

443

Clinical management of progressive myopia.  

PubMed

Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

Aller, T A

2014-02-01

444

Clinical characteristics of Caroli's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Caroli’s syndrome is characterized by multiple segmental cystic or saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical features of this syndrome reflect both the characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis such as portal hypertension and that of Caroli’s disease named as recurrent cholangitis and cholelithiasis. The diagnosis depends on both histology and imaging methods which can show the communication between the sacculi and the bile ducts. Treatment consists of symptomatic treatment of cholangitis attacks by antibiotics, some endoscopic, radiological and surgical drainage procedures and surgery. Liver transplantation seems the ultimate treatment for this disease. Prognosis is fairly good unless recurrent cholangitis and renal failure develops. PMID:17461493

Yonem, Ozlem; Bayraktar, Yusuf

2007-01-01

445

Clinical diagnosis of hip pain.  

PubMed

This article reviews the evaluation of the hip including the clinical history and physical examination. As our understanding of hip pathology evolves, and arthroscopic and other minimally invasive operative techniques improve, the focus is shifting toward earlier identification of hip pathology. Risk factors for the development of arthritis are now well established and include femoral acetabular impingement, labral tearing, developmental dysplasia, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Emerging treatment options may address these conditions in the early stages and prevent or slow the progression of hip degeneration. It is vitally important to elucidate intra-articular versus extra-articular pathology of hip pain in every step of the patient encounter: history, physical examination, and imaging. PMID:21419954

Plante, Matthew; Wallace, Roxanne; Busconi, Brian D

2011-04-01

446

Clinics: Norplant cost chokes services.  

PubMed

Norplant sales are booming, but some family planning officials are complaining that the contraceptive device's manufacturer, Wyeth Ayerst, should reduce Norplant's price so that all women can afford it. Under current national health policy and practice, rich women can afford to buy Norplant if they want it, while Medicaid will cover the cost for poor women. Women who do not have enough money to pay the median upfront fee of $580 for the device, yet are not covered by Medicaid, however, have to do without. The fee of $580 includes insertion charges and is, over the five-year period for which Norplant remains functional, less expensive than other modern methods of contraception. Wyeth has invested considerable resources into product materials, training, and counseling, and is not about to reduce its prices. Even public family planning clinics pay the $300 retail price of the Norplant rods despite the fact that all other contraceptives are sold to such clinics at a discount. Women caught in the middle can somehow find enough money for Norplant if they truly desire the method. For extreme cases where physicians have patients who cannot afford the contraceptive and are not covered by insurance, Wyeth helped create the Norplant Foundation to which it has contributed $5.6 million over the last two years and donated 10,000 sets of the implant. The Alan Guttmacher Institute has otherwise suggested providing Norplant on an installment pay plan. The article notes that family planning programs in developing countries run by USAID or the UN receive Norplant for an average of $23 from the Finland-based international manufacturer, Leiras Oy. The paper also points out that women who have Norplant inserted through private insurance coverage or Medicaid may no longer be employed or have lost Medicaid coverage because of increased income when the time comes to remove the implant. Norplant removal generally costs $150. PMID:12319135

1993-01-01

447

Huntington's disease: a clinical review  

PubMed Central

Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients requiring full-time care, and finally death. The most common cause of death is pneumonia, followed by suicide. PMID:21171977

2010-01-01

448

Representing Clinical Guidelines in GLIF  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: An evaluation of the cognitive processes used in the translation of a clinical guideline from text into an encoded form so that it can be shared among medical institutions. Design: A comparative study at three sites regarding the generation of individual and collaborative representations of a guideline for the management of encephalopathy using the GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF) developed by members of the InterMed Collaboratory. Measurements: Using theories and methods of cognitive science, the study involves a detailed analysis of the cognitive processes used in generating representations in GLIF. The resulting process-outcome measures are used to compare subjects with various types of computer science or clinical expertise and from different institutions. Results: Consistent with prior studies of text comprehension and expertise, the variability in strategies was found to be dependent on the degree of prior experience and knowledge of the domain. Differing both in content and structure, the representations developed by physicians were found to have additional information and organization not explicitly stated in the guidelines, reflecting the physicians' understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. The computer scientists developed more literal representations of the guideline; additions were mostly limited to specifications mandated by the logic of GLIF itself. Collaboration between physicians and computer scientists resulted in consistent representations that were more than the sum of the separate parts, in that both domain-specific knowledge of medicine and generic knowledge of guideline structure were seamlessly integrated. Conclusion: Because of the variable construction of guideline representations, understanding the processes and limitations involved in their generation is important in developing strategies to construct shared representations that are both accurate and efficient. The encoded guidelines developed by teams that include both clinicians and experts in computer-based representations are preferable to those developed by individuals of either type working alone. PMID:9760394

Patel, Vimla L.; Allen, Vanessa G.; Arocha, Jose F.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

1998-01-01

449

Clinical and Technical Phosphoproteomic Research  

PubMed Central

An encouraging approach for the diagnosis and effective therapy of immunological pathologies, which would include cancer, is the identification of proteins and phosphorylated proteins. Disease proteomics, in particular, is a potentially useful method for this purpose. A key role is played by protein phosphorylation in the regulation of normal immunology disorders and targets for several new cancer drugs and drug candidates are cancer cells and protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic process. The functioning of new drugs is of major importance as is the selection of those patients who would respond best to a specific treatment regime. In all major aspects of cellular life signalling networks are key elements which play a major role in inter- and intracellular communications. They are involved in diverse processes such as cell-cycle progression, cellular metabolism, cell-cell communication and appropriate response to the cellular environment. A whole range of networks that are involved in the regulation of cell development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and immunologic responses is contained in the latter. It is so necessary to understand and monitor kinase signalling pathways in order to understand many immunology pathologies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as immunoproteomic techniques, phosphoenrichments and mass spectrometry (MS) is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites in order to advance in clinical research. Pharmacodynamic readouts of disease states and cellular drug responses in tumour samples will be provided as the field develops. We aim to detail the current and most useful techniques with research examples to isolate and carry out clinical phosphoproteomic studies which may be helpful for immunology and cancer research. Different phosphopeptide enrichment and quantitative techniques need to be combined to achieve good phosphopeptide recovery and good up- and-down phospho-regulation protein studies. PMID:21635771

2011-01-01

450

[Clinical research XXI. From the clinical judgment to survival analysis].  

PubMed

Decision making in health care implies knowledge of the clinical course of the disease. Knowing the course allows us to estimate the likelihood of occurrence of a phenomenon at a given time or its duration. Within the statistical models that allow us to have a summary measure to estimate the time of occurrence of a phenomenon in a given population are the linear regression (the outcome variable is continuous and normally distributed -time to the occurrence of the event-), logistic regression (outcome variable is dichotomous, and it is evaluated at one single interval), and survival curves (outcome event is dichotomous, and it can be evaluated at multiple intervals). The first reference we have of this type of analysis is the work of the astronomer Edmond Halley, an English physicist and mathematician, famous for the calculation of the appearance of the comet orbit, recognized as the first periodic comet (1P/Halley's Comet). Halley also contributed in the area of health to estimate the mortality rate for a Polish population. The survival curve allows us to estimate the probability of an event occurring at different intervals. Also, it leds us to estimate the median survival time of any phenomenon of interest (although the used term is survival, the outcome does not need to be death, it may be the occurrence of any other event). PMID:24878091

Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios, Lino; Talavera, Juan O

2014-01-01

451

The effect of clinical targets on productivity and perceptions of clinical competency.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of clinical targets on clinical productivity and perceptions of clinical competency of final-year undergraduate dental students. Students were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was set annual numerical clinical targets while the other had no targets. All final-year students and final-year clinical teachers were asked to complete a questionnaire rating six different aspects of student clinical competency at the end of semester 1 and semester 2. Changes in perception of clinical competency by students and clinical teachers were compared between the target and no-target groups and between students and clinical teachers. The clinical output of both groups was measured. There was no significant difference in performance between the target and no-target group as assessed by clinical teacher or by student self-assessment. However, by the completion of the study the clinical teachers scored the students (irrespective of group) significantly lower for clinical competency than students assessed themselves. There was no significant difference between the productivity of the two groups. The setting of clinical targets had no measurable effect on the perceived clinical competency or productivity of this group of undergraduate dental students. PMID:9698695

Stacey, M A; Morgan, M V; Wright, C

1998-06-01

452

Breast dosimetry in clinical mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The protocol proposes the use of a fiber-optic coupled (FOCD) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter to measure the entrance skin exposure at the time of the mammogram without interfering with diagnostic information of the mammogram. The study showed that FOCD had sensitivity with less than 7% energy dependence, linear in all tube current-time product stations, and was reproducible within 2%. FOCD was superior to MOSFET dosimeter in sensitivity, reusability, and reproducibility. The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. In addition, the study population anthropometric measurements enabled the development of analytical equations to calculate the whole breast area, estimate for the skin layer thickness and optimal location for automatic exposure control ionization chamber. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

Benevides, Luis Alberto Do Rego

453

Management of fingolimod in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the innovative oral drug fingolimod has been proven in the largest study program in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrating reduced relapse and reduced disability progression in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Based on the extensive safety data of all clinical trials and the natural distribution pattern of fingolimod interacting receptors in organism, careful clinical monitoring is recommend and reviewed in this paper. Safety and tolerability data from clinical studies as well as current post-marketing experience present with high tolerability and easy-to-perform management of fingolimod. Here we present the recommended management of fingolimod in clinical practice starting with preparatory steps, first-dose application and long-term treatment period with fingolimod. This management of fingolimod in clinical practice ensure a safe treatment algorithm using fingolimod. We recommend documentation of fingolimod patients in clinical registries to generate postmarketing data on efficacy and safety of fingoilimod. PMID:24321158

Thomas, Katja; Ziemssen, Tjalf

2013-12-01

454

The clinical significance of drug craving.  

PubMed

Although drug craving has received considerable research attention over the past several decades, to date there has been no systematic review of the general clinical significance of craving. This paper presents an overview of measurement issues of particular relevance to a consideration of use of craving in clinical settings. The paper then considers the relevance of craving across a broad array of clinical domains, including diagnosis, prognostic utility, craving as an outcome measure, and the potential value of craving as a direct target of intervention. The paper is both descriptive and prescriptive, informed by the current state of the science on craving with recommendations for the definition of craving, assessment practices, future research, and clinical applications. We conclude that craving has considerable utility for diagnosis and as a clinical outcome, and that findings from future research will likely expand the clinical potential of the craving construct in the domains of prognosis and craving as a treatment target. PMID:22172057

Tiffany, Stephen T; Wray, Jennifer M

2012-02-01

455

Why are clinical trials necessary in India?  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials are emerging as an important activity in India as it is an essential component of the drug discovery and development program to which India is committed. The only robust way to evaluate a new medicine is by doing properly designed clinical trials. In addition to advancing science, clinical trials offer myriad benefits to the participants. The recent hue that created in India about clinical trials is probably an exaggeration of facts. However, these points to the need for ensuring proper compliance with the regulatory norms and proper training of concerned personnel in good clinical practice (GCP). This will ensure that India continues to reap the benefits of clinical trials and also become a world leader in this field. PMID:24741480

Poongothai, Subramani; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Balasubramanian, Jeyakumar; Nair, Mohan Damodaran; Mohan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

456

Laser scatter in clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightfield Laser Scanning Imaging (BLSI) is available on Laser Scanning Cytometers (LSCs) from CompuCyte Corporation. Briefly, digitation of photodetector outputs is coordinated with the combined motions of a small diameter (typically 2 to 10 microns) laser beam scanning a specimen in the Y direction (directed by a galvanometer-driven scanning mirror) and the microscope stage motion in the X direction. The output measurements are assembled into a two-dimensional array to provide a "non-real" digital image, where each pixel value reports the amount of laser-scattered light that is obtained when the laser beam is centered on that location. Depending on the detector positions, these images are analogous to Differential Interference Contrast or Phase Contrast microscopy. We report the incorporation of the new laser scattering capabilities into the workflow of a high-volume clinical cytology laboratory at University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. The laboratory has been employing LSC technology since 2003 for immunophenotypic fluorescence analysis of approximately 1200 cytological specimens per year, using the Clatch methodology. The new BLSI component allows visualization of cellular morphology at higher resolution levels than is possible with standard brightfield microscopic evaluation of unstained cells. BLSI is incorporated into the triage phase, where evaluation of unstained samples is combined with fluorescence evaluation to obtain specimen background levels. Technical details of the imaging methodology will be presented, as well as illustrative examples from current studies and comparisons to detailed, but obscure, historical studies of cytology specimens based on phase contrast microscopy.

Luther, Ed; Geddie, William

2008-02-01

457

[Clinical aspects of corneal burns].  

PubMed

Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal burns mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe burns are caustic burns, which should be classified as burns caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and burns caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic burns induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal burns induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic burns. Radiation-related burns can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical burns are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification. PMID:15687932

Borderie, V

2004-12-01

458

Clinical services in environmental pediatrics.  

PubMed

Pediatric healthcare providers are confronted with environmental health problems frequently: the child with asthma exacerbated by the odor of paint in school or mouse antigen at home, the family who wants to know the risks and benefits of using different types of sunblock, or the community that asks the provider for advice on the potential health impacts of building the new elementary school next to the on-ramp to the interstate highway. Pediatric providers have not been well trained to deal with these questions in medical or nursing schools, residency training, or continuing-education settings. This article provides guidance on history taking, the physical examination, laboratory evaluations of patients and the environment, and making an assessment about and managing environmental health problems. Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units are discussed as a source of consultation and referral. The identification and utilization of evidence-based resources are stressed and clinicians are cautioned about non-evidence-based assessments such as clinical ecology and hair analysis and non-evidence-based management strategies such as chelation for autism. PMID:21259260

Paulson, Jerome A; Gordon, Lauren

2011-01-01

459

Electroacupuncture: mechanisms and clinical application.  

PubMed

Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese method to treat diseases and relieve pain. We have conducted a series of studies to examine the mechanisms of this ancient method for pain relief. This article reviews some of our major findings. Our studies showed that acupuncture produces analgesic effect and that electroacupuncture (EA) is more effective than manual acupuncture. Furthermore, electrical stimulation via skin patch electrodes is as effective as EA. The induction and recovering profiles of acupuncture analgesia suggest the involvement of humoral factors. This notion was supported by cross-perfusion experiments in which acupuncture-induced analgesic effect was transferred from the donor rabbit to the recipient rabbit when the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was transferred. The prevention of EA-induced analgesia by naloxone and by antiserum against endorphins suggests that endorphins are involved. More recent work demonstrated the release of endorphins into CSF following EA. In addition, low frequency (2 Hz) and high frequency (100 Hz) of EA selectively induces the release of enkephalins and dynorphins in both experimental animals and humans. Clinical studies suggesting its effectiveness for the treatment of various types of pain, depression, anxiety, spinally induced muscle spasm, stroke, gastrointestinal disorders, and drug addiction were also discussed. PMID:9646895

Ulett, G A; Han, S; Han, J S

1998-07-15

460

[Telemetry in the clinical setting].  

PubMed

Telemetric cardiac monitoring was invented in 1949 by Norman J Holter. Its clinical use started in the early 1960s. In the hospital, biotelemetry allows early mobilization of patients with cardiovascular risk and addresses the need for arrhythmia or oxygen saturation monitoring. Nowadays telemetry either uses vendor-specific UHF band broadcasting or the digital ISM band (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Band) standardized Wi-Fi network technology. Modern telemetry radio transmitters can measure and send multiple physiological parameters like multi-channel ECG, NIPB and oxygen saturation. The continuous measurement of oxygen saturation is mandatory for the remote monitoring of patients with cardiac pacemakers. Real 12-lead ECG systems with diagnostic quality are an advantage for monitoring patients with chest pain syndromes or in drug testing wards. Modern systems are light-weight and deliver a maximum of carrying comfort due to optimized cable design. Important for the system selection is a sophisticated detection algorithm with a maximum reduction of artifacts. Home-monitoring of implantable cardiac devices with telemetric functionalities are becoming popular because it allows remote diagnosis of proper device functionality and also optimization of the device settings. Continuous real-time monitoring at home for patients with chronic disease may be possible in the future using Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T) technology in Europe, but is currently not yet available. PMID:18956161

Hilbel, Thomas; Helms, Thomas M; Mikus, Gerd; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian

2008-09-01

461

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in clinical urology.  

PubMed

To date, benign diseases of the male and female lower urinary and genital tract, such as erectile dysfunction, bladder overactivity, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms of female sexual dysfunction (including arousal and orgasmic disorders), can be therapeutically approached by influencing the function of the smooth musculature of the respective tissues. The use of isoenzyme-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors is considered a great opportunity to treat various diseases of the human urogenital tract. PDE inhibitors, in particular the PDE5 (cyclic GMP PDE) inhibitors avanafil, lodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil and vardenafil, are regarded as efficacious, having a fast onset of drug action and an improved effect-to-adverse event ratio, combining a high response rate with the advantage of an on-demand intake. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent as well as potential future indications, namely, erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, overactive bladder, urinary stone disease, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and premature ejaculation, for the use of PDE inhibitors in clinical urology. PMID:23656343

Ückert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Oelke, Matthias

2013-05-01

462

Clinical Characteristics of Alternaria Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n = 32), 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated. PMID:24778867

Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Ma, David H. K.; Tan, Hsin-Yuan

2014-01-01

463

Highlights of Mediterranean clinical immunology.  

PubMed

The immune system continues to fascinate by the complexity of its intricacies. At the First Mediterranean Workshop on Clinical Immunology held in Evora (Portugal), recently identified mechanisms of immune defense and immunoregulation were put under a magnifying glass by an international cast of immunologists. Studies of Bacillus anthracis revealed that this anaerobic bacterium can inhibit type-II A phospholipase synthesis and secretion by alveolar macrophages, thereby subverting the pulmonary host immune response. Investigation of the mode of action of regulatory T cells indicated that FOXP3 binds the heterodimeric transcription factor AML1 and suppresses AML1-enhanced IL-2 production. In an experimental autoimmune model of prostatitis, a non-hypercalcemic vitamin D receptor agonist was able to interfere with key pathogenic events in already established disease. Other studies in the rat suggest that treating arthritis with oxidants, like phytol, may correct the deficient redox level and prevent T cell autoreactivity. With a number of other observations, the sparkling discussions opened new doors for medical immunology around the Mediterranean, but also elsewhere. PMID:17466384

Souto-Carneiro, M Margarida; Zouali, Moncef

2007-05-15

464

Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Inner ear symptoms like hearing loss, dizziness or tinnitus are often developed after head trauma, even in cases without inner ear destruction. This is also known as labyrinthine concussion. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical manifestations, characteristics of audiometry and prognostic factors of these patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of the 40 patients that had been diagnosed as labyrinthine concussion from 1996 to 2007. We studied the hearing levels in each frequency and classified them according to type and degree of hearing loss. Rates of hearing improvement were evaluated according to age, sex, hearing loss type, degree and presence of dizziness or tinnitus. To find out any correlation between hearing improvement and these factors, we used ?2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 22 patients, and unilateral hearing loss in 18 patients. There were 4 (6.5%) ascending, 34 (54.8%) descending, 24 (38.7%) flat type hearing loss, which indicated hearing loss was greater in high frequencies than low frequencies. Among 62 affected ears, 20 (32.3%) gained improvement, and it was achieved mainly in low frequencies. There were only 2 ears with dizziness in 20 improved ears and among 20 dizziness accompanied ears, also only 2 ears were improved. Conclusions High frequencies are more vulnerable to trauma than low frequencies. The hearing gain is obtained mainly in low frequencies, and association with dizziness serves poor prognosis. PMID:24653897

Choi, Mi Suk; Yeon, Je Yeob; Choi, Young Seok; Kim, Jisung; Park, Soo Kyoung

2013-01-01

465

The clinical pharmacology of acamprosate.  

PubMed

Acamprosate is one of the few medications licensed for prevention of relapse in alcohol dependence, and over time it has proved to be significantly, if moderately, effective, safe and tolerable. Its use is now being extended into other addictions and neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanism of action of acamprosate has been less clear, but in the decade or more that has elapsed since its licensing, a body of translational evidence has accumulated, in which preclinical findings are replicated in clinical populations. Acamprosate modulates N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor transmission and may have indirect effects on ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor transmission. It is known to decrease brain glutamate and increase ?-endorphins in rodents and man. Acamprosate diminishes reinstatement in ethanolized rodents and promotes abstinence in humans. Although acamprosate has been called an anticraving drug, its subjective effects are subtle and relate to diminished arousal, anxiety and insomnia, which parallel preclinical findings of decreased withdrawal symptoms in animals treated with acamprosate. Further understanding of the pharmacology of acamprosate will allow appropriate targeting of therapy in individuals with alcohol dependence and extension of its use to other addictions. PMID:23278595

Kalk, Nicola J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

2014-02-01

466

Clinical assessment of blood pressure.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the blood pressure measuring techniques and accuracy of sphygmomanometers used by physicians in ambulatory care clinics on the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland. Of the 114 participating physicians, no physician completely followed all the recommended BP measuring techniques of the American Heart Association. Almost all physicians supported the patient's arm at heart level to measure BP. Fewer physicians used the following recommended techniques; palpation to initially assess systolic BP (38%), measurement of BP in both arms (23%), an appropriate rate of cuff deflation (18%), measurement of BP in recommended patient positions (10%), the appropriate length of rest (4%) or use of a cuff of appropriate size (3%). Approximately 8% of mercury sphygmomanometers were out of calibration by at least 4 mmHg but none were out by more than 6 mmHg. Forty percent of aneroid sphygmomanometers were out of calibration by at least 4 mmHg and of these 30% were out by 10 mmHg or more. Mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers were used by 60% of physicians. Aneroid sphygmomanometers were used exclusively by 34% of physicians, while 5% of physicians relied solely on mercury devices. Standardized techniques for BP measurement are not used and inaccurate sphygmomanometers are common; these factors may lead to misclassification of blood pressure and inappropriate treatment of patients. PMID:2096205

McKay, D W; Campbell, N R; Parab, L S; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G

1990-12-01

467

Clinical genetics of congenital hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a state of insufficient thyroid hormone supply to the organism, starting in utero. Two forms of permanent primary or thyroidal CH are known. Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) describes a spectrum of defects of thyroid organogenesis. Five monogenetic forms due to mutations in TSHR, PAX8, NKX2-1, FOXE1 and NKX2-5 have been identified so far. Thyroid dyshormonogenesis comprises defects at every step of thyroid hormone synthesis. Mutations in 7 genes are well described causing iodine transport defect (SLC5A5), iodine organification defect (TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, SLC26A4), thyroglobulin (TG) synthesis or transport defect or iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD/DEHAL1) deficiency. The new consensus guidelines for CH recommend genetic counseling for each family with an affected child. Mode of inheritance, recurrence rate and possible associated malformations in the context of syndromic forms should be outlined. Molecular genetic studies should be preceded by a detailed phenotypic description of the patient's thyroid disease and a detailed family history. This review summarizes clinical, biochemical and radiological phenotypes and molecular aspects of the known genetic forms of TD and thyroid dyshormonogenesis relevant for genetic counseling and molecular studies. PMID:25231445

Szinnai, Gabor

2014-01-01

468

Conceptual Dynamics in Clinical Interviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the main tools that we have for the study of student science conceptions is the clinical interview. Research on student understanding of natural phenomena has tended to understand interviews as tools for reading out a student's knowledge. In this paper, we argue for a shift in how we think about and analyze interview data. In particular, we argue that we must be aware that the interview itself is a dynamic process during which a sort of conceptual change occurs. We refer to these short time-scale changes that occur over a few minutes in an interview as conceptual dynamics. Our goal is to devise new frameworks and techniques for capturing the conceptual dynamics. To this end, we have devised a simple and neutral cognitive framework. In this paper, we describe this framework, and we show how it can be applied to understand interview data. We hope to show that the conceptual dynamics of interviews are complex, but that it nonetheless feasible to make them a focus of study.

Sherin, Bruce L.; Lee, Victor R.; Krakowski, Moshe

2009-07-13

469

Clinical trials: present and future.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen a major expansion of clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the perfectly-designed ALS trial remains elusive. Attempts to track the progression of the disease are affected by continual improvements in the care of patients. Comparing the effectiveness of different drugs is difficult because different primary endpoints are used in different studies. We also need to decide how much benefit we are aiming to achieve when studying a new treatment. The interpretation of animal models has also proved problematic, with results not being replicated in human studies. Moreover, promising phase I/II trial results have often not been confirmed by phase III studies. Our patients, meanwhile, are anxious to try any medication that may help. The ALS research community has learned a great deal from past trials and this will be greatly beneficial when evaluating the novel and combination therapies currently being developed. Effort must also be directed towards the search for objective markers for ALS. PMID:11465917

Mitsumoto, H

2001-03-01

470

District nurse clinics: accountability and practice.  

PubMed

The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics. PMID:23370845

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2013-02-01

471

Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This was a retrospective study of clinical and radiological results of cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan cervical disc\\u000a prosthesis to evaluate the efficacy of arthroplasty in clinical applications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. A total of 46 patients underwent arthroplasty of a single level using the Bryan disc prosthesis. Clinical outcome was assessed\\u000a using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the neck

D. H. Yoon; S. Yi; H. C. Shin; K. N. Kim; S. H. Kim

2006-01-01

472

Clinical nursing research priorities: a Delphi study.  

PubMed

Using the delphi technique, a group of clinical nurse specialists was surveyed regarding delineation of clinical nursing research priorities. Upon completion of the four-round survey, the results suggested that the top priorities for nursing research are: (1) factors which influence longevity in clinical nursing practice, (2) patient care delivery systems as related to nurse satisfaction, and (3) indicators of quality nursing care. PMID:2049728

Fitzpatrick, E; Sullivan, J; Smith, A; Mucowski, D; Hoffmann, E; Dunn, P; Trice, M; Grosso, L

1991-01-01

473

Integrated Case Learning: teaching clinical reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning how to ‘think like doctors’ can be difficult for undergraduate medical students in their early clinical years. Our\\u000a model of collaborative Integrated Case Learning (ICL) and simulated clinical reasoning aims to address these issues. Taking\\u000a a socio-cultural perspective, this study investigates the reflective learning interactions and practices of clinical thinking\\u000a that emerged in the ICL environment. We also explore

Natalie Radomski; John Russell

2010-01-01

474

Clinical Trials Update AHA Congress 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical trials described in this article were presented at the Late Breaking Trials and the Clinical Science: Clinical\\u000a Reports sessions of the American Heart Association Congress held in November 2010 in Chicago. The sessions and topics chosen\\u000a for this article reflect the scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. The presentations should be considered\\u000a preliminary, as further analyses

John D. Horowitz; Robert S. Rosenson; John J. V. McMurray; Nikolaus Marx; Willem J. Remme

2011-01-01

475

[A rare clinical case of Sipple disease].  

PubMed

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) unites a group of syndromes caused by tumors or hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. We examined and treated patients (father and daughter) with Sipple disease, or type II MEN; the diagnosis was confirmed at Institute of Clinical Endocrinology (Moscow). The aim of our report was to supplement the clinical picture of the disease. Clinical examinations showed thickened corneal nerves, the dry eye syndrome, and abnormal refraction. PMID:12371324

Afendulova, I S

2002-01-01

476

Clinical trial designs—made to order  

Microsoft Academic Search

At times, clinical trial design presents difficult problems for the consulting statistician. The nature of the disease under study or the inadequacies of standard methodology often suggest alternative strategies for the development of useful clinical trial designs. This paper examines two case of novel clinical trial designs that are “made-to-order” for the problem at hand. Both address disease-specific issues. The

John S. Andersen

1996-01-01

477

Conducting suicide research in naturalistic clinical settings.  

PubMed

Unique challenges arise for clinical researchers designing studies focused on suicidal behaviors due to the inherently high-risk nature of such research. Traditional approaches to clinical trial design are briefly discussed, highlighting the limitations and obstacles of these approaches when working with suicidal individuals. Using their own personal experiences and setbacks from an ongoing clinical suicidology research program, the authors argue for greater emphasis on effectiveness and translational research designs conducted in naturalistic clinical settings to test the practical utility of empirically-supported treatments for suicidal behaviors, to gain new perspectives on suicidal individuals, and to better understand the nature of suicidal risk. PMID:19226608

Jobes, David A; Bryan, Craig J; Neal-Walden, Tracy A

2009-04-01

478

Clinical practice guidelines. USPSTF recommendations.  

PubMed

The set of USPSTF recommendations provides a valuable resource for clinicians in varied practice settings. Although the 2nd edition of recommendations addressed over 200 topics, only six statements have been released as part of the 3rd edition thus far. Others, not reviewed in this article include: screening for newborn